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1.
Orv Hetil ; 161(2): 43-49, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902235

RESUMO

Hormonal imprinting is a physiological process, which is a part of the receptor-hormone complex development. It determines the binding capacity of the receptors across the lifespan. It takes place perinatally in the critical period of hormone receptor development, when the developmental window for imprinting is open and permits the binding of hormone-like molecules (related or synthetic hormones, endocrine disruptors etc.) causing disturbances of the endocrine system, and the systems- influenced organs by it, for life. This is the faulty hormonal imprinting. However, studying the medical database, PubMed, a lot of data can be found on the harmful late (adult age) effects of medication in the critical period of development with non-hormonal molecules, which are manifested later in functional alterations or diseases. This could mean that in the process of faulty imprinting, the openness of the developmental window could be more important than the structural similarity of a molecule to hormones. As developmentally critical period for faulty imprinting by hormone-like molecules is not exclusively the perinatal one (this is justified in the case of faulty hormonal imprinting), the pubertal period was also studied from this aspect and similarities to the impact of perinatal use have been found (this could be called "Pubertal Origin of Health and Disease = POHaD). While in the case of hormonal faulty imprinting, the mechanism seems to be clear (considering the role of receptors), the mechanism of drug-provoked imprinting is presently uncleared (considering the variety of medications which cause late-manifested alterations). The medicaments-caused faulty imprinting conception calls attention to the dangers of medication in the perinatal as well as the pubertal periods. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(2): 43-49.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Impressão Genômica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Sistema Endócrino , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109884, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phthalate exposure was reported to induce defects in ovarian function, and further influence embryo development and pregnancy outcomes. However, the data about the associations of phthalates with intermediate and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles are scarce in the Chinese population. METHODS: A total of 663 women receiving IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments in our center were enrolled in this analysis. They provided one urine sample on the day of oocyte retrieval. We measured urinary concentrations of eight phthalate metabolites. Generalized linear models were used to analyze the associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with ovarian response, fertilization, early embryo development, and pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Among all the phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) had the highest urinary concentration with a median level of 101.51 µg/g creatinine (Cr). MBP concentration was inversely associated with normal fertilization odds (overall P-trend < 0.01). There was a significant correlation of monoethyl phthalate (MEP) with decreased odds of normal fertilization in medium-concentration group compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02). No significant associations of metabolite concentrations with the odds of good-quality embryos on day 3 or blastocyst formation were found. Monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and MEP in medium-concentration group reduced 22.4% (95% CI: 0.64-0.94, overall P-trend = 0.04) and 21.9% (95% CI: 0.64-0.95, overall P-trend = 0.05) of the odds to gain good-quality blastocyst compared to low-concentration group. The eight phthalate metabolites were not correlated to clinical pregnancy rate, live birth rate, or early miscarriage rate. There was no significant association of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites observed with any clinical outcomes in the total population. After excluding male infertility, mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) in medium-concentration group turned to be associated with a higher number of retrieved oocytes (overall P-trend = 0.04), whereas mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) in medium-concentration group was associated with a lower odds of normal fertilization compared to low-concentration group (overall P-trend = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary MBP concentration was much higher compared to other phthalate metabolites in this cohort of Chinese IVF/ICSI women, and also higher than it was reported by studies in other countries. MBP showed adverse impacts on fertilization. MMP and MEP could affect blastocyst quality, but not embryo quality on day 3. DEHP metabolites didn't show consistent reproductive toxicities as demonstrated in previous studies.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Fertilização In Vitro , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Ftálicos/urina , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fertilização/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Ácidos Ftálicos/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Ceska Gynekol ; 84(5): 351-354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We present a case of a 32-year-old female patient, tertigravid after spontaneous conception with acute pain in the abdomen. It was a heterotopic pregnancy at 12 weeks of gestation, with late manifestation of clinical symptoms. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Silesian Hospital in Opava. CONCLUSION: Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal complication of early pregnancy. The aim should be to remove the ectopic pregnancy while maintaining the vital intrauterine pregnancy. 76% of pregnancies in utero at the time of intervention for heterotopic pregnancy end in childbirth.


