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1.
Plant J ; 107(4): 1166-1182, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152039

RESUMO

Allopolyploidization entailing the merger of two distinct genomes in a single hybrid organism, is an important process in plant evolution and a valuable tool in breeding programs. Newly established hybrids often experience massive genomic perturbations, including karyotype reshuffling and gene expression modifications. These phenomena may be asymmetric with respect to the two progenitors, with one of the parental genomes being "dominant." Such "genome dominance" can manifest in several ways, including biased homoeolog gene expression and expression level dominance. Here we employed a k-mer-based approach to study gene expression in reciprocal Festuca pratensis Huds. × Lolium multiflorum Lam. allopolyploid grasses. Our study revealed significantly more genes where expression mimicked that of the Lolium parent compared with the Festuca parent. This genome dominance was heritable to successive generation and its direction was only slightly modified by environmental conditions and plant age. Our results suggest that Lolium genome dominance was at least partially caused by its more efficient trans-acting gene expression regulatory factors. Unraveling the mechanisms responsible for propagation of parent-specific traits in hybrid crops contributes to our understanding of allopolyploid genome evolution and opens a way to targeted breeding strategies.


Assuntos
Festuca/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Lolium/genética , Poliploidia , Produtos Agrícolas , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
2.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249636, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831050

RESUMO

Ryegrasses (Lolium spp.) and fescues (Festuca spp.) are closely related and widely cultivated perennial forage grasses. As such, resilience in the face of abiotic stresses is an important component of their traits. We have compared patterns of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in roots and leaves of two perennial ryegrass genotypes and a single genotype of each of a festulolium (predominantly Italian ryegrass) and meadow fescue with the onset of water stress, focussing on overall patterns of DEGs and gene ontology terms (GOs) shared by all four genotypes. Plants were established in a growing medium of vermiculite watered with nutrient solution. Leaf and root material were sampled at 35% (saturation) and, as the medium dried, at 15%, 5% and 1% estimated water contents (EWCs) and RNA extracted. Differential gene expression was evaluated comparing the EWC sampling points from RNAseq data using a combination of analysis methods. For all genotypes, the greatest numbers of DEGs were identified in the 35/1 and 5/1 comparisons in both leaves and roots. In total, 566 leaf and 643 root DEGs were common to all 4 genotypes, though a third of these leaf DEGs were not regulated in the same up/down direction in all 4 genotypes. For roots, the equivalent figure was 1% of the DEGs. GO terms shared by all four genotypes were often enriched by both up- and down-regulated DEGs in the leaf, whereas generally, only by either up- or down-regulated DEGs in the root. Overall, up-regulated leaf DEGs tended to be more genotype-specific than down-regulated leaf DEGs or root DEGs and were also associated with fewer GOs. On average, only 5-15% of the DEGs enriching common GO terms were shared by all 4 genotypes, suggesting considerable variation in DEGs between related genotypes in enacting similar biological processes.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Festuca/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lolium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Festuca/genética , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Genótipo , Lolium/genética , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(4): 1215-1230, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455010

RESUMO

Soil legacies play an important role for the creation of priority effects. However, we still poorly understand to what extent the metabolome found in the soil solution of a plant community is conditioned by its species composition and whether soil chemical legacies affect subsequent species during assembly. To test these hypotheses, we collected soil solutions from forb or grass communities and evaluated how the metabolome of these soil solutions affected the growth, biomass allocation and functional traits of a forb (Dianthus deltoides) and a grass species (Festuca rubra). Results showed that the metabolomes found in the soil solutions of forb and grass communities differed in composition and chemical diversity. While soil chemical legacies did not have any effect on F. rubra, root foraging by D. deltoides decreased when plants received the soil solution from a grass or a forb community. Structural equation modelling showed that reduced soil exploration by D. deltoides arose via either a root growth-dependent pathway (forb metabolome) or a root trait-dependent pathway (grass metabolome). Reduced root foraging was not connected to a decrease in total N uptake. Our findings reveal that soil chemical legacies can create belowground priority effects by affecting root foraging in later arriving plants.


