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1.
BMJ ; 371: m3502, 2020 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To consolidate evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses investigating the association between reproductive factors in women of reproductive age and their subsequent risk of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Umbrella review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases for systematic reviews and meta-analyses from inception until 31 August 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Two independent reviewers undertook screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal. The population was women of reproductive age. Exposures were fertility related factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Outcome was cardiovascular diseases in women, including ischaemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. RESULTS: 32 reviews were included, evaluating multiple risk factors over an average follow-up period of 7-10 years. All except three reviews were of moderate quality. A narrative evidence synthesis with forest plots and tabular presentations was performed. Associations for composite cardiovascular disease were: twofold for pre-eclampsia, stillbirth, and preterm birth; 1.5-1.9-fold for gestational hypertension, placental abruption, gestational diabetes, and premature ovarian insufficiency; and less than 1.5-fold for early menarche, polycystic ovary syndrome, ever parity, and early menopause. A longer length of breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. The associations for ischaemic heart disease were twofold or greater for pre-eclampsia, recurrent pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, and preterm birth; 1.5-1.9-fold for current use of combined oral contraceptives (oestrogen and progesterone), recurrent miscarriage, premature ovarian insufficiency, and early menopause; and less than 1.5-fold for miscarriage, polycystic ovary syndrome, and menopausal symptoms. For stroke outcomes, the associations were twofold or more for current use of any oral contraceptive (combined oral contraceptives or progesterone only pill), pre-eclampsia, and recurrent pre-eclampsia; 1.5-1.9-fold for current use of combined oral contraceptives, gestational diabetes, and preterm birth; and less than 1.5-fold for polycystic ovary syndrome. The association for heart failure was fourfold for pre-eclampsia. No association was found between cardiovascular disease outcomes and current use of progesterone only contraceptives, use of non-oral hormonal contraceptive agents, or fertility treatment. CONCLUSIONS: From menarche to menopause, reproductive factors were associated with cardiovascular disease in women. In this review, presenting absolute numbers on the scale of the problem was not feasible; however, if these associations are causal, they could account for a large proportion of unexplained risk of cardiovascular disease in women, and the risk might be modifiable. Identifying reproductive risk factors at an early stage in the life of women might facilitate the initiation of strategies to modify potential risks. Policy makers should consider incorporating reproductive risk factors as part of the assessment of cardiovascular risk in clinical guidelines. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42019120076.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Fertilidade , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 83(10): 895-897, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009240

RESUMO

An outbreak of pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) occurred in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and has been spread worldwide rapidly now. Over 5.3-million confirmed cases and 340,000 disease-associated deaths have been found till May 25, 2020. The potential pathophysiology for SARS-CoV-2 to affect the target is via the receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). ACE2 can be found in the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract, and reproductive organs such as human ovaries and Leydig cells in the testis. This receptor plays a dominant role in the fertility function. Considering the crucial roles of testicular cells of the male reproductive system, increasing numbers of studies focus on the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the testis. In this literature, we reviewed several studies to evaluate the relevance between SARS-CoV-2, ACE receptor, and female and male reproductive system and found that the risk of being attacked by SARS-CoV-2 is higher in males than in females. Since men infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus may have the risk of impaired reproductive performance, such as the orchitis and an elevated of luteinizing hormone (LH), and additionally, SARS-CoV-2 virus may be found in semen, although the latter is still debated, all suggest that we should pay much attention to sexual transmitted disease and male fertility after recovering from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Genitália/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais
3.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 47(3): 96-105, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-190826

RESUMO

La pandemia por el nuevo virus SARS-CoV-2 ha provocado un proceso de adaptación a la nueva situación por parte de toda de la sociedad y, con ello, los centros de reproducción asistida. Tras la fase aguda de la crisis sanitaria, en la que se redujo de forma drástica la actividad, se han reanudado los ciclos, guiados por las recomendaciones de las sociedades científicas. En este artículo revisamos toda la información publicada respecto al virus y el sistema reproductivo, señalando la presencia de enzima convertidora de angiotensina tipo ii(angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, ACE2) en el sistema reproductivo femenino y masculino, a nivel testicular, ovárico, endometrial y a nivel embrionario. Además, realizamos un análisis comparativo entre las recomendaciones de las sociedades científicas en cuanto al cribado de la infección, las normas de funcionamiento y las medidas generales de laboratorio