Assuntos
Gravidez Ectópica , Gravidez Heterotópica , Adulto , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(21): 12754-12763, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596577

RESUMO

Fertilization success is crucial for the population recruitment of an organism. However, little is known about the threat of nanoparticles (NPs) to the fertilization of broadcast spawners. Therefore, the effects of nTiO2 on fertilization success, polyspermy rate, sperm velocity, gametic DNA damage, sperm-egg collision probability, gamete fusion, and oocyte ultrastructure were investigated in a broadcast spawning bivalve, Tegillarca granosa. The results obtained show that fertilization success significantly decreased, whereas polyspermy risk markedly increased upon nTiO2 exposure. In addition, nTiO2 exposure led to a significant reduction in sperm swimming velocity, which would subsequently constrain gamete collisions. In addition, nTiO2 exposure resulted in a significant decline in gamete fusion per collision along with aggravated DNA damage in gametes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis illustrated the attachment of nTiO2 to the oocyte surface, which subsequently resulted in microvillus disassociation and plasma membrane damage. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest a significant threat from NP pollution to the recruitment of broadcast spawning invertebrates.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Fertilização , Animais , Invertebrados , Masculino , Espermatozoides
6.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 68: 127-154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598855

RESUMO

Cells are arranged into species-specific patterns during early embryogenesis. Such cell division patterns are important since they often reflect the distribution of localized cortical factors from eggs/fertilized eggs to specific cells as well as the emergence of organismal form. However, it has proven difficult to reveal the mechanisms that underlie the emergence of cell positioning patterns that underlie embryonic shape, likely because a systems-level approach is required that integrates cell biological, genetic, developmental, and mechanical parameters. The choice of organism to address such questions is also important. Because ascidians display the most extreme form of invariant cleavage pattern among the metazoans, we have been analyzing the cell biological mechanisms that underpin three aspects of cell division (unequal cell division (UCD), oriented cell division (OCD), and asynchronous cell cycles) which affect the overall shape of the blastula-stage ascidian embryo composed of 64 cells. In ascidians, UCD creates two small cells at the 16-cell stage that in turn undergo two further successive rounds of UCD. Starting at the 16-cell stage, the cell cycle becomes asynchronous, whereby the vegetal half divides before the animal half, thus creating 24-, 32-, 44-, and then 64-cell stages. Perturbing either UCD or the alternate cell division rhythm perturbs cell position. We propose that dynamic cell shape changes propagate throughout the embryo via cell-cell contacts to create the ascidian-specific invariant cleavage pattern.


Assuntos
Padronização Corporal , Divisão Celular , Embrião não Mamífero/citologia , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Urocordados/citologia , Urocordados/embriologia , Animais , Fertilização
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e16965, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574795

RESUMO

This study presents the postoperative pregnancy rate of women with recurrent endometriosis and evaluates the predictive value of the endometriosis fertility index (EFI) for the pregnancy.A total of 107 women who wished to conceive after surgery for recurrent endometriosis from January 2007 to December 2016 were included. The EFI score was calculated postoperatively. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the most promising contributor to predicting pregnancy, and Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis was used to estimate the cumulative pregnancy rate (CPR).A total of 61 pregnancies were registered in 58 women and the remaining 49 patients failed to become pregnant. The EFI score was strongly associated with the postoperative fertility prognosis. The CPRs during the first 2 and 3 years postoperatively were 51.86% and 66.38%, respectively, and increased to 71.98% within the first 5 years postoperatively in patients with EFI scores ≥5. However, the CPR was 26.00% during the first 2 years after surgery in individuals with EFI scores <5, and there was no increase in the CRP thereafter.Women suffering from recurrent endometriosis still experienced a probability of natural pregnancy, especially patients with EFI scores ≥5. The EFI score had good predictive power for postoperative pregnancy in these patients.


