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1.
Theriogenology ; 195: 238-248, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371962

RESUMO

Hormonal treatments to control ovulation and the intensification of reproduction rhythm are usual strategies to increase ewe productivity. However, in organic farming the use of hormones is banned, making any increase of reproduction rhythm an inappropriate practice. This work tested if increasing the number of mating sessions per year could improve ewe annual productivity, while maintaining a non-intensive reproduction rhythm of one lambing per ewe per year. Reproductive performance was studied over five years in two organic sheep farming systems differing by the number of mating sessions (MS) per year, two (2MS) or four (4MS). The 4MS system included two mating sessions in the breeding season (September and November) and non-breeding season (April and June). The 2MS system included mating in November and April. Non-pregnant ewes were recycled one (2MS) or two times (4MS system) on consecutive mating sessions. Considering all mating attempts per ewe individually (n = 1366), the time elapsed from mating to lambing (159 ± 0.2 days), fertility (86%), prolificacy (166%) and productivity (143%) did not differ between the systems (P > 0.05). Fertility, prolificacy and productivity were higher in the breeding than the non-breeding season (P ≤ 0.05), and in adults than young ewes (P ≤ 0.05), without interaction with the systems (P > 0.05). In the non-breeding season, fertility, prolificacy and productivity did not relate to ewe cyclic status (P > 0.05), whereas the time elapsed from mating to lambing was shortened in cyclic ewes (P ≤ 0.05). Good ewe body condition at lambing and mating and dynamic gain in body condition from drying to mating improved productivity (P ≤ 0.05) by increasing fertility or prolificacy regardless of the system (P > 0.05). On a yearly scale, the number of lambed ewes was higher in the 4MS than the 2MS system (91% vs 85%; P ≤ 0.05) leading to higher ewe annual productivity (154% vs 141%; P ≤ 0.05). The percentage of ewes that were recycled on consecutive mating sessions was higher in the 4MS than the 2MS system (24% vs 18%; P ≤ 0.05), possibly explaining the 4MS increase of ewe annual productivity by extending mating opportunities for the ewes. The increase in the number of mating sessions per year is a hormone-free strategy suitable for organic sheep farming systems to improve annual ewe productivity on a basis of one lambing per ewe per year. This approach proved beneficial to compensate for lower fertility in the non-breeding season, especially for young ewes.


Assuntos
Agricultura Orgânica , Reprodução , Ovinos , Animais , Feminino , Estações do Ano , Fertilidade , Comunicação Celular
2.
Environ Res ; 216(Pt 3): 114718, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The reproductive toxicity of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been verified in both animal and in vitro experiments, however, the association between PFAS and female fertility remains contradictory in population studies. Therefore, in this systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated the effects of PFAS on female fertility based on population evidence. METHODS: Electronic searches of the Web of Science, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were conducted (from inception to March 2022) to collect observational studies related to PFAS and female fertility. Two evaluators independently screened the literature, extracted information and evaluated the risk of bias for the included studies, meta-analysis was performed using R software. RESULTS: A total of 5468 records were searched and 13 articles fully met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure was negatively associated with the female fecundability odds ratio (FOR = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (Cl) [0.78; 0.98]) and positively associated with the odds ratio for infertility (OR = 1.33, 95%Cl [1.03; 1.73]). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure was negatively associated with the fecundability odds ratio (FOR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.90; 0.98]). Pooled effect values for perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) exposure did not find sufficient evidence for an association with female fertility. CONCLUSION: Based on the evidence provided by the current study, increased levels of PFAS exposure are associated with reduced fertility in women, this was characterized by a reduction in fecundability odds ratio and an increase in odds ratio for infertility. This finding could partially explain the decline in female fertility and provide insight into risk assessment when manufacturing products containing PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Infertilidade , Animais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Reprodução , Fertilidade
3.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114148, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36272447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While many testis-enriched genes have been identified as important regulators of the spermatogenic process, the specific roles played by several of these genes and their functional importance has yet to be fully clarified. METHODS: We employed a CRISPR/Cas9 approach to introduce a 5 bp in-frame deletion within the Spdye4a gene (Exon 2) of C57BL/6 mice (Spdye4a-/-). Fertility and sperm counts were evaluated. Testes tissues and cell suspensions were analyzed via histological and immunofluorescence staining. mRNA and protein levels of candidate genes were assessed through qPCR and Western blotting. In vitro fertilization was used to assess the ability of sperm cells to bind to egg cells. RESULTS: Spdye4a-/- mice did not exhibit any reduction in fertility, and exhibited comparable sperm counts, morphology and motility to those of wildtype littermates. Functionally, Spdye4a-/- sperm exhibited normal sperm-egg binding activity in vitro. Furthermore, the testes of Spdye4a-/- mice exhibited a full range of germ cells from spermatogonia to mature spermatozoa. No differences in the progression of meiotic prophase I were observed when comparing Spdye4a-/- and wildtype mice, indicating that the loss of Spdye4a had no adverse effect on spermatogenesis. DISCUSSION: Spdye4a is dispensable in the context of mice fertility and spermatogenesis. This study will prevent other laboratories from expending repeated efforts to generate similar knockout mice.