The pandemic caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to a process of adaptation to the new situation by society as a whole and, therefore, by assisted reproduction centres. After the acute phase of the health crisis, when activity was drastically reduced, cycles have resumed, guided by the recommendations of scientific societies. In this article, a review is presented of all the published information regarding the virus and the reproductive system, pointing out the presence of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the female and male reproductive system, at the testicular, ovarian, endometrial and embryonic levels. In addition, a comparative analysis is carried out between the recommendations of the scientific societies regarding the screening of infection, performance standards, and general laboratory measurements


Assuntos
Humanos , Pandemias , Técnicas Reprodutivas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fertilidade , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/normas , Fertilização In Vitro , Inseminação Artificial , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Medicina Reprodutiva/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva/normas
4.
Urologiia ; (4): 104-110, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897023

RESUMO

A new coronavirus infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 was first identified in December 2019. It has spread quickly and caused a global pandemic. Analysis of demographic factors reveals a disproportionately large number of men with severe forms of the disease. Moreover, mortality rate is also higher in men. The currently available data regarding potential risks to the male reproductive system, including pathophysiological basics, detection of viral RNA in the reproductive tract, risk of orchitis, hypogonadism, possible influence of oxidative stress, etc. are described in the review.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fertilidade , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias
5.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104682, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980072

RESUMO

To evaluate whether the development of ß-cypermethrin resistance in Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattaria: Blattellidae) affects the fecundity fitness of this insect and to determine the underlying mechanism, we compared fecundity differences between ß-cypermethrin-resistant (R) and sensitive (S) strains of B. germanica, observed the physiological structural changes of ovaries from an visual perspective, and analyzed differences in the ovarian proteome using proteomic methods. The results showed that, compared with the S strain of B. germanica, the R strain of B. germanica had a significantly higher ootheca shedding rate, a significantly lower number of hatched and surviving nymphs, a significantly higher female proportion in the population and defective ovarian development. Ovarian proteomic analysis showed a total of 64 differentially expressed proteins in the R strain, including 18 upregulated proteins and 46 downregulated proteins. Twenty-four significantly differentially expressed proteins were further studied, and 14 were successfully identified, which were mainly classified into the following categories: immunity-related proteins, development-related proteins, structural proteins, energy metabolism-related proteins and proteins with unknown functions. The differential expression of these proteins reflects the overall changes in cell structure and metabolism associated with ß-cypermethrin resistance and explains the possible molecular mechanism of fecundity fitness disadvantages. In summary, ß-cypermethrin resistance can cause fecundity fitness disadvantages in B. germanica. The metabolic deviations needed to overcome the adverse effects of insecticides may result in an energy exchange that affects energy allocation and, ultimately, the basic needs of the insect. The fitness cost due to insecticide resistance is critical to the delay of the evolution of resistance.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Proteoma , Proteômica , Piretrinas
6.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899480

RESUMO

An effective vaccine is essential for controlling the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Here, we describe an influenza virus-based vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. We incorporated a membrane-anchored form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain (RBD) in place of the neuraminidase (NA) coding sequence in an influenza virus also possessing a mutation that reduces the affinity of hemagglutinin for its sialic acid receptor. The resulting ΔNA(RBD)-Flu virus can be generated by reverse genetics and grown to high titers in cell culture. A single-dose intranasal inoculation of mice with ΔNA(RBD)-Flu elicits serum neutralizing antibody titers against SAR-CoV-2 comparable to those observed in humans following natural infection (~1:200). Furthermore, ΔNA(RBD)-Flu itself causes no apparent disease in mice. It might be possible to produce a vaccine similar to ΔNA(RBD)-Flu at scale by leveraging existing platforms for the production of influenza vaccines.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Betacoronavirus , Chlamydia trachomatis , Fertilidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Vírion
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111348, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979803

