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1.
J Insect Sci ; 20(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32104893

RESUMO

Different densities prerelease packing and times of lethargy in the fruit fly parasitoids Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) were evaluated in order to standardize the process of chilled insect technique for this species. Adults were kept at densities of 0.048, 0.072, 0.096, 0.120, and 0.144 parasitoids/cm2 before release in a México tower, where thermal lethargy was induced at a temperature of 2 ± 2°C for 45 min. Samples of parasitoids were collected to evaluate mortality, survival, fecundity, and flight capacity. All densities showed a similar mortality, both for males (ca. >10%) and females (ca. <7). There was no effect of density on survival and flight capacity in both sexes. On the other hand, fecundity increased with density, 1.66 sons/♀/day, similar to the control. We conclude that a density of 30,000 pupae per cage (0.144 parasitoids/cm2) is adequate for the massive prerelease packaging of the parasitoid D. longicaudata. Regarding the thermal lethargy period, 180 min under 2 ± 2°C conditions, considered as time for management, does not affect the survival, fecundity, and flight capacity of adults. The results obtained are of great utility to establish prerelease packaging parameters for D. longicaudata used in the biological control of Tephritidae fruit fly populations.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Masculino , Tephritidae/parasitologia
2.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(3): 531-542, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236627

RESUMO

Human bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are a subfamily of 25 G protein-coupled receptors that mediate bitter taste perception. TAS2R14 is the most broadly tuned bitter taste receptor, recognizing a range of chemically diverse agonists with micromolar-range potency. The receptor is expressed in several extra-oral tissues and is suggested to have physiological roles related to innate immune responses, male fertility, and cancer. Higher potency ligands are needed to investigate TAS2R14 function and to modulate it for future clinical applications. Here, a structure-based modeling approach is described for the design of TAS2R14 agonists beginning from flufenamic acid, an approved non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesic that activates TAS2R14 at sub-micromolar concentrations. Structure-based molecular modeling was integrated with experimental data to design new TAS2R14 agonists. Subsequent chemical synthesis and in vitro profiling resulted in new TAS2R14 agonists with improved potency compared to the lead. The integrated approach provides a validated and refined structural model of ligand-TAS2R14 interactions and a general framework for structure-based discovery in the absence of closely related experimental structures.


Assuntos
Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/agonistas , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Ligantes , Modelos Moleculares , Neoplasias/metabolismo
3.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 103(3): e21614, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498475

RESUMO

Histone acetylation is an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanism of eukaryotic gene regulation which is tightly controlled by the opposing activities of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). In insects, life-history traits such as longevity and fecundity are severely affected by the suppression of HAT/HDAC activity, which can be achieved by RNA-mediated gene silencing or the application of chemical inhibitors. We used both experimental approaches to investigate the effect of HAT/HDAC inhibition in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) a model insect often used to study complex life-history traits. The silencing of HAT genes (kat6b, kat7, and kat14) promoted survival or increased the number of offspring, whereas targeting rpd3 (HDAC) reduced the number of viviparous offspring but increased the number of premature nymphs, suggesting a role in embryogenesis and eclosion. Specific chemical inhibitors of HATs/HDACs showed a remarkably severe impact on life-history traits, reducing survival, delaying development, and limiting the number of offspring. The selective inhibition of HATs and HDACs also had opposing effects on aphid body weight. The suppression of HAT/HDAC activity in aphids by RNA interference or chemical inhibition revealed similarities and differences compared to the reported role of these enzymes in other insects. Our data suggest that gene expression in A. pisum is regulated by multiple HATs/HDACs, as indicated by the fitness costs triggered by inhibitors that suppress several of these enzymes simultaneously. Targeting multiple HATs or HDACs with combined effects on gene regulation could, therefore, be a promising approach to discover novel targets for the management of aphid pests.