Assuntos
Dianthus/fisiologia , Festuca/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Solo , Biomassa , Dianthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química
4.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 696, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a major cool-season forage and turfgrass species. The low tiller density and size dramatically limits its turf performance and forage yield. MicroRNAs (miRNA)-genes modules play critical roles in tiller development in plants. In this study, a genome-wide small RNA profiling was carried out in two tall fescue genotypes contrasting for tillering production ('Ch-3', high tiller production rate and 'Ch-5', low tiller production rate) and two types of tissue samples at different tillering development stage (Pre-tillering, grass before tillering; Tillering, grass after tillering). 'Ch-3', 'Ch-5', Pre-tillering, and Tillering samples were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 222 million high-quality clean reads were generated and 208 miRNAs were discovered, including 148 known miRNAs belonging to 70 families and 60 novel ones. Furthermore, 18 miRNAs were involved in tall fescue tiller development process. Among them, 14 miRNAs displayed increased abundance in both Ch-3 and Tillering plants compared with that in Ch-5 and Pre-tillering plants and were positive with tillering, while another four miRNAs were negative with tiller development. Out of the three miRNAs osa-miR156a, zma-miR528a-3p and osa-miR444b.2, the rest of 15 miRNAs were newfound and associated with tiller development in plants. Based on our previous full-length transcriptome analysis in tall fescue, 28,927 potential target genes were discovered for all identified miRNAs. Most of the 212 target genes of the 18 miRNAs were dominantly enriched into "ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis", "phagosome", "fatty acid biosynthesis", "oxidative phosphorylation", and "biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids" KEGG pathways. In addition, bdi-miR167e-3p targets two kinase proteins EIF2AK4 and IRAK4, and osa-miR397a targets auxin response factor 5, which may be the significant miRNA-genes controllers in tillering development. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first genome-wide miRNA profiles analysis to identify regulators involved in tiller development in cool-season turfgrass. Tillering related 18 miRNAs and their 212 target genes provide novel information for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA-genes mediated tiller development in cool-season turfgrass.


Assuntos
Festuca/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/genética , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110943, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678750

RESUMO

High temperature damage impairs the growth of tall fescue by inhibiting secondary metabolites. Little is known about the regulation pattern of the fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism at the whole-transcriptome level in tall fescue under high temperature stress. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat tolerant PI578718 and heat sensitive PI234881 were subjected to high temperature stress for 36 h. PI 578718 showed higher SPAD chloroplast value, lower EL and leaf injury than PI 234881 during the first 36 h high-temperature stress. Furthermore, by transcriptomic analysis, 121 genes were found to be induced during the second energy production phase in tall fescue exposed to high-temperature conditions, indicating that there may be one energy-sensing system in cool-season turfgrass to adapt high-temperature conditions. PI 578718 showed higher differentially expressed unigenes involved in fatty acids and carbohydrate metabolism compared with PI 234881 for 36 h heat stress. Interestingly, a metabolomic analysis using GC-MS uncovered that the sugars and sugar alcohol accounted for more than 65.06% of the total 41 metabolites content and high-temperature elevated the rate to 82.89-91.16% in PI 578718. High-temperature damage decreased the rate of fatty acid in the total 41 metabolites content and PI 578718 showed lower content than in PI 234881, which might be attributed to the down-regulated genes in fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in tall fescue. The integration of deep transcriptome and metabolome analyses provides systems-wide datasets to facilitate the identification of crucial regulation factors in cool-season turfgrass in response to high-temperature damage.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Festuca , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Ácidos Graxos/genética , Festuca/genética , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7729, 2020 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382099

