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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339391

RESUMO

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.


Assuntos
Animais , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Fósforo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Larva , Nitrogênio
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13478, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931693

RESUMO

Drought stress and the scarcity of nitrogen fertilizer are two of the important abiotic factors affecting maize growth. Bio-char can enhance the maize yield. Therefore, two field experiments were carried out in the 2 years (2019-2020) to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer at three levels and four levels of bio-char on endogenous protective enzymes, dry matter accumulation, and yield of the maize 'Xianyu 335' under two different irrigation methods. A split-plot system in three replications was established to conduct the field trials. Two irrigation methods (Regular irrigation and Irregular irrigation) were in the main plots, three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 150, 300 kg h-1 m2) were in sub-plots, and four bio-char levels (0, 8, 16, 24 t h-1 m-2) were in the sub-sub plots. Each sub-plot consisted of 9 rows with 5 m length and 0.6 m width, and each sub-plot area was 30 m2 in the 2 years. The results indicated that the irrigation methods, the nitrogen, and bio-char supply significantly affected the maize endogenous protective enzymes, dry matter accumulation, and yield in the 2 years. Under the same irrigation method, nitrogen fertilizer and bio-char significantly improved the endogenous protective enzyme activity, dry matter accumulation, and yield of maize compared to the treatment without nitrogen fertilizer and bio-char. The above characteristics improved with increased bio-char supply and nitrogen fertilization at 150 kg h-1 m-2. The treatment of C24N150 recorded the highest values for the parameters of maize endogenous protective enzymes activity, dry matter accumulation, and yield under different irrigation methods during the two harvest seasons.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Água , Zea mays
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13372, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927453

RESUMO

The ecological environment of the hilly and gully area of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi is fragile and the soil fertility is low. As a result, the yield and quality of Pear-jujube which constitute one of the dominant economic forests in this region, have been severely restricted. At present, the scientific application of fertilizer is important for comprehensively improving the quality of fruit trees, and for devising the optimal management of fruit trees. In particular, the application of organic fertilizers plays an important role in improving soil and improving fruit quality. In this experiment, a field study was conducted to understand the effects of different organic fertilizer applications on physiological growth, photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive growth and nutritional quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau. The results showed that organic fertilizer significantly promoted the physiological growth of Pear-jujube. The Pear-jujube bearing branch and leaf area under the soybean cake fertilizer (SC) treatment were 20.17 cm and 1246 mm2/leaf, respectively, which are increased by 34% and 44.46% compared with the no fertilizer treatment, which was a control check (CK). The total chlorophyll content of fertilization treatment was significantly higher than that of CK (P < 0.05). The maximum of chlorophyll content was 10.90 mg/dm2 under the biogas fertilizer (BM). The content of LAI was in the order BM > conventional fertilizer (CF) > sheep manure (SM) > SC > CK. The changing trend of gap fraction was opposite to that of LAI, and the density of light was consistent with that of LAI. The density of light BM was the largest, reached 38.06 mol/(m2 d), which was 15.13% higher than that of CK. Organic fertilizer significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUEp) of Pear-jujube. The WUEp of SC was up to 3.30%. Organic fertilizer significantly promoted the reproductive growth and improved the nutritional quality of Pear-jujube. The yield under the SC was 19,177 kg/hm2, increased by 138.5% compared with that of CK. The fruit water content (FWC), total soluble solids (TSS), solid-acid ratio (TSS/TA), Vc and total flavonoids content improved, and the maxima of FWC, TSS, TSS/TA, Vc and total flavonoids content under the SC treatment were 86.30%, 18.48%, 40.17, 46.18 mg/kg and 14.35 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly different from those of CK (P < 0.05). Organic fertilization effectively promotes the growth, development, yield and fruit quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau and the effect of the soybean cake fertilizer is the most significant.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Ziziphus , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , China , Clorofila , Fertilizantes , Flavonoides , Florestas , Frutas , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Solo , Água
4.
Immunity ; 55(8): 1336-1339, 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947977