Assuntos
Afídeos/enzimologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Histonas/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Afídeos/metabolismo , Afídeos/fisiologia , Histona Acetiltransferases/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Longevidade , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(1): 21-29, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853815

RESUMO

Female Helicoverpa armigera emit a pheromone, comprised of a 98:2 ratio of (Z)-11-hexadecenal to (Z)-9-hexadecenal, to attract males. It has been proposed that "immature" female H. armigera modulate attraction of males by emitting an antagonist, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, along with pheromone during the first two nights of calling. However, it is unclear why females would call and simultaneously release pheromone and an antagonist. We conducted observations of female calling during the first five nights after adult emergence to determine periodicity. We also measured the relative abundance of (Z)-11-hexadecenol to the major component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, on the surface of the gland of calling females and compared it to the ratio of these two compounds inside the gland over the first three nights after adult emergence to determine how much antagonist may be released. We found that young females (< 1-d-old) are unlikely to call and, based on the relative proportion of (Z)-11-hexadecenol on the gland surface, even if they did call would be unlikely to release sufficient (Z)-11-hexadecenol to diminish male attraction.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Atrativos Sexuais/química , Aldeídos/análise , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Feminino , Masculino , Atrativos Sexuais/análise , Atrativos Sexuais/farmacologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo
5.
Theriogenology ; 141: 161-167, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542519

RESUMO

To test our hypothesis that antisperm antibodies (ASA) might alter sperm phenotypic attributes thus leading to sub-fertility/infertility in bulls, ASA were generated in crossbred male calves by immunizing with sperm two times. Cryopreserved spermatozoa from crossbred bulls (n = 24) with different field fertility ratings were incubated with ASA and different patterns of ASA immunolocalization were studied. In addition, sperm membrane integrity, acrosomal integrity and cryo-capacitation status were also assessed. Immunolocalization of sperm antigens using antisperm antibody revealed three major patterns (Acrosomal-AR, apical-AP and, acrosome and tail-AT). The proportion of ASA reactive spermatozoa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in low- and medium-fertile bulls compared to high-fertile bulls. Among the three patterns, the proportion of spermatozoa with AR pattern was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in low- and medium-fertile bulls compared to high-fertile bulls. The proportion of membrane and acrosome intact spermatozoa was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in high-fertile bulls compared to medium- and low-fertile bulls. There were no significant differences in the proportion of cryo-capacitated spermatozoa among high-, medium- and low-fertile bulls. The relationship between ASA reactive spermatozoa and conception rates (CR) of bulls was highly (P < 0.01) significant and negative. Similarly, AR and AT pattern were also significantly (P < 0.01) and negatively related to CR of bulls. The reactivity of spermatozoa with ASA was also significantly (P < 0.01) and negatively related to the membrane and acrosome integrity of spermatozoa. It was concluded that the proportion of spermatozoa responding to ASA was higher in low-compared to high-fertile bulls and ASA localization in sperm acrosomal area was negatively related to sperm membrane and acrosomal integrity and bull fertility.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/fisiologia , Especificidade de Anticorpos/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos/fisiologia , Bovinos/imunologia , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen
6.
Clín. investig. ginecol. obstet. (Ed. impr.) ; 46(4): 143-147, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184301

RESUMO

Introducción: La fertilidad y la virilidad suelen relacionarse socialmente con el concepto de masculinidad; esto genera cierto grado de incertidumbre debido a que podría conllevar una serie de procesos emocionales al relacionar los conceptos anteriores con la palabra infertilidad. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente trabajo fue relacionar las respuestas sobre las percepciones de la calidad seminal con algunos conceptos relacionados con la masculinidad. Materiales y métodos: Se llevó a cabo una encuesta virtual anónima a 500 hombres en la cual se realizaron preguntas con relación a la percepción de algunas variables sobre la calidad seminal. Resultados: Respecto a la pregunta ¿para usted qué significa tener un conteo alto de espermatozoides?, en hombres con y sin pareja la respuesta más frecuente fue buena capacidad para fecundar, siendo mayor en hombres con pareja (p = 0,013); en contraste, la segunda respuesta más frecuente (buena salud) fue más alta en el grupo que no tenía pareja (p = 0,028), mientras que la mayoría de los participantes respondieron que no sentirían nada (58,8% sin pareja y 64,5% con pareja) frente a las preguntas ¿qué sentiría si tiene un conteo bajo de espermatozoides? y ¿qué sentiría si no tiene ningún espermatozoide?, respectivamente. Por otro lado, en cuanto a la respuesta «avergonzado», los participantes sin pareja decían sentirse más avergonzados en ambas preguntas (p = 0,011 y p = 0,0057). Conclusión: El termino infertilidad debería ser usado cuidadosamente, pues es de gran impacto en la vida del individuo, afecta tanto el bienestar de la pareja como el bienestar psicosocial y la propia satisfacción sexual