RESUMO

Transgenerational effects induced by environmental stressors are a threat to ecosystems and human health. However, there is still limited observation and understanding of the potential of chemicals to influence life outcomes over several generations. In the present study, we investigated the effects of two environmental contaminants, coumarin 47 and permethrin, on exposed zebrafish (F0) and their progeny (F1-F3). Coumarin 47 is commonly found in personal care products and dyes, whereas permethrin is used as a domestic and agricultural pyrethroid insecticide/insect repellent. Zebrafish (F0) were exposed during early development until 28 days post-fertilization and their progeny (F1-F3) were bred unexposed. On one hand, the effects induced by coumarin 47 suggest no multigenerational toxicity. On the other hand, we found that behavior of zebrafish larvae was significantly affected by exposure to permethrin in F1 to F3 generations with some differences depending on the concentration. This suggests persistent alteration of the neural or neuromuscular function. In addition, lipidomic analyses showed that permethrin treatment was partially correlated with lysophosphatidylcholine levels in zebrafish, an important lipid for neurodevelopment. Overall, these results stress out one of the most widely used pyrethroids can trigger long-term, multi- and possibly transgenerational changes in the nervous system of zebrafish. These neurobehavioral changes echo the effects observed under direct exposure to high concentrations of permethrin and therefore call for more research on mechanisms underlying effect inheritance.


Assuntos
Cumarínicos/toxicidade , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Permetrina/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cumarínicos/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
9.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105609, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906060

RESUMO

Species responses to stress are expected to be dependent on their life-history strategy. In this study, we compare the responses of two free-living marine nematodes, Litoditis marina and Diplolaimella dievengatensis, both considered opportunistic, fast-growing, and stress-tolerant species, to the exposure to sublethal concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactant. Specifically, we evaluated the growth and reproduction rates, as well as the survival of individuals exposed from eggs and/or juveniles (J1) onwards. Exposure to SDS significantly affected the growth and reproduction rates of both species. However, whereas growth and reproduction rates of D. dievengatensis were significantly enhanced at low and intermediate concentrations of SDS (0.001% and 0.003%), for L. marina both parameters were significantly reduced by all SDS concentrations tested (0.001%, 0.003% and 0.006%). Exposure to SDS did not affect the survival of adult nematodes of D. dievengatensis, while for L. marina, survival of males exposed to 0.006% SDS was significantly reduced compared to the control. Responses of the life-history traits growth, fecundity and survival did not exhibit clear trade-offs. The contrasting responses of D. dievengatensis and L. marina indicate that biologically and ecologically similar species can have remarkably distinct tolerances to stress, and that, in agreement with recent studies, rhabditid nematodes cannot a priori be considered very stress tolerant. Consequently, single species traits and phylogenetic relatedness are poor predictors of nematode responses to toxic stress posed by anthropogenic activities.


Assuntos
Nematoides/fisiologia , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/toxicidade , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Fertilidade , Masculino , Filogenia
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5939-5947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988926

RESUMO

Background/Aim: There is an increasing demand for preserving the fertility of young women impacted with early-stage cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the oncological and reproductive outcomes of abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with FIGO stageIA2-IB1 cervical cancer who underwent ART from 2007 to 2018. We also compared the oncological prognosis between the patients who underwent ART and radical hysterectomy (RH). Results: A total of 42 patients underwent ART. During median follow-up 62.5 months, there were 4 (9.5%) recurrences and 1 (2.4%) death. As for tumors ≤2 cm, the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate for patients who underwent ART was similar to those who underwent RH (89.8% vs. 92.7%, p=0.42 and 97.3% vs. 95.0%, p=0.44, respectively). Nineteen patients attempted to conceive and seven of them were successful. There was one case of a first-trimester miscarriage, two cases of preterm delivery, three cases of full-term delivery and one ongoing pregnancy. Conclusion: ART could be a feasible alternative to RH for patients with tumors ≤2 cm with comparable oncological outcome.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Traquelectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Abdome/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/fisiopatologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/fisiopatologia
11.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115068, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806394

RESUMO

Social and mating behavior are fundamental fitness determinants in fish. Although fish are increasingly exposed to pharmaceutical compounds that may alter expression of such behavior, potential effects are understudied. Here, we examine the impact of lifelong exposure to two concentrations (0.7 and 5.3 µg/L) of the antidepressant fluoxetine on fecundity and social behavior (i.e. sociability and male-male aggression) in the turquoise killifish, Nothobranchius furzeri. When exposed to the highest concentration of fluoxetine (5.3 µg/L), fish were smaller at maturation but they more frequently engaged in mating. In addition, in both fluoxetine treatments females roughly doubled their overall fecundity while egg fertilization rates were the same for exposed and unexposed fish. Although aggression of male fish was not impacted by fluoxetine exposure, exposed male fish (5.3 µg/L) spent more time in the proximity of a group of conspecifics, which implies an increased sociability in these individuals. Overall, the results of this study indicate that exposure to fluoxetine may result in disrupted male sociability, increased mating frequency and an increased reproductive output in fish populations.