RESUMO

Fibroblasts strongly impact tumor progression, but whether they prime the pre-metastatic niche is poorly understood. In this issue of Immunity, Gong and Li et al. identify lung-specific immunosuppressive fibroblasts, which are hijacked by breast cancer cells to facilitate metastasis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Melanoma , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Solo , Microambiente Tumoral
5.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4271-4281, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971723

RESUMO

The impacts of silicon (Si) fertilizers on cadmium (Cd) bioavailability in soil and Cd accumulation in paddy-rice plants were investigated in a field positioning test. The results indicated that the continuous application of 180 kg·hm-2 Si fertilizers improved soil bioavailable Si in paddy-rice fields by 108.1%-275.0% and improved pH values by 1.15-1.33 in soil. The difference in the contents of DTPA-Cd in soil by 12.3% and 15.9% was significant in early and late rice, respectively. The continuous application of silicon promoted the transformation of soil cadmium to a stable form and reduced the contents of exchangeable Cd and carbonate binding state Cd in the soil by 2.6%-5.1% and 8.6%-24.9%. The contents of ferric manganese oxide binding state Cd were increased significantly; meanwhile, the contents of organic binding state Cd and residue state Cd in soil were improved by 2.3%-12.8% and 2.3%-6.0%, respectively. The contents of Cd in the root, shoot, and rice were reduced by 38.4%, 49.7%, and 50.9% in early season rice and by 30.6%, 34.4%, and 39.2% in late season rice, respectively. The absorption factors and translocation factors were reduced significantly by 25.5%-49.6% and 13.5%-52.6%, and the average bioaccumulation factors were decreased by 6.0% and 8.0% in early and late season rice. The powder Si fertilizer had the best results overall. In conclusion, Si fertilizer could reduce the absorption and accumulation in rice; however, the continuous Cd reduction effect of continuous application Si fertilizer was not obvious.


Assuntos
Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/metabolismo , Silício , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4322-4332, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971728

RESUMO

In order to investigate the effects of furrow and ridge rainwater harvesting, straw mulching, and reduced and slow-release fertilizer on soil microbial community structure of rapeseed, a two-year field study was conducted in rainy (2016-2017) and drought (2017-2018) seasons, which included three cultivation patterns:1 conventional flat planting, 2 straw mulching, and 3 ridge-furrow rainfall harvesting system and four fertilization patterns:1 conventional fertilization (100% of the amount), 2 reduced slow-release fertilizer Ⅰ (80% of the amount), 3 reduced slow-release fertilizer Ⅱ (60% of the amount), and 4 no fertilizer. The results indicated that it was rainy in 2016-2017, with seasonal drought during the nutritional growth stage in 2017-2018. The two technologies (straw mulching+80% slow-release fertilizer, J80 and ridge-furrow rainfall harvesting system+80% slow-release fertilizer, M80) were beneficial to boost the soil microbial activity. J80 and M80 increased the microbial biomass carbon by 9.94% and 10.32% and microbial biomass nitrogen by 2.38% and 1.19%, respectively, compared with that of the local cultivation pattern under two different climate conditions. The total amount of microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) decreased by 30.75% in the rainy year compared with that in the drought year, and mulching technology could effectively increase the total amount of soil PLFA. The PLFA contents of soil bacteria and fungi in the rainy year were 33.67% and 53.21%, respectively, lower than those in the drought year. However, the PLFA content of actinomycetes increased by 13.04%. Microbial communities were sensitive to abnormal precipitation. The bacteria/fungi ratio increased in rainy weather. The drought climate heighted the ratio of straight chain saturated fatty acid/straight chain monounsaturated fatty acid and straight chain monounsaturated fatty acid/cyclopropane acid. In conclusion, adopting the optimal cultivation technologies can stabilize the soil microenvironment under abnormal precipitation, relieve water and nutrient stress, and provide an effective means for rapeseed sustainable development.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Brassica rapa , Microbiota , Agricultura , Bactérias , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados , Fertilizantes , Fungos , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4372-4378, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971733