Introduction: Fertility and virility are often socially related to the concept of masculinity, and this generates a certain degree of uncertainty because it could lead to a series of emotional processes by relating these concepts with the word infertility. Objective: The objective of the present work was to relate the responses on the perceptions of seminal quality with some concepts related to masculinity. Materials and methods: An anonymous virtual survey of 500 men was carried out, in which questions were asked regarding the perception of some variables on seminal quality. Results: As regards the question, 'what does it mean for you to have a high sperm count?'; in men with and without partners, the most frequent response was, good ability to fecundate, being higher in men with a partner (P = .013). In contrast, the second most frequent response (good health) was higher in the group that had no partner (P = .028). While the majority of participants answered that they would not feel anything (58.8% without a partner, and 64.5% with a partner) in response to the questions, 'How would you feel if you have a low sperm count?', and 'How would you feel if you did not have any sperm?', respectively. On the other hand, as regards the response 'embarrassed', the participants without a partner said they felt more embarrassed in both questions (P = .011 and P = .0057). Conclusion: The term infertility should be used carefully, since it has a significant impact an individual's life. It affects the well-being of the couple, as well as psychosocial well-being and sexual satisfaction itself


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Masculinidade , Coito/fisiologia , Contagem de Espermatozoides/estatística & dados numéricos , Colômbia/epidemiologia
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(1): 68, 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879823

RESUMO

Quadrivisio bengalensis (Stebbing Records of Indian Museum, 1, 159-161, 1907), a eurythermal (26.5-32.2 °C) and euryhaline (0.10-26.2 psu) tropical species, makes a profound contribution as a fodder organism to the benthic biomass of tropical backwaters. Studies on life span, variations in broods, fecundity, sex ratio, brooding behaviour, brood stock assessment, growth rate, antennal segments as an index of growth, moulting frequency, mortality and starvation resistance of Q. bengalensis were made for the first time under controlled laboratory conditions of 12-h photo period for 252 days on 8 pairs of specimens (male and female) collected from the field and their successive broods. The life span of females was found to be higher (maximum 220 days) than males (maximum 175 days). Number of broods varied between 5 and 15, depending on the "status of the brood" (early or late). The maximum number of juveniles in a single brood was 24 and that by a single female over the entire life span was 211. The incubation time varied between 6 and 9 days and the duration of moults (8-18 days) was found to increase with the age of the animals. Maximum growth is usually attained by the offspring arising from the 5th to 7th broods. The 4th to 7th broods were the optimal broods for the maximum number of females attaining maturity. For broods 3 to 7 of the parental set, probability of extinction (ξ) calculated on applying stochastic branching process to generation studies for the first time showed an increasing trend with number of broods while a decreasing trend for ξ for 8th and 9th broods, with least ξ for broods 5 to 7 of the 5th, 6th and 7th generations, suggesting life span and fecundity rates as functions of the "brood status" (early or late). Whether it is true with higher crustaceans remains to be explored.


Assuntos
Anfípodes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos , Índia , Masculino
8.
Orv Hetil ; 160(41): 1633-1638, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587576

