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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(1): 51-62, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575834

RESUMO

The Trematoda are a group of phylogenetically diverse metazoan parasites that exhibit complex life cycles that often pass through invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Some trematodes influence their host's behaviour to benefit transmission. Their parasitic influence may impact host population size by inhibiting an individual's reproductive capacity. We assessed the impact of infection by Podocotyle atomon on the reproductive behaviour and fecundity of its amphipod intermediate host, Gammarus zaddachi, using laboratory and field studies. Parasite prevalence was high in the field, with males more likely to be infected (prevalence in males 64%, in females 39%). Males also suffered a higher parasite burden than females. Infected females were less active, but we found no evidence for a reduction in female reproductive success. Infected females also had comparable pairing success to uninfected females. In males, infection reduced survival and fecundity, with mortality being highest, and sperm numbers lowest, in heavily infected individuals. Trematode parasites are sometimes associated with altered host fecundity, but studies often lack the relevant experimental data to explore the evolution of the trait. We discuss this among information specific to the effect of P. atomon infection in G. zaddachi.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/fisiologia , Anfípodes/parasitologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Trematódeos/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Masculino , Reprodução
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(16): 3558-3561, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602922

RESUMO

To preliminarily investigate the effect of Tripterygium Glycosides Tablets( TGT) combined with traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) on the fertility and female menstruation on persons who have took during childhood. The children with henoch-schonlein purpura( HSP) or henoch-schonlein purpura nephritis( HSPN) who treated with TGT under 18 years old and now older than 18 years old( including 18 years old) during January 1998 to December 2010 were selected in our research. The content of follow-up visit included marriage,marriage age,fertility and child health; and unmarried female patients were asked whether they had menstrual abnormalities. The data of the unmarried female patients,including age,clinical classification,TCM syndrome type,initial dose and other related factors that may affect menstrual cycle,was analyzed by using binary logistic regression analysis. A total of 195 patients who met the criteria were followed up in this study,and 26 patients married for more than 1 year. Among the 26 married patients,1 HSP patient had no birth planning due to rheumatoid arthritis,and the remaining 25 patients all had given birth or were pregnant. The 169 unmarried patients included 89 female patients. Among the 89 female patients,4 cases refused to tell the menstrual situations,72 cases had normal menstruation( 84. 7%),13 cases had abnormal menstruation( 15. 3%),and there was no case of amenorrhea. Logistic regression analysis results showed that the age,clinical classification,TCM syndrome type and initial dose had no correlation with abnormal menstruation. Our results demonstrated that TGT has no effect on adulthood fertility among patients who took TGT combined with traditional Chinese medicine during childhood.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Púrpura de Schoenlein-Henoch/tratamento farmacológico , Tripterygium/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Comprimidos
4.
Orv Hetil ; 160(41): 1633-1638, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587576

RESUMO

Introduction: Bowel endometriosis is when endometrial-like tissue penetrates the bowel serosa, or it reaches the subserous neurovascular plexus. The effect of surgery for colorectal endometriosis on infertility and pregnancy is not fully proven. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyse the pregnancy outcome and mode of delivery of patients who underwent 'nerve sparing' anterior resection of the colon. Method: Between 2009 and 2017, we operated 121 patients with bowel endometriosis, and built up a prospective database where we assessed their wish of pregnancy, the way of the conception, pathologies during pregnancy and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis: The relationship between endometriosis and pregnancy pathologies was tested by a χ2 probe and Fisher's exact test, additionally the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. For p<0.05, the result was considered significant. Results: Out of 121 bowel endometriosis patients, 48 (39.6%) women got pregnant, 37 (30.5%) of them with in vitro fertilisation. The control group was built from patients who underwent in vitro fertilisation because of andrological factors. We found that women with endometriosis have a significantly higher risk for praeeclampsia (p = 0.023) and placenta praevia (p = 0.045) during pregnancy. Conclusions: Our study is a unique description of pregnancy outcome and mode of delivery after surgery for bowel endometriosis, which, despite the small number of cases, has yielded similar results to the previous multicentric studies. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(41): 1633-1638.