Assuntos
Fundulidae , Animais , Antidepressivos , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Comportamento Social
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756825

RESUMO

Efficient snail production is essential for the proper maintenance of the Schistosoma mansoni life cycle in the laboratory. In order to improve the breeding of Biomphalaria glabrata under laboratory conditions, this study aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of a handmade shell-based substrate on the physiological performance of B. glabrata. The shells used to make the substrate were cleaned, sterilized and macerated until a powder was obtained (yield of 92.3%). B. glabrata specimens were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: negative control group (NCG) exposed to a clay-only substrate; a positive control group (PCG) containing clay, oyster flour and calcium carbonate; and the test group (TG) with the shell-based substrate and clay. B. glabrata bred in the test group showed improved growth, sexual maturity, fertility, mortality rate, and shell morphology when compared to the NCG, and similar to the PCG. Therefore, the shell-based substrate proved to be efficient and has a low cost for the breeding of B. glabrata.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Cruzamento , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Animais , Fertilidade , Schistosoma mansoni
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104668, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828374

RESUMO

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of flubendiamide has led to the development of resistance in field populations and reports of control failures. In this study, the lab-selected (Rf) and field-collected (Rb) flubendiamide-resistant strains of P. xylostella with LC50 resistance ratios of 1890-fold and 1251-fold, respectively, were used, as well as a lab-reared flubendiamide-susceptible strain (S). The results showed that the fecundity of the Rf and Rb-resistant strains was significantly lower than that of S strain. The contents of vitellin and transcripts of P. xylostella vitellogenin (PxVg) and P. xylostella vitellogenin receptor (PxVgR) genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than those of S strains at 0-48 h after adult eclosion. At 96 h after eclosion, the content of vitellin in the Rf and Rb strains did not differ significantly from those of S strains, whereas transcripts of the PxVg and PxVgR genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly lower than that of the S strain. The content of the juvenile hormone III (JH III), ß-ecdysone (20E), and the gene expression level of P. xylostella methoprene tolerant (PxMet) in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain. The activity of trehalase was significantly higher in the Rf and Rb strains than that of the S strain in the first to the third instar larvae, whereas in the fourth instar larvae, there was no significantly difference in the three strains. At different times after adult eclosion, the differences in trehalase activity were erratic between the strains. The transcripts of P. xylostella trehalase (PxTre) gene in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain in most developmental stages. Here, we report differences in fecundity between flubendiamide-resistant and susceptible strains of P. xylostella and discuss gene expression of several reproductive factors, which provides a possible explanation for the mechanism of fecundity reduction concurrent with flubendiamide-resistance in P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzamidas , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas
14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827373

RESUMO

The article presents results of analysis of demographic indices in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The primary data for analysis was acquired from official public statistics. The dynamics of fertility and mortality indices in 1985-2018 is described. The prognostication of indices dynamics up to 2025 was made. The distribution of mortality indices by gender, age, causes of death, place of residence is proposed for 2012, 2015 and 2018. Four periods with increasing or decreasing of fertility and mortality was allocated. The linear correlation made up to r = -0.492, p<0.01, i.e., with decreasing of birth rate increasing in mortality occurred. The assessment of dynamics of mortality in 2015-2018 established that young age groups (15-29 years old) are characterized by significant increasing of mortality in every subsequent age group as compared with previous age group. Between 2012 and 2018, total mortality decreased from 13.2 ‰ to 12.4 ‰. Males and females aged 40-44 and females aged 45-49 and 50-54 had such negative trend as increasing of mortality as compared with 2012 and 2015. The decreasing of indices of overall mortality occurred only among males. In males, mortality rate exceeded mortality rate in females up to 1.33 times in 2012, up to 1.29 times in 2015 and up to 1.23 times in 2018. The mortality rate of rural population is 1.3 times higher than mortality rate of urban population. While mortality rate of able-bodied population is 1.4 times higher. The increasing of mortality occurred due to malignant neoplasms, while the growth rate was more pronounced among rural population as compared with urban population. The mortality of respiratory diseases is more than 2 times higher in rural areas and of diseases of the digestive system is 1.5 times higher among rural population. The established growth trends in mortality among rural population due to respiratory and digestive diseases and decreasing of mortality of diseases of the circulatory system and significant decreasing of such cases as "elder age" can be explained by probability of defects in encoding of causes of death.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bashkiria , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Dinâmica Populacional , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 175-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816279