RESUMO

Long-term straw returning to the field changes the environmental conditions of rice paddy soil, which affects the mineralization and priming effect of residual rice roots in the soil, but the direction and intensity of its influence is not clear. Therefore, based on a long-term fertilization field experiment, 13C-CO2 isotopic labeling technology and laboratorial incubation were used to analyze the characteristics of mineralization of rice roots and native soil organic carbon, the intensity and direction of the priming effect, and the source partitioning of CO2 emissions in three treatments, consisting of no fertilization (CK), chemical fertilizer (CF), and straw returning with chemical fertilizer (CFS). The results showed that after 120 days of flooding incubation, the root residue (R) increased the cumulative CO2 emissions by 617.41-726.27 mg·kg-1. The cumulative CO2 emissions from roots and root mineralized proportions in the CFS+R and CF+R treatments were 470.82 and 444.04 mg·kg-1, respectively, and 18.8% and 17.8%, respectively. These were significantly higher than those in the CK+R treatment (384.19 mg·kg-1, 15.4%). There was no significant difference in the cumulative CO2 emissions from native soil organic carbon among the three treatments. However, the mineralized proportion of native soil organic carbon in the CFS+R treatment (4.2%) was significantly lower than that in the CF+R and CK+R treatments (5.4% and 5.8%). The priming effect in the CFS+R treatment was 29.6%, which was significantly lower than that in the CK+R treatment (42.5%) and higher than that in the CF+R treatment (14.4%). A total of 23.47% to 27.59% of the cumulative CO2 emission of the flooded paddy soil was from the roots, and the remainder was from the soil. In addition, the proportion of CO2 emission caused by the priming effect was smaller in the CFS+R treatment than that in the CK+R treatment and larger than that in the CF+R treatment. In summary, the long-term straw returning in the flooded paddy soil will increase the mineralization potential of rice roots, but it is more conducive to the stability of the native soil organic carbon.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Oryza , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Fertilizantes/análise , Oryza/química , Solo/química
8.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4379-4386, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971734

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the effects of straw returning combined with biochar application on summer maize yield and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, based on a field location trial in the Guanzhong Plain from 2019 to 2020. The soil N2O emission rates were monitored using the static chamber-chromatography method. A comprehensive analysis of summer maize yields, soil N2O emissions, and soil labile nitrogen components was conducted to clarify the effects of straw returning combined with biochar application on improving soil fertility, increasing summer maize yield, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The three treatments were no straw returning (S0), straw returning (S), and straw returning combined with biochar application (SB). The results showed that the peak of N2O emissions from each treatment occurred 10 d after the straw return, and the rate of soil N2O emissions remained at a low level after 30 d of straw return. The rate of soil N2O emissions showed highly significant positive correlations (P<0.05) with ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), inorganic nitrogen (SIN), microbial nitrogen (MBN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contents. S significantly increased summer maize yield, cumulative N2O emissions, yield-scaled N2O intensity, and total nitrogen (TN) content by 7.4%-13%, 65.8%-132.2%, 54.6%-103%, and 27.8%-33%, respectively, compared to those in S0. Although the trend for SB to increase summer maize yield (2.5%-3.3%) compared to that in S was not significant (P>0.05), SB significantly reduced cumulative N2O emissions and yield-scaled N2O intensity by 24.0%-27.3% and 26.4%-29.2%, respectively, compared to that in S. SB significantly reduced the rate of soil N2O emissions by 45.1%-69.6% at the peak of N2O emissions compared to that in S. Biochar application mitigated soil N2O emissions induced by straw return and had a peak-shaving effect. SB significantly increased soil total N by 9.1%-12.2% compared to that in S. Combining summer maize yield, soil N2O emissions, and TN content, SB not only improved soil fertility and summer maize yield but also reduced yield-scaled N2O intensity, making it a suitable management practice that can be replicated to balance crop yield and environmental friendliness.