RESUMO

Grass endophytes have been shown to confer enhanced environmental resilience to symbiont cultivars with reports of modified growth. If inoculating with an endophyte (E+) made an accession morphologically distinct from its registered endophyte free (E-) accession, there could be protection and ownership issues for testing authorities and breeders. This study investigated if, in official Plant Breeders Rights (PBR) field trials, the morphological characteristics of E+and E- accessions of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue cultivars were sufficiently modified to designate them as mutually distinct and also distinct from their definitive accessions (Def), held by the testing authorities. Testing perennial ryegrass on 17 characters at 2 sites generated 48,960 observations and for tall fescue on 9 characters at 1 site, 12,960 observations (each for 3 accessions of 4 cultivars × 60 plants × 2 growing cycles). Distinctness required a p < 0.01 difference in a single character from the combined over years analysis (COYD). A few significant differences were recorded between E- and E+accessions. Cultivar Carn E+ was smaller than Carn E- for Infloresence Length (p < 0.01) in both years but COYD analysis (p < 0.05) was insufficient to declare distinctiveness. Overall, the number of observed differences between E-/E+ accessions was less or similar to the number expected purely by chance. In contrast, comparisons between Def and E- or E+ accessions showed a number of significant differences that were substantially more numerous than expected by chance. These results showed no conclusive evidence of endophyte inclusion creating false PBR distinctions but unexpectedly, several E- and E+ accessions were distinguished from their official definitive stock.


Assuntos
Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose/genética
7.
Am Nat ; 195(6): E168-E180, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469665

RESUMO

Ecological theory produces opposing predictions about whether differences in the timing of life-history transitions, or "phenology," promote or limit coexistence. Phenological separation is predicted to create temporal niche differences, increasing coexistence, yet phenological separation could also competitively favor one species, increasing fitness differences and hindering coexistence. We experimentally manipulated relative germination timing, a critical phenological event, of two annual grass species, Vulpia microstachys and V. octoflora, to test these contrasting predictions. We parameterized a competition model to estimate within-season niche differences, fitness differences, and coexistence and to estimate coexistence when year-to-year fluctuations of germination timing occur. Increasing germination separation caused parallel changes in niche and fitness differences, with the net effect of weakening within-year coexistence. Both species experienced a competitive advantage by germinating earlier, and a 4-day head start allowed the generally inferior competitor to exclude the otherwise superior competitor. The overall consequence of germination separation was to limit coexistence within a given year, although year-to-year variation in the relative timing of germination was sufficient to support long-term coexistence. Our results clarify how phenological differences structure competitive interactions and highlight the need to quantify year-to-year variation in these differences to better understand species coexistence.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Germinação , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 196: 110528, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240865

RESUMO

In plants, tolerance to cadmium (Cd) stress is closely related to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, it is unclear whether Cd-resistant and -sensitive varieties respond differently to Cd stress. In this study, the effects of dimethylthiourea (DMTU, a H2O2 scavenger) and p-chlorophenoxy isobutyric acid (PCIB, an IAA signaling inhibitor) on root growth, endogenous hormones and antioxidant system were investigated to decipher how DMTU and PCIB treatments alleviate the inhibition of root elongation in Cd-resistant (Commander) and -sensitive (Crossfire III) tall fescue varieties under Cd stress. Both varieties subjected to 10 µM Cd treatments for 12 h presented a substantial decrease in root elongation coupled with a reduction in brassinosteroid (BR) and zeatin riboside (ZR) contents, but the changes in IAA and abscisic acid (ABA) contents under Cd stress were opposite in the two varieties. In addition, the H2O2 content and antioxidant enzyme activities significantly increased in both varieties. However, pretreatment with PCIB or DMTU mitigated the inhibition of root elongation caused by Cd, accompanied by the significant changes of aforementioned physiological parameters. PCIB significantly reduced the IAA content in 'Commander', while DMTU significantly increased the IAA content in 'Crossfire III' and effectively relieved the inhibition of root elongation. But both treatments decreased the Cd-induced H2O2 accumulation. These results indicated that DMTU or PCIB can alleviate the Cd-inhibited root elongation in two varieties whose resistance differed under Cd stress, but they presented differences in the response of hormones, especially IAA, which may be due to the different adaptation mechanisms of two varieties in response to Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Ácido Clofíbrico/farmacologia , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tioureia/farmacologia
9.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 52(4): 1919-1926, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31960267

