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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104682, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980072

RESUMO

To evaluate whether the development of ß-cypermethrin resistance in Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattaria: Blattellidae) affects the fecundity fitness of this insect and to determine the underlying mechanism, we compared fecundity differences between ß-cypermethrin-resistant (R) and sensitive (S) strains of B. germanica, observed the physiological structural changes of ovaries from an visual perspective, and analyzed differences in the ovarian proteome using proteomic methods. The results showed that, compared with the S strain of B. germanica, the R strain of B. germanica had a significantly higher ootheca shedding rate, a significantly lower number of hatched and surviving nymphs, a significantly higher female proportion in the population and defective ovarian development. Ovarian proteomic analysis showed a total of 64 differentially expressed proteins in the R strain, including 18 upregulated proteins and 46 downregulated proteins. Twenty-four significantly differentially expressed proteins were further studied, and 14 were successfully identified, which were mainly classified into the following categories: immunity-related proteins, development-related proteins, structural proteins, energy metabolism-related proteins and proteins with unknown functions. The differential expression of these proteins reflects the overall changes in cell structure and metabolism associated with ß-cypermethrin resistance and explains the possible molecular mechanism of fecundity fitness disadvantages. In summary, ß-cypermethrin resistance can cause fecundity fitness disadvantages in B. germanica. The metabolic deviations needed to overcome the adverse effects of insecticides may result in an energy exchange that affects energy allocation and, ultimately, the basic needs of the insect. The fitness cost due to insecticide resistance is critical to the delay of the evolution of resistance.


Assuntos
Blattellidae/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Proteoma , Proteômica , Piretrinas
2.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 169: 104668, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828374

RESUMO

Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, is an important pest of crucifers worldwide. The extensive use of flubendiamide has led to the development of resistance in field populations and reports of control failures. In this study, the lab-selected (Rf) and field-collected (Rb) flubendiamide-resistant strains of P. xylostella with LC50 resistance ratios of 1890-fold and 1251-fold, respectively, were used, as well as a lab-reared flubendiamide-susceptible strain (S). The results showed that the fecundity of the Rf and Rb-resistant strains was significantly lower than that of S strain. The contents of vitellin and transcripts of P. xylostella vitellogenin (PxVg) and P. xylostella vitellogenin receptor (PxVgR) genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than those of S strains at 0-48 h after adult eclosion. At 96 h after eclosion, the content of vitellin in the Rf and Rb strains did not differ significantly from those of S strains, whereas transcripts of the PxVg and PxVgR genes in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly lower than that of the S strain. The content of the juvenile hormone III (JH III), ß-ecdysone (20E), and the gene expression level of P. xylostella methoprene tolerant (PxMet) in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain. The activity of trehalase was significantly higher in the Rf and Rb strains than that of the S strain in the first to the third instar larvae, whereas in the fourth instar larvae, there was no significantly difference in the three strains. At different times after adult eclosion, the differences in trehalase activity were erratic between the strains. The transcripts of P. xylostella trehalase (PxTre) gene in the Rf and Rb strains were significantly higher than that of the S strain in most developmental stages. Here, we report differences in fecundity between flubendiamide-resistant and susceptible strains of P. xylostella and discuss gene expression of several reproductive factors, which provides a possible explanation for the mechanism of fecundity reduction concurrent with flubendiamide-resistance in P. xylostella.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/farmacologia , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Benzamidas , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfonas
3.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615454

