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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(11): e3000976, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226978

RESUMO

Interruption to gestation through preterm birth can significantly impact cortical development and have long-lasting adverse effects on neurodevelopmental outcome. We compared cortical morphology captured by high-resolution, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in n = 292 healthy newborn infants (mean age at birth = 39.9 weeks) with regional patterns of gene expression in the fetal cortex across gestation (n = 156 samples from 16 brains, aged 12 to 37 postconceptional weeks [pcw]). We tested the hypothesis that noninvasive measures of cortical structure at birth mirror areal differences in cortical gene expression across gestation, and in a cohort of n = 64 preterm infants (mean age at birth = 32.0 weeks), we tested whether cortical alterations observed after preterm birth were associated with altered gene expression in specific developmental cell populations. Neonatal cortical structure was aligned to differential patterns of cell-specific gene expression in the fetal cortex. Principal component analysis (PCA) of 6 measures of cortical morphology and microstructure showed that cortical regions were ordered along a principal axis, with primary cortex clearly separated from heteromodal cortex. This axis was correlated with estimated tissue maturity, indexed by differential expression of genes expressed by progenitor cells and neurons, and engaged in stem cell differentiation, neuron migration, and forebrain development. Preterm birth was associated with altered regional MRI metrics and patterns of differential gene expression in glial cell populations. The spatial patterning of gene expression in the developing cortex was thus mirrored by regional variation in cortical morphology and microstructure at term, and this was disrupted by preterm birth. This work provides a framework to link molecular mechanisms to noninvasive measures of cortical development in early life and highlights novel pathways to injury in neonatal populations at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorder.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Feto/metabolismo , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Feminino , Maturidade dos Órgãos Fetais/genética , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuroimagem Funcional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética Multiparamétrica , Neurogênese/genética , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Análise Espaço-Temporal
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 761-768, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129171

RESUMO

Avaliou-se a correlação entre estruturas fetais e extrafetais com a predição do dia antes do parto (DAP) em raças de cães miniaturas. Para isso, realizou-se um experimento, utilizando-se 12 cadelas, com peso corporal entre 3,0kg e 5,0kg, sendo seis da raça Chihuahua, duas da raça Shih-Tzu, duas da raça Spitz Alemão e duas da raça Yorkshire. Foram mensurados, por meio da ultrassonografia, diâmetro biparietal (DBP), diâmetro torácico (DTX), diâmetro abdominal (DAB), comprimento craniocaudal (CCC), diâmetro da cavidade coriônica interna (DCI) e espessura da placenta (EP), a partir do 15º dia após a última monta. Foram estudadas as correlações simples e a significância dos coeficientes de regressão linear simples e o coeficiente de determinação (R), com nível de significância estabelecido em P<0,05. Entre os parâmetros avaliados, DBP, DTX, DAB e CCC foram os mais correlacionados com tempo gestacional, podendo ser utilizados para prever dia antes do parto em cadelas de raças miniaturas.(AU)


The correlation between fetal and extra-fetal structures with the pre-delivery prediction (DAP) in miniature dog breeds was evaluated. For this, an experiment was carried out using 12 bitches, with body weight between 3.0kg and 5.0kg, being 6 Chihuahua, 2 Shih-Tzu, 2 German Spitz and 2 Yorkshire breed. The Biparietal Diameter (BD), Thoracic Diameter (TD), Abdominal Diameter (AD), Crown-rump length (CRL), Internal Chorionic Cavity Diameter (ICD) and Placenta Thickness (PT) were measured by ultrasonography from the 15th day after the last mating. The simple correlations and significance of simple linear regression coefficients and the coefficient of determination (R) were studied, with a significance level of P<0.05. BD, T, AD and CRL were the most correlated with gestational time, and can be used to predict day before delivery in miniature breed bitches.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Cães , Idade Gestacional , Parto , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária , Previsões/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231096, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we compared the effect of diabetic pregnancy on the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM) in humans and rats. We hypothesized that our animal model could provide valuable information about alterations in the RAM of women with Gestational Diabetes (GDM). METHOD: Newborns female rats (n = 10/group) were administered streptozotocin (100 mg/kg body weight) subcutaneously and were mated on reaching adulthood, to develop the mild hyperglycemic pregnant (MHP) rat model. At the end of pregnancy, the mothers were sacrificed, and the RAM tissue was collected. Pregnant women without GDM (non-GDM group; n = 10) and those diagnosed with GDM (GDM group; n = 8) and undergoing treatment were recruited, and RAM samples were obtained at C-section. The RAM architecture and the distribution of the fast and slow fibers and collagen were studied by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences in the maternal and fetal characters were observed between the groups in both rats and women. However, significant changes in RAM architecture were observed. Diabetes in pregnancy increased the abundance of slow fibers and decreased fast fiber number and area in both rats and women. A decrease in collagen distribution was observed in GDM women; however, a similar change was not observed in the MHP rats. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that pregnancy- associated diabetes- induced similar structural adaptations in the RAM of women and rats with slight alterations in fiber type number and area. These findings suggest that the MHP rat model can be used for studying the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the fiber structure of RAM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/patologia , Reto do Abdome/patologia , Adulto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Wistar
4.
Anthropol Anz ; 77(2): 173-181, 2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142091