Assuntos
Solo , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química , Triticum
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13367, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922538

RESUMO

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and small red bean [Vigna angularis (Willd. Ohwi & Ohashi)] are the main ingredients of walnut-shaped "Hodugwaja". An innovative wheat small red bean double cropping system was evaluated in a rice field in the Cheonan region (Korea) to determine its effect on land use. The effects of different nitrogen levels, sowing dates, and density on growth, yield, and quality of wheat and small red bean were also investigated using selected wheat ('Keumgang', 'Sooan', and 'Goso') and small red bean ('Hongeon', 'Chungju', and 'Arari') varieties. The effect of different fertilizer treatments [N1 (50%, 6.6 kg/10a), N2 (100%, 8.8 kg/10a), and N3 (200%, 13.2 kg/10a)] were investigated for wheat, while the effect of sowing date and density were investigated for the small red beans. Our findings revealed that the best variety, sowing date, and nitrogen level combination for wheat small red bean double cropping system in Cheonan area is 'Goso' sown on October 26, N3 nitrogen application, and 'Chungju' sown on July 10 with high ridge cultivation, at a density of 60 × 15 cm. This system was the most ideal yielding 521.6 kg/10a (1000 m2) and 275 kg/10a of 'Goso' and 'Chungju', respectively. This pioneering research provides a reliable cultivation plan and theoretical basis for implementing the double cropping system of wheat small red beans in central Korea. Undeniably, this study also provides a basis for future field experiments on wheat planting patterns and small red bean fertilization.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Oryza , Agricultura , Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Triticum
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(15)2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35957475

RESUMO

Application of bio-based fertilizers is considered a practical solution to enhance soil fertility and maintain soil quality. However, the composition of bio-based fertilizers needs to be quantified before their application to the soil. Non-destructive techniques such as near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) are generally used to quantify the composition of bio-based fertilizers in a speedy and cost-effective manner. However, the prediction performances of these techniques need to be quantified before deployment. With this motive, this study investigates the potential of these techniques to characterize a diverse set of bio-based fertilizers for 25 different properties including nutrients, minerals, heavy metals, pH, and EC. A partial least square model with wavelength selection is employed to estimate each property of interest. Then a model averaging, approach is tested to examine if combining model outcomes of NIR with MIR could improve the prediction performances of these sensors. In total, 17 of the 25 elements could be predicted to have a good performance status using individual spectral methods. Combining model outcomes of NIR with MIR resulted in an improvement, increasing the number of properties that could be predicted from 17 to 21. Most notably the improvement in prediction performance was observed for Cd, Cr, Zn, Al, Ca, Fe, S, Cu, Ec, and Na. It was concluded that the combined use of NIR and MIR spectral methods can be used to monitor the composition of a diverse set of bio-based fertilizers.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Metais Pesados , Fertilizantes/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Solo/química , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 4175218, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35958794

RESUMO

Human activities have considerably increased nitrogen intake into waterways, resulting in the deterioration of water quality. The state of surface water requires special consideration in light of the water crisis caused by nitrogen pollution. In this study, the natural abundance of the nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15N) is measured and sampled in sediments and compared with the total dissolved nitrogen (DN) in four main Chinese tributaries of Hun River upper reach, including the Dasuhe, Beisanjia, Beikouqian, and Nanzamu tributaries. Results show that for the Dasuhe and Nankouqian tributaries, the δ 15N values of sediment samples in 2016 are all significantly higher than previous values in 2011. In the Dasuhe tributary, this change is attributed to the promotion of organic agricultural production under which chemical fertilizers are replaced by organic fertilizers. For the δ 15N values of the sediment in the Nankouqian tributary, the construction of the municipal sewer system and wastewater treatment facilities are the causes of this rising trend. The δ 15N values of nitrate released by facilities could be raised by microbial denitrification that is employed in the tertiary treatment process. Most of the δ 15N values of the sediments are distributed between soil and manure, indicating that nitrogen in the river water mainly comes from agriculture. All the surveyed tributaries except Dasuhe show a significant increase in DN. In addition, a significant positive correlation between the change ratio of the farmland area and DN in river water is observed, suggesting that the increase in nitrogen in river water from 2011 to 2016 is due to agriculture. Based on the abovementioned data, this study provides a basis for local governments to formulate management measures.