Assuntos
Meiose , Testículo , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Testículo/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sêmen , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Espermatogônias , Camundongos Knockout
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 18579, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329190

RESUMO

Seasonality of births is a worldwide phenomenon, but the mechanisms behind it remain insufficiently explored. Birth seasonality is likely to be driven by seasonal changes in women's fecundity (i.e. ability to conceive), which is strongly influenced by their energetic status. We tested whether birth seasonality is driven by high workload and/or low access to food using 200 years of birth data, from 1782 until 2004, in an agricultural rural Polish community. First, we analysed the time series of births and within-annual variance in births, a proxy for the extent of seasonality. Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that a high agricultural workload and/or low access to food decreases number of births. We found seasonality of births throughout more than 200 years of observation in an agricultural Polish population, with a dominant birth seasonality in January and February which gradually shifted towards June in the late twentieth century. The observed pattern does not support the hypothesis that birth seasonality resulted from women's energetic status. We discuss the possible reasons why our results do not support the tested hypothesis and some implications for our understanding of the birth seasonality.


Assuntos
Coeficiente de Natalidade , Parto , Gravidez , Feminino , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Polônia , Fertilidade
5.
FASEB J ; 36(12): e22634, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331537

RESUMO

Testis-specifically expressed genes are important for male reproduction according to their unique expression patterns. However, the functions of most of these genes in reproduction are unclear. Here, we showed that mouse 4930590J08Rik was a testis-specifically expressed gene. 4930590J08Rik knockout mice exhibited a delay in the first wave of spermatogenesis and a reduction of cauda epididymal sperm. Furthermore, knockout spermatozoa exhibited defective acrosome reactions and decreased progressive motility, which led to impaired in vivo fertilization. Transcriptome analysis of testes revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes in knockout testes were associated with metabolic processes. 4930590J08Rik knockout sperm exhibited oxidative phosphorylation deficiency and were highly dependent on increased anaerobic glycolysis to compensate for ATP demands. Taken together, the 4930590J08Rik-disrupted mouse partially mimics the phenotypes of human asthenospermia and oligozoospermia, which provides a new model for further understanding the pathogenesis of idiopathic male infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Sêmen , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Animais , Sêmen/metabolismo , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Testículo/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/genética , Camundongos Knockout , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Motilidade Espermática/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276595, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There has been little research on women who have fewer than their ideal number of children toward the end of their childbearing years in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examine the level and distribution of unrealized fertility in LMICs across three geographical regions. We also examine the role of sex preference and other factors associated with unrealized fertility. DATA AND METHODS: We used Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data for women age 44-48 in 36 countries from the three geographical regions of Western and Central Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa, and South and Southeast Asia. We conducted descriptive analysis to examine the distribution of unwanted fertility and unrealized fertility, and fit adjusted logistic regressions of unrealized fertility. The main variables are number of living children (including by sex) and the sex composition of children. Other variables included education, marital status, age at first childbirth, wealth quintile, place of residence, exposure to family planning messages, contraceptive use, and country. RESULTS: Unrealized fertility was highest in Western and Central Africa, followed by Eastern and Southern Africa. In all regions, there was a decrease in unrealized fertility with an increasing number of children. Findings for sex preference varied with little sex preference in the African regions, and some limited evidence of preference for sons in South and Southeast Asia. In most regions, higher levels of education, higher wealth quintile, and use of contraceptive methods were associated with decreased unrealized fertility. CONCLUSION: Family planning programs and messages should consider regional and socioeconomic differences in unrealized fertility in order to give women and families the right to achieve the family size they desire regardless of their status.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fertilidade , Anticoncepção , Características da Família , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Dinâmica Populacional
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20216, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418358