RESUMO

Due to its unique properties, graphene oxide (GO) has potential for biomedical and electronic applications, however environmental contamination including aquatic ecosystem is inevitable. Moreover, potential risks of GO in aquatic life are inadequately explored. Present study was designed to evaluate GO as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) using the model Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). GO was injected intraperitoneally (25-200 µg/g) once to breeding pairs and continued pair breeding an additional 21 days. Eggs laid were analyzed for fecundity and the fertilized eggs were evaluated for developmental abnormalities including hatching. Histopathological evaluation of gonads, liver, and kidneys was made 21 days post-injection. LD50 was found to be sex-dependent. Fecundity tended to reduce in a dose-dependent manner during early post-injection days; however, the overall evaluation showed no significant difference. The hatchability of embryos was reduced significantly in the 200 µg/g group; edema (yolk and cardiovascular) and embryo-mortality remained unaltered. Histopathological assessment identified black particles, probably agglomerated GO, in the gonads of GO-treated fish. However, folliculogenesis in stromal compartments of ovary and the composition of germinal elements in testis remained almost unaltered. Moreover, granulosa and Leydig cells morphology did not indicate any significant EDC-related effects. Although liver and kidney histopathology did not show GO as an EDC, some GO-treated fish accumulated proteinaceous fluid in hepatic vessels and induced hyperplasia in interstitial lymphoid cells (HIL) located in kidneys. GO agglomerated in medaka gonads after 21-days post-injection. However, gonad histopathology including granulosa and Leydig cells alterations were associated with GO toxicity rather than EDC effects.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2143-2158, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640903

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ERα (estrogen receptor alpha) exerts nuclear genomic actions and also rapid membrane-initiated steroid signaling. The mutation of the cysteine 451 into alanine in vivo has recently revealed the key role of this ERα palmitoylation site on some vasculoprotective actions of 17ß-estradiol (E2) and fertility. Here, we studied the in vivo role of the arginine 260 of ERα which has also been described to be involved in its E2-induced rapid signaling with PI-3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) as well as G protein in cultured cell lines. Approach and Results: We generated a mouse model harboring a point mutation of the murine counterpart of this arginine into alanine (R264A-ERα). In contrast to the C451A-ERα, the R264A-ERα females are fertile with standard hormonal serum levels and normal control of hypothalamus-pituitary ovarian axis. Although R264A-ERα protein abundance was normal, the well-described membrane ERα-dependent actions of estradiol, such as the rapid dilation of mesenteric arteries and the acceleration of endothelial repair of carotid, were abrogated in R264A-ERα mice. In striking contrast, E2-regulated gene expression was highly preserved in the uterus and the aorta, revealing intact nuclear/genomic actions in response to E2. Consistently, 2 recognized nuclear ERα-dependent actions of E2, namely atheroma prevention and flow-mediated arterial remodeling were totally preserved. CONCLUSIONS: These data underline the exquisite role of arginine 264 of ERα for endothelial membrane-initiated steroid signaling effects of E2 but not for nuclear/genomic actions. This provides the first model of fertile mouse with no overt endocrine abnormalities with specific loss-of-function of rapid ERα signaling in vascular functions.


Assuntos
Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Estradiol/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/agonistas , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Artérias Mesentéricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação Puntual , Animais , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Lesões das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio Vascular/lesões , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Ativação Enzimática , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Ciclo Estral/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/fisiopatologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ovariectomia , Reepitelização/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Útero/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
J Am Mosq Control Assoc ; 36(1): 11-15, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497477

RESUMO

Aedes albopictus is a vector of several arboviruses; however, control of this day-active species is difficult with ultra-low-volume insecticide treatments applied at dusk/dawn periods. In the current laboratory study, blood-fed Ae. albopictus were exposed to Archer® (insect growth regulator AI: pyriproxyfen) residue in glass bottles (to approximate barrier treatment) and allowed to oviposit. Control mosquitoes were exposed to clean bottles. To evaluate potential dilution effects of water volume, mosquitoes were allowed to oviposit in (relatively) small (59 ml water) or large (177 ml water) containers. The extent to which fecundity (number of eggs laid), fertility rate (number of larvae hatched/number of eggs laid × 100), and emergence rate (number of adults emerged/number of larvae hatched × 100) differed between groups was characterized. In the control group, 18-21 (82-95%) mosquitoes laid eggs, while only 10-11 (45-50%) of mosquitoes in the pyriproxyfen group laid eggs. These sample sizes should be considered when comparing results to other studies. Significantly lower (P = 0.0008) fecundity was observed in mosquitoes exposed to pyriproxyfen (mean ± SE) (small container: 25.2 ± 7.1, large container: 24.3 ± 7.1) compared to control mosquitoes (small container: 49.2 ± 7.8, large container: 52.7 ± 5.2). Regardless of treatment, no significant differences in fecundity were observed between mosquitoes allowed to oviposit in different-sized containers. Hatch rate was significantly lower in the pyriproxyfen group and was impacted by container size (P = 0.032) and treatment (P < 0.0001) (large, control: 61.9% ± 7.8; small, control: 38.0% ± 7.1; large, treated: 10.3% ± 2.4; small, treated: 2.9% ± 1.9). Adult emergence rates were not significantly impacted by treatment or container size. Pyriproxyfen applied as a barrier treatment may be an effective tool for controlling Ae. albopictus.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Juvenis/farmacologia , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aedes/fisiologia , Animais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/fisiologia
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110786, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526589