Assuntos
Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11513, 2022 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798801

RESUMO

Gravel and sand mulching is an indigenous technology that has been used for increasing soil temperature and improving crop yield and water use efficiency for at least 300 years in northwestern China. However, long-term application of inorganic fertilizer with gravel and sand mulch could decrease the soil organic carbon content, and how to improve soil fertility under gravel and sand mulching remains largely unknown. Thus, we evaluated the effects of the application of inorganic (chemical) and organic (manure) fertilizers on the distribution of soil aggregates and their associated organic carbon in a field mulched with gravel and sand. A 5-year (2014-2018) field experiment was conducted in the arid region of northwestern China. Total organic carbon (TOC), permanganate oxidizable carbon (POC), TOC reserves in soil aggregates with different particle sizes, and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) productivity in gravel-mulched fields were analysed for the following six fertilization modes: no N fertilizer input as a control (CK), N fertilizer without organic fertilizer (CF), and organic fertilizer replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of mineral nitrogen (recorded as OF-25%, OF-50%, OF-75% and OF-100%, respectively). The results showed that, higher manure to nitrogen fertilizer ratios were positively correlated with the percentage of soil macroaggregates (> 0.25 mm), mean weight diameter (MWD), TOC and POC concentrations, and their ratios in different particle sizes. Compared with CF, the treatments with 50% to 100% organic fertilizer significantly increased TOC storage (5.91-7.84%) in the soil profile (0-20 cm). Moreover, the CF treatment did not increase SOC concentrations or TOC storage, compared with CK. The fruit yield (2014-2018) of watermelon significantly increased by an average of 31.38% to 45.70% in the treatments with 50% to 100% organic fertilizer, respectively, compared with CF. Our results suggest that the partial replacement of chemical fertilizer with organic manure (OF-50%, OF-75% and OF-100%) could increase the proportion of macroaggregates, POC and TOC concentrations, and TOC stock in aggregates with different particle size and improve the yield of watermelon in the gravel fields of arid northwestern China mulched with gravel and sand.


Assuntos
Citrullus , Fertilizantes , Agricultura/métodos , Carbono/química , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Areia , Solo/química
13.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0266886, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862389