RESUMO

The association patterns between fetal biometry at the first, second and third trimester and neonatal size were analyzed using a dataset of 3814 singleton term birth taking place at the Viennese Danube hospital in Austria between 2005 and 2013. In this electronic medical record-based study, fetal biometry was estimated by the results of three ultrasound examinations carried out at the 11th/12th, 20th/21th and 32nd/33rdweek of gestation. In detail, crown-rump length, biparietal diameter, fronto-occipital diameter, head circumference, abdominal transverse diameter, abdominal anterior-posterior diameter, abdominal circumference, and femur length were determined. Birth weight, birth length and head circumference were measured within one hour after birth. Fetal head size, abdominal dimensions and femur length intercorrelated positively from the second trimester onwards and correlated significantly positively with neonatal size (r = 0.04 to 0.46). Despite these allometric associations between fetal and newborn parameters, principal component analyses showed that parameters indicating body fat/weight, head or brain size and skeletal growth load on separate components. Consequently, under optimal circumstances during pregnancy, head growth, fat accumulation and skeletal growth show independent incremental patterns from the second trimester onwards.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Feto , Cabeça , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Áustria , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez
5.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(4): 548-552, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157558

RESUMO

It is aimed to better recognize the mandibular variations by understanding the diversity and positions of accessory foramina better. Accessory formations on a full-term fetal mandible dissected for a mandibular study were examined under a microscope. To observe these formations more clearly, they were photographed with the help of a camera and microscope. In one of the mandibles dissected for a fetal mandibular study, a lateral accessory foramen (LAF1) was detected in the right half just near the mental foramen, and also a medial accessory foramen (MAF1) was detected over the mandibular foramen. In the left half, on the lateral surface relative to the mental foramen, one in the medial (LAF3) and one just above it (LAF2), and last one is near to the ramus of mandible (LAF4), three lateral accessory foramina, were detected. Again, a medial accessory foramen just above the left mandibular foramen (MAF3), and another foramen is near to mandibular symphysis (MAF2), also two medial accessory foramina on the lateral surface were detected. Detection and recognition of such variations are quite important for clinicians in the diagnostic methods and prevention of possible surgical complications.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/embriologia , Mandíbula/ultraestrutura , Forame Mentual/embriologia , Forame Mentual/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Humanos , Microscopia
6.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 250(3): 161-166, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147607

RESUMO

Labor arrest is the most common indication for emergency cesarean section (ECS). Increased biparietal diameter (BPD) has been reported as a risk factor for ECS due to labor arrest in different countries, but it is unclear whether this relationship is relevant in Japan. Considering the difference in maternal physique according to race and ethnicity, we retrospectively evaluated the association between ECS due to labor arrest and BPD, measured by ultrasonography < 7 days before term deliveries in Japanese women. BPD is routinely measured in Japan for estimating fetal weight. Information was extracted from obstetric records at the National Hospital Organization Kofu National Hospital between January 2012 and November 2019. Patients with multiple pregnancies, instrumental (forceps or vacuum) delivery, elective cesarean sections, and ECS due to reasons other than labor arrest were excluded. Thus, 2,695 women were included (age, 31.3 ± 6.2 years; pre-pregnancy body mass index, 20.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2), and 1,319 (48.9%) were nulliparous. The incidence of ECS due to labor arrest was 2.4% (64/2,695). Multivariable analysis indicated that BPD was significantly associated with ECS due to labor arrest (adjusted odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.20). The optimal BPD cut-off value for predicting ECS due to labor arrest was 94 mm (area under the curve, 0.61; sensitivity, 53.1%; specificity, 65.1%). Despite the significant association with ECS, BPD is not useful to predict ECS due to labor arrest. Thus, mothers should be encouraged for attempting vaginal deliveries, even in the case of having babies with large fetal BPD.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Tratamento de Emergência , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco
7.
Anat Sci Int ; 95(3): 374-380, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062763