Assuntos
Endometriose/cirurgia , Fertilização , Índice de Massa Corporal , Endometriose/complicações , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infertilidade Feminina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Curva ROC , Recidiva , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
BMJ ; 366: l5214, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk and severity of prostate cancer between men achieving fatherhood by assisted reproduction and men conceiving naturally. DESIGN: National register based cohort study. SETTING: Sweden from January 1994 to December 2014. PARTICIPANTS: 1 181 490 children born alive in Sweden during 1994-2014 to the same number of fathers. Fathers were grouped according to fertility status by mode of conception: 20 618 by in vitro fertilisation (IVF), 14 882 by intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and 1 145 990 by natural conception. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prostate cancer diagnosis, age of onset, and androgen deprivation therapy (serving as proxy for advanced or metastatic malignancy). RESULTS: Among men achieving fatherhood by IVF, by ICSI, and by non-assisted means, 77 (0.37%), 63 (0.42%), and 3244 (0.28%), respectively, were diagnosed as having prostate cancer. Mean age at onset was 55.9, 55.1, and 57.1 years, respectively. Men who became fathers through assisted reproduction had a statistically significantly increased risk of prostate cancer compared with men who conceived naturally (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.25 to 2.15, for ICSI; 1.33, 1.06 to 1.66, for IVF). They also had an increased risk of early onset disease (that is, diagnosis before age 55 years) (hazard ratio 1.86, 1.25 to 2.77, for ICSI; 1.51, 1.09 to 2.08, for IVF). Fathers who conceived through ICSI and developed prostate cancer received androgen deprivation therapy to at least the same extent as the reference group (odds ratio 1.91; P=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Men who achieved fatherhood through assisted reproduction techniques, particularly through ICSI, are at increased risk for early onset prostate cancer and thus constitute a risk group in which testing and careful long term follow-up for prostate cancer may be beneficial.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Fertilização In Vitro/estatística & dados numéricos , Infertilidade Masculina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idade de Início , Estudos de Coortes , Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Sobrevida , Suécia/epidemiologia
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10020-10029, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477299

RESUMO

Elongation of the preimplantation conceptus is a requirement for pregnancy success in ruminants, and failures in this process are highly associated with subfertility in dairy cattle. Identifying genetic markers that are related to early conceptus development and survival and utilizing these markers in selective breeding can improve the reproductive efficiency of dairy herds. Here, we evaluated the association of 1,679 SNP markers within or close to 183 candidate genes involved in lipid metabolism of the elongating conceptus with different fertility traits in US Holstein cattle. A total of 27,371 bulls with predicted transmitting ability records for daughter pregnancy rate, cow conception rate, and heifer conception rate were used as the discovery population. The associations found in the discovery population were validated using 2 female populations (1,122 heifers and 2,138 lactating cows) each with 4 fertility traits, including success to first insemination, number of services per conception, age at first conception for heifers, or days open for cows. Marker effects were estimated using a linear mixed model with SNP genotype as a linear covariate and a random polygenic effect. After multiple testing correction, 39 SNP flagging 27 candidate genes were associated with at least one fertility trait in the discovery population. Of these 39 markers, 3 SNP were validated in the heifer population and 4 SNP were validated in the cow population. The 3 SNP validated in heifers are located within or near genes CAT, MYOF, and RBP4, and the 4 SNP validated in lactating cows are located within or close to genes CHKA, GNAI1, and HMOX2. These validated genes seem to be relevant for reducing pregnancy losses, and the SNP within these genes are excellent candidates for inclusion in genomic tests to improve reproductive performance in dairy cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Reprodução , Seleção Artificial , Animais , Blastocisto , Bovinos/embriologia , Feminino , Fertilização , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Inseminação , Lactação/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 9435-9457, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421872

RESUMO

The performance of dairy herds is affected mainly by factors related to cows' characteristics and herd management practices. However, these factors are interrelated, and as such, the estimation of their individual effect on the performance of dairy herds remains difficult. The aim of this study was to estimate the weight of these factors as well the interactions between them on the reproductive and economic performance of dairy farms. A stochastic dynamic model was used to simulate most physiological and management processes occurring on a dairy farm. A herd of 60 Holstein cows, with a milk yield of 8,000 L/cow-year, representative of French Holstein dairy herds, was simulated. A total of 216 scenarios were run by combining 2 levels of postpartum cyclicity resumption (average: 45 d, high: 75 d), 3 levels of 21-d conception rate of the herd (i.e., proportion of cows pregnant 21 d after insemination; low: 25%, average: 45%, high: 70%), 3 levels of probability of pregnancy loss until 120 d (low: 3%, average: 15%, high: 43%), 3 levels of sensitivity of estrus detection by the farmer (low: 20%, average: 50%, high: 90%), 2 alternative managerial goals (constant number of cows or constant volume of milk sold), and 2 types of management for the sale and purchase of animals (closed or open herd). The effect of each factor was estimated by sensitivity analysis. The parameter that had the greatest effect on reproductive performance was the sensitivity of estrus detection: a 10-percentage-point increase between the low and average levels and between the average and high levels reduced the calving interval by 16 and 5.7 d, respectively. However, the factor that had the greatest effect on economic performance was the 21-d conception rate: a 10-percentage-point increase between the low and average levels and between the average and high levels increased the gross margin by €62.2 and €22.3/cow-year, respectively. The pregnancy loss until 120 d had an effect on economic performance: an increase of 1 percentage point of this parameter decreased the gross margin by €2/cow-year. The other factors studied, and their interactions, did not have a major effect (low value of sensitivity indices). Closed herds or farms with a constant number of cows had economic losses of €58/cow-year compared with open herds or to farms with constant volume of milk sold. Altogether, our data suggest that, in a typical French dairy farm, farmers' efforts on estrus detection will be more profitable when associated with improvement of the conception rate of the cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fertilidade , Leite/economia , Reprodução , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios/economia , Detecção do Estro , Fazendas , Feminino , Fertilização , Inseminação , Gravidez
11.
Bioethics ; 33(9): 1085-1090, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437866