Assuntos
Endometriose/cirurgia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Int Braz J Urol ; 45(5): 1043-1054, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626524

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anacyclus Pyrethrum (AP) and Tribulus Terrestris (TT) have been reported as male infertility treatment in several studies; however, in Iranian traditional medicine these two plants are prescribed simultaneously. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of AP and TT extracts both separately and simultaneously on the male Wistar rat fertility parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 32 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control, TT, AP, and AT treated groups. Treatment continued for 25 days and rats were weighed daily. Their testes were dissected for histological studies. Sperm analysis including sperm count, viability and motility were performed. Serum was obtained to evaluate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. Histological studies were conducted to study Leydig, and Sertoli cells, spermatogonia and spermatid cell numbers, and to measure seminiferous diameter and epithelium thickness. RESULTS: Sperm count increased in all the treatment groups. Sperm viability and motility in AT and AP groups were elevated. TT and AT groups showed signifi cantly increased testosterone level compared to control group (P=004, P=0.000, respectively) and TT, AP and AT treatment groups showed increased LH level (P=0.002, P=0.03 and P=0.000, respectively) compared to control, while only AT group showed increased FSH (p=0.006) compared to control. Histological studies showed signifi cant increase of spermatogonia, Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers and epithelial thickness in AT group compared to other groups. All the treatment groups had higher number of Leydig, spermatogonia and spermatid cells. CONCLUSION: TT and AP improved sexual parameters; however, their simultaneous administration had higher improving effects on studied parameters.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium/química , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tribulus/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 163-186, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471797

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the adverse effects of global environmental change on marine mammals, particularly in terms of changes in abundance, distribution, habitat use, migratory phenology, feeding habits, risk of infectious diseases, bioaccumulation of contaminants, declines in reproductive success, and reductions in genetic diversity. These anthropogenic stressors have led to an evident conservation crisis: a quarter of the extant marine mammal species that have been assessed and now considered at risk of extinction. However, we still know very little about the subtle, subclinical effects of environmental stressors on various aspects of physiology that could impacts their survival and long-term fertility, or that could impact the performance of future generations. This chapter argues for the need of considering physiological thresholds when examining how drivers of global environmental change can impact marine mammal populations. It also poses questions regarding our understanding of individual phenotypic plasticity and resilience of species in the face of environmental stressors, particularly under abrupt and unpredictable environmental changes. Specifically, I present evidence of how drivers of environmental change can exert effects at different levels of biological organization to influence the viability of individuals and populations, and discuss which aspects of environmental change could be the most likely to shift the physiological thresholds of different marine mammal species. Finally, the chapter identifies areas of further research in marine mammal conservation physiology in the current context of global environmental change.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Reprodução , Animais , Ecossistema , Fertilidade
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1200: 507-543, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471808

RESUMO

Wildlife conservation requires varying degrees of management of endangered species as well as management of their potential predators and competitors. Conservation also depends on ameliorating human-wildlife conflict, especially where there is a threat to the safety of people and of their pets and livestock. In addition, sustainability of wildlife populations can be affected by feral domestic animals or invasive species, that require removal or control. With the increasing concern for animal welfare, non-lethal methods of limiting population size and distribution, such as fertility control, are gaining favor. Breeding programs in zoos depend on highly effective and selective contraception to manage sustainable insurance populations. This review covers fertility control methods currently in use, those that have not lived up to past promises, and others that are under development and present hope for addressing remaining challenges.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Anticoncepção/veterinária , Fertilidade , Animais , Cruzamento , Densidade Demográfica
8.
Urologiia ; (4): 74-79, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535809

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to compare the content of polyamines (spermine and spermidine) in the seminal plasma of men of different fertility and to reveal the relationship between their level in sperm and the presence of markers of apoptosis in gametes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ejaculates of 34 fertile men and 40 infertile men with various forms of subfertility between the ages of 22 and 40 were examined. The determination of polyamines was carried out by electrophoretic fractionation in an agar gel. As markers of apoptosis, externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the external side of the spermatozoon membrane was determined and the receptor for the initiation of apoptosis CD95 in the gametes was detected. RESULTS: In sperm of infertile men, more spermatozoa with markers of apoptosis were revealed in comparison with fertile donors (p0,001). Against the background of a general decrease in the concentration of polyamines in ejaculates of infertile patients, the ratio between polyamines with a predominance of sperm in the seminal fluid is observed, which is the initiating factor for the initiation of apoptosis in gametes. This was proved by the relationship between the externalization of FS in gametes and the concentration of sperm in the spermoplasm in accordance with the coefficient of positive correlation (r=0.5, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Thus, a change in the concentration of polyamines in the seminal fluid of men is one of the factors in the regulation of apoptosis of the sex cells. Determination of the content of polyamines in seminal plasma can be recommended to increase the information content of the study of the causes of impaired fertility of the ejaculate, and the results obtained for the development of the algorithm for examining infertile patients.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Adulto , Apoptose , Fertilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Sêmen , Espermatozoides , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107732, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374184