RESUMO

Hearing or/and balance impairments may be caused by disorders of the labyrinthine artery (LA) and their branches. Most findings regarding the LA anatomy have been acquired through investigation of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) in animal or adult human specimens. Eighty-eight CPAs and LAs of human fetuses were investigated using angio-techniques and microdissections. We found 15 intricate forms of distribution of LA. The LA usually originated from the extra-meatus loop in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA). The distribution of its terminal branches was 53.42% uni-arterial, 44.31% bi-arterial, and 2.27% tri-arterial systems. In the uni-arterial system, the LA described an anterior superior path to the cochlear nerve (CN) and originated its terminal branches in the gap between CN and the inferior part of the vestibular nerve. In the bi-arterial system, the anterior LA was located anterior and superior to the CN while the posterior LA appeared posterosuperior to the superior part of the vestibular nerve. In the tri-arterial system, the terminal branches originated directly from the AICA loop. Our results provide anatomical support to explain how compressions in the LA branches inside the internal acoustic meatus, as evoked by Schwannomas in the VII and VIII nerves, can lead to hearing and balance loss. The zone of the posterior vestibular nerve appeared to be a "safe area" for invasive procedures in these specimens.


Assuntos
Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Artérias/embriologia , Orelha Interna/irrigação sanguínea , Orelha Interna/embriologia , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Topografia Médica , Humanos
8.
World Neurosurg ; 136: e625-e634, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study was to show the morphologic features of optic strut (OS) and prechiasmatic sulcus (PS) in the fetal skull base with a surgical anatomical perspective. METHODS: Twenty-three fetal cadavers (9 female, 14 male) with an average age of 21.70 ± 3.12 (range: 16-28) weeks of gestation in the inventory of the Anatomy Department were included in the study. Measurements were made with a digital image analysis software and goniometer. RESULTS: The sulcal length, interoptic distance, planum length, and sulcal angle were detected as follows: 3.91 ± 0.74 mm, 6.88 ± 1.04 mm, 6.55 ± 1.51 mm, and 24.52 ± 9.51°, respectively. Considering the location of the posteromedial margin of OS according to PS, OS was identified as the sulcal in 56.5% (13 cases), postsulcal in 30.4% (7 cases), and asymmetric in 13% (3 cases). According to the sulcal length and angle, PS was identified as type 1 in 26.1% (6 cases), type 2 in 21.7% (5 cases), type 3 in 30.4% (7 cases), and type 4 in 21.7% (5 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the sulcal length and angle reach adult size in utero. Taking into account the fetal and the gathered adult measurements, the high percentage of steep angle compared to flat angle show that after birth, PS become more flat, probably depending on the variations of the sphenoid sinus pneumatization. Thus, more studies conducted on the alterations in PS and OS types relative to the pneumatization are needed in terms of patient positioning, selection of appropriate surgical approach, and intraoperative decision-making.


Assuntos
Feto/anatomia & histologia , Base do Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Osso Esfenoide/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Masculino , Base do Crânio/embriologia , Osso Esfenoide/embriologia
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO5051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994607

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the anatomy of the brachial plexus in fetuses and to evaluate differences in morphology during evolution, or to find anatomical situations that can be identified as the cause of obstetric paralysis. METHODS: Nine fetuses (12 to 30 weeks of gestation) stored in formalin were used. The supraclavicular and infraclavicular parts of the brachial plexus were dissected. RESULTS: In its early course, the brachial plexus had a cord-like shape when it passed through the scalene hiatus. Origin of the phrenic nerve in the brachial plexus was observed in only one fetus. In the deep infraclavicular and retropectoralis minor spaces, the nerve fibers of the brachial plexus were distributed in the axilla and medial bicipital groove, where they formed the nerve endings. CONCLUSION: The brachial plexus of human fetuses presents variations and relations with anatomical structures that must be considered during clinical and surgical procedures for neonatal paralysis of the upper limbs.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/anatomia & histologia , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Paralisia do Plexo Braquial Neonatal/patologia , Paralisia Obstétrica/patologia , Extremidade Superior/patologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
10.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 42(4): 461-471, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31897654