RESUMO

Malignancy may unfortunately present quite early in a woman's life. In the case of breast cancer, rescue of the breast cancer patient's life is the top priority, but after completion of the effective treatment , the question about the ability to accomplish a pregnancy arises. The treatment strategies in breast cancer patients include surgical interventions, chemotherapy , radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and other special types of mainly targeted biologic therapies. Under normal circumstances, surgery for breast cancer does not involve any intervention in the ovaries or the uterus. Thus, even after an extended operation, the anatomic integrity of the gynecological system is guaranteed, and fertility is unaffected.The chemotherapeutic factors that influence fertility are the drug category used, the total dose given, the patient's age at treatment , the drug combination and finally whether targeted therapy is used or not. Alkylating agents are considered to be the most toxic ones. In young breast cancer patients there is a trend to modify regimens to achieve less gonadotoxicity.Evidence regarding tamoxifen, the main used endocrine drug, is scarce and controversial on its direct effect on ovarian reserve. There are not enough studies on the impact of aromatase inhibitors on fertility. Also, HER2-directed agents have not yet demonstrated significant ovarian toxicity and there are scarce data on their effect on fertility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 181-187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816280

RESUMO

Fertility preservation includes all the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to implement a woman's aim for preserving and enhancing her future chances of having her own biological offspring.There are two available choices for patients to maintain their fertility.The first category includes all the preventive methods following the principle of reduction of gonadotoxicity, in terms of using fewer toxic drugs to the ovaries and similarly milder radiation regimens. It also includes the administration of agents that would keep the ovaries suppressed, to minimize the harmful effects of systemic therapy on the oocytes.The second includes necessary artificial reproductive technology procedures for collecting and freezing either gametes (oocytes) or zygotes (embryos). This can be accomplished with immature oocyte pickup followed by in vitro maturation (IVM). Alternatively, mature oocytes can be collected after minimal ovarian stimulation with very small doses or no medication at all, or through a natural cycle.Beyond that, promising is the modern option of ovarian tissue cryopreservation for future transplantation, while the option of oocyte donation is actually an option for childbearing, not for fertility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Aconselhamento , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade , Criança , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Oócitos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760084

RESUMO

The smalltail shark, Carcharhinus porosus, was the most abundant elasmobranch species in fisheries off Brazil's northern coast (BNC) in the 1980s, but its population has been declining since the 1990s. For this reason, a demographic analysis is necessary to determine the extent of this decline and the fishing effect on the BNC's population. Therefore, we performed a stochastic demographic analysis of the population in the BNC, and considered its global center of abundance. Smalltail shark specimens (n = 937) were collected with gillnets in Maranhão state, eastern BNC, in the 1980s with sizes ranging between 29.6 and 120.0 cm total length. Most of the individuals (90.6%) caught were juveniles (< 6 years-old), and the mortality and exploitation rates showed that the species was overexploited (92.3% above the fishing mortality corresponding to the population equilibrium threshold). The smalltail shark's biological characteristics, such as slow growth and low fecundity, demonstrate that it is one of the least resilient species among similar sized coastal sharks in the region. All these factors yielded an annual decrease of 28% in the intrinsic population growth rate, resulting in a population decline of more than 90% in only 10 years, and much higher for the current period. This set of features comprising fishing recruitment occurring upon juveniles, overfishing, and intrinsically low resilience make the population unable to sustain fishing pressure and severely hamper biological recruitment, thus causing this drastic population decline. Furthermore, several local extinctions for this species in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil highlight its concerning conservation scenario. Therefore, since similar fisheries characteristics occur throughout its distribution range, C. porosus fits the criteria E of the IUCN Red List for a critically endangered species and urgent conservation measures are needed to prevent its extinction in the near future.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Tubarões/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Brasil , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/tendências , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Pesqueiros/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
18.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(6): 402-407, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842247