RESUMO

Modeling exposure and recovery of fish and wildlife populations after stressor mitigation serves as a basis for evaluating remediation success. Herein, we develop a novel multidimensional density dependent matrix population model that analyzes both size-structure and age class-structure simultaneously. This modeling approach emphasizes application in conjunction with field monitoring efforts (e.g., through effects-based monitoring programs) and/or laboratory analysis to link effects due to stressors to outcomes in populations. We applied the model to investigate Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin with effects on fertility and survival rates. The Atlantic killifish is an important and well-studied model organism for understanding the effects of pollutants and other stressors in estuarine and marine ecosystems. For each exposure concentration, the corresponding plots of total population size, population size structure, and age structure over time were generated. The present study serves as an example of how a multidimensional matrix population model can integrate effects across the life cycle, provide a linkage between endpoints observed in the individual and ecological risk to the population as a whole, and project outcomes for multiple generations.


Assuntos
Fundulidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Biológicos , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinâmica Populacional , Medição de Risco
7.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 21(13): 1591-1602, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521172

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronically progressive disease of the central nervous system. The relapsing form of the disease predominantly affects women with onset between the ages 20 to 40 years. Therefore, timing, choice, and treatment options should take pregnancy planning into consideration to accommodate both the needs and safety of the mother and health of the fetus. AREAS COVERED: In this review, the authors discuss and summarize the recent evidence of different pharmacotherapeutic possibilities in the treatment of women with MS. EXPERT OPINION: There is evidence that disease modifying therapy reduces the risk of relapses and diminishes disability progression in people with relapsing MS. The disease is often diagnosed in the childbearing years, and thus pregnancy planning can possibly be a part of the pharmacotherapeutic considerations. The management of women planning pregnancy requires a balancing of risks. The clinician must consider the risks related to treatment discontinuation versus the risk of exposing the developing fetus to drugs that are potential fetotoxic. Randomized controlled trials of medication safety - if used during pregnancy, are prohibited for ethical reasons; hence, the evidence is continuously gathered from observational data, post-authorization studies and pregnancy registries.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/imunologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to improved treatment, there is an increasing focus on the reproductive potential of survivors of childhood cancer. Cytotoxic chemotherapy accelerates the decline in the number of primordial follicles within the mammalian ovary at all ages, but effects on the developmental potential of remaining oocytes following prepubertal cancer treatment are unclear. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether cyclophosphamide (CY) exposure in the prepubertal period in female mice influences ovarian function and the functional competence of oocytes in adulthood. METHODS: This study used Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. Female mice were treated with 200 mg/kg CY on either postnatal day 14 (CY14), 21 (CY21) or 28 (CY28) i.e at a prepubertal and 2 young postpubertal ages. At 14 weeks of life, ovarian function, functional competence of oocytes, and embryo quality were assessed. RESULTS: The number of primordial follicles decreased significantly in CY14 and CY21 groups compared to control (p < 0.01). The number of oocytes from superovulated was 8.5 ± 1.4, 24.1 ± 2.9 and 26.8 ± 2.1 in CY14, CY21 and CY28 respectively which was significantly lower than control (50.2 ± 3.2; p < 0.001). In vitro culture of CY14 embryos demonstrated only 55.4% blastocyst formation (p < 0.0001) and reduced ability of inner cell mass (ICM) to proliferate in vitro (p < 0.05) at 120 and 216 h post insemination respectively. On the other hand, ICM proliferation was unaltered in 2 young postpubertal ages. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate long-term effects on the developmental competence of oocytes exposed to CY in early but not adult life. These data provide a mechanism whereby long-term fertility can be impaired after chemotherapy exposure, despite the continuing presence of follicles within the ovary, and support the need for fertility preservation in prepubertal girls before alkylating agent exposure.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Blastocisto/citologia , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Embrião de Mamíferos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Camundongos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/fisiologia , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/citologia , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 151: 102981, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485429