RESUMO

Canola is one of the important oil crops and is considered the most promising oil source and adapts to reclaimed soil conditions. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of yeast extract (YE) integrated with nitrogen (N) rates and treatments were arranged as follows: Control (without F0), 95 kg N ha-1 (F1), 120 kg N ha-1 (F2), 142 kg N ha-1 (F3), 95 kg N ha-1 + YE (F4), 120 kg N ha-1 + YE (F5) and 142 kg N ha-1 + YE (F6) on physico-chemical properties, yield and its components for three Canola genotypes i.e. AD201 (G1), Topaz and SemuDNK 234/84 under the sandy soil. In this work, Results reveal that increasing rates of Nitrogen fertilization from 95 kg N ha-1 to 142 kg N ha-1 have a great effect on physicochemical properties yield and its components. The result proved that 142 kg N ha-1 with yeast treatment was the best treatment for three Canola genotypes. Also, the result showed that seed yield was positively correlated with Chl. a/b ratio, plant height, number of branches/plant, number of pods/plant, and number of seeds/pod, and a strong negative correlation was detected between seed oil percentage when the amount of nitrogen fertilization applied without or with yeast extract is increased.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Solo , Nitrogênio , Areia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Minerais , Fertilidade
8.
RNA Biol ; 19(1): 1276-1292, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36412988

RESUMO

Piwi proteins and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are best known for their roles in suppressing transposons and promoting fertility. Yet piRNA biogenesis and its mechanisms of action differ widely between distantly related species. To better understand the evolution of piRNAs, we characterized the piRNA pathway in C. briggsae, a sibling species of the model organism C. elegans. Our analyses define 25,883 piRNA producing-loci in C. briggsae. piRNA sequences in C. briggsae are extremely divergent from their counterparts in C. elegans, yet both species adopt similar genomic organization that drive piRNA expression. By examining production of Piwi-mediated secondary small RNAs, we identified a set of protein-coding genes that are evolutionarily conserved piRNA targets. In contrast to C. elegans, small RNAs targeting ribosomal RNAs or histone transcripts are not hyper-accumulated in C. briggsae Piwi mutants. Instead, we found that transcripts with few introns are prone to small RNA overamplification. Together our work highlights evolutionary conservation and divergence of the nematode piRNA pathway and provides insights into its role in endogenous gene regulation.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans , RNA Ribossômico , Animais , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Fertilidade , Genômica
9.
J Biomed Sci ; 29(1): 100, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36419064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent inflammatory reproductive disease. Therefore, systematic estrogen depletion and anti-inflammatory drugs are the current treatment for endometriosis. However, current endometriosis treatments have low efficacy and cause adverse effects in endometriosis patients. Consequently, alternative endometriosis treatments targeting endometriosis-specific factors are in demand. In this context, ERß was selected as a druggable target for endometriosis due to its critical role in progression. Therefore, selective targeting of ERß without inhibiting ERα activity would be a new paradigm for endometriosis treatment to overcome the low efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal endometriosis therapy. METHODS: Cell-based ERß and ERα activity assay systems were employed to define a selective ERß-inhibiting chemical product from a library of natural products. A surgically induced endometriosis mouse model was used to determine whether an ERß inhibitory drug suppressed endometriosis progression. Mice with endometriosis were randomly separated and then orally treated with vehicle or 25 mg/kg oleuropein (once a day for 21 days), an ERß inhibitory drug. The volume of endometriotic lesions or luciferase activity of endometriotic lesions was examined to define the growth of ectopic lesions in mice with endometriosis. The metabolite and levels of metabolic enzymes of the liver and kidney were determined in the serum of female mice treated with vehicle and oleuropein (25 mg/kg, once a day for 21 days) to define the toxicity of oleuropein. The in vitro decidualization assay was conducted with normal human endometrial stromal cells and endometriotic stromal cells to determine whether oleuropein overcomes decidualization in endometriosis patients. The pregnancy rate and pup numbers of C57BL/6 J female mice with endometriosis treated with vehicle or oleuropein (n = 10/group) were determined after mating with male mice. The cytokine profile in endometriotic lesions treated with vehicle and oleuropein (25 mg/kg) was determined with a Mouse Cytokine Array Kit. RESULTS: Among natural products, oleuropein selectively inhibited ERß but not ERα activity in vitro. Oleuropein treatment inhibited the nuclear localization of ERß in human endometrial cells upon estradiol treatment. Oleuropein (25 mg/kg) treatment suppressed the growth of mouse (6.6-fold) and human (sixfold) ectopic lesions in mice with endometriosis compared to the vehicle by inhibiting proliferation and activating apoptosis in endometriotic lesions. Oleuropein treatment did not cause reproductive toxicity in female mice. Additionally, mice with endometriosis subjected to oleuropein treatment had a higher pregnancy rate (100%) than vehicle-treated mice (70%). Furthermore, oleuropein treatment partially recovered the decidualization impact of human endometriotic stromal cells from endometriotic lesions compared to the vehicle. Oleuropein-treated mice with endometriosis exhibited significantly lower levels of cytokines directly regulated by ERß in ectopic lesions than vehicle-treated mice, illustrating the improvement in the hyperinflammatory state of mice with endometriosis. CONCLUSIONS: Oleuropein is a promising and novel nutraceutical product for nonhormonal therapy of endometriosis because it selectively inhibits ERß, but not ERα, to suppress endometriosis progression and improve the fertility of mice with endometriosis.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Endometriose , Gravidez , Humanos , Camundongos , Masculino , Feminino , Animais , Endometriose/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fertilidade , Estrogênios , Citocinas , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico
10.
J Med Life ; 15(9): 1170-1175, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415526