RESUMO

Introduction: Bowel endometriosis is when endometrial-like tissue penetrates the bowel serosa, or it reaches the subserous neurovascular plexus. The effect of surgery for colorectal endometriosis on infertility and pregnancy is not fully proven. Aim: The aim of the present study was to analyse the pregnancy outcome and mode of delivery of patients who underwent 'nerve sparing' anterior resection of the colon. Method: Between 2009 and 2017, we operated 121 patients with bowel endometriosis, and built up a prospective database where we assessed their wish of pregnancy, the way of the conception, pathologies during pregnancy and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis: The relationship between endometriosis and pregnancy pathologies was tested by a χ2 probe and Fisher's exact test, additionally the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined. For p<0.05, the result was considered significant. Results: Out of 121 bowel endometriosis patients, 48 (39.6%) women got pregnant, 37 (30.5%) of them with in vitro fertilisation. The control group was built from patients who underwent in vitro fertilisation because of andrological factors. We found that women with endometriosis have a significantly higher risk for praeeclampsia (p = 0.023) and placenta praevia (p = 0.045) during pregnancy. Conclusions: Our study is a unique description of pregnancy outcome and mode of delivery after surgery for bowel endometriosis, which, despite the small number of cases, has yielded similar results to the previous multicentric studies. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(41): 1633-1638.


Assuntos
Endometriose/cirurgia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Infertilidade Feminina/complicações , Endometriose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Placenta Prévia/epidemiologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(36): 5423-5433, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576090

RESUMO

The impact of a chronic disease such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on sexual functioning and body image can significantly impair the quality of life of patients. This review considers the sexual and fertility aspects of IBD patients and their daily management. Modern IBD healthcare management should include appropriate communication on sexuality and consider psychological, physiological, and biological issues. Patients with IBD have less children than the general population, and voluntary childlessness is frequent. The most influential factors reported by IBD patients who experience fertility alteration are psychological and surgery-related problems. Pregnancy is a major concern for patients, and any pregnancy for IBD patients should be closely followed-up to keep the chronic disease in a quiescent state. Preconceptional consultation is of great help.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/fisiopatologia , Complicações na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/fisiopatologia , Saúde Sexual , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Comportamento Reprodutivo/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas
10.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(3): 515-521, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is currently no standard of care for women with cervical cancer stage IB2 (FIGO 2018, ≥2 cm and <4 cm in greatest dimension) who wish to preserve their fertility. Generally, two approaches are offered. Option 1: neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (NACT) to reduce the tumor size to ≤ 2 cm, followed by Vaginal Radical Trachelectomy (VRT) with Pelvic Lymph Node Dissection (PLND) either before chemotherapy or at the time of VRT. Option 2: Abdominal Radical Trachelectomy (ART) with PLND. OBJECTIVE: To compare rates of fertility, pregnancy, life births as well as recurrence for women with cervical cancer stage IB2 treated with either NACT followed by VRT, or ART. METHODS: A systematic review was performed using the PubMed database. Articles reporting the search term 'trachelectomy' as text word or as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) were identified. RESULTS: Ten studies were identified with a total of 338 patients. After NACT followed by VRT 39% of the women tried to conceive, 70% of these women got pregnant, of which 63% resulted in a life birth. The overall recurrence and death rate were 10% and 2.9% respectively. After ART 40% of the women tried to conceive, 21% of these women got pregnant, which resulted in a life birth rate of 42%. Recurrence and death rate after ART were 6.9%, and 3.4% respectively. CONCLUSION: Women with cervical cancer stage IB2 and a wish to preserve fertility treated with NACT followed by VRT have a significantly higher chance of pregnancy than women treated with ART, with comparative oncological results.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Traquelectomia/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/fisiopatologia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 183: 109585, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509930