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The newborn umbilicus is provided by a fibrous ring after closure with a scar at the bottom. Since it is believed to be embedded in the linea alba, a specific connection with the rectus sheath was not yet hypothesized for the umbilicus. However, there are no or few descriptions about the development and growth. METHODS: We histologically examined 28 fetuses at 8-40 weeks: 6 fetuses at 8 weeks, 12 at 10-14 weeks and 10 at 31-40 weeks. RESULTS: An initial rectus sheath issued a linear mesenchymal condensation toward the umbilical cord at 10-14 weeks and, an established sheath provided a fibrous band around the umbilical cord at 31-40 weeks. The rectus sheath margins made an acute turn toward the skin at the superior and lateral rims of umbilicus and dispersed into a loose tissue of the cord. In contrast, the sheath margin changed its direction gradually to the superficial side at the inferior rim and inserted at a border between the skin epidermis and a mesothelium-like covering of the cord. The developing umbilical ring contained no or few elastic fibers. CONCLUSION: Instead of the underdeveloped linae alba, the rectus sheath seemed to be tightly connected with the umbilicus at birth. Rather than an expected elasticity, the rectus muscle contraction was likely to play a critical role in the closure after birth. Via the umbilical ring, the fetal rectus sheath also seemed to tightly connect with the skin at the inferior rim of umbilicus.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Fetal , Reto do Abdome/embriologia , Umbigo/embriologia , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos
11.
Ann Anat ; 227: 151421, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563572

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Our group had recently described human hand Pacinian corpuscles (PCs): the hand PCs are not simply arranged along the digital palmar nerves but often exhibited specific morphologies known uncommonly. However, there is still no or few information about human foot PCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We observed transverse sections of all five toes including the interdigital area obtained from 12 feet of eight fetuses at 28-33 weeks (crown-rump length 230-290mm). Serial sections were prepared for 3D reconstructions and measurement. RESULTS: Foot PCs were characterized by (1) a dense distribution in the interdigital area in contrast to a few PCs in the distal tip of the all five toes; (2) abundant dorsal PCs including those in the nail bed and: (3) a long chain of PCs in the flexor tendon sheath of all five toes. Therefore, a distal dominance was not evident in the foot in contrast to the hand and, a tendon sheath contained much greater numbers of PCs than the hand. A tree-like or bouquet-like arrangement of PCs along a short perforating artery to the palmar digital skin was seen in the foot as we had described in the hand. The tree of foot PCs was sometimes seen laying transversely along the digital skin surface, not toward the skin. CONCLUSION: It is still unknown that, in utero, how the PCs distribution became different between the hand and foot: it might be determined genetically in a region-specific manner.


Assuntos
Feto/anatomia & histologia , Pé/embriologia , Corpúsculos de Pacini/embriologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Unhas/embriologia , Corpúsculos de Pacini/anatomia & histologia , Corpúsculos de Pacini/química , Tendões/embriologia , Dedos do Pé/embriologia
12.
Theriogenology ; 142: 184-195, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604179

RESUMO

One of the dogmas of mammalian reproduction states is that primordial germ cells in females are restricted to the intrauterine phase, and that only a small portion of oocytes is available for ovulation during the adult life. Among the rare exceptions to this rule is the plains viscacha. This specie polyovulates up to 800 oocytes per cycle, from which 10 to 12 are implanted, but only 1-2 conceptuses survive. To better understand the key mechanisms of this pattern of embryonic to uterine interactions, we analyzed 19 female genital systems by means of gross morphology, histology, stereology and immunohistochemistry. Data showed that a specialized, highly convoluted structure of the ovarian cortex developed during the intrauterine phase as a prerequisite for the massive super-ovulation, likely associated with the inhibition of apoptosis and continued proliferation of germ cells, as well as maintenance of several corpora lutea during the adult life. In addition, specializations of uterine vasculature and musculature were demonstrated. Altogether, these key morphological characteristics evolved in order to contribute as compensatory or controlling mechanism for polyovulation and polyimplantation that led these species into becoming an unique enigma in reproductive biology, and a potential animal model to provide explanations regarding to developmental specializations.


Assuntos
Ovário/anatomia & histologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Roedores , Superovulação/fisiologia , Útero/anatomia & histologia , Útero/fisiologia , Animais , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Embrião de Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/anatomia & histologia , Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Idade Gestacional , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos/fisiologia , Ovário/irrigação sanguínea , Ovulação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Reprodução/fisiologia , Roedores/anatomia & histologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Útero/irrigação sanguínea
13.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(4): 1280-1285, Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040125