RESUMO

The present experimental model aimed to investigate the possible effect of endometriosis on ovarian function by altering follicular maturation and development. This single-blind, randomized study included twenty-four female Sprague Dawley mice, 2.5 months old, weighing 160-200 grams. The animals were randomly separated into four groups on the day of the surgery. Each group consisted of 6 mice. The first group (A) consisted of healthy female mice (control group). The second group (B) consisted of mice subjected to surgical insertion of ovarian endometrioma. The third group (C) consisted of mice subjected to surgically induced diffuse intraperitoneal endometriosis, and the fourth group (D) consisted of mice subjected to surgically induced extraperitoneal endometriosis. According to our experimental model, endometriosis may affect ovarian function by increasing the number of luteinized unruptured follicles (follicles that have undergone luteinization without prior rupture).


Assuntos
Endometriose , Infertilidade Feminina , Humanos , Feminino , Camundongos , Animais , Endometriose/complicações , Método Simples-Cego , Fertilidade , Modelos Animais
11.
Ther Umsch ; 79(10): 535-540, 2022.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36415937

RESUMO

Fertility Awareness Based Methods Abstract. The so called natural family planning methods are based on the prospective detection of the few fertile days (fertile window) during the menstrual cycle. The existence of such a fertile window was originally based on observation of the menstrual cycle which showed that that the lowest fertlity was at the beginning and in the seccond half of the cycle. On this observation the calendar method was based. Later other signs of ovulation were detected (temperature, cervical mucus and even later the LH peak) which allowed to better predict the fertile phase. It became evident that the contraceptive efficacy was dependent on the number of ovulation related variables and the continuity and regularity of the measurements (user adherence). The new data collecting technologies facilitate correct and regular data collection and may such offer new opportunities.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Detecção da Ovulação , Humanos , Feminino , Detecção da Ovulação/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ovulação , Ciclo Menstrual
12.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1029469, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36408057