RESUMO

In a recent publication Tom Douglas and Katrien Devolder have proposed a new account of genetic parenthood, building on the work of Heidi Mertes. Douglas and Devolder's account aims to solve, among other things, the question of who are the genetic parents of an individual created through somatic cell nuclear transfer (i.e. cloning): (a) the nuclear DNA provider or (b) the progenitors of the nuclear DNA provider. Such a question cannot be answered by simply appealing to the folk account of genetic parenthood, according to which the genetic parents of an individual are those individuals who produced the egg and sperm, respectively, which fused to create the embryo. It cannot be so as in cloning there is no fertilization as such. In this article I critically examine Douglas and Devolder's new account of genetic parenthood and demonstrate that it is vulnerable to counterexamples that exploit the lack of a condition specifying that genetic parents should cause a child's coming into existence.


Assuntos
Pais , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Criança , Clonagem de Organismos , Fertilização , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461857

RESUMO

Precise sensor-based non-destructive estimation of crop nitrogen (N) status is essential for low-cost, objective optimization of N fertilization, as well as for early estimation of yield potential and N use efficiency. Several studies assessed the performance of spectral vegetation indices (SVI) for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), often either for conditions of low N status or across a wide range of the target traits N uptake (Nup), N concentration (NC), dry matter biomass (DM), and N nutrition index (NNI). This study aimed at a critical assessment of the estimation ability depending on the level of the target traits. It included seven years' data with nine measurement dates from early stem elongation until flowering in eight N regimes (0-420 kg N ha-1) for selected SVIs. Tested across years, a pronounced date-specific clustering was found particularly for DM and NC. While for DM, only the R900_970 gave moderate but saturated relationships (R2 = 0.47, p < 0.001) and no index was useful for NC across dates, NNI and Nup could be better estimated (REIP: R2 = 0.59, p < 0.001 for both traits). Tested within growth stages across N levels, the order of the estimation of the traits was mostly Nup ≈ NNI > NC ≈ DM. Depending on the number (n = 1-3) and characteristic of cultivars included, the relationships improved when testing within instead of across cultivars, with the relatively lowest cultivar effect on the estimation of DM and the strongest on NC. For assessing the trait estimation under conditions of high-excessive N fertilization, the range of the target traits was divided into two intervals with NNI values < 0.8 (interval 1: low N status) and with NNI values > 0.8 (interval 2: high N status). Although better estimations were found in interval 1, useful relationships were also obtained in interval 2 from the best indices (DM: R780_740: average R2 = 0.35, RMSE = 567 kg ha-1; NC: REIP: average R2 = 0.40, RMSE = 0.25%; NNI: REIP: average R2 = 0.46, RMSE = 0.10; Nup: REIP: average R2 = 0.48, RMSE = 21 kg N ha-1). While in interval 1, all indices performed rather similarly, the three red edge-based indices were clearly better suited for the three N-related traits. The results are promising for applying SVIs also under conditions of high N status, aiming at detecting and avoiding excessive N use. While in canopies of lower N status, the use of simple NIR/VIS indices may be sufficient without losing much precision, the red edge information appears crucial for conditions of higher N status. These findings can be transferred to the configuration and use of simpler multispectral sensors under conditions of contrasting N status in precision farming.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Fertilização , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 154, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes that encode proteins associated with sperm competition, fertilization, and sexual conflicts of interest are often among the most rapidly evolving parts of animal genomes. One family of sperm-expressed genes (Zp3r, C4bpa) in the mammalian gene cluster called the regulator of complement activation (RCA) encodes proteins that bind eggs and mediate reproductive success, and are therefore expected to show high relative rates of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitution in response to sexual selection in comparison to other genes not involved in gamete binding at fertilization. We tested that working hypothesis by using phylogenetic models of codon evolution to identify episodes of diversifying positive selection. We used a comparative approach to quantify the evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting on RCA genes with known functions in fertilization (and sensitivity to sexual selection), and contrast them with other RCA genes in the same gene family that function in innate immunity (and are not sensitive to sexual selection). RESULTS: We expected but did not find evidence for more episodes of positive selection on Zp3r in Glires (the rodents and lagomorphs) or on C4BPA in Primates, in comparison to other paralogous RCA genes in the same taxon, or in comparison to the same orthologous RCA gene in the other taxon. That result was not unique to RCA genes: we also found little evidence for more episodes of diversifying selection on genes that encode selective sperm-binding molecules in the egg coat or zona pellucida (Zp2, Zp3) in comparison to members of the same gene family that encode structural elements of the egg coat (Zp1, Zp4). Similarly, we found little evidence for episodic diversifying selection acting on two other recently discovered genes (Juno, Izumo1) that encode essential molecules for sperm-egg fusion. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results help to illustrate the importance of a comparative context for this type of codon model analysis. The results may also point to other phylogenetic contexts in which the effects of selection acting on these fertilization proteins might be more readily discovered and documented in mammals and other taxa.