RESUMO

In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of amitraz, an octopamine receptor agonist on the reproductive system of engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus were assessed using histology, electron microscopy and octopamine beta (OCTß) receptor transcriptional expression analysis. Adult immersion test (AIT) was performed by immersing the fully engorged female ticks for 2 min in different concentrations of amitraz (200, 250, 300, 350 ppm). Amitraz at the dose of 300 ppm, caused an adult tick mortality of 16.66 ±â€¯6.80 per cent, inhibition of fecundity of 75.80 per cent and hatching of 50 per cent of ova laid by treated ticks. Histological changes in the ovaries of ticks collected after 24 h of treatment with amitraz (300 ppm), in comparison with controls (distilled water/methanol) were identified by microscopical examination of sections (4  µm) stained using haematoxylin and eosin. These changes included reduction in size and basophilia of stage I oocytes, presence of cytoplasmic vacuoles of various sizes around germinal vesicle of stage II oocytes, wavy basement membrane of stage III oocytes and reduction in size and number of mature stage IV and V oocytes. Electron microscopy was employed for understanding the structural changes in the ultrathin sections (60 nm) of ovaries. Ticks treated with amitraz showed major ultrastructural changes such as irregular nuclear membrane, crystolysis of mitochondria and detachment of external and internal layers of basal lamina of oocytes. The cDNA synthesized from the total RNA of whole ticks and ovaries of ticks treated with amitraz along with controls were used for relative quantification of Octopamine ß receptor (OCTß-R) expression based on the 2-ΔΔCT method by quantitative real time PCR (qRT PCR). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was used as endogenous control. Down regulation of expression of OCTß-R mRNA in the ovaries of amitraz treated ticks was observed compared to controls. Thus, the inhibition of fecundity observed in the ticks treated with amitraz can be attributed to the major structural changes and decreased expression of OCT ß receptor mRNA induced by it in the ovary.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Toluidinas/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Membrana Basal/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Basal/ultraestrutura , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/ultraestrutura , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/ultraestrutura , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/isolamento & purificação , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/agonistas , Receptores de Amina Biogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Rhipicephalus/anatomia & histologia , Rhipicephalus/genética , Rhipicephalus/ultraestrutura , Espectrofotometria , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Vacúolos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacúolos/ultraestrutura
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 340, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Photo-thermosensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) is a very important germplasm resource in two-line hybrid rice breeding. Although many circRNAs have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.), little is known about the biological roles of circRNAs in the fertility transition of the PTGMS rice line. RESULTS: In the present study, RNA-sequencing libraries were constructed from the young panicles of the Wuxiang S sterile line rice (WXS (S)) and its fertile line rice (WXS (F)) at three development stages with three biological replicates. A total of 9994 circRNAs were obtained in WXS rice based on high-throughput strand-specific RNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches, of which 5305 were known circRNAs and 4689 were novel in rice. And 14 of 16 randomly selected circRNAs were experimentally validated with divergent primers. Our results showed that 186 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in WXS (F) compared with WXS (S), of which 97, 87 and 60 circRNAs were differentially expressed at the pollen mother cell (PMC) formation stage (P2), the meiosis stage (P3) and the microspore formation stage (P4), respectively. Fertility specific expression patterns of eight circRNAs were analysis by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis of the parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) revealed that they mainly participated in various biological processes such as development, response to stimulation, hormonal regulation, and reproduction. Furthermore, 15 DECs were found to act as putative miRNA sponges to involved in fertility transition in PTGMS rice line. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the abundance and characteristics of circRNAs were investigated in the PTGMS rice line using bioinformatic approaches. Moreover, the expression patterns of circRNAs were different between WXS (F) and WXS (S). Our findings primarily revealed that circRNAs might be endogenous noncoding regulators of flower and pollen development, and were involved in the fertility transition in the PTGMS rice line, and guide the production and application of two-line hybrid rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , RNA/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Oryza/fisiologia , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA/fisiologia
11.
Yi Chuan ; 41(8): 703-715, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447421

RESUMO

Hybrid rice has contributed greatly to global food security. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and photo/ thermo sensitive genic male sterility (P/TGMS) are genetic bases for three-line and two-line hybrid rice production, respectively. In contrast, (sub-) specific hybrid sterility (HS) is a major barrier for utilization of hybrid vigor of distant hybrid rice. Therefore, understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of rice fertility is a key technical issue for hybrid rice industry, and a long-standing basic scientific issue for nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction and reproductive isolation. Chinese geneticists of plant sciences have made tremendous contributions on the molecular genetic basis of rice fertility related to hybrid rice production. Here, we review the development of hybrid rice production systems in China and summarize current advance on genetic basis and molecular mechanism of CMS, P/TGMS, and HS involved in hybrid rice. We also discuss problems of hybrid rice production in China and point out new direction for future utilization of heterosis in rice.


