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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25361, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907092

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: We aimed to investigate ovarian reserve status, and explore differences in ovarian reserve between fertile and infertile healthy Chinese women of reproductive age.We recruited 442 fertile women aged 23 to 49 years (mean: 35.22 ±â€Š4.91 years) as subjects, and 196 infertile women aged 23 to 46 years (mean: 32.34 ±â€Š4.34 years) as controls. For all participants, a number of parameters were tested on days 2 to 4 of a spontaneous cycle, including basal serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), ovarian response prediction index (ORPI), and antral follicle count (AFC).There were significant differences in terms of AFC, serum AMH levels, and ORPI among subject subgroups (10.58 ±â€Š5.80; 2.533 ±â€Š2.146 ng/mL; 1.28 ±â€Š1.87; respectively), and among control subgroups (12.44 ±â€Š5.69; 3.189 ±â€Š2.551 ng/mL; 1.88 ±â€Š2.68; respectively) (P < .01 for all). For both subjects and controls, AFC, AMH levels, and ORPI decreased gradually with increasing age, and presented with similar age-related trends; there were positive correlations between AMH and AFC (P < .001), and negative correlations between age and AFC, AMH, ORPI (P < .05 for all). There was a significant difference in age (P < .001), serum E2 (P < .01), and AMH (P < .01) levels between subjects and controls; however, when controlling for confounding factors (age, body mass index, total testosterone, and LH), we found no differences between the 2 groups with regards to the serum levels of AMH, FSH, E2, and AFC (P > .05 for all). Moreover, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the significant variables of subjects and controls for evaluating ovarian reserve included age, AMH and ORPI, and ORPI was more valuable than other variables.A diminished ovarian reserve was one of the manifestations caused by female aging. When confounding factors were controlled for, we found no differences in ovarian reserve when compared between fertile and infertile women, and no correlation with infertility.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/fisiopatologia , Reserva Ovariana/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , China , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Folículo Ovariano/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Curva ROC , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806348

RESUMO

There is substantial genetic variation for common traits associated with reproductive lifespan and for common diseases influencing female fertility. Progress in high-throughput sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have transformed our understanding of common genetic risk factors for complex traits and diseases influencing reproductive lifespan and fertility. The data emerging from GWAS demonstrate the utility of genetics to explain epidemiological observations, revealing shared biological pathways linking puberty timing, fertility, reproductive ageing and health outcomes. The observations also identify unique genetic risk factors specific to different reproductive diseases impacting on female fertility. Sequencing in patients with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) have identified mutations in a large number of genes while GWAS have revealed shared genetic risk factors for POI and ovarian ageing. Studies on age at menopause implicate DNA damage/repair genes with implications for follicle health and ageing. In addition to the discovery of individual genes and pathways, the increasingly powerful studies on common genetic risk factors help interpret the underlying relationships and direction of causation in the regulation of reproductive lifespan, fertility and related traits.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/genética , Reprodução/genética , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/genética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante Humano/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Longevidade/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/genética , Hormônio Luteinizante/fisiologia , Menopausa/genética , Menopausa/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806677

RESUMO

Endothelial dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and represents the first step in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The evaluation of endothelial health is fundamental in clinical practice and several direct and indirect markers have been suggested so far to identify any alterations in endothelial homeostasis. Alongside the known endothelial role on vascular health, several pieces of evidence have demonstrated that proper endothelial functioning plays a key role in human fertility and reproduction. Therefore, this state-of-the-art review updates the endothelial health markers discriminating between those available for clinical practice or for research purposes and their application in human fertility. Moreover, new molecules potentially helpful to clarify the link between endothelial and reproductive health are evaluated herein.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Reprodução/fisiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2214, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850157

RESUMO

Forecasting which species/ecosystems are most vulnerable to climate warming is essential to guide conservation strategies to minimize extinction. Tropical/mid-latitude species are predicted to be most at risk as they live close to their upper critical thermal limits (CTLs). However, these assessments assume that upper CTL estimates, such as CTmax, are accurate predictors of vulnerability and ignore the potential for evolution to ameliorate temperature increases. Here, we use experimental evolution to assess extinction risk and adaptation in tropical and widespread Drosophila species. We find tropical species succumb to extinction before widespread species. Male fertility thermal limits, which are much lower than CTmax, are better predictors of species' current distributions and extinction in the laboratory. We find little evidence of adaptive responses to warming in any species. These results suggest that species are living closer to their upper thermal limits than currently presumed and evolution/plasticity are unlikely to rescue populations from extinction.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Aquecimento Global , Temperatura Alta , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Drosophila/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Temperatura , Termotolerância/fisiologia , Clima Tropical
5.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672019