RESUMO

The two biological control agents, predatory mite Amblydromalus limonicus Garman & McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae), have the potential to independently suppress the invasive tomato potato psyllid (TPP), Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), in New Zealand. The integrated strategy of combining the release of predatory mites and EPF may further promote biocontrol of pests. To examine the compatibility of A. limonicus and B. bassiana, we tested the lethal effects of B. bassiana on A. limonicus females on B. cockerelli and calculated the sublethal concentrations of B. bassiana. The effects of sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30) of EPF on predatory mite females were assessed on the reproduction parameters of the parental generation (F0). We also evaluated the transgenerational effects of EPF on life table parameters and predation rates of the offspring generation (F1) that was fed on the psyllids. Our results showed that A. limonicus females were susceptible to B. bassiana and the LC50 was 2.2 × 105 conidia mL-1. Sublethal concentrations of EPF (LC30) significantly reduced the fecundity, longevity, oviposition period and predation rates of F0 predatory mite females. However, life table and predation rates of F1 predatory mites were not influenced by sublethal concentrations (LC30), except for the reduction of the preadult and total pre-oviposition period, and the predation rate of F1 males. Also, F1 population parameters including the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), gross reproduction rate (GRR), and net reproduction rate (R0) were not significantly influenced by sublethal concentrations (LC10 and LC30). This result suggests that the transgenerational effects of entomopathogenic fungi cannot be carried over to F1. In conclusion, the simultaneous application of both biological control agents does have the potential to control TPP at appropriate intervals during the crop season. Further evaluation in the field will be needed to confirm the viability of this approach to control TPP.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácaros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Beauveria/patogenicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Ácaros/microbiologia , Nova Zelândia , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano
12.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 3: 22-28, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512320

RESUMO

The biological nature of age-related declines in fertility in males of any species, including stallions, has been elusive. In horses, the economic costs to the breeding industry are frequently extensive. Mitochondrial function in ejaculated sperm, which is essential for sperm motility, is reflected by adenosine triphosphate production, mitochondrial oxidative efficiency and production of reactive oxygen species, and that this balance may become compromised in ageing stallions and during the process of cryopreservation. This presentation will focus on mitochondrial integrity and function as an avenue for understanding the pathophysiology of sperm when undergoing cryopreservation and male ageing. We discuss the importance of understanding the differences and similarities of sperm mitochondria to that of somatic cells regarding structure and mitochondrial biochemistry relating to sperm function. The roles of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in sperm mitochondria are outlined as is the method of determining oxygen consumption and calcium homoeostasis in sperm mitochondria. Further, we outline the role of oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Cavalos/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Animais , Criopreservação/veterinária , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Glicólise , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo
13.
Ups J Med Sci ; 124(3): 203-212, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495254

RESUMO

Background: Reproductive life plan counseling (RLPC) is a tool to encourage women and men to reflect upon their reproduction, to avoid unintended pregnancies and negative health behavior that can threaten reproduction. The aim was to evaluate the effect of RLPC among women attending contraceptive counseling. Outcomes were knowledge about fertility and awareness of preconception health, use of contraception, and women's experience of RLPC. Material and methods: Swedish-speaking women, aged 20-40 years, were randomized to intervention group (IG) or control group (CG). Participants (n = 1,946) answered a questionnaire before and two months after (n = 1,198, 62%) the consultation. All women received standard contraceptive counseling, and the IG also received the RLPC, i.e. questions on reproductive intentions, information about fertility, and preconception health. Results: Women in the IG increased their knowledge about fertility: age and fertility, chances of getting pregnant, fecundity of an ovum, and chances of having a child with help of IVF. They also increased their awareness of factors affecting preconception health, such as to stop using tobacco, to refrain from alcohol, to be of normal weight, and to start with folic acid before a pregnancy. The most commonly used contraceptive method was combined oral contraceptives, followed by long-acting reversible contraception. Three out of four women (76%) in the IG stated that the RLPC should be part of the routine in contraceptive counseling. Conclusions: Knowledge about fertility and awareness of preconception health increased after the intervention. The RLPC can be recommended as a tool in contraceptive counseling.


Assuntos
Anticoncepção/métodos , Anticoncepcionais/administração & dosagem , Aconselhamento/métodos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/educação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Reprodutiva/educação , Adulto , Conscientização , Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez , Gravidez não Desejada , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Surg ; 71: 101-109, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A number of studies have examined the association between vitamin D, fertility and semen quality, however, findings have been inconclusive. Herein, we systematically reviewed available observational studies to elucidate the overall relationship between vitamin D, fertility and semen quality in adult population. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane's Library, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science databases were searched until December 2018 for all available studies evaluating the association between vitamin D, fertility and semen quality. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale was used to examine the quality of each study. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies out of 1843 met our inclusion criteria and were included in our systematic review and meta-analysis. Serum 25(OH)D3 was significantly higher in fertile subjects compared to infertile ones (WMD -0.63; 95% CI, -1.06 to -0.21; P = 0.003). Furthermore, there was a significant association between serum 25(OH)D, sperm motility (WMD -5.84; 95% CI, -10.29 to -1.39; P = 0.01) and sperm progressive motility (WMD -5.24; 95% CI, -8.71 to -1.76; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Our findings add to the existing literature supporting the concept that nutrition, especially vitamin D, plays an important role in men's sexual health. It should be noted that because of significant heterogeneity among the included studies, caution is warranted when interpreting the results. Further well-designed prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are needed for better understanding of the relationship between vitamin D and fertility and its components.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Infertilidade/sangue , Sêmen/fisiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise do Sêmen
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 340, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are known to play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes. Photo-thermosensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) is a very important germplasm resource in two-line hybrid rice breeding. Although many circRNAs have been identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.), little is known about the biological roles of circRNAs in the fertility transition of the PTGMS rice line. RESULTS: In the present study, RNA-sequencing libraries were constructed from the young panicles of the Wuxiang S sterile line rice (WXS (S)) and its fertile line rice (WXS (F)) at three development stages with three biological replicates. A total of 9994 circRNAs were obtained in WXS rice based on high-throughput strand-specific RNA sequencing and bioinformatic approaches, of which 5305 were known circRNAs and 4689 were novel in rice. And 14 of 16 randomly selected circRNAs were experimentally validated with divergent primers. Our results showed that 186 circRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in WXS (F) compared with WXS (S), of which 97, 87 and 60 circRNAs were differentially expressed at the pollen mother cell (PMC) formation stage (P2), the meiosis stage (P3) and the microspore formation stage (P4), respectively. Fertility specific expression patterns of eight circRNAs were analysis by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis of the parental genes of differentially expressed circRNAs (DECs) revealed that they mainly participated in various biological processes such as development, response to stimulation, hormonal regulation, and reproduction. Furthermore, 15 DECs were found to act as putative miRNA sponges to involved in fertility transition in PTGMS rice line. CONCLUSION: In the present study, the abundance and characteristics of circRNAs were investigated in the PTGMS rice line using bioinformatic approaches. Moreover, the expression patterns of circRNAs were different between WXS (F) and WXS (S). Our findings primarily revealed that circRNAs might be endogenous noncoding regulators of flower and pollen development, and were involved in the fertility transition in the PTGMS rice line, and guide the production and application of two-line hybrid rice.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , RNA/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Oryza/fisiologia , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA/fisiologia
16.
Behav Processes ; 167: 103921, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376418

RESUMO

In a mating system in which females are monandrous and males are polygynous, females may incur a risk by mating with males with possible sperm depletion following consecutive matings. Here, we examined the effects of male mating history on male mating success and female reproductive fitness in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata by performing mating trials and sperm counting experiments. Results showed that male mating history had a significant negative impact on subsequent copulation success but had little effect on courtship duration and courtship intensity. In addition, neither male courtship intensity nor morphological measurements of males and females had significant effects on male mating success. Furthermore, male mating history had no obvious impact on the fecundity of inseminated females, with no significant differences observed in the oviposition rate of females, the numbers and the carapace width of the second-instar spiderlings between treatments. Results showed that the number of sperm decreased significantly after mating but could be replenished, with no significant differences observed between groups in which males had rested for 7 d. These findings suggest that polygynous male spiders may recharge their sperm during the mating season, but how females differentiate the mating status of males remains unknown.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Aranhas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Oviposição/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
17.
Can J Vet Res ; 83(3): 218-227, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308594