RESUMO

Knowing the anatomical, topographic and morphometric properties of the superficial branch of the radial nerve (SBRN) in the forearm and the dorsum of the hand is important for minimizing nerve damage. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomical and morphometric properties of SBRN in foetuses. Forty forearms of twenty-one foetuses (n=21) were dissected. The anatomical variations of SBRN in the dorsal forearm were assessed in three types (Type-1, Type-2 and Type-3). The innervation areas in dorsum of hand were assessed in four types (Type-1, Type-2, Type-3 and Type-4). The forearm length was divided to three part and emerging point of SBRN was determined as topographically. The relation of the SBRN with lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN), anatomic snuffbox and cephalic vein was also evaluated. In forearm, Type-1 variation rate of SBRN was 87.5 %. In the dorsum of hand, Type-3 innervation pattern was 32.5 %. The emerging rate of SBRN in the middle third of the forearm was 74.4 %. There were nerve branches between LACN and SBRN or its terminal branches in 32.5 % of the forearms. The branches of SBRN passed within the margins of anatomic snuffbox in 50 % of the forearms. The most frequently branching type of SBRN was Type-1 in the forearm and Type-3 in the dorsum of hand in foetuses. These results may aid to minimize nerve injuries performed in clinical applications.


Conocer las propiedades anatómicas, topográficas y morfométricas del ramo superficial del nervio radial (RSNR) en el antebrazo y el dorso de la mano es importante para minimizar el daño a los nervios. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar las propiedades anatómicas y morfométricas de RSNR en fetos. Fueron disecados 40 antebrazos de veintiún fetos. Las variaciones anatómicas de RSNR en el dorso del antebrazo se clasificaron en tres tipos (Tipo-1, Tipo-2 y Tipo-3). Las áreas de inervación en el dorso de la mano se evaluaron en cuatro tipos (Tipo 1, Tipo 2, Tipo 3 y Tipo 4). La longitud del antebrazo se dividió en tres partes y el punto emergente de RSNR se determinó topográficamente. Se evaluó la relación del RSRN con el nervio cutáneo antebraquial lateral (NCAL), la tabaquera anatómica y la vena cefálica. En el antebrazo, la tasa de variación de Tipo 1 de RSNR fue de 87,5 %. En el dorso de la mano, el patrón de inervación tipo 3 fue del 32,5 %. La emergencia del RSNR en el tercio medio del antebrazo fue de 74,4 %. En el 32,5 % de los antebrazos se observaron ramos nerviosos entre NCAL y RSNR. Los ramos de RSNR pasaron dentro de los límites de la tabaquera anatómica en 50 % de los antebrazos. El tipo de RSNS con ramificación más frecuente fue el Tipo 1 en el antebrazo y el Tipo 3 en el dorso de la mano en los fetos. Conocer las variaciones anatómicas de RSNS puede ayudar a minimizar las lesiones nerviosas durante los procedimientos clínicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Nervo Radial/anatomia & histologia , Feto/inervação , Antebraço/inervação , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Variação Anatômica
14.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e031777, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843832

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Variability in 2D ultrasound (US) is related to the acquisition of planes of reference and the positioning of callipers and could be reduced in combining US volume acquisitions and anatomical structures recognition. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to assess the consistency between 3D measurements (automated and manual) extracted from a fetal US volume with standard 2D US measurements (I). Secondary objectives are to evaluate the feasibility of the use of software to obtain automated measurements of the fetal head, abdomen and femur from US acquisitions (II) and to assess the impact of automation on intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility (III). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 225 fetuses will be measured at 16-30 weeks of gestation. For each fetus, six volumes (two for head, abdomen and thigh, respectively) will be prospectively acquired after performing standard 2D biometry measurements (head and abdominal circumference, femoral length). Each volume will be processed later by both a software and an operator to extract the reference planes and to perform the corresponding measurements. The different sets of measurements will be compared using Bland-Altman plots to assess the agreement between the different processes (I). The feasibility of using the software in clinical practice will be assessed through the failure rate of processing and the score of quality of measurements (II). Interclass correlation coefficients will be used to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility (III). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study and related consent forms were approved by an institutional review board (CPP SUD-EST 3) on 2 October 2018, under reference number 2018-033 B. The study has been registered in https://clinicaltrials.gov registry on 23 January 2019, under the number NCT03812471. This study will enable an improved understanding and dissemination of the potential benefits of 3D automated measurements and is a prerequisite for the design of intention to treat randomised studies assessing their impact. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03812471; Pre-results.


Assuntos
Biometria/métodos , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Abdome , Cefalometria/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Idade Gestacional , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Software
15.
Homo ; 70(1): 57-62, 2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475288

RESUMO

Despite the high mortality that have been associated with pregnancy and childbirth in past populations, few cases of the remains of pregnant women burials are described in the bioarchaeological reports. This paper is focused on the case of a double inhumation found in the Medieval Muