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1.
J Glob Health ; 11: 13004, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484711

RESUMO

Objective: Early marriage and childbearing have substantial detrimental effects on both, the affected girls and women at the micro level, as well as entire economies on the macro level. West and Central African countries have some of the highest prevalence rates of early marriage and maternity worldwide. This work attempts to quantify the long-term economic, societal, and fertility effects of marriage and pregnancy in early and late adolescence in West and Central Africa. Methods: We used pooled cross-sectional data collected between 1986 and 2017 in 21 West and Central African countries within the DHS and MICS programs to estimate the associations of marriage and maternity during early (10-14) and late (15-19) adolescence retrospectively on wealth accumulation, educational attainment, as well as the woman's lifetime fertility. Results: Descriptively, women who married or gave birth as young or very young adolescents are overrepresented among the poorest and least educated quintiles of the adult population and underrepresented among the richest and most educated. These gradients were confirmed within a regression analysis which additionally controlled for current age of the woman and PSU fixed effects. Marrying in early/late adolescence was associated with a 12%/6% higher likelihood of being in the poorest wealth quintile in later life and 29%/20% increased likelihood of not completing primary education, as compared to women who married as adults. Maternity in early/late adolescence was associated with a 7%/4% higher likelihood of belonging to the poorest quintile and 17%/10% higher likelihood of being uneducated. Moreover, women who married/gave birth during early or late adolescence, on average, have 2.2/2.3 or 1.4/1.5 more children than those who have married/become mothers as adults. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the dire consequences of early marriage and maternity hit youngest girls the hardest - both immediately and long-term. Hence, it is not only worthwhile to prevent adolescent marriage and pregnancy in general, but also specifically target very young girls below age 15 to attempt to at least delay such far-reaching demographic life events.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Casamento , Adolescente , Adulto , África Central , Fatores Etários , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Urologiia ; (4): 73-78, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Varicocelectomy does not always lead to semen improvement and male fertility recovery. OBJECTIVES: Analysis of total progressive motile sperm count (TPMSC) predictive role in fertility recovery of subfertile man after varicocelectomy in combination with other predictors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, open, multi-center study comprises 93 men from infertile couples with clinical varicocele who underwent microsurgical (inguinal or subinguinal) varicocelectomy. The changes in the standard semen analysis studied according to WHO 2010 Standards. We also evaluated spontaneous pregnancy rates. A discriminant analysis was carried out with step-by-step selection to identify reliable predictors of pregnancy after varicocelectomy. An increase in TPMSC by at least 12.5 million was considered as a good effect of varicocele repair (reference values for the number and progressive sperm motility according to WHO 2010: 39 million x 0.32 (32%) progressively motile). Patients were divided into 3 groups in regards of direction and degree of semen changes: group I included 48 patients with increase of TPMSC more or equal 12.5 million, group II comprised 20 patients with mild increase in TPMSC (0.1 - 12.5 million) and the III group comprised patients without any effect (TPMSC did not change, or became less than preoperative one) after varicocelectomy. The initial clinical characteristics of patients in the groups were compared. RESULTS: A significant effect was observed in 52% of cases (n=48), a mild favorable effect in 21% (n=20), and no effect in 27% (n=25). Spontaneous pregnancy rates (in 1 year after varicocele repair) were higher in patients of group I than that of groups II and III: 46%, 10% and 12%, respectively (p<0.05). The initial clinical characteristics between groups were comparable (p>0.05). In group I, the initial semen analysis parameters were significantly better than in group II and worse than in group III: the median and 25% -75% of the quartiles for TPMSC were 15 (1-44), 0 (0-8) and 54 (19-100) million, respectively (for all p<0.001). According to discriminant analysis significant predictors of pregnancy after varicocelectomy were an increase of TPMSC, male age and the initial total sperm motility. The predictive accuracy of the prognostic model with these three predictors was 84%, specificity was 87%, and sensitivity was 76%. CONCLUSIONS: The odds of fertility recovery after varicocelectomy has a U-shaped relationship: it is higher in patients with moderate semen quality impairment and it decreases in patients with initially low, and, conversely, high sperm count and motility. An increase in TPMSC by 12.5 million or more is a highly significant indicator of fertility recovery, because in this case the odds of spontaneous pregnancy can reach 50%. Predictors of fertility recovery after varicocelectomy are an increase of TPMSC, male age and the preoperative total motility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Varicocele , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/etiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/cirurgia , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Varicocele/cirurgia
3.
Urologiia ; (4): 152-157, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486289

RESUMO

Currently fertility specialists pay close attention to miscarriage. Spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy loss in an early period of gestation are a frequent complication of pregnancy. Etiology of miscarriage includes genetic abnormalities, immunological disorders, endocrine abnormalities, infections and lifestyle factors. About 40% of cases of pregnancy losses remain unexplained. The role of male factor in miscarriages is considered in the review. The influence of advanced paternal ages, sperm DNA fragmentation, chromosomal abnormalities on pregnancy loss in natural conception or by assisted reproductive technique are described.


Assuntos
Aborto Habitual , Aborto Espontâneo , Aborto Habitual/etiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Fragmentação do DNA , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Espermatozoides
4.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(8): 818-825, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486718

RESUMO

Background: Family planning helps to avoid unwanted pregnancy and reduce maternal mortality and morbidity. Contraceptive prevalence is still relatively low (58%) in Iraq compared with other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, and the unmet need (12%) and total fertility (4.2 children per woman) rates are still high. Services are available free of charge or heavily subsidized in many public and private health facilities, yet many women may still not use them due to social, cultural, financial or health care services constraints. Aims: This scoping review explores barriers to family planning services utilization and uptake among women in Iraq. Methods: The review uses an adapted conceptual framework from quality of care and human rights-based frameworks to analyse published scientific studies. Results: At policy level, the government has supported family planning but not enough resources were allocated. At the service level, low family planning promotion from health care providers (especially during antenatal care visits) along with provider bias for certain types of contraception, have contributed to inaccurate information and misconceptions. At the community and individual level, women's choice is still largely influenced by the husband's position on contraception as men are still considered the key decision-makers in regard to fertility. Valuing a large family is still a barrier to family planning services utilization and uptake whereas religion was found to support the use of family planning. Conclusion: There is a need to provide promotional messages and encouraging mutual fertility decisions.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Criança , Comportamento Contraceptivo , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Iraque , Masculino , Gravidez
5.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468760

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of peripartal administration of a commercially available nonspecific immune stimulant (mycobacterium cell wall fraction; MCWF [Amplimune, NovaVive Inc., Napanee, ON, Canada]) on the incidence of disease during early lactation and subsequent fertility of dairy cows. A second objective was to characterize the dynamics of circulating white blood cells (WBC) and metabolic markers following treatment administration. Cows in an United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic-certified dairy herd were blocked by parity and, based on sequential calving dates, randomly assigned to receive two injections (5 mL s.c.) of either a placebo (saline solution) as a control (CON; n = 71) or MCWF (n = 65) at enrollment (7 d before expected calving) and within 24 h after calving. Blood samples were collected from a subsample of the study population (MCWF = 16; CON = 18) for WBC count at enrollment, at day 2 post enrollment, and at days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after calving. Serum fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and Ca concentrations were determined at days 1 and 7 postpartum (MCWF = 21; CON = 21). Main outcome variables included incidence risk of peripartal and early lactation health disorders and pregnancy at first artificial insemination (AI), at 100, and at 150 days in milk (DIM). In addition, the average daily milk yield up to 90 DIM and death and live culling before 305 DIM were compared. Treatment effects were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, time-to-event analyses, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). A treatment effect on the incidence risk of some of the health disorders in the study was established. Incidence risk of metritis and clinical mastitis <28 DIM was smaller in MCWF than in CON cows (36.9% vs. 50.7% and 6.3% vs. 19.7%, respectively). On the contrary, the incidence risk of respiratory disease <28 DIM was smaller in CON (0%) than in MCWF (7.7%). Reproductive performance of multiparous cows was affected by MCWF administration: pregnancy at first AI and pregnancy at 100 and 150 DIM were greater in MCWF than in CON (35.6% vs. 19.2%; 51.1% vs. 25.0%; and 64.4% vs. 40.4%, respectively). Overall, median intervals from calving to pregnancy were 90 vs. 121 d in MCWF and CON cows, respectively. No treatment effects on the dynamics of circulating WBC or in postpartum metabolic status were established. No differences for milk yield or for the proportion of cows that survived up to 305 DIM were determined, although cows in MCWF left the herd earlier than cows in CON. In conclusion, incidence risks of metritis and mastitis in early lactation were smaller in cows receiving MCWF, whereas the incidence risk of respiratory disease was smaller in CON. Fertility significantly improved in MCWF compared with CON cows. As this study was performed in an organic-certified dairy, specific health and reproductive management practices may affect the external validity of the current findings.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Mycobacterium , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Parede Celular , Feminino , Fertilidade , Lactação , Leite , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Reprodução
6.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(9): 683-688, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477340

RESUMO

The increasing survival rate in cancer patients and the global tendency to delay motherhood are two distinct phenomena leading to an increased demand for fertility preservation. Currently, fertility preservation is possible to be achieved with less hormonal exposure and without delaying oncological treatments. Based on this knowledge, any patient with an oncological diagnosis should be referred to a fertility specialist to consider gamete cryopreservation. In addition, the indication for fertility preservation have been extended to many benign pathologies. Awareness of age-related fertility decline coupled with a tendency to delay motherhood is leading more and more women to consider social egg freezing. For these women, oocyte cryopreservation allows them to maintain their reproductive lifespan until an age when they feel ready to become mothers.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Preservação da Fertilidade , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Oócitos
7.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 182, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescents face significant barriers to access and utilization of sexual and reproductive health services in many low-income settings, which in turn may be associated with adverse consequences such as early pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, unsafe abortion and mortality. There is evidence suggesting that limited access to sexual and reproductive health information and services among adolescents contributes to these outcomes. We aimed to find out the factors that affect the fertility of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in Zambia and to identify possible drivers of adolescents' fertility. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the ZDHS 2013/14 data was carried out to find out the factors that affect the fertility rate of adolescents aged 15 to 19 years using multivariate logistic regression (n = 3666). RESULTS: Overall, 23.1% of adolescents had given birth at least once in the 5 years leading to the survey (n = 3666, 99.4% response), and 49.8% were rural-based while 50.2% were urban-based. The median number of schooling was 8 years (IQR 6-10). About 52% of the adolescents were in the poorer, poor and medium wealth quintiles while the other 48% were in the rich and richer quintiles. Factors found to affect fertility include residence, wealth status, educational attainment, marriage and abortion. An urban-based adolescent with a lower socioeconomic status was 2.4 times more likely to give birth compared to rural-based poorer adolescents (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.7, p < 0.001). Although odds of giving birth were much higher among rural-based married adolescents (aOR = 8.0, 95% CI: 5.4, 11.9, p < 0.001) compared to urban married adolescents (aOR = 5.5, 95% CI: 8.3, 16.0, p < 0.001), and these relationships both statistically significant, higher educational attainment (aOR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.8 p < 0.001) and abortion (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8, p = 0.020) reduced these odds, particularly for rural-based adolescents. CONCLUSION: Despite response aimed at reducing adolescent fertility, low wealth status, low educational attainment and early marriage remain significant drivers of adolescent fertility in Zambia. There is a need to address sexual and reproductive health needs of urban-based adolescents with a lower socioeconomic status.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , População Rural , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Casamento , Gravidez , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101381, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364119

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chick pipping location on live broiler performance. A total of 1,350 hatching eggs were collected from a commercial flock of Ross 308 at 38 wk of age. Eggs were incubated with either their large end up (LEU) or small end up (SEU). After transfer on d 19, the air cell area of each fertile egg was marked with a marker pen on the egg surface with a candling light and monitored every 6 h during the hatching period to accurately determine the location of the pip hole. Chicks were classified into 3 groups: 1) egg position LEU and pipped through the air cell (LAC); 2) egg position SEU and pipped through the air cell (SAC); and 3) egg position SEU and pipped through the small end of the egg, not through the air cell (SSE). Individual BW was recorded at placement and at 7, 21, and 35 d of age. Feed consumption was also determined at 7, 21, and 35 d of age. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) was calculated on a pen basis for the same time periods. Mortality was recorded twice a day, and percent mortality was calculated throughout the study. The European production efficiency index (EPEI) was also calculated. All chicks that hatched from LEU eggs emerged from the egg at the region of the air cell; however, only 10.3% of chicks from the SEU position hatched through air cells. Pipping location greatly affected the hatch time. Chicks pipped through the air cell location hatched earlier than the chicks pipped without using air cell (P < 0.001). The initial BW at placement was higher in the LAC and SAC groups than in the SSE group (P < 0.001). This BW difference was still evident in the subsequent growing period, and the chicks that pipped the SSE exhibited a lower (P = 0.059) BW at 35 d. Additionally, the SSE group had a poorer FCR and numerically higher mortality than the other two groups at 35 d. Overall, the EPEI values in the LAC and SAC groups were higher than that in the SSE group at 35 d (P < 0.001). We concluded that broiler performance was negatively affected when the chicks pipped and hatched without using air cells.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Óvulo , Animais , Fertilidade
10.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379759