RESUMO

Intensive grazing increases the profitability and sustainability of small-scale dairy systems by reducing feeding costs. Kikuyu grass is a subtropical species from East Africa that has similar performance compared with temperate grasses when grazed by dairy cows in these systems during the summer rainy season but reduces growth and quality at low temperatures, when temperate species may have an advantage. The objective was to evaluate intensive grazing of kikuyu pastures (KYKY) alone or in association with two varieties of endophyte-free tall fescue, TF-33 (TF33) and Cajun II (CAJN), during the summer-autumn transition period when low temperatures set in, by lactating cows in small-scale dairy farms. Pasture variables were analysed with a split-plot design for sward height, net herbage accumulation and chemical composition, in vitro digestibility of organic matter, and estimated metabolisable energy content of herbage and concentrate. Experimental design for animal variables was a 3 × 3 Latin Square repeated three times with nine Holstein cows and 14 days experimental periods. Cows received 4.65 kg DM/day of a 16% CP commercial concentrate. Milk yield and composition, live weight, and body condition score were recorded. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) for sward height and net herbage accumulation, nor for important components of chemical composition of herbages. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield (19 kg/cow/day) and composition, although differences (P < 0.05) were detected for live weight and body condition score. The conclusion is that there is no advantage of associating tall fescue with kikuyu in summer-autumn transition period for small-scale dairy systems.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Festuca , Pradaria , Pennisetum , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , México , Pennisetum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109934, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740234

RESUMO

Due to the presence of toxic pollutants, soils in former military areas need remedial actions with environmentally friendly methods. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the aided phytostabilization of multi-heavy metals (HMs), i.e. Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, in post-military soil by Festuca rubra and three mineral amendments (diatomite, dolomite and halloysite). The amendments were applied at 0 and 3.0% to each pot filled with 5 kg of polluted soil. After seven weeks of the phytostabilization, selected soil properties, biomass yield of F. rubra and immobilization of HMs by their accumulation in plant and redistribution among individual fractions in soil were determined. In addition, ecotoxicology parameters of non-amended and amended soil were established using Phytotoxkit (Sinapsis alba) and Ostracodtoxkit (Heterocypris incongruens) tests. The addition of halloysite significantly increased F. rubra biomass. Diatomite significantly increased both the Cd, Cu, Pb and Cr concentrations in the roots and the pH of the soil. The application of halloysite significantly decreased the Cd and Zn contents of the soil after the completion of the experiment. Dolomite and halloysite were more effective in HM immobilization in soil by decreasing their content in an exchangeable fraction than diatomite. These soil amendments significantly differentiated the length of S. alba roots and had a positive effect on the development of H. incongruens.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Argila/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Magnésio/química , Metais Pesados/análise , Instalações Militares , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Festuca/química , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Solo/química
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109831, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654868

RESUMO

Lead is one of the most hazardous pollutants to both the environment as well as human beings. As one of the approaches to enhance phytoremediation, brassinosteroids are predicted as a potential candidate phytohormone for assisted phytoremediation. Few studies have focused on the physiological regulations of tall fescue plants (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), a potential phytoremediation species, for its responses to applications of brassinosteroids under lead stress. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroids analogue, on reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidative defense systems of tall fescue when exposed to lead, and ultimately its potential to be used in phytoremediation. When exposed to lead (1000 mg/kg) for 80 d, decreases in shoot and root biomass of tall fescue biomass as well as chlorophyll and carotenoid productions were found. Foliar application of 24-epibrassinolide at three rates and five applications every 7 d improved the biomass of both shoots and roots, and increased the photosynthetic pigments. The improved lead tolerance in tall fescue plants after 24-epibrassinolide applications was associated with reduced H2O2 and O2.- accumulations and increased antioxidative enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and guaiacol peroxidase. Additionally, osmoprotectants increased and lipid peroxidation decreased. Ultimately, foliar applications of 24-epibrassinolide enhanced the lead recovery rate of tall fescue plants, proving its potential role in phytoremediation for soil contaminated with heavy metals such as lead.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Clorofila/metabolismo , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
12.
Plant Sci ; 287: 110168, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481214