RESUMO

The winter maize area is rapidly spreading in south India in response to rising demand from the poultry and fish feed industries due to the absence of major environmental constraints. Further farmers' are using the winter environment to expand maize area and production. Hence there is immense potential to increase the area under winter maize cultivation. There were no planned field experiments to explore and optimize the right time of sowing and quantity of fertilizer to be added previously due to the presence of negligible winter maize area. Farmers used to cultivate maize as per their choice of sowing time with the application of a quantity of fertilizer recommended for rainy season maize. There were no efforts made towards working on economic analysis including energy budgeting. And hence the investigation was conducted with the objective to explore the optimal planting period and fertilizer levels for winter maize through economic and energy budgeting. Planting windows (1st week of October, 2nd week of October, 3rd week of October, 4th week of October, and 5th week of October) and fertility levels (100 percent recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF), 150 percent RDF, and 200 percent RDF) were used as factors in Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The present investigation revealed that significantly higher winter maize productivity was achieved from the first and second week of October planting along with the application of 200% RDF (recommended dose of fertilizer) followed by 150% RDF. Planting of winter maize during the first week of October recorded significantly higher grain yield (8786kg ha-1) and stover yield (1220 kg ha-1) and was found on par with sowing during the second week of October. Among fertility levels, significantly higher grain yield (8320 kg ha -1) and stover yield (1195 kg ha-1) was recorded with the application of 200% RDF and were found on par with the application of 150% RDF. Further interaction effect showed that higher dry matter production, more days for physiological maturity, higher accumulation of growing degree days, photothermal units, and heliothermal units were recorded from crops planted during the first and second week of October along with the application of either 200% or 150% RDF. However, higher nutrient use efficiency was recorded from the first and second week of October planted crop supplied with lower fertility level (100% RDF). Similarly, significantly higher net returns and gross returns, output energy, net energy, and specific energy were higher from crops planted during the first week of planting along with the application of 200% RDF. Whereas, energy use efficiency and energy productivity were higher with the first week of October planted crop applied with 100% RDF. From the overall interaction, it is recommended to plant winter maize during the first fortnight of October with the application of 150 percent RDF for sustaining higher maize productivity, energy output, and economics in the maize growing area of south India.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível/química , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Estações do Ano
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(9): 612, 2022 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881258

RESUMO

The present study assesses the environmental and Land Use Landcover (LULC) changes in the Soan Basin, western Himalaya between 1999 and 2015 and their impacts on groundwater quality and static water level (SWL). An increase in the area of agricultural land (19%), settlement (~ 300%), and dense forest (25%) at the expense of open forest and waste cum grazing land was observed subsequently since the year 1999. SWL was lowered in the basin between 1999 and 2013 due to less groundwater recharge with decreased permeable surfaces and decreased rainfall, except in a few locations in the valley fill region plausibly due to the secondary recharge through seepages, infiltration of irrigational wastewater, and waterlogging in the agricultural fields. A continuous lowering of SWL after 2015, even after increasing the rain amount significantly, indicates overexploitation of groundwater in the region. Enhanced use of fertilizers has resulted in an increased concentration of Na+ and Cl- ions in groundwater. The results are further substantiated by comparing the hydrochemical data for the years 1999 and 2015, which again indicate the high concentration of Na+ and Cl- ions due to waterlogging. From 1999 to 2015, nitrate (average 12.8 mg/l to 16 mg/l) and fluoride concentration (average 0.3 to 0.9) have also increased because of the excessive use of fertilizers in the agricultural fields. The increasing trend of nitrate concentrations in water in successive years since 1994 supports the changes observed in an agricultural pattern in LULC maps for the years 1999, 2009, and 2015. The results divulge that the groundwater quality of the basin has been deteriorating due to an increase in agricultural practices and demands for appropriate water management practices.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes , Florestas , Nitratos/análise , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
15.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0271383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857812

RESUMO

The aim of the research was to evaluate fertilization technologies for the indicators of the quality and quantity of highbush blueberry yield. In the experiment, a similar level of mineral fertilization was used in all treatments. The experiment was to show the differences between fertilization with biostimulation and without biostimulation. The research was carried out in two seasons (2019-2020) on ´Bluecrop` shrubs growing in the Blueberry Experimental Field in central Poland (51° 55'42.7 "N 20° 59'28.7" E). Shrubs grow at a distance of 1 x 3 m. Plants are rejuvenated every year in spring and irrigated by drip. The experiment was carried out in a random block design (4 fertilizer treatments x 5 replications x 6 bushes). The experiment assessed the effect of fertilization on yield, berry mass, fruit setting, leaf surface and physicochemical parameters of fruit. Based on the conducted research, it was proved that the applied fertilization technologies had a significant impact on the size and quality of the yield of "Bluecrop" highbush blueberry. Particularly noteworthy is the fertilization technology with biostimulation (treatment T4), which has a positive effect on the yield, fruit mass, percentage of setting and firmness of the berries. Analysis of the issue in the light of the results of the conducted research shows that the use of biostimulated products has an important impact on the intensification of production while maintaining good quality of fruits. Through research, the positive effect of fertilization programs with biostimulation (treatment T4) on the most important production parameters of blueberry fruit from the producer's point of view has been proven.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta) , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/fisiologia , Fertilização , Fertilizantes , Frutas , Polônia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886493