RESUMO

The insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes has remained the major threat for vector control programs but the fitness effects conferred by these mechanisms are poorly understood. To fill this knowledge gap, the present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that antibiotic oxytetracycline could have an interaction with insecticide resistance genotypes and consequently inhibit the fecundity in An. gambiae. Four strains of An. gambiae: Kisumu (susceptible), KisKdr (kdr (L1014F) resistant), AcerKis (ace-1 (G119S) resistant) and AcerKdrKis (both kdr (L1014F) and ace-1 (G119S) resistant) were used in this study. The different strains were allowed to bloodfeed on a rabbit previously treated with antibiotic oxytetracycline at a concentration of 39·10-5 M. Three days later, ovarian follicles were dissected from individual mosquito ovaries into physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl) under a stereomicroscope and the eggs were counted. Fecundity was substantially lower in oxytetracycline-exposed KisKdr females when compared to that of the untreated individuals and oxytetracycline-exposed Kisumu females. The exposed AcerKis females displayed an increased fecundity compared to their nontreated counterparts whereas they had reduced fecundity compared to that of oxytetracycline-exposed Kisumu females. There was no substantial difference between the fecundity in the treated and untreated AcerKdrKis females. The oxytetracycline-exposed AcerKdrKis mosquitoes had an increased fecundity compared to that of the exposed Kisumu females. Our data indicate an indirect effect of oxytetracycline in reducing fecundity of An. gambiae mosquitoes carrying kdrR (L1014F) genotype. These findings could be useful for designing new integrated approaches for malaria vector control in endemic countries.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Oxitetraciclina , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade
11.
Front Public Health ; 9: 686115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350151

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has implied worldwide the imposition of confinement measures and mobility restrictions, to a greater or lesser extent. It has also meant the closure of some public medical services such as reproductive care. This situation may have impacted the health-related behaviour and quality of life of women with fertility problems. Objective: The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of confinement and the suspension of reproductive medical care on the lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, and smoking habits), anxiety and depression, and quality of life of infertile women by comparing their pre- and post-confinement situations. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional, internet-based study. Information was collected on these women's adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MEDAS questionnaire), physical exercise (IPAQ-SF), anxiety and depression (HADS), and quality of life related to fertility (FertiQol) before, during, and after confinement. The survey was conducted between 1 September and 28 October 2020. Results: A total of 85 women participated. There had been a significant increase in anxiety and depression levels (P < 0.001) and an increase in tobacco consumption among female smokers during confinement vs. pre-confinement (62.5% had increased their consumption). The participants had also increased the mean number of hours they spent sitting (P < 0.001). There had also been an increase in vigorous and moderate exercise levels by 40 and 30%, respectively (P = 0.004). However, no differences were observed in these patients' eating habits as a result of confinement (P = 0.416). When the reproduction service was resumed, the participants showed higher anxiety level scores (P = 0.001) with respect to the pre-confinement situation as well as lower mean FertiQol scale score (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Confinement had increased anxiety and depression levels among these infertile women as well as tobacco use among the participants who were smokers. The prolonged closure of reproductive care units decreased the quality of life of the participants of this study. These results suggest the need to implement online programs to improve healthy habits and quality of life of this population group.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Mediterrânea , Infertilidade Feminina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Insect Sci ; 21(4)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415303

RESUMO

The gut microbiota of insects usually plays an important role in the development and reproduction of their hosts. The fecundity of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius) varies greatly when they develop on different host plants. Whether and how the gut microbiota regulates the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata was unknown. To address this question, we used 16S rRNA sequencing to analyze the gut microbiomes of H. vigintioctopunctata adults fed on two host plant species (Solanum nigrum and Solanum melongena) and one artificial diet. The development of the ovaries and testes was also examined. Our results revealed that the diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms varied significantly in insects reared on different diets. The gut microbiota of H. vigintioctopunctata raised on the two host plants was similar, with Proteobacteria being the dominant phylum in both groups, whereas Firmicutes was the dominant phylum in the group reared on the artificial diet. The predominant microbiota in the S. nigrum group were Acinetobacter soli and Acinetobacter ursingii (Acinetobacter, Moraxellaceae); Moraxella osloensis (Enhydrobacter, Moraxellaceae); and Empedobacter brevis (Empedobacter, Weeksellaceae). The microbiota in this group are associated with high lipid metabolism. In addition, the beetles' ovaries and testes were more highly developed in the S. nigrum group than in the other two groups. These findings provide valuable information for elucidating the complex roles the gut microbiota play in the fecundity of H. vigintioctopunctata, and may also contribute to developing future novel control strategies involving this economically important pest.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fertilidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Besouros/microbiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , DNA Bacteriano , Dieta , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Pragas , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Exp Biol ; 224(7)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424967