Assuntos
Hibridização Genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/fisiologia , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , China , Fertilidade/genética , Vigor Híbrido
12.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 158(3-4): 126-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416319

RESUMO

The shift in fertility to higher ages over the last few decades represents one of the most distinctive features of reproductive behaviour in Czechia. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of the process of fertility postponement in the European context and assessment of the Czech situation. While the fertility postponement is a universal trend in developed countries, significant differences are evident between European countries in terms of both the commencement and speed of postponement concerning the mean age of mothers at first birth. The article also discusses the main factors that influence the fertility postponement. While at the beginning of the 1990s Czech first-time mothers were among the youngest in the worlds developed countries, during the 1990s Czech women experienced one of the most rapid increases in the mean age of first birth. Nevertheless, in the European context Czechia continues to have slightly younger first-time mothers (28.2 years in 2016, 0.8 years younger than the EU average). It also appears that currently no direct correlation is evident with concern to the mean age of mothers at first birth and the total fertility rate.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Fertilidade , República Tcheca , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional
13.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 47(277): 14-18, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385941

RESUMO

Endometriosis affects 6%-15% of the female population of childbearing potential. Endometriosis has a wide range of symptoms. Infertility is one of the major and common consequences of endometriosis. Many treatment options are offered to the infertile patient - pharmacotherapy, dietary treatment, Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), and surgery. Medical and dietary treatment alleviate symptoms, without improvement in pregnancy rates. Limited value of surgery is sometimes advocated, suggesting only ART improve pregnancy rates. AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze the effectiveness of the surgical treatment of patients with endometriosis and infertility expressed in the number of pregnancies and the births. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The basis for the analysis was the prospectively updated database of patients with endometriosis undergoing surgical treatment, which included 768 records as of May 30, 2019. The analysis selected the period from 01/01/2013 to 31/12/2016, which treated 164 patients with endometriosis and sterility. 139 patients were qualified for the analysis. Most of the previously analyzed were treated for endometriosis and infertility (pharmacotherapy, surgery, ART-Assisted Reproductive Technology). All patients underwent standardized surgical treatment developed by the authors - radical conservative laparoscopic surgery. The analysis of pregnancies was performed for all patients jointly and according to the division according to the severity of the disease, including the methods of pregnancy (spontaneous pregnancy, ART). The analyzed group was divided according to the stage of endometriosis (IV - 40.3%, III - 21.6%, II - 26.6%, I - 11.5%), the majority being patients with symptoms of severe endometriosis (III + IV = 61.9%). Values of nominal variables were compared between groups with the chi-square test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for measurable variables. As a statistical significance threshold, p <0.05 was accepted. RESULTS: By May 2019, a total of 130 pregnancies in 101 cases were registered. There were 35 abortions, 95 live births (including 7 premature births) and 2 ongoing pregnancies. The percentage of pregnancies in the study group was 72.66%. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnancy rate of 72.66% in the whole group and 70.93% in the group of advanced endometriosis is an encouraging and indicative result of radical conservative laparoscopic surgical treatment of endometriosis in patients with infertility.


Assuntos
Endometriose , Fertilidade , Infertilidade Feminina , Laparoscopia , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
14.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 271-283, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440807

RESUMO

Environmental change can have drastic effects on natural populations. To successfully predict such effects, we need to understand how species that follow different life-history strategies respond to stressful conditions. Here I focus on two stressors, increased flight and dietary restriction, and their effects on bioenergetics and life-history. Using the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia), I subjected mated females to three treatments: (1) control conditions, (2) repeated forced flight with unlimited food, and (3) repeated forced flight coupled with food restriction. Interestingly, flight increased fecundity: females in both flight treatments initiated oviposition earlier, laid more egg clutches, and had higher total fecundity than control females. However, food-restriction by 50% reduced clutch size and resulted in an approximately 25% decrease in total fecundity compared to flown females with unlimited food. There were no differences in egg wet mass, water content or hatching success. Flown females with unlimited food appeared to exhibit a trade-off between reproduction and lifespan: they had higher mass-independent resting metabolic rate and shorter lifespan than females in the other treatments. Mass-independent flight metabolic rate, reflecting flight capacity, did not differ among the treatments. There were no differences in the rate of metabolic senescence across the treatments. The current findings suggest a mechanistic link between flight and reproduction, potentially mediated by juvenile hormone signalling. It appears that this wing-monomorphic butterfly does not show an oogenesis-flight trade-off often found in wing-dimorphic insects. Nevertheless, nectar-feeding is needed for achieving maximum reproductive output, suggesting that diminishing nectar resources may negatively impact natural populations.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Longevidade , Oviposição , Reprodução
15.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465660

RESUMO

Most of the surveyed young families, urban and rural, were generally classified as «nuclear type¼ families (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively). In general, families have few children: in cities 95.9% (69.1% of interviewed families had one child, 26.8% - had two children); in rural areas - 80.4% (families with one child - 38.2%, with two children - 42.2%). The study of the characteristics of the life of urban and rural families was carried out within the framework of two conceptual models of the quality of life - «objective¼ (housing conditions, income level) and «subjective¼ (level of psychoemotional stress, satisfaction of basic life needs and overall satisfaction with life, reproductive orientation). 30.7% of the respondents from urban families and 15.2% of respondents from rural families had unsatisfactory housing conditions. In cities, 25.9% of the interviewed families had an average per capita income below the subsistence minimum, 49.5% of the interviewed families had income from 1 to 2 the subsistence minimum. The share of rural families with an average per capita income below the subsistence minimum amounted to 41.9%, with an income of 1 to 2 the subsistence minimum - 37.8%. 16.2-22.3% of the interviewed urban families and 5.6-7.8% of the interviewed rural families are subject to psycho-emotional stress of high level. According to subjective integral assessments (satisfaction with life in general), the quality of life of the majority of young families in the Irkutsk region (in cities - 69.1% of the interviewed men and 64.2% of the interviewed women, in villages - 88.9% of the interviewed men and 72.0% of the interviewed women) is low. The material difficulties and unfavorable housing conditions, poor health and lack of good family relationships are most often mention by couples among the hindrances to the birth of the second and third child. The quality of life that meets modern social standards is the most significant factor that can positively affect the realization of the reproductive needs of young families.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Qualidade de Vida , Saúde Reprodutiva , Atitude , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , População Rural , Federação Russa , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
16.
Genet Sel Evol ; 51(1): 36, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recessive loss-of-function (LOF) alleles at genes which are essential for life, can result in early embryonic mortality. Cattle producers can use the LOF carrier status of individual animals to make selection and mate allocation decisions. METHODS: Two beef cattle breeding strategies i.e. (1) selection against LOF carriers as parents and (2) simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid the occurrence of homozygous offspring in three scenarios, which differed in number and frequency of LOF alleles were evaluated using the mate selection program, MateSel. Scenarios included (a) seven loci with high-frequency LOF alleles, (b) 76 loci with low-frequency LOF alleles, and (c) 50 loci with random high- and low-frequency LOF alleles. In addition, any savings resulting from the information obtained by varying the percentage (0-100%) of the herd genotyped, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, were calculated to determine (1) which percentage optimized net profit for a fixed cost of genotyping ($30/test), and (2) the breakeven cost for genotyping. RESULTS: With full knowledge of the LOF alleles carried by selection candidates, the most profitable breeding strategy was always simultaneous selection and mate allocation to avoid homozygous affected offspring (aa) as compared to indiscriminate selection against carrier parents (Aa). The breakeven value of genotyping depended on the number of loci modeled, the LOF allele frequencies, and the mating/selection strategies used. Genotyping was most valuable when it was used to avoid otherwise high levels of embryonic mortalities. As the number of essential loci with LOF alleles increased, especially when some were present at relatively high minor allele frequencies, embryonic losses increased, and profit was maximized by genotyping 10 to 20% of a herd and using that information to reduce these losses. CONCLUSIONS: Genotyping 100% of the herd was never the most profitable outcome in any scenario; however, genotyping some proportion of the herd, together with segregation analysis to cover ungenotyped animals, maximized overall profit in scenarios with large numbers of loci with LOF alleles. As more LOF alleles are identified, such a mate selection software will likely be required to optimally select and allocate matings to balance the rate of genetic gain, embryonic losses, and inbreeding.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Genes Recessivos , Software , Alelos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Seleção Genética
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 345, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is one of the most economically deleterious threats to laying-hen industry worldwide. Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have been widely used in control of mites in mammals, but the effects of MLs on PRMs are not well studied. The main objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effects of three MLs, i.e. eprinomectin (EPR), moxidectin (MOX) or ivermectin (IVM), on PRMs fed on chicks following oral administration. METHODS: Chicks in treatment groups were orally administrated with EPR, MOX or IVM at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg bodyweight. Chicks in the control group received the carrier solvent without drug. Chicks in each cage were then infested with 200 starved adult D. gallinae. After infestation and feeding for 12 h, engorged mites were collected to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of the MLs, and its impacts on the reproduction and blood-meal digestion of D. gallinae. RESULTS: MOX, IVM and EPR demonstrated higher acaricidal efficacies post-treatment compared with the control, i.e. 45.60% for MOX, 71.32% for IVM and 100% for EPR on Day 10. MLs did not have significant effects on the blood-meal ingestion of PRMs, but significantly slowed down blood digestion (P < 0.0001). The oviposition rate, egg hatching rate and fecundity of PRMs in treatment groups were remarkably reduced. Among the three MLs, EPR exhibited the highest performance against PRMs, with an oviposition rate of 1.04%, fecundity of 0.33 eggs per mite and a zero egg hatching rate in EPR treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: EPR, MOX or IVM administrated orally to chicks increased the mortality of D. gallinae, significantly slowed down their blood-meal digestion and significantly reduced their reproductive capability which included the oviposition rate, fecundity and egg hatching rate. The present study highlights the potential of MLs in the control of PRMs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Lactonas/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
19.
Cryo Letters ; 40(4): 231-236, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Addition of extenders to thawed semen could improve fertility. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficiency of extenders to increase viability of thawed semen, measured by sperm parameters in vitro and pregnancy rates after artificial insemination (AI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sperm motility and acrosin activity were measured during a thermoresistance test (TRT). RESULTS: Progressive motility decreased (P<0.05) after 30 min in thawing semen treated with saline solution (SS) and only after 60 min with Tyrode's solution (TS) or freezing diluent (FD). The total motility decreased (P<0.05) after 60 min in thawed semen treated with SS, and after 90 min in thawed semen containing TS or FD. The acrosin activity decreased (P<0.05) after 60 min during the TRT, but there was no difference among treatments throughout the TRT. The pregnancy rates were similar among thawed-semen supplemented with SS, TS or FD. CONCLUSION: The extenders neither improve sperm parameters nor enhance AI results.


Assuntos
Criopreservação/veterinária , Crioprotetores , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Sêmen , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial , Masculino , Gravidez , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16623, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348312

RESUMO

Different sizes of uterine septum between infertile women and patients with abortions may have a clinical relevance in reproductive performance after surgery. This study aimed to assess if the fecundity of women after surgical correction of the uterine septum is associated with septum size.A retrospective, single-center, cohort study was conducted in Peking Union Medical College Hospital using patients aged between 21 and 37 years. Hysteroscopic metroplasty was performed on 121 patients with a uterine septum. The septum size was assessed by ultrasonography and hysteroscopy. The subjects were divided into 3 groups: Group A consisted of 35 women with complete uterine septum (mean ± standard deviation (SD) age 28.29 ±â€Š3.53; group B consisted of 48 women with uterine septum >2.5 cm (mean ±â€ŠSD age 28.85 ±â€Š3.63); and group C consisted of 48 women with uterine septum ≤2.5 cm (mean ±â€ŠSD age 28.79 ±â€Š3.74). Age and body mass index (BMI) were not significantly different among the 3 groups.No serious hysteroscopic complications occurred. However, uterine septa were observed in 4 cases after surgery and 6 cases of intrauterine adhesions were observed after long-term follow-up. The abortion rate decreased, and term delivery rate increased significantly in the 3 groups after hysteroscopic metroplasty. The infertility rate was significantly lower in group C after surgery. However, no significant difference was observed in the infertility rate between groups A and B. The recurrent abortion rate was significantly lower in group A than in groups B and C before surgery. After surgery, the infertility rate was significantly higher in group A than in group B (28.57% and 10.53%, respectively; P = .048). After at least 12-months of follow-up, the pregnancy rate in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (71.43% and 89.47%, respectively; P = .048).Uterine septum resection improves obstetrical outcomes. After surgery, the infertility rate was significantly higher in patients with complete uterine septum than in those with a large partial uterine septum, and the pregnancy rate in patients with complete uterine septum was lower than that in the patients with a small partial uterine septum.


Assuntos
Fertilidade , Histeroscopia/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/cirurgia , Doenças Uterinas/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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