Assuntos
Epistasia Genética , Evolução Molecular , Fertilização/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Animais , Códon/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
14.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 157-164, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331514

RESUMO

Toxopneustes roseus performs a key role in the eastern tropical Pacific as a strategic herbivore and bioturbation promoter. We evaluated the effect of temperature on the fertilization success, embryonic development and larval survival of T. roseus under laboratory conditions, to understand how the increase in ocean temperature could affect it in a global warming. The highest percentage of fertilization occurred in gametes that were exposed to 30 °C, and a significant negative effect of 32 °C was evidenced by the lowest percentage. There was also a deleterious effect in embryos exposed to 32 °C, resulting in an abnormal development at all the time points. The highest percentage of larval survival occurred at 30 °C, while the lowest percentage occurred at 32 °C. The results suggest that T. roseus probably lives near its upper thermal limit, and future ocean warming could threaten the permanence of the species in the eastern tropical Pacific, or at least lead to contraction or fragmentation of its range limits. Therefore if sea temperature rises globally, it could cause the disappearance of these populations that are living at the edge of their thermal tolerance, but for other populations located in more temperate latitudes, it could propitiate favorable conditions for fertilization and survival of embryos and larvae.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização , Temperatura Alta , Ouriços-do-Mar/fisiologia , Animais , Ouriços-do-Mar/embriologia , Ouriços-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Termotolerância
15.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 47-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331524

RESUMO

In the process of selecting and developing freshwater aquaculture species, yellow catfish (Tachysurus fulvidraco) have received widespread attention from Chinese farmers, fishery scientists and technologists. Achieving full artificial breeding of yellow catfish would help improve the quantity and quality of fingerlings supplied for large-scale production of this species. Temperature (T) and dissolved oxygen (DO) are the most important abiotic factors affecting the breeding efficiency of aquatic organisms. In this study, the synergistic effects of T and DO on fertilization rate (FR, %), hatching rate (HR, %) and deformity rate (DR, %) of hybrid yellow catfish (T. fulvidraco♀ × Pseudobagrus vachellii♂) were studied by central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology. A quadratic regression model for the effects of T and DO on FR, HR and DR was established, and the combination of T and DO was optimized. The first and second order effects of T and DO on FR and HR were significant under the conditions of this experiment (P < 0.05). The first and second order effects of T on DR were significant (P < 0.05) but there was no significant effect of DO on DR (P > 0.05). T and DO had significant interaction effects on FR (P < 0.05). High T and high DO environments reduced FR and HR of yellow catfish eggs and increased DR of the newly hatched larvae. The optimal combination of T and DO was 26.0 °C and 8.3 mgL-1, respectively. Maximum FR and HR coincided with minimal DR whose predicted values were 87.2%, 89.1% and 2.7%, respectively, with reliability of 0.979. Maintaining T and DO in the best combination will help to improve breeding efficiency and ensure production of the highest quantity and quality of fingerlings.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Fertilização , Modelos Teóricos , Oxigênio/efeitos adversos , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Peixes-Gato/embriologia , Peixes-Gato/genética , Hibridização Genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3086, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300655