RESUMO

During the evolution of social insects, not only did life-history traits diverge, with queens becoming highly fecund and long lived compared with their sterile workers, but also individual traits lost their importance compared with colony-level traits. In solitary animals, fecundity is largely influenced by female size, whereas in eusocial insects, colony size and queen number can affect the egg-laying rate. Here, we focused on the ant Temnothorax rugatulus, which exhibits two queen morphs varying in size and reproductive strategy, correlating with their colony's social organization. We experimentally tested the influence of social structure, colony and body size on queen fecundity and investigated links between body size, metabolic rate and survival under paraquat-induced oxidative stress. To gain insight into the molecular physiology underlying the alternative reproductive strategies, we analysed fat body transcriptomes. Per-queen egg production was lower in polygynous colonies when fecundity was limited by worker care. Colony size was a determinant of fecundity rather than body size or queen number, highlighting the super-organismal properties of these societies. The smaller microgynes were more frequently fed by workers and exhibited an increase in metabolic activity, yet they were similarly resistant to oxidative stress. Small queens differentially expressed metabolic genes in the fat body, indicating that shifts in molecular physiology and resource availability allow microgyne queens to compensate for their small size with a more active metabolism without paying increased mortality costs. We provide novel insights into how life-history traits and their associations were modified during social evolution and adapted to queen reproductive strategies.


Assuntos
Formigas , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Formigas/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Insetos , Reprodução
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444359

RESUMO

A growing number of young people tend to regard their pets as their surrogate children, yet research examining the relationship between pet attachment and fertility intention remains scarce. Moreover, individuals' fertility intention is affected by economic resources. Therefore, we conducted two studies to examine the interaction effect of pet attachment and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) on childbearing-aged individuals' fertility intention. In Study 1, we utilized questionnaires to measure Chinese pet owners' pet attachment, subjective SES, and fertility intention. In Study 2, participants' pet attachment was experimentally manipulated by reading articles about the benefits of petkeeping. The results of the two studies consistently demonstrated that the effect of pet attachment on fertility intention was moderated by subjective SES. Specifically, pet attachment was negatively associated with fertility intention when individuals had a high level of subjective SES, whereas this effect disappeared when individuals had low subjective SES. These findings suggest an explanation for why individuals with high subjective SES delay or even opt out of childbearing. The limitations and implications of the current study are discussed.


Assuntos
Intenção , Classe Social , Adolescente , Idoso , Animais , Criança , Fertilidade , Humanos , Renda , Animais de Estimação , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444085

RESUMO

Based on an analysis of the life trajectories of 2510 conscripts and their families from a Spanish rural area in the period 1835-1977, this paper studies the development of the fertility transition in relation to height using bivariate analyses. The use of heights is an innovative perspective of delving into the fertility transition and social transformation entailed. The results confirm that the men with a low level of biological well-being (related to low socio-economic groups) were those who started to control their fertility, perhaps due to the effect that increased average family size had on their budget. The children of individuals who controlled their fertility were taller than the children of other families. Therefore, the children of parents who controlled their fertility experienced the largest intergenerational increase in height (approximately 50% higher). This increase could be due to the consequence of a greater investment in children (Becker's hypothesis) or a greater availability of resources for the whole family (resource dilution hypothesis).


Assuntos
Economia , Fertilidade , Criança , Demografia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
18.
Tumour Biol ; 43(1): 159-176, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420994