RESUMO

Objective: Subfertility is a common problem for couples in modern society. Many studies have confirmed that lifestyle factors can affect fertility although there are conflicting conclusions relating to the effects of physical activity and sleep duration on fertility. In this study, we aimed to summarize and analyze the available evidence. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase databases (as of October 14, 2022) were systematically searched for eligible prospective cohort studies. Data were extracted and effect values were combined. We also performed methodological quality and bias risk assessments for all the included studies. Results: A total of 10 eligible articles were included in our analysis; seven investigated the relationship between physical activity and fertility, and three investigated the effect of sleep duration on fertility. Compared with the lowest level of physical activity, high intensity physical activity (the highest levels of physical activity) was negatively correlated with fertility [odds ratio (OR) = 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70, 1.00, I 2 = 64%]. However, we did not find an association between moderate intensity physical activity and fertility (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.22, I 2 = 60%). We observed an inverse association between limited sleep duration (≤ 7 h) and fertility (OR = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.00, I 2 = 0%) compared with 8 h of sleep. The relationship between long sleep duration (≥9 h) and fertility was not statistically significant (OR = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.21, I 2 = 83%). According to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score, the overall quality of the research articles included was ranked as medium to high (6-9). Through GRADE system, the quality of evidence for the impact of high intensity physical activity and limited sleep duration on fertility was moderate, while the quality of evidence for the impact of moderate intensity physical activity and long sleep duration on fertility was low. Conclusion: The current evidence shows that high intensity physical activity and limited sleep time are negatively related to fertility. But there was great heterogeneity among studies, and the quality of research evidence was low to median. Thus, further high-quality research is needed to confirm this conclusion. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42022298137.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sono , Exercício Físico
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(46): e2205451119, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343265

RESUMO

Biological predictors of human dominance are hotly contested, with far-reaching implications for psychological sex differences and the placement of men and women in the social hierarchy. Most investigations have focused on dominance in men and testosterone, with diminished attention paid to dominance in women and other biological mechanisms. Investigating biological influences on other routes to status attainment popular among women-such as via prestige in addition to dominance-have also been neglected. Here, I examined whether status seeking via prestige and via dominance covaried with fertility probability in a citizen science project spanning 14 countries and 4 world regions. Across 4,179 observations, participants tracked their menstrual cycle characteristics, motivation for prestige and dominance, dominance contest outcomes, and three domains of self-esteem. Self-esteem is predicted by status within a group and helps individuals navigate social hierarchies. Bayesian mixed models controlling for menstruation indicated that the motivation to obtain status via prestige but not dominance peaked when conception was most likely, as did dominance contest losses and two self-esteem domains. Fertility appears to reorient female psychology toward prestige-based strategies to success, enhancing women's desire for social capital through influence and admiration but not through fear, coercion, or intimidation. These insights fundamentally advance the understanding of the biological correlates of status seeking among women. They further suggest that fertility motivates not only mating competition but gaining rank and positive regard in social hierarchies.