RESUMO

Putrajeevak (Putranjiva roxburghii Wall.; synonym Drypetes roxburghii (Wall.) Hurus) seeds have been used since ancient times in the treatment of infertility in the Ayurvedic system of medicine in India. In this study, the oil component of Putrajeevak seeds (PJSO) was extracted using the supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) method using liquid CO2 and the constituents were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionized detectorand high-performance thin-layer chromatography. PJSO contained trace amounts of ß-sitosterol with oleic and linoleic acids as the major fatty acid constituents. Male and female zebrafish were mutagenized with N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) and fish that produced less than 20 viable embryos were selected for the study. SCFE oil extracts from the P. roxburghii seeds were used in this study to reverse fertility impairment. The mutant fish were fed with PJSO for a period of 14 days and the rates of fertility, conception, and fecundity were determined with wild-type healthy fish as a breeding partner. Treatment with PJSO increased the ovarian follicle count as well as the number of mature eggs, while reducing the number of ovarian cysts. Sperm count as well as sperm motility were greatly enhanced in the ENU-mutagenized male zebrafish when treated with PJSO. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the effectiveness of P. roxburghii seed oil in reversing impaired fertility in both male and female zebrafish models.


Assuntos
Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico/métodos , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Sementes/química , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pelve/patologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Sitosteroides/análise , Sitosteroides/química , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1242, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623042

RESUMO

Indirect climate effects on tree fecundity that come through variation in size and growth (climate-condition interactions) are not currently part of models used to predict future forests. Trends in species abundances predicted from meta-analyses and species distribution models will be misleading if they depend on the conditions of individuals. Here we find from a synthesis of tree species in North America that climate-condition interactions dominate responses through two pathways, i) effects of growth that depend on climate, and ii) effects of climate that depend on tree size. Because tree fecundity first increases and then declines with size, climate change that stimulates growth promotes a shift of small trees to more fecund sizes, but the opposite can be true for large sizes. Change the depresses growth also affects fecundity. We find a biogeographic divide, with these interactions reducing fecundity in the West and increasing it in the East. Continental-scale responses of these forests are thus driven largely by indirect effects, recommending management for climate change that considers multiple demographic rates.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Árvores/fisiologia , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Geografia , Modelos Teóricos , América do Norte , Estações do Ano
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 666, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531493

RESUMO

Temperature has a crucial influence on the places where species can survive and reproduce. Past research has primarily focused on survival, making it unclear if temperature fluctuations constrain reproductive success, and if so whether populations harbour the potential to respond to climatic shifts. Here, using two decades of data from a large experimental breeding programme of the iconic ostrich (Struthio camelus) in South Africa, we show that the number of eggs females laid and the number of sperm males produced were highly sensitive to natural temperature extremes (ranging from -5 °C to 45 °C). This resulted in reductions in reproductive success of up to 44% with 5 °C deviations from their thermal optimum. In contrast, gamete quality was largely unaffected by temperature. Extreme temperatures also did not expose trade-offs between gametic traits. Instead, some females appeared to invest more in reproducing at high temperatures, which may facilitate responses to climate change. These results show that the robustness of fertility to temperature fluctuations, and not just temperature increases, is a critical aspect of species persistence in regions predicted to undergo the greatest change in climate volatility.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/fisiologia , Temperatura , Animais , Feminino , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , África do Sul , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1221-1238, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518080