RESUMO

The eco-efficiency of rice production is an important indicator in the measurement of sustainable rice development. Scientific evaluation of the eco-efficiency of rice production facilitates accurate evaluation of the real level of rice ecosystems to realize efficient utilization of agricultural resources. This paper measured the eco-efficiency of farms growing rice using both the life cycle assessment (LCA) and the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methods based on survey data from 370 farms mainly growing rice conducted in 2020 in the Hubei Province, the middle reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Then, sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis were carried out on the comprehensive index of the rice environmental impact and eco-efficiency of rice production, respectively. The results indicate that the comprehensive index of the rice environmental impact was 2.0971. Water toxicity, soil toxicity and eutrophication were the main influencing factors. The mean value of the eco-efficiency reached 0.51. More specifically, the proportion of farms in the low-, middle- and high-efficiency groups was 87.03%, 1.89% and 11.08%, respectively, with mean values up to 0.42, 0.86 and 1.14, respectively. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the pesticide sensitivity was higher than the fertilizer sensitivity in terms of the environmental impact sensitivity of rice systems. When comprehensively considering environmental and economic benefits, the fertilizer sensitivity was higher than that of pesticides. Moreover, reducing the application of both fertilizers and pesticides by 50% could promote the eco-efficiency of rice production systems by 6%, and the value could reach 0.54. Thus, reducing the application of fertilizers and pesticides and improving the utilization efficiency are effective ways to improve green rice production.


Assuntos
Oryza , Praguicidas , Agricultura/métodos , China , Ecossistema , Fertilizantes/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Rios
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35886559

RESUMO

The application of iron powder stimulated the growth of iron-reducing bacteria as a respiratory substrate and enhanced their nitrogen (N)-fixing activity in flooded paddy soils. High N fertilization (urea) in the flooded paddy soils has caused adverse environmental impacts such as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, and nitrate (NO3-) leaching. This study aims to investigate the effects of N fertilization rates in combination with an iron amendment on rice yields and N losses from flooded paddy fields. We performed a 2-year field plot experiment with traditional rice-wheat rotation in China's Yangtze River Delta. The investigation consisted of seven treatments, including 100%, 80%, 60%, and 0% of the conventional N (urea and commercial organic manure) fertilization rate, and 80%, 60%, and 0% of the conventional N with the iron powder (≥99% purity) amendment. The rice yields decreased with a reduction in the conventional N fertilization rate, whereas they were comparable after the iron application under the 80% and 60% conventional N rate. The critical N losses, including NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and NO3- and NH4+ leaching, generally decreased with a reduction in the conventional N fertilization rate. These N losses were significantly greater after the iron amendment compared with the non-amended treatments under the 80% and 60% conventional N fertilization rate in the first rice-growing season. However, it was comparable between the iron-amended and the non-amended treatments in the second season. Furthermore, NO3- leaching was the most significant N loss throughout the two rice seasons, followed by NH3 volatilization. The iron amendment significantly increased soil Fe2+ content compared with the non-amended treatments irrespective of N fertilization, suggesting the reduction of amended iron by iron-reducing bacteria and their simultaneous N fixation. A combination of the iron application with 60-80% of the conventional N fertilization rate could maintain rice yields similar to the conventional N fertilization rate while reducing the critical N losses in the flooded paddy field tested in this study. Our study leads to the establishment of novel and practical rice cultivation, which is a step towards the development of green agriculture.