RESUMO

Tiller production in grass species is controlled by both axillary bud initiation and bud outgrowth, which may be regulated by plant hormones. However, how gibberellic acid (GA) affects tillering in perennial grass species is still unclear. This study aims to elucidate the roles and the underlying mechanisms of GA in regulating tiller development. Tall fescue seedlings were treated with different concentrations of GA3 by foliar application, dose-dependent inhibitory effects of GA on tiller production were observed. GA3 (25 µM) slowed down the transition from axillary buds to tillers by specifically inhibiting the outgrowth of axillary buds. GA-inhibition of tillering were not related to endogenous content for auxin or strigolactone, but was mainly due to the antagonistic interaction with cytokinins (CK), as shown by the decreased CK content and up-regulation expression of CK degradation genes in GA3-treated plants. Furthermore, GA could act through regulating the expression of FaTB1 specifically expressed in axillary buds to repress bud outgrowth. These results provide insights for the regulatory mechanisms of GA for tiller bud outgrowth through crosstalks with CK and signaling of FaTB1 expression.


Assuntos
Citocininas/metabolismo , Festuca/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocininas/fisiologia , Festuca/genética , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Giberelinas , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk
13.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124406, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545203

RESUMO

Pot experiments were conducted under abiotic conditions to investigate the interactive influence of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and lead (Pb) on the seed germination, germ length, root exudation and physiological characteristics of tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceae), and the uptake, accumulation of Pb and BDE-209 in the plant tissues. Results show that seed germination and germ length were impacted by Pb but less influenced by BDE-209. BDE-209 spiking (10 and 50 mg/L) could alleviate the toxicity of high Pb concentration on seed germination and growth. The chlorophyll content was significantly increased at 500 mg/kg Pb but declined at 2000 mg/kg Pb. Low-level Pb contamination (500 mg/kg) activated antioxidase activity; however, 2000 mg/kg Pb significantly reduced the antioxidase activity. Plant biomass slightly decreased at 500 mg/kg Pb but significantly declined at 2000 mg/kg Pb. The addition of a moderate dosage of BDE-209 (10-50 mg/kg) lessened Pb phytotoxicity, leading to improved plant growth relative to the case of Pb spiking alone. The exudate secretion was significantly enhanced by Pb addition, but BDE-209 spiking only caused slightly increased secretion. Pb could interfere with BDE-209 adsorption and translocation of tall fescue by affecting physiological behavior of the plant, but BDE-209 exhibited little influence on the Pb fate in the plant. Overall, BDE-209 had slight interference on the impact of Pb towards tall fescue. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals in the soil-plant system.


Assuntos
Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/farmacocinética , Chumbo/farmacocinética , Exsudatos de Plantas/análise , Exsudatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(13)2019 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284596

RESUMO

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), an accumulator that is able to accumulate and excrete cadmium (Cd), has attracted much attention for its possible use in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. In the present study, the interaction between Cd and Zn, and their uptake, translocation and accumulation under external Cd and Zn treatment in tall fescue were investigated. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg in xylem sap under Cd and Zn treatment were measured to determine the level of mineral nutrients and their relationship with Cd alleviation. The result showed that Cd and Zn antagonized each other in the roots, while Cd antagonized Zn and Zn synergized Cd in the shoots of tall fescue. Compared with Cd only treatment, the concentrations of Ca, Mg and K in xylem sap increased after the addition of Zn, and they increased the most in the guttation. This result indicated that the addition of Zn facilitates the level of mineral elements to alleviate Cd toxicity, which might be used to improve the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd contaminated soils by tall fescue.