RESUMO

High levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids in avian sperm cause more susceptibility to lipid peroxidation. Aging in roosters reduces the antioxidant capacity of sperm and thus fertility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) as a feed supplement to improve the semen quality and fertility parameters of aged broiler breeder roosters and identification of its most effective level. A total of forty-two roosters at 45 wk of age were randomly assigned to 7 treatments (0, 15, 40, 70, 95, 120, and 145 mg ALA/bird per day) for 8 wk. Semen parameters and body weight were assessed biweekly, and testosterone plasma levels were determined in the 8th wk of the experimental period. Artificial insemination was performed at the end of the experiment to evaluate the fertility potential. The dietary administration of ALA had no significant effects on body weight, semen volume, average path velocity, linearity, straightness, wobble, the amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat-cross frequency, sperm concentration, morphology, plasma testosterone level, fertility, or hatchability (P > 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid supplementations resulted in a significant decrease in seminal malondialdehyde concentration and immotile (type D) sperms (P < 0.05). The total motility, progressive motility (types A + type B sperms), curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, viability, and membrane integrity of sperm improved with ALA dietary supplementations (P < 0.05). With increasing ALA levels, improvement in semen parameters had an incremental trend until the level of 95 mg ALA. Thus, 95 mg dietary ALA as an antioxidant supplement can improve semen quality of aging breeder roosters while higher doses resulted in no further improvement.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Sêmen/fisiologia , Ácido Tióctico/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Sêmen/química , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
9.
Reproduction ; 161(3): 319-331, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522983

RESUMO

The existing evidence suggests that the human reproductive system may be potentially vulnerable to COVID-19 infection. However, little is known about the virus-host interaction of COVID-19 in sperm cells. We are the first to address the connection between changes in multiple seminal biomarkers and reproductive function in male patients recovering from COVID-19. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, seminal ACE2 activity, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, apoptotic variables, and semen quality parameters were evaluated at 10-day intervals for a maximum follow-up time of 60 days among male patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (n = 84) and healthy controls (CON; n = 105). At the baseline and the subsequent follow-ups, the COVID-19 group revealed significantly higher levels of seminal plasma ACE2 enzymatic activity, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TGF-ß, TNF-α, IFN-α, IFN-γ, ROS, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 activity as well as lower levels of SOD activity than those in the CON group (P < 0.05). These perturbations tended to persist over time and were correlated with significant impairments in semen volume, progressive motility, sperm morphology, sperm concentration, and the number of spermatozoa. We provide the direct experimental evidence that the male reproductive system could be targeted and damaged by the COVID-19 infection. These findings go beyond our current understanding of the disease, suggesting that the reproductive function of the patients recovering from the disease should be precisely followed and evaluated to detect and avoid more serious reproductive problems in the future, as they may develop a transient state of male subfertility like those with oligoasthenoteratozoospermia.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Infertilidade Masculina/virologia , Sêmen/virologia , Espermatozoides/virologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(4): 600-610, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33521821

RESUMO

Fetal exposure to elevated androgens is thought to contribute to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk. However, data rely heavily on in utero androgens measurements, which also reflect fetal secretions. Thus, in utero hyperandrogenemia might indicate adverse autism-related neurogenesis that has already occurred affecting fetal androgen homeostasis, rather than being a cause of the disorder. Associations between maternal androgen-related conditions and ASD could more directly implicate androgens' etiological role. We examined the association between maternal hyperandrogenemia-related conditions, focusing primarily on polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), and progeny ASD, in an Israeli cohort of 437,222 children born in 1999-2013. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using generalized estimating equations. Multiple mediation analyses using natural effect models were conducted to evaluate combined mediation of the PCOS effect by androgen-related cardiovascular, metabolic, and fertility factors. Results indicated that children of mothers with PCOS had higher ASD odds compared with children of mothers without PCOS (odds ratio = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.24,1.64), and this effect was only partly mediated by the factors considered. Elevated odds were also observed for other hyperandrogenemia-related conditions. Findings provide support for direct involvement of maternal hyperandrogenemia in ASD etiology. Alternatively, findings might reflect shared genetic and/or environmental factors independently affecting maternal androgen homeostasis and fetal neurodevelopment.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/sangue , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Plant Mol Biol ; 105(6): 625-635, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481140

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: IEF, a novel plasma plasma membrane protein, is important for exine formation in Arabidopsis. Exine, an important part of pollen wall, is crucial for male fertility. The major component of exine is sporopollenin which are synthesized and secreted by tapetum. Although sporopollenin synthesis has been well studied, the transportation of it remains elusive. To understand it, we analyzed the gene expression pattern in tapetal microdissection data, and investigated the potential transporter genes that are putatively regulated by ABORTED MICROSPORES (AMS). Among these genes, we identified IMPERFECTIVE EXINE FORMATION (IEF) that is important for exine formation. Compared to the wild type, ief mutants exhibit severe male sterility and pollen abortion, suggesting IEF is crucial for pollen development and male fertility. Using both scanning and transmission electron microscopes, we showed that exine structure was not well defined in ief mutant. The transient expression of IEF-GFP driven by the 35S promoter indicated that IEF-GFP was localized in plasma membrane. Furthermore, AMS can specifically activate the expression of promoterIEF:LUC in vitro, which suggesting AMS regulates IEF for exine formation. The expression of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTER G26 (AGCB26) was not affected in ief mutants. In addition, SEM and TEM data showed that the sporopollenin deposition is more defective in abcg26/ief-2 than that of in abcg26, which suggesting that IEF is involved in an independent sporopollenin transportation pathway. This work reveal a novel gene, IEF regulated by AMS that is essential for exine formation.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Biológico , Biopolímeros/biossíntese , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Fertilidade/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Pólen , Tabaco
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(1)2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443193