Assuntos
Hierarquia Social , Predomínio Social , Humanos , Feminino , Masculino , Teorema de Bayes , Motivação , Fertilidade
14.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 22(1): 844, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early initiation of childbearing leads to an increase in total fertility rate and population growth. It has been linked with both maternal and child morbidity and mortality. However, there is limited information on the timing of the first birth and its predictors in the area so far. Therefore, determining the time to first birth and its predictors will help to design strategies to improve fertility rate, maternal and child survival. METHODS: The survey used recent (2010 - 2018) Demographic and Health data; a stratified, two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select the sample. Inverse Weibull gamma shared frailty model was used to model the data at 95% confidence interval. Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) and median hazard ratio (MHR) were reported as effect size. Statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The overall median age at first birth was found to be 19 years (IQR: 16, 21 years). Rural residency (AHR = 1.02, 95%, CI 1.00,1.04), agricultural employee (AHR = 1.14, 95%, CI 1.13, 1.17), and nonagricultural employee (AHR = 1.06, 95%, CI 1.05, 1.08), marriage below 15 years (AHR = 5.47, 95%, CI 5.37, 5.57) and 15-17 years (AHR = 3.27, 95%, CI 3.22, 3.32), had sex below 15 years (AHR = = 1.57, 95%, CI 1.54, 1.61) and 15-17 years (AHR = 1.38, 95%, CI 1.38, 1.43), women who had unmet need for contraceptive (AHR = 1.39, 95%, CI 1.37, 1.42), and met need (AHR = 1.32, 95%, CI 1.30, 1.35), high spousal age gap (AHR = 1.17, 95%, CI 1.15, 1.19), not heard family planning message (AHR = 1.02, 95%, CI 1.01,1.04) were the higher hazard of early childbirth. CONCLUSION: The median age at first birth was found to be 19 years. This is lower than the optimal age for giving first birth, which is between late 20 s and early 30 s years. Rural residences, occupation, hearing family planning massage in the media, early sexual intercourse, early age at first marriage, high spousal gap, and unmet need for family planning were predictors of first birth at an early age. Thus, governments and non-governmental organizations should strive to implement programs that aim to reduce early age at first birth by considering these factors.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Fragilidade , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Fertilidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar
15.
Reprod Health ; 19(1): 209, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the instrumental role long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) play in reducing unintended pregnancies, there is a need to understand the factors that predict their use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries. Our study examined the prevalence and predictors of LARCs use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We pooled data from the women's files of the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from 2010 to 2020 of the top ten high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa, which are part of the DHS programme. The total sample was 5854 sexually active adolescent girls and young women aged 15-24 who were using modern contraceptives at the time of the survey. Descriptive and multilevel logistic regression models were used in the analyses. The results were presented using percentages and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: At the descriptive level, the overall prevalence of LARCs utilisation was 17.6% in the ten countries, with the lowest of 1.7% in Angola and the highest of 55.8% in Mali. Adolescent girls and young women who were married had a lower likelihood of LARCs utilisation than those who were never married [AOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.45, 0.88]. Adolescent girls and young women who wanted no more children had higher odds of LARCs use compared to those who wanted more children [AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.26]. Adolescent girls and young women with one to three births [AOR = 6.42, 95% CI = 4.27, 9.67], and those with four or more births [AOR = 7.02, 95% CI = 3.88, 12.67] were more likely to use LARCs compared to those who had no children. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa with lower probability of utilizing LARCs were Angola, Niger and Mozambique, whereas adolescent girls and young women in Mali had higher probability of utilizing LARCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that LARCs utilisation among adolescent girls and young women is low in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, it is imperative that adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa are educated on the advantages of utilising LARCs. Additionally, governments, policymakers, and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa should raise awareness by executing health promotion measures to enhance the demand for LARCs among adolescent girls and young women. Achieving these would not only prevent unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, but also help meet the United Nation's health and well being for all as enshrined in Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 5.


The use of long-acting reversible contraceptives can contribute to the reduction of unintended pregnancies. Hence, knowledge of the prevalence and predictors of long-acting reversible contraceptives use among adolescent girls and young women in high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa is important in public health. Our study examined the predictors of long-acting reversible contraceptives among adolescent girls and young women in ten high fertility countries in sub-Saharan Africa. A sample of 5854 sexually active adolescent girls and young women were included in the study.The overall prevalence of long-acting reversible contraceptives utilisation was 17.6% in the ten countries, with the lowest of 1.7% in Angola and the highest of 55.8% in Mali. Adolescent girls and young women who were married had a lower likelihood of using long-acting reversible contraceptives than those who were never married. Adolescent girls and young women who wanted no more children had higher odds of long-acting reversible contraceptive use compared to those who wanted more children. Adolescent girls and young women with one to three births, and those with four or more births were more likely to use long-acting reversible contraceptives than those who had no child. To reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancies and induced abortions, there is the need to educate adolescent girls and young women on the advantages of utilising long-acting reversible contraceptives. Additionally, governments, policymakers, and stakeholders in sub-Saharan Africa should raise awareness by executing health promotion measures to enhance the demand for long-acting reversible contraceptives among adolescent girls and young women.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Anticoncepcionais , Gravidez , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez não Planejada , Fertilidade , Mali
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36385088

RESUMO

The main issues in the problem of fertility in countries with low and middle incomes of the population are the high prevalence of complications and maternal deaths during childbirth, as well as the high incidence of such indicators of the birth of an infant with low growth and weight indicators for their gestational age, malnutrition of pregnant women and mothers, frequent abortions, short intervals between births due to the educational status of the mother and the financial wealth of households, high prevalence of teenage motherhood, low availability of cesarean section, high cost of educating children as a factor in fertility. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on fertility in low- and middle-income countries has been most pronounced due to disruptions in the health care system, a surge in domestic violence, teenage pregnancy and female genital mutilation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Países em Desenvolvimento , Lactente , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cesárea , Pandemias , Fertilidade
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19747, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396809