RESUMO

The topic of fertility preservation in patients with a lymphoproliferative disease offers new aspects of debate, due to the introduction of novel chemotherapeutic regimens and small molecules in the clinical landscape. Cancer related infertility is mostly dependent on gonadotoxic treatments and fertile female patients are today addressed to the oocyte cryopreservation or to ovarian cortex fragment cryopreservation. These methods present advantages and disadvantages, which will be discussed in the present review, together with the options for male patients. The recent discovery of functional ovarian stem cells (OCSs) in woman ovarian cortex, opens new avenues offering a innovative procedure for fertility preservation through as model of regenerative medicine. Here, we review the gonadotoxic potential of "classical" chemotherapeutic treatments as well as of "novel" targeted therapies actually employed for lymphoproliferative neoplasms in young patients and revisit both the today available and future chances to preserve and restore fertility after the cancer healing.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Criopreservação , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos Linfoproliferativos/patologia , Masculino , Oócitos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407420

RESUMO

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/genética , Receptores de Adipocina/metabolismo , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127001, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447106

RESUMO

N, N-Dimethylacetamide is an FDA approved solvent widely used in pharmaceutical industry to facilitate the solubility of lipophilic, high molecular weight drugs with poor water solubility. However, the cytotoxic effects of DMA raises the concern about its use in clinical applications. In the present study, we address the effect of DMA on spermatogenesis. Male Sprague Dawley rats were injected intra-peritoneally for 8 weeks, once a week at a dose of 862 mg/kg. Analysis of reproductive parameters revealed that DMA treated animals exhibit spermatid formation defects within the testis describing the characteristics of oligozoospermia. A subsequent decrease in epididymal sperm concentration along with distortion of sperm morphology was observed. The mitochondrial and microtubule organization in the sperm is considerably modified by DMA. This disrupts the sperm kinetics thus decreasing the total and progressive sperm motility. Finally, DMA treatment resulted in loss of fertility. Our results indicate that exposure to DMA has a negative impact on spermatogenesis and leads to infertility in male rats by inhibiting the post meiotic stages of sperm development. Therefore, the use of DMA in humans must be closely monitored.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Excipientes/toxicidade , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Infertilidade , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodução , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407334

RESUMO

Sulfoxaflor, the first commercially available sulfoximine insecticide, has been used for the control of sap-feeding insect pests such as plant bugs and aphids on a variety of crops. However, its sublethal effects on the mirid bug Apolygus lucorum, one of the key insect pests of Bt cotton and fruit trees in China, have not been fully examined. Here, we evaluated the demography and feeding behaviour of A. lucorum exposed to sulfoxaflor. The leaf-dipping bioassay showed that the LC10 and LC30 of sulfoxaflor against 3rd-instar nymphs of this insect were 1.23 and 8.37 mg L-1, respectively. The LC10 significantly extended the nymphal duration and decreased the oviposition period by 5.29 days and female fecundity by 56.99% in the parent generation (F0). The longer duration of egg, 5th-instar nymphs, preadult, and male adult longevity were observed in the F1 generation (F1) at LC10. At the LC30, the duration of egg and 1st-instar nymph, female adult longevity, and oviposition period of the F1 were significantly shorter, while the nymphal duration in the F0 and duration of 5th-instar nymphs, preadult survival rate, and male adult longevity in the F1 significantly increased. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) in the F1 were not significantly affected by these two concentrations, whereas the mean generation time (T) was lower at the LC30. Additionally, the probe counts and cells mixture feeding time were markedly lengthened by the LC10 and LC30, respectively, when A. lucorum nymphs exposed to sulfoxaflor fed on Bt cotton plants without insecticides. These results clearly indicate that sulfoxaflor causes sublethal effects on A. lucorum and the transgenerational effects depend on the tested concentrations.


Assuntos
Heterópteros/patogenicidade , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle de Pragas , Piridinas/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia , Animais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/parasitologia , Gossypium/parasitologia , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/patogenicidade , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Árvores/parasitologia
13.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378301

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the Salvia officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on fertility capacity and behavioral features in rats exposed to immobilization stress. Male rats were randomly divided into five groups; Control; Stressed rats; and Stressed rats received 50, 100 and/or 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis hydroalcoholic extract. To induce stress, rats were immobilized for 49 days and received S. officinalis extract orally. On day 56, we analyzed behavioral tests and evaluated reproduction capacity by measuring LH, FSH, and testosterone. Sperm parameters such as motility, viability, and total count were also determined. Bodyweight changes were also calculated on day 56. Male rats from different groups were mated with healthy female rats. Data showed that the use of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract in stressed rats increased bodyweight gain and improved behavioral disorders compared to control-matched groups (p < .05). Besides, administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg bw S. officinalis extract had the potential to improve sperm parameters and fertility capacity in stressed rats (p < .05). Decreased testosterone levels were blunted in the stressed rats that received plant extract coincided with the reduction of LH and FSH compared to control-matched stressed rats (p < .05). We found neutral effects in stressed rats that received 50 mg/kg bw plant extract. Collectively, the hydroalcoholic extract of S. officinalis could improve the fertility capacity and behavioral features under stressful conditions in a dose-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Restrição Física/efeitos adversos , Salvia officinalis/química , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos Wistar , Estimulação Química
14.
Chemosphere ; 255: 126778, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388266

RESUMO

The predatory bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) is currently one of the most important beneficial arthropods in Northeast Asia and used as a biological control agent of several small pest arthropods including Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande). Two neonicotinoid chemical insecticides, acetamiprid and imidacloprid, mainly used in China as chemical control on F. occidentalis, although applied at sublethal concentrations in the field or greenhouse to protect beneficial arthropods, still may affect the predator O. sauteri. The objective of present work is to assess the long-term effects of 24-h exposure time to these two insecticides on the life-cycle of O. sauteri at application rates similar to the laboratory 24-h LC10, LC20 and LC30 of O. sauteri. Results showed that acetamiprid and imidacloprid at all tested concentrations significantly decreased the fecundity of O. sauteri females, while the effect of acetamiprid was higher than that of imidacloprid. Moreover, the oviposition period and longevity of O. sauteri to both insecticides shortened. The sublethal effects on the first progeny (F1 generation) were also found to increase nymphal mortality, shorten adult longevity and reduce fecundity. However, all treatments of acetamiprid and imidacloprid at the concentration of LC10, LC20 and LC30 caused no significant effect on the developmental time of different nymphal stages and sex ratio of the F1 generation. This paper is the first one that assesses the compatibility between neonicotinoid insecticides and O. sauteri, and shows that the application of acetamiprid and imidacloprid likely interferes with the population dynamic of O. sauteri.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Animais , China , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110512, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244115

RESUMO

Although there are numerous studies on bisphenol A (BPA) on the testis and spermatozoa, the effect of BPA on the physiological link between the testis and maturation of spermatozoa has not been studied. To provide an optimal environment (acidic pH) for sperm maturation in the epididymis, clear cells secrete protons and principal cells reabsorb bicarbonate and the secreted proton. Because of its crucial role in sperm maturation and fertility, functional changes in the epididymis following BPA exposure must be considered to fully understand the mechanisms of BPA on male fertility. Here, we identified the adverse effects of BPA exposure during puberty in male mice. CD-1 male mice were gavaged daily with vehicle (corn oil) and 50 mg BPA/kg-BW for 6 weeks. We determined the changes in epididymis, functional sperm parameters including motility, capacitation status, tyrosine phosphorylation, and fertility-related protein expression and in vitro and in vivo fertility rate following BPA exposure. Expression of vacuolar-type H + -ATPase is necessary for the secretion of protons by clear cells of the caput epididymis and was directly down-regulated following BPA exposure, while there were no changes in the other epithelial cell types in the epididymis. Also, pERK 1/2 signaling pathway was increased significantly in the caput epididymis following BPA exposure. Consequently, the luminal pH slightly increased, resulting in premature capacitation of spermatozoa. Moreover, there was a significant loss of the acrosomal membrane following an increase of protein tyrosine phosphorylation, while PKA activity decreased during sperm capacitation. Fertility-related proteins also showed aberrant expression upon BPA exposure. These modifications resulted in decreased male fertility in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Maturação do Esperma/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fosforilação , Transdução de Sinais , Capacitação Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(3): e0008220, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226018

RESUMO

Human clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is endemic in East Asian countries. C. sinensis metacercariae excyst in the duodenum of mammalian hosts, migrate to the intrahepatic bile duct, and mature into adults in the milieu of bile. We have previously shown that newly excysted juvenile C. sinensis move chemotactically toward bile and bile acids. Here, the chemotactic behavior of adult C. sinensis (CsAd) toward bile and bile acids was investigated. CsAds moved toward 0.05-5% bile and were most attracted to 0.5% bile but moved away from 10% bile. Upon exposure to 1-10% bile, CsAds eventually stopped moving and then died quickly. Among bile acids, CsAds showed strong chemotaxis toward cholic acid (CA) and deoxycholic acid. On the contrary, CsAds repelled from lithocholic acid (LCA). Moreover, at higher than 10 mM LCA, CsAds became sluggish and eventually died. Dopamine D1 receptor antagonists (LE-300 and SKF-83566), D2/3 receptor antagonists (raclopride and its derivative CS-49612), and a dopamine re-uptake inhibitor inhibited CA-induced chemotaxis of CsAds almost completely. Clinically used antipsychotic drugs, namely chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and clozapine, are dopaminergic antagonists and are secreted into bile. They completely inhibited chemotaxis of CsAds toward CA. At the maximum doses used to treat patients, the three tested medicines only expelled 2-12% of CsAds from the experimentally infected rabbits, but reduced egg production by 64-79%. Thus, antipsychotic medicines with dopaminergic antagonism could be considered as new anthelmintic candidates for human C. sinensis infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Quimiotaxia/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonorchis sinensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Clonorchis sinensis/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Bile/metabolismo , Fatores Quimiotáticos/metabolismo , Ácido Cólico/metabolismo , Clonorquíase/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácido Litocólico/metabolismo , Coelhos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 197: 110622, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32311616

RESUMO

Sperm morphology and performance traits are key determinants of male fertilization success, particularly when females copulate with multiple males. Such sperm traits have been reported to be influenced by environmental pollutants in various animals; however, such studies remain rare in free-living birds exposed to heavy metal pollution. In the present study, we selected tree sparrow (Passer montanus) as the study object to explore the effect of long-term environmental heavy metal pollution on sperm morphology (assessed mainly by using the dimensions of different sperm components and the sperm abnormality rates) and sperm performance (indicated by sperm velocity), and to elucidate potential relationships between variations in sperm morphology and performance. Sperm ATP concentration was also assessed considering sperm morphology and performance could be linked via energy availability. According to our results, tree sparrows from heavy metal polluted area (1) accumulated cadmium at a higher level in their testes; (2) produced longer sperm with lower abnormality rates, in addition to sperm with longer flagella and smaller head/flagellum ratios; (3) their sperm swam faster compared to those from the relatively unpolluted area, while no differences were observed in sperm ATP concentrations. We also found that the levels of lead and cadmium in testes affected the sperm nucleus length, and the level of copper in testes was negatively related to the proportions of abnormal sperm. Furthermore, the present study showed that sperm velocity was negatively correlated with sperm head lengths, head/flagellum ratios and ATP concentrations. Our study results reveal that sperm morphology and performance in tree sparrows show positive variations to maximize male fertility ability under long-term environmental heavy metal pollution, where males increase sperm flagellum lengths to decrease head/flagellum ratios, as opposed to varying sperm energy production, to achieve higher sperm velocity.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Pardais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cádmio/toxicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/patologia
19.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(4): 558-565, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238200

RESUMO

Plant-derived compounds can be an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticide use for pest management. Essential oils (EOs) in several plant families have been found to be toxic to various pest species of insects through topical application, ingestion, and as fumigants. Previous studies revealed that, among various environmentally friendly insecticides, the EOs of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Pinus elliottii and an ethanol extract of Solanum granulosoleprosum plus Ricinus communis, were toxic to Ceratitis capitata and Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) when applied topically to pupae or when ingested by adults. Here, we aimed to examine the potentially toxic effects of these plant-derived compounds when these two pestiferous fruit fly species were exposed to their vapors. We also examined their fumigant effect on female fecundity and fertility and compared it with water and ethanol controls. Exposure of C. capitata and A. fraterculus sexually mature adults to volatiles and vapors of both B. dracunculifolia and P. elliottii EOs resulted in lower longevity (half-life), survivorship, and female fecundity than the water vapor control. Toxicity of C. capitata was greater for P. elliottii than for B. dracunculifolia while the reverse was true for A. fraterculus. Exposure to vapors of S. granulosoleprosum + R. communis (S + R) had no effect on longevity but reduced survivorship of adults of both species. Interestingly, exposure to vapors of S + R, 50% (v/v) and pure ethanol resulted in greater fecundity of females of both frugivorous fly species than the water control. By contrast, fertility (% egg hatch) was in all cases high (>85%) and not different than the water control. Exposure to ethanol vapors appears to have similar effects on frugivorous tephritids as those reported on saprophagous and frugivorous species of Drosophila, a novel finding that may have important practical implications.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tephritidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Baccharis/química , Ceratitis capitata/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/farmacologia , Fumigação , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Pinus/química , Ricinus/química , Solanum/química
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330838

RESUMO

Although exogenous melatonin can enhance the drought tolerance of plants, reports on the role of melatonin in drought tolerance in male reproductive organs are limited. To explore this, a pot experiment was conducted with cotton cultivar Yuzaomian 9110 to study the effects of exogenous melatonin (100, 200, and 1000 µM) on male fertility and related carbohydrate metabolism in anther under drought. Results showed that drought inhibited the translocation of carbon assimilates to anthers, however, melatonin application (100 and 200 µM) significantly improved the translocation of carbon assimilates to drought-stressed anthers. Drought reduced the deposition of starch, the hydrolysis of sucrose into hexoses, the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in anthers, restricting pollen viability and germination. Nevertheless, the appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) increased the starch accumulation by enhancing ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and soluble starch synthases activities and accelerated the hydrolysis of sucrose by increasing sucrose synthase, acid and alkaline invertases activities in drought-stressed anthers. Appropriate melatonin concentrations (100 and 200 µM) also could help to generate more ATP for reproductive activities of drought-stressed anthers, finally increasing the pollen viability and germination of drought-stressed plants. These findings suggest that drought inhibited male fertility of cotton, but a precise melatonin application could regulate the carbohydrate balance of drought-stressed anthers to improve male fertility. This is the first report demonstrating the important role of exogenous melatonin in improving male fertility under drought conditions by regulating the carbohydrate metabolism in the male part of cotton.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Secas , Gossypium , Melatonina , Pólen , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gossypium/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pólen/efeitos dos fármacos
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