RESUMO

The human TMPRSS2 gene is pathogenetically implicated in both coronaviral lung infection and prostate cancer, suggesting its potential as a drug target in both contexts. SARS-COV-2 spike polypeptides are primed by the host transmembrane TMPRSS2 protease, triggering virus fusion with epithelial cell membranes followed by an endocytotic internalisation process that bypasses normal endosomal activation of cathepsin-mediated innate immunity; viral co-opting of TMPRSS2 thus favors microbial survivability by attenuating host inflammatory responses. In contrast, most early hormone-dependent prostate cancers express TMPRSS2:ERG fusion genes arising from deletions that eliminate the TMPRSS2 coding region while juxtaposing its androgen-inducible promoter and the open reading frame of ERG, upregulating pro-inflammatory ERG while functionally disabling TMPRSS2. Moreover, inflammatory oxidative DNA damage selects for TMPRSS2:ERG-fused cancers, whereas patients treated with antiinflammatory drugs develop fewer of these fusion-dependent tumors. These findings imply that TMPRSS2 protects the prostate by enabling endosomal bypass of pathogens which could otherwise trigger inflammation-induced DNA damage that predisposes to TMPRSS2:ERG fusions. Hence, the high oncogenic selectability of TMPRSS2:ERG fusions may reflect a unique pro-inflammatory synergy between androgenic ERG gain-of-function and fusogenic TMPRSS2 loss-of-function, cautioning against the use of TMPRSS2-inhibitory drugs to prevent or treat early prostate cancer.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Fertilidade , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Inflamação/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/genética
19.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114247, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339927

RESUMO

Over the past decade, women in Western countries have taken to various social media platforms to share their dissatisfactory experiences with hormonal contraception, which may be pills, patches, rings, injectables, implants or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). These online testimonials have been denounced as spreading "hormonophobia", i.e. an excessive fear of hormones based on irrational causes such as an overestimation of health risks associated with their use, that was already aroused by the recurring media controversies over hormonal contraception. In order to move toward a reproductive justice framework, we propose to study the arguments that women and men (as partners of female users) recently put forward against hormonal contraception to see whether they are related to hormonophobia. The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the recent scientific literature in order to construct an evidence-based typology of reasons for rejecting hormonal contraception, in a continuum perspective from complaints to choosing not to use it, cited by women and men in Western countries in a recent time. The published literature was systematically searched using PubMed and the database from the French National Institute for Demographic Studies (Ined). A total of 42 articles were included for full-text analysis. Eight main categories emerged as reasons for rejecting hormonal contraception: problems related to physical side effects; altered mental health; negative impact on sexuality; concerns about future fertility; invocation of nature; concerns about menstruation; fears and anxiety; and the delegitimization of the side effects of hormonal contraceptives. Thus, arguments against hormonal contraception appeared complex and multifactorial. Future research should examine the provider-patient relationship, the gender bias of hormonal contraception and demands for naturalness in order to understand how birth control could better meet the needs and expectations of women and men in Western countries today.


Assuntos
Contracepção Hormonal , Sexismo , Anticoncepção , Feminino , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Sexual
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360691

RESUMO

Two-line hybrid rice systems represent a new technical approach to utilizing the advantages of rice hybrids. However, the mechanism underlying the male sterile-line fertility transition in rice remains unclear. Peiai 64S (PA64S) is a photoperiod- and thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) line in which male sterility manifests at an average temperature above 23.5 °C under long-day (LD) conditions. Nongken 58S (NK58S) is a LD-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) rice that is sterile under LD conditions (above 13.75 h-day). In contrast, D52S is a short-day (SD)-PGMS line that manifests male sterility under SD conditions (below 13.5 h-day). In this study, we obtained fertile and sterile plants from all three lines and performed transcriptome analyses on the anthers of the plants. Gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that the differentially expressed genes identified were significantly enriched in common terms involved in the response to jasmonic acid (JA) and in JA biosynthesis. On the basis of the biochemical and molecular validation of dynamic, tissue-specific changes in JA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels, gibberellin (GA) levels, and JA biosynthetic enzyme activities and expression, we proposed that JA could play a pivotal role in viable pollen production through its initial upregulation, constant fluctuation and leaf-spikelet signaling under certain fertility-inducing conditions. Furthermore, we also sprayed methyl jasmonate (MEJA) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) on the plants, thereby achieving fertility reversal in the PGMS lines NK58S and D52S, with 12.91-63.53% pollen fertility changes. Through qPCR and enzyme activity analyses, we identified two key enzymes-allene oxide synthase (AOS) and allene oxide cyclase (AOC)-that were produced and upregulated by 20-500-fold in PGMS in response to spraying; the activities of these enzymes reversed pollen fertility by influencing the JA biosynthetic pathway. These results provide a new understanding of hormone interactions and networks in male-sterile rice based on the role of JA that will help us to better understand the potential regulatory mechanisms of fertility development in rice in the future.


Assuntos
Ciclopentanos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases Intramoleculares/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Oxilipinas/metabolismo , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transdução de Sinais , Acetatos/farmacologia , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Fertilidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Salicilamidas/farmacologia
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