Assuntos
Oryza , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Ferro , Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Oryza/química , Pós , Solo/química , Ureia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35887142

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are significant groups of probiotic organisms in fermented food and are generally considered safe. LAB regulate soil organic matter and the biochemical cycle, detoxify hazardous chemicals, and enhance plant health. They are found in decomposing plants, traditional fermented milk products, and normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora. Exploring LAB identified in unknown niches may lead to isolating unique species. However, their classification is quite complex, and they are adapted to high sugar concentrations and acidic environments. LAB strains are considered promising candidates for sustainable agriculture, and they promote soil health and fertility. Therefore, they have received much attention regarding sustainable agriculture. LAB metabolites promote plant growth and stimulate shoot and root growth. As fertilizers, LAB can promote biodegradation, accelerate the soil organic content, and produce organic acid and bacteriocin metabolites. However, LAB show an antagonistic effect against phytopathogens, inhibiting fungal and bacterial populations in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. Several studies have proposed the LAB bioremediation efficiency and detoxification of heavy metals and mycotoxins. However, LAB genetic manipulation and metabolic engineered tools provide efficient cell factories tailor-made to produce beneficial industrial and agro-products. This review discusses lactic acid bacteria advantages and limitations in sustainable agricultural development.


Assuntos
Lactobacillales , Agricultura , Feminino , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Plantas , Rizosfera , Solo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12021, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835795

RESUMO

The rational use of nutrients is a key factor for the sustainability of agricultural systems. This study aimed to analyze the nitrogen balance and use efficiency, and the valorization of organic residues within integrated systems, in comparison to conventional agricultural and livestock systems. The experiment was assembled in a randomized blocks design with three replicates. Six production systems were compared, grain maize production (CROP) and pasture for beef cattle production (LS), and four ICLS (Integrated Crop-Livestock System) for grain maize and pastures for beef cattle, in 2 years. In order to estimate the nutrients balance, inputs, and outputs at farm levels were considered, and with the results obtained for nutrient balance, the use efficiency was calculated. The CROP presented higher nutrient use efficiency (1.43 kg/ha-1), but at the same time, it resulted in negative contributions for the nutrient balance (-97 kg/ha-1) because of lower amounts of nitrogen in the organic residues (188 kg/ha-1) and lower valuation. The LS and ICLS provided a higher amount of nitrogen (983 kg/ha-1; mean ± 921 kg/ha-1) and valuation of organic residues. The presence of components such as pastures and the animal contribute to a positive production system, while reducing the needs for chemical fertilizers.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Gado , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Nitrogênio , Solo
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11997, 2022 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35835850

RESUMO

Phosphorus (P) deficiency is the main hurdle in achieving sustainable crop production ps especially in calcareous soils. Using bio-fertilizers like phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) could be a useful approach for sustainable P management as they improve P availability in soil via dissolution, desorption and mineralization reactions. In addition, application of organic amendments with PSB could further ameliorate soil conditions for sustainable management of immobilized nutrients in calcarious soils. Therefore, we performed pot experiment to study the role of PSB in nullifying antagonistic effects of liming (4.78, 10, 15 and 20%) on P availability from poultry manure (PM), farm yard manure (FYM), single super phosphate (SSP) and rock phosphate (RP) in alkaline soils. PSB inoculation improved wheat growth, P availability and stimulated soil acidification over control regardless of P sources and lime levels. Soil calcification adversely affected plant growth, P nutrition, induced soil salinity and alkalinity, however, PSB and manures application potentially nullified such harmful effects over mentioned traits. Individually, organic sources were superior than mineral sources however, the performance of mineral fertilizers with PSB was at par to sole application of manures. Furthermore, application of RP with PSB proved as effective as sole SSP. Therefore, using PSB as bio-fertilizer has huge potential for improving P availability in calcareous soils.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Solo , Bactérias , Fertilizantes/análise , Esterco , Fosfatos/análise , Fósforo , Triticum
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