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of reproductive management practices on fertility in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows and to identify the differences by parity. Data on reproductive performance and management of cows were gathered from 34 large commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy herds in Hungary. Individual data on 23 781 cows that calved in the studied herds in 2014 were collected from the national milk recording database and used to calculate the reproductive indices. Farm managers and veterinarians were interviewed in person from May 22 to November 6, 2015 using a questionnaire to collect information about reproductive management practices. The data were statistically analyzed by mixed-effects models. Our results showed that the use of a voluntary waiting period (VWP) was linked to a greater increase in calving-to-conception interval (CCI, P < 0.05) and a greater decline in the chance of pregnancy at 200 days in milk (P200, P < 0.001) in multiparous cows. Estrus synchronization was related to a larger reduction in days-to-first service (DFS, P < 0.001), breeding interval (IBI, P < 0.05), and CCI (P < 0.01) and a greater improvement in P200 (P < 0.001) in primiparous cows. Early pregnancy diagnosis and pregnancy recheck improved IBI (P < 0.01 for both practices), CCI (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively), and P200 (P < 0.001 for both practices) to a larger extent in primiparous than in multiparous cows. In conclusion, estrus synchronization, early pregnancy diagnosis, and pregnancy recheck led to a greater improvement in fertility in primiparous cows than in multiparous cows.


Assuntos
Sincronização do Estro/métodos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Paridade , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Hungria , Gravidez
18.
Andrologia ; 51(9): e13359, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353623

RESUMO

The effect of the methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves on the fertility of senescent male rats was assessed in this study. 40 rats received daily distilled water, testosterone, 200 and 400 mg/kg of extract of Alchornea cordifolia. The reproductive organs weight, the gonadotropins, testosterone and cholesterol level, the sperm parameters, histology of the testes and epididymis were assessed. The weight of testes and prostate (400 mg/kg) significantly increased (p < 0.05) as well as the level of FHS (p < 0.001), LH and testosterone (p < 0.01) at a dose of 400 mg/kg, respectively, while the cholesterol decreased at a dose of 200 mg/kg (p < 0.05) and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.01) respectively. The testes and epididymis were full of spermatozoa particularly at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The sperm count and morphology significantly increased at both doses of 200 mg/kg (p < 0.01; p < 0.001) and 400 mg/kg (p < 0.001; p < 0.01) respectively. The sperm motion (PROG, VAP, VSL, VCL) (p < 0.001), (ALH, BCF) (p < 0.05) increased at a dose of 200 mg/kg and decreased at a dose of 400 mg/ kg. The overall results provide the strong evidence of the fertility potential of the methanolic extract of Alchornea cordifolia leaves in senescent male rats.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Metanol/química , Modelos Animais , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
20.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 240: 113-120, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255930

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a model for predicting revised American Society of Reproductive Medicine (rASRM) scores before endometrioma surgery based on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level and to identify factors that might reliably predict postoperative fertility of women diagnosed with endometrioma. STUDY DESIGN: The study population was composed of 134 women with endometrioma, 58 with benign cyst, and 115 with non-ovarian lesion. Preoperative serum AMH level and clinical parameters were compared among three groups. Univariate correlation analyses and multivariate linear regression modeling with a stepwise method were performed for constructing an rASRM scores prediction model. Cox regression analysis was then used to identify predictive variables of spontaneous pregnancy following surgical treatment of endometrioma. RESULTS: Preoperative AMH level were significantly lower in the endometrioma group than in the other two groups (p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that age (ß=-0.324, p < 0.001), rASRM scores (ß=-0.298, p < 0.001) and serum CA125 level (ß=-0.176, p = 0.026) independently and negatively correlated with serum AMH level. Cox regression analysis of women with endometrioma who underwent surgical resection indicated that older age (per five-year increase, HR: 0.517; 95% CI, 0.299-0.896) and higher serum AMH level (cut-off value: >3.68 ng/ml, HR: 2.383; 95% CI, 1.093-5.197) were independent predictors for postoperative fertility. CONCLUSION: Patients with advanced staged endometriosis tended to have a lower serum AMH level while postoperative infertility was more likely to occur in older patients with a lower level of serum AMH. Thus, timely detection of AMH levels to assess the severity of ovarian endometriosis and possibility for postoperative pregnancy success is necessary to ensure that optimal medical treatment can be provided.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Endometriose/sangue , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Doenças Ovarianas/sangue , Ovário/cirurgia , Adulto , Endometriose/diagnóstico , Endometriose/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Ovarianas/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Gravidez , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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