RESUMO

Objective: To further understand the current status of diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis in China, the implementation of guideline in different levels of hospitals, and the need for continuing education in endometriosis among primary doctors. Methods: The survey was conducted in the form of convenience sampling questionnaire among the Wechat public platform. The doctors were free to participate in the investigation without any reward. All questions answered were assessed as valid questionnaire. The datas were collected on the questionnaire network platform and analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results: Totally 1 494 valid questionnaires were collected in this survey. 60.17% (899/1 494) of them were from tertiary hospital, and 32.60% (487/1 494) were from grade two hospital. Only the hospitals where 9.97% (149/1 494) participants based opened the specialist clinic for endometriosis. 70.35% (1 051/1 494) of participants said they had read the second edition of guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis which published in 2015. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) staging system was adopted in the clinical practices of only 25.03% (374/1 494) participants. And 18.74% (280/1 494) participants used the endometriosis fertility index (EFI) scoring during the laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis with infertility. 45.18% (675/1 494) of participants said they had not attended any academic conference on endometriosis in the past six months. 64.46% (963/1 494) of the participants believed their diagnosis and treatment in practice should be improved and standardized. 87.15% (1 302/1 494) of the participants expressed the hope that more conferences or workshops on endometriosis would be held. Conclusions: At presents, the diagnosis and treatment of endometriosis in China has been greatly improved, but the implementation of guidelines and the new concept is still a long-term job. The specialist clinic are held only in a few hospitals. It's the expectation and voice of primary doctors to the association to organize the more academic congresses on endometriosis.


Assuntos
Endometriose/patologia , Endometriose/terapia , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Dor Pélvica/patologia , China , Endometriose/complicações , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/patologia , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e160, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807254

RESUMO

AIMS: Although much research has focused on socio-demographic determinants of uptake of contraception, few have studied the impact of poor mental health on women's reproductive behaviours. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of poor mental health on women's unmet need for contraception and fertility rate in a low-income country setting. METHODS: A population-based cohort of 1026 women recruited in their third trimester of pregnancy in the Butajira district in rural Ethiopia was assessed for symptoms of antenatal common mental disorders (CMDs; depression and anxiety) using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. Women were followed up regularly until 6.5 years postnatal (between 2005 and 2012). We calculated unmet need for contraception at 1 year (n = 999), 2.5 (n = 971) and 3.5 years (n = 951) post-delivery of index child and number of pregnancies during study period. We tested the association between CMD symptoms, unmet need for contraception and fertility rate. RESULTS: Less than one-third of women reported current use of contraception at each time point. Unmet need for birth spacing was higher at 1 year postnatal, with over half of women (53.8%) not using contraception wanting to wait 2 or more years before becoming pregnant. Higher CMD symptoms 1 year post-index pregnancy were associated with unmet need for contraception at 2.5 years postnatal in the unadjusted [odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15] and fully adjusted model [OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.12]. During the 6.5 year cohort follow-up period, the mean number of pregnancies per woman was 2.4 (s.d. 0.98). There was no prospective association between maternal CMD and number of pregnancies in the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS: CMD symptoms are associated with increased unmet need for family planning in this cohort of women with high fertility and low contraceptive use in rural Ethiopia. There is a lack of models of care promoting integration of mental and physical health in the family planning setting and further research is necessary to study the burden of preconception mental health conditions and how these can be best addressed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Contraceptivo/psicologia , Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/organização & administração , Fertilidade , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Contraceptivo/etnologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 2: e20190588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813770

RESUMO

The Caatinga's black snake Boiruna sertaneja is a Pseudoboini species, endemic of the Caatinga biome. It is rare and fits in five traits that suggest it deserve more attention in reproduction research and conservation policies. Here we provide information on reproductive biology of B. sertaneja by adding new data about court and copula, fertility, nest, eggs and hatchling morphometry and pattern of color based on captivity specimens. The court and copula, as well as oviposition of B. sertaneja in the Caatinga are associated to period of high temperature and dry season. Our findings indicate that females of B. sertaneja, in nature, could select protected places or actively build their nests. We recorded three oviposture after a single event of copula by the female of B. sertaneja. The long time gap between copula and clutches strongly suggests that female B. sertaneja can store sperm in their oviducts for long periods or do facultative parthenogenesis. Clutch size and hatchling size of B. sertaneja was high. We observed variation on the pattern of coloration among hatchlings of same litter. This study comprises the first description of important aspects of reproduction and can give us some clues about how B. sertaneja reproduce in nature.


Assuntos
Ovos , Serpentes , Animais , Brasil , Tamanho da Ninhada , Feminino , Fertilidade , Reprodução
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