RESUMO

Drosophila melanogaster females experience a large shift in energy homeostasis after mating to compensate for nutrient investment in egg production. To cope with this change in metabolism, mated females undergo widespread physiological and behavioral changes, including increased food intake and altered digestive processes. The mechanisms by which the female digestive system responds to mating remain poorly characterized. Here, we demonstrate that the seminal fluid protein Sex Peptide (SP) is a key modulator of female post-mating midgut growth and gene expression. SP is both necessary and sufficient to trigger post-mating midgut growth in females under normal nutrient conditions, and likely acting via its receptor, Sex Peptide Receptor (SPR). Moreover, SP is responsible for almost the totality of midgut transcriptomic changes following mating, including up-regulation of protein and lipid metabolism genes and down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism genes. These changes in metabolism may help supply the female with the nutrients required to sustain egg production. Thus, we report a role for SP in altering female physiology to enhance reproductive output: Namely, SP triggers the switch from virgin to mated midgut state.


Assuntos
Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Copulação , Sistema Digestório/anatomia & histologia , Sistema Digestório/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Feminino , Fertilidade/genética , Ontologia Genética , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Reprodução/genética , Sêmen/metabolismo , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Transcriptoma/fisiologia
13.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 184: 114362, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309518

RESUMO

Aberrations in DNA damage response genes are recognized mediators of tumorigenesis and resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy. While protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1 δ (PPM1D), located on the long arm of chromosome 17 at 17q22-23, is a key regulator of cellular responses to DNA damage, amplification, overexpression, or mutation of this gene is important in a wide range of pathologic processes. In this review, we describe the physiologic function of PPM1D, as well as its role in diverse processes, including fertility, development, stemness, immunity, tumorigenesis, and treatment responsiveness. We highlight both the advances and limitations of current approaches to targeting malignant processes mediated by pathogenic alterations in PPM1D with the goal of providing rationale for continued research and development of clinically viable treatment approaches for PPM1D-associated diseases.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/citologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
14.
Bull Entomol Res ; 111(3): 348-356, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345769

RESUMO

Parasitoids can be used as biological agents of pest control. Anagyrus saccharicola Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a parasitoid of the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Although this mealybug is present in all sugarcane-producing countries, there is limited information regarding this pest and its parasitoid. Aiming to elucidate information on bioecological parameters of A. saccharicola, were evaluated the survival of parasitoid females and males at three temperatures, the host preference of the parasitoid, and the fecundity and longevity of the host. In addition, the parasitism rate of A. saccharicola was estimated based on three factors, feeding, mating, and time. Survival was evaluated at 20, 25, and 30°C. Host preference was conducted on 15-, 20-, and 30-day-old mealybugs. And the parasitism rate was evaluated in fed and unfed, mated and unmated parasitoids and with 24 h and newly emerged. The temperature of 20°C was the most favorable for parasitoid survival. Parasitism occurred at all evaluated ages of the mealybug; however, the preference was for those that were 30-days-old. The parasitized mealybugs longevity was approximately 8 additional days after parasitization, and non-parasitized mealybugs lived for an additional 20 days for mealybugs aged 30 and 20 days at the outset of the tests, and a further 13 days for the 15 days. Feeding and mating after 24 h of emergence resulted in a higher parasitism rate. These findings can contribute to more efficient rearing of A. saccharicola and in the planning of the biological control of S. sacchari in the integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Hemípteros/parasitologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Longevidade/fisiologia , Parasitos/fisiologia , Saccharum , Razão de Masculinidade , Especificidade da Espécie , Temperatura
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(24)2020 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322169

RESUMO

Crystal-bearing cells or idioblasts, which deposit calcium oxalate, are located in various tissues and organs of many plant species. The functional significance of their formation is currently unclear. Idioblasts in the leaf parenchyma and the development of crystal-bearing cells in the anther tissues of transgenic tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicon L.), expressing the heterologous FeSOD gene and which showed a decrease in fertility, were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The amount of calcium oxalate crystals was found to increase significantly in the transgenic plants compared to the wild type (WT) ones in idioblasts and crystal-bearing cells of the upper part of the anther. At the same time, changes in the size and shape of the crystals and their location in anther organs were noted. It seems that the interruption in the break of the anther stomium in transgenic plants was associated with the formation and cell death regulation of a specialized group of crystal-bearing cells. This disturbance caused an increase in the pool of these cells and their localization in the upper part of the anther, where rupture is initiated. Perturbations were also noted in the lower part of the anther in transgenic plants, where the amount of calcium oxalate crystals in crystal-bearing cells was reduced that was accompanied by disturbances in the morphology of pollen grains. Thus, the induction of the formation of crystal-bearing cells and calcium oxalate crystals can have multidirectional effects, contributing to the regulation of oxalate metabolism in the generative and vegetative organs and preventing fertility when the ROS balance changes, in particular, during oxidative stresses accompanying most abiotic and biotic environmental factors.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo , Oxalato de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Fertilidade/genética , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Flores/citologia , Flores/genética , Flores/ultraestrutura , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/citologia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão e Varredura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Pólen/citologia , Pólen/genética , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0228367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976485

RESUMO

The Zigzag ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a biological control agent that feeds on a variety of aphid species. Life table and predation data of C. sexmaculata were collected under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C, 60±5% RH and L14: D10 h in connection with feeding on four different aphid species; Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) and Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Larval development of C. sexmaculata was long when fed on M. persicae (12.18 days) and shorter on D. noxia (10.64 days). The male's lifespan was longer on M. persicae (26.70 days) and shorter on L. erysimi (23.67 days). Fecundity was maximum when the beetle was fed D. noxia (316.8 eggs/female) and minimum on M. persicae (199.1 eggs/female). Net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest on D. noxia with values of 158.4 (offspring individual-1), 0.22 d-1, and 1.24 d-1, respectively whereas the respective parameters were lowest on L. erysimi (99.5 offspring individual-1, 0.19 d-1, and 1.20 d-1, respectively). However, the mean of the generation (T) was shorter on A. nerii (22.48 d-1) and longer on M. persicae (24.68 d-1). Based on life table parameters obtained under laboratory conditions, the most appropriate host of C. sexmaculata was D. noxia. This study should help us to improve mass rearing and use of C. sexmaculata in the biological control of aphids on field and horticultural crops.


Assuntos
Afídeos/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Larva , Tábuas de Vida , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Paquistão
17.
Anticancer Res ; 40(10): 5939-5947, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988926

RESUMO

Background/Aim: There is an increasing demand for preserving the fertility of young women impacted with early-stage cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the oncological and reproductive outcomes of abdominal radical trachelectomy (ART). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with FIGO stageIA2-IB1 cervical cancer who underwent ART from 2007 to 2018. We also compared the oncological prognosis between the patients who underwent ART and radical hysterectomy (RH). Results: A total of 42 patients underwent ART. During median follow-up 62.5 months, there were 4 (9.5%) recurrences and 1 (2.4%) death. As for tumors ≤2 cm, the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate for patients who underwent ART was similar to those who underwent RH (89.8% vs. 92.7%, p=0.42 and 97.3% vs. 95.0%, p=0.44, respectively). Nineteen patients attempted to conceive and seven of them were successful. There was one case of a first-trimester miscarriage, two cases of preterm delivery, three cases of full-term delivery and one ongoing pregnancy. Conclusion: ART could be a feasible alternative to RH for patients with tumors ≤2 cm with comparable oncological outcome.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/cirurgia , Traquelectomia/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Abdome/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/fisiopatologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/fisiopatologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236249, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804964

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The insect predator Coccinella septempunctata can effectively control many types of pests, such as aphids, whiteflies, and small lepidopteran larvae. We previously found that C. septempunctata fed an artificial diet showed diminished biological properties(e.g. fecundity, egg hatching rate, survival rate, etc.) compared with those fed natural prey (Aphis craccivora), likely due to different nutritional characteristics of the diet. In this study, we used transcriptome sequencing analysis to identify nutrition- and metabolism-related genes of C. septempunctata that were differentially expressed depending on diet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Illumina HiSeq2000 was used to sequence 691,942,058 total clean reads from artificial diet-fed and A. craccivora-fed C. septempunctata libraries, and the clean reads were assembled using Trinity de novo software (Tabel 2). Comparison of transcriptome sequences revealed that expression of 38,315 genes was affected by the artificial diet, and 1,182 of these genes showed a significant change in expression levels (FDR ≤ 0.05,|log2FC|≥1, "FC" stands for "fold change"). These differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were likely associated with the decreased egg laying capacity, hatching rate, longevity, and increased sex ratio (♀:♂) of adult C. septempunctata observed in the group fed the artificial diet. Furthermore, in the most DEGs metabolic pathways for C. septempunctata feeding on the artificial diet accumulated amino acid metabolic pathways, lipid metabolic pathways, and starch and glucose metabolism were down-regulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found some differentially expressed genes and metabolic pathways are related to nutrition, from which a more informative feedback for diet formulation was obtained and the artificial diet could be more efficiently optimized.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Afídeos , Besouros/fisiologia , Genes de Insetos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Longevidade/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Razão de Masculinidade , Amido/metabolismo , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1252: 175-179, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816279

RESUMO

Malignancy may unfortunately present quite early in a woman's life. In the case of breast cancer, rescue of the breast cancer patient's life is the top priority, but after completion of the effective treatment , the question about the ability to accomplish a pregnancy arises. The treatment strategies in breast cancer patients include surgical interventions, chemotherapy , radiotherapy, hormonal therapy and other special types of mainly targeted biologic therapies. Under normal circumstances, surgery for breast cancer does not involve any intervention in the ovaries or the uterus. Thus, even after an extended operation, the anatomic integrity of the gynecological system is guaranteed, and fertility is unaffected.The chemotherapeutic factors that influence fertility are the drug category used, the total dose given, the patient's age at treatment , the drug combination and finally whether targeted therapy is used or not. Alkylating agents are considered to be the most toxic ones. In young breast cancer patients there is a trend to modify regimens to achieve less gonadotoxicity.Evidence regarding tamoxifen, the main used endocrine drug, is scarce and controversial on its direct effect on ovarian reserve. There are not enough studies on the impact of aromatase inhibitors on fertility. Also, HER2-directed agents have not yet demonstrated significant ovarian toxicity and there are scarce data on their effect on fertility.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Preservação da Fertilidade , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Reserva Ovariana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiologia , Gravidez , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760084

RESUMO

The smalltail shark, Carcharhinus porosus, was the most abundant elasmobranch species in fisheries off Brazil's northern coast (BNC) in the 1980s, but its population has been declining since the 1990s. For this reason, a demographic analysis is necessary to determine the extent of this decline and the fishing effect on the BNC's population. Therefore, we performed a stochastic demographic analysis of the population in the BNC, and considered its global center of abundance. Smalltail shark specimens (n = 937) were collected with gillnets in Maranhão state, eastern BNC, in the 1980s with sizes ranging between 29.6 and 120.0 cm total length. Most of the individuals (90.6%) caught were juveniles (< 6 years-old), and the mortality and exploitation rates showed that the species was overexploited (92.3% above the fishing mortality corresponding to the population equilibrium threshold). The smalltail shark's biological characteristics, such as slow growth and low fecundity, demonstrate that it is one of the least resilient species among similar sized coastal sharks in the region. All these factors yielded an annual decrease of 28% in the intrinsic population growth rate, resulting in a population decline of more than 90% in only 10 years, and much higher for the current period. This set of features comprising fishing recruitment occurring upon juveniles, overfishing, and intrinsically low resilience make the population unable to sustain fishing pressure and severely hamper biological recruitment, thus causing this drastic population decline. Furthermore, several local extinctions for this species in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil highlight its concerning conservation scenario. Therefore, since similar fisheries characteristics occur throughout its distribution range, C. porosus fits the criteria E of the IUCN Red List for a critically endangered species and urgent conservation measures are needed to prevent its extinction in the near future.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinâmica Populacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Tubarões/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Brasil , Monitorização de Parâmetros Ecológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/tendências , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Pesqueiros/tendências , Dinâmica Populacional/tendências , Maturidade Sexual/fisiologia
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