RESUMO

In the theory of ageing, it has been assumed that ageing is associated with a decline in somatic defences, including the immune system, as a consequence of a trade-off with reproduction. While overall immunity suffers from age-related deterioration (immune senescence), the different components of the immune response appear to age differently. It is also likely that investment among the many arms of the immune system and reproduction with age is finely adjusted to the organisms' reproductive strategy. We investigated this possibility in females of Tenebrio molitor, a species of long-lived insect with reproductive strategies similar to those of long-lived mammals. We specifically tested the effects of immunological challenges imposed early or late in adult life on immune pathway activation as well as fertility early and late in life. We found complex patterns of changes in immune defences with age and age-specific immune challenges with contrasted relationships with female reproduction. While cellular and enzymatic defences showed signs of ageing, they did not trade-off with reproduction. By contrast, the induced antibacterial immune response was found to be unaffected by age and to be highly connected to female fecundity. These findings suggest that these immunological pathways have different functions with regard to female ageing in this insect species.


Assuntos
Besouros , Tenebrio , Animais , Feminino , Tenebrio/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Mamíferos
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19745, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396856

RESUMO

Tracking and differentiating small insects at the individual levels requires appropriate marking materials because of their small size. This study proposes and investigates the use of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (FSNPs) as an internal marker owing to their good optical properties and biocompatibility. FSNPs were prepared using the water-in-oil reverse microemulsion technique with Rubpy dye as a fluorophore. The obtained particles were spherical, monodispersed in nanosize and exhibited bright orange luminescence under ultraviolet (UV) light. Internal marking was accomplished in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) through feeding. The result shows that the fruit flies exhibit bright luminescence in their abdomen when exposed to UV light. The marking persistence duration of FSNPs in the fruit fly bodies is longer than those of other fluorescent dyes. Fruit flies fed with FSNPs have a longer lifespan than those fed with Rubpy dye. There was no difference in fertility and negative geotaxis response among the treatment and control groups. These findings demonstrate that FSNPs can be used as an internal marker in fruit flies, and are possibly applied with other small insects with a translucent abdomen.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Dióxido de Silício , Animais , Sobrevivência , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Corantes Fluorescentes , Drosophila , Fertilidade
19.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol ; 20(1): 156, 2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397149

RESUMO

Reproductive aging is characterized by a decline in oocyte quantity and quality, which is directly associated with a decline in reproductive potential, as well as poorer reproductive success and obstetrical outcomes. As women delay childbearing, understanding the mechanisms of ovarian aging and follicular depletion have become increasingly more relevant. Age-related meiotic errors in oocytes are well established. In addition, it is also important to understand how intraovarian regulators change with aging and how certain treatments can mitigate the impact of aging. Individual studies have demonstrated that reproductive pathways involving antimullerian hormone (AMH), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), neurotropins, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and mitochondrial function are pivotal for healthy oocyte and cumulus cell development and are altered with increasing age. We provide a comprehensive review of these individual studies and explain how these factors change in oocytes, cumulus cells, and follicular fluid. We also summarize how modifiers of folliculogenesis, such as vitamin D, coenzyme Q, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may be used to potentially overcome age-related changes and enhance fertility outcomes of aged follicles, as evidenced by human and rodent studies.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo
20.
Cells ; 11(21)2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36359730

RESUMO

The gut microbiota (GM) is a complex and dynamic population of microorganisms living in the human gastrointestinal tract that play an important role in human health and diseases. Recent evidence suggests a strong direct or indirect correlation between GM and both male and female fertility: on the one hand, GM is involved in the regulation of sex hormone levels and in the preservation of the blood-testis barrier integrity; on the other hand, a dysbiotic GM is linked to the onset of pro-inflammatory conditions such as endometriosis or PCOS, which are often associated with infertility. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is one of the main causes of GM dysbiosis, with important consequences to the host health and potential transgenerational effects. This perspective article aims to show that the negative effects of EDCs on reproduction are in part due to a dysbiotic GM. We will highlight (i) the link between GM and male and female fertility; (ii) the mechanisms of interaction between EDCs and GM; and (iii) the importance of the maternal-fetal GM axis for offspring growth and development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Disbiose/induzido quimicamente , Fertilidade , Reprodução
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