RESUMO

Mammalian fertilisation begins when sperm interacts with the egg zona pellucida (ZP), whose ZP1 subunit is important for fertility by covalently cross-linking ZP filaments into a three-dimensional matrix. Like ZP4, a structurally-related component absent in the mouse, ZP1 is predicted to contain an N-terminal ZP-N domain of unknown function. Here we report a characterisation of ZP1 proteins carrying mutations from infertile patients, which suggests that, in human, filament cross-linking by ZP1 is crucial to form a stable ZP. We map the function of ZP1 to its ZP-N1 domain and determine crystal structures of ZP-N1 homodimers from a chicken homolog of ZP1. These reveal that ZP filament cross-linking is highly plastic and can be modulated by ZP1 fucosylation and, potentially, zinc sparks. Moreover, we show that ZP4 ZP-N1 forms non-covalent homodimers in chicken but not in human. Together, these data identify human ZP1 cross-links as a promising target for non-hormonal contraception.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Feminina/genética , Domínios Proteicos/fisiologia , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Zona Pelúcida/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Fertilização/fisiologia , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/ultraestrutura , Alinhamento de Sequência , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/genética , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteínas da Zona Pelúcida/ultraestrutura
17.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(9): 8184-8196, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279556

RESUMO

Genetic evaluation of female fertility in Danish, Finnish, and Swedish dairy cows was updated in 2015 to multiple-trait animal model evaluation, where heifer and cow fertility up to third parity are considered as separate traits. A model for conception rate was also developed, which required variance component estimation for Nordic Holstein and Nordic Red Dairy Cattle. We used a multiple-trait multiple-lactation sire model to determine variance components for interval from calving to first insemination, length of service period, and conception rate. Monte Carlo Expectation Maximization REML allowed estimation of all 11 traits simultaneously. Study data were sampled from Swedish Holstein (n = 140,040) and Red Dairy Cattle (n = 101,315) heifers and cows. Conception rate observations are binomial observations with various numbers of failures preceding an observation of success. Using a simulation study, we confirmed that including a service number effect into the conception rate model allowed us to model the change in expectation of successful AI with increasing number of services. Heifers outperformed cows in all fertility traits according to the phenotypic means in the records. Heritabilities for the traits varied from 3 to 7% for interval from calving to first insemination, from 1 to 5% for length of service period, and from 1 to 3% for conception rate. Genetic correlations within traits (i.e., between parities) were favorable, ranging from moderate to high; genetic correlations between heifer and cow traits were lower than between cow traits in different parities. Lowest genetic correlations between traits were for interval from calving to first insemination and conception rate, intermediate for interval from calving to first insemination and length of service period, and highest for length of service period and conception rate. The variance components estimated in this study have been used in Nordic fertility breeding value evaluations since 2016.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Fertilidade/genética , Paridade/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Fertilização/genética , Lactação , Modelos Estatísticos , Gravidez
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217261, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166964

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Globally, awareness of the relevance of both medical and non-medical risk factors influencing growth and development of children has been increasing. The aim of our study was to develop an innovative postnatal risk assessment to be used by the Preventive Child Healthcare (PCHC) to identify at an early stage children at risk for growth (catch-up growth, overweight and obesity) and developmental problems (such as motor, cognitive, psychosocial and language/ speech problems). METHODS: We used the first four steps of the Intervention Mapping process. Step 1: Review of the literature and focus group discussions. Step 2: Identification of program objectives on how to develop and implement a risk assessment in PCHC daily practice. Step 3: Application of the ASE model to initiate behavioral change in the target group. Step 4: Development of the postnatal R4U and a program plan for the implementation in PCHC organizations. RESULTS: Subsequently in 2015, the 41 item postnatal R4U (the postnatal Rotterdam Reproduction Risk Reduction checklist) was developed according to steps one until four of the Intervention Mapping process and was implemented in four PCHC organizations. CONCLUSIONS: It was feasible to design and implement a postnatal risk assessment identifying both medical and non-medical risks for growth and developmental problems, using the Intervention Mapping process.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Medição de Risco/métodos , Criança , Fertilização , Humanos , Parto
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