Assuntos
Festuca/metabolismo , Minerais/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Zinco/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Biomassa , Cádmio , Festuca/anatomia & histologia , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Xilema/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(25): 6921-6929, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150238

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of seed aging and imbibition on sugar metabolite concentrations in Epichloë endophyte-infected and endophyte-free seed of tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Two treatments, namely, accelerated aging and imbibition, were applied to the seeds, with embryo and endosperm tissues analyzed separately. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was employed for analysis of sugar metabolites within the seed tissues. Mannitol, ribitol, and trehalose were more abundant in embryo than endosperm tissues and were identified at consistently higher concentrations within endophyte-infected compared to endophyte-free seeds. The ratio of raffinose to sucrose significantly increased with seed aging in both endophyte-free and endophyte-infected embryo tissues, while significantly lower concentrations of trehalose were detected in tissues dissected from aged-seed regardless of endophyte status. This research provides fundamental insight into the metabolic details of endophyte survival in seed and provides a first evaluation of key carbohydrates present in the fungal-plant symbiosis.


Assuntos
Endófitos/fisiologia , Epichloe/fisiologia , Festuca/microbiologia , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Açúcares/metabolismo , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Festuca/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Sementes/microbiologia , Sementes/fisiologia , Simbiose
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 311, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to establish transcriptome assemblies of Festulolium hybrids under salt stress, and identify genes regulated across the hybrids in response to salt stress. The development of transcriptome assemblies for Festulolium hybrids and cataloguing of genes regulated under salt stress will facilitate further downstream studies. RESULTS: Plants were grown at three salt concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 1.5%) and phenotypic and transcriptomic data was collected. Salt stress was confirmed by progressive loss of green leaves as salt concentration increased from 0 to 1.5%. We generated de-novo transcriptome assemblies for two Festulolium pabulare festucoid genotypes, for a single Festulolium braunii genotype, and a single F. pabulare loloid genotype. We also identified 1555 transcripts that were up regulated and 1264 transcripts that were down regulated in response to salt stress in the Festulolium hybrids. Some of the identified transcripts showed significant sequence similarity with genes known to be regulated during salt and other abiotic stresses.


Assuntos
Festuca/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hibridização Genética/genética , Lolium/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Transcriptoma , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transcrição Genética
17.
Plant Sci ; 283: 211-223, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128691

RESUMO

Drought resistance is a crucial attribute of plants and to properly decipher its mechanisms, a valuable plant model is required. Lolium multiflorum is a forage grass characterized by a low level of abiotic stress resistance, whereas Festuca arundinacea is recognized as a species with drought resistance, including both stress avoidance and tolerance strategies. These two species can be crossed with each other. Two closely related L. multiflorum/F. arundinacea introgression forms with distinct levels of field drought resistance were involved, thus enabling the dissection of this complex trait into its crucial components. The processes occurring in roots were shown to be the most significant for the expression of drought resistance. Thus, the analysis was focused on the root architecture and the accumulation of selected hormones, primary metabolites and glycerolipids in roots. The introgression form, with a higher resistance to field water deficit was characterized by a deeper soil penetration by its roots, and it had a higher accumulation level of primary metabolites, including well recognized osmoprotectants, such as proline, sucrose or maltose, and an increase in phosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylethanolamine ratio compared to the low resistant form. A comprehensive model of root performance under water deficit conditions is presented here for the first time for the grass species of the Lolium-Festuca complex.


Assuntos
Festuca/anatomia & histologia , Lolium/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Desidratação , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Festuca/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lolium/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 17986-17995, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065986

RESUMO

In order to evaluate the resistance of lawn plant to Co2+ at germination stage and discuss its concentration property at adult stage, four kinds of lawn plant which have some growth advantages in Co2+ polluted environment were selected as experimental materials in this research. They are tall fescue, timothy grass, inflorescences, and annual ryegrass. The results show that the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of tall fescue's seed is the highest; the evaluation of resistance to Co2+ of annual ryegrass seed is the lowest. The low consistence Co2+ could improve the seed germination. With Co2+ concentration increase, the accumulation coefficient of four plants increased at first and decreased later; the accumulation coefficient of underground portion is higher than the accumulation coefficient of aboveground; with Co2+ concentration increase, the transfer coefficient of four plants have a remarkable decline. In these plants, the accumulation coefficient of tall fescue and annual ryegrass is bigger than other two plants. As the concentration of Co2+ treatment increased to 100 mg/kg, the aboveground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 75 mg/kg, followed by L. multiflorum (68.9 mg/kg), P. pratense (48.8 mg/kg), and D. glomerata (27.2 mg/kg).The highest underground enrichment of Co2+ in F. elata reached 836.46 mg/kg, in contrast to the lowest underground enrichment in D. glomerata, 264.67 mg/kg. It shows that fescue and annual ryegrass have a better enrichment property to Co2+ and have a better prospect for the treatment of cobalt-contaminated soil. This research could provide some scientific basis and main technical approach for the soil contaminated by Co2+.


Assuntos
Cobalto/análise , Festuca/efeitos dos fármacos , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cobalto/toxicidade , Festuca/química , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lolium/química , Lolium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Teóricos , Plântula/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 75(12): 3210-3217, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inoculation of hybrid bermudagrass with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can increase plant growth and influence relationships with above-ground herbivores like fall armyworms. However, few experiments have evaluated PGPR applications relative to root herbivory. Root-feeding white grubs cause severe damage to grasses, especially in tall fescue pastures, golf courses, and lawns. Since bacterial inoculants enhance root growth, the goal of this study was to determine if the inoculation of hybrid bermudagrass by rhizobacteria can increase the tolerance of tall fescue and hybrid bermudagrass to damage from white grub feeding, and if PGPR are compatible with neonicotinoid insecticides commonly used for white grub control. RESULTS: In trials with tall fescue and hybrid bermudagrass, grasses were treated with the PGPR strain mixture Blend 20 or nitrogen or left non-treated and were then infested with Japanese beetle grubs. Grasses treated with PGPR and nitrogen fertilizer produced significantly more top growth than the non-treated grub-infested controls. Tall fescue and hybrid bermudagrass treated with Blend 20 produced root mass similar to or greater than nitrogen fertilized grasses. Both grasses treated with Blend 20 had greater root mass than non-treated infested grass. No treatment negatively impacted grub survival, and weight gains of grubs were similar for all treatments. Bacterial strains were typically compatible with insecticides used to control white grubs. CONCLUSION: PGPR and nitrogen fertilization stimulate root growth resulting in tolerance of tall fescue and hybrid bermudagrass to white grub infestation. PGPR, acting as biostimulants to increase root biomass on grasses, may have utility for IPM of root herbivores. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Inoculantes Agrícolas/fisiologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Cynodon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cynodon/microbiologia , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herbivoria , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212058, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730964

RESUMO

The facilitation mechanism maintains ecosystem richness by increasing seedling recruitment. Overgrazed grasslands of northwestern Patagonia are invaded by shrubs that could promote the seedling recruitment of forage species. We investigated the role of Acaena splendens shrubs on the maintenance of diversity and its usefulness as a nurse shrub in the recruitment of Festuca pallescens, a grass of high forage value present with a low cover in degraded grasslands. To test the performance of A.splendens as a nurse plant in non-degraded grassland, we recorded the species richness four years inside of A. splendens senescent shrubs and in gaps among dominant tussock grasses. Species were grouped in four functional groups: annual and biannual herbs and grasses, perennial herbs, perennial grasses and shrubs. To test the usefulness of A. splendens in the restoration of degraded grassland, we monitored the seedling emergence and survival of F. pallescens inside A. splendens and in gaps. We related seedling survival to meteorological and microenvironmental conditions. Species richness was higher in Acaena nurse plants than in gaps. The frequency of functional groups, with exception of annual and biannual herbs and grasses, were higher in Acaena than in gaps. Seedling emergence and survival of F. pallescens were higher in Acaena, but the seedlings died in summer in both microsites. Mean maximum temperature was higher and mean minimum humidity lower in gaps than in Acaena during spring. However, the spring-summer season in which we monitored F. pallescens survival, was exceptionally dry and hot, affecting the survival of F. pallescens seedlings. Our results show that A. splendens act as a nurse species increasing the richness in the non-degraded grassland and facilitating the seedling recruitment of an important forage species in the degraded grassland. Nevertheless, the facilitation mechanism will fail in drought conditions, indicating that this restoration tool is limited by climate.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Festuca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pradaria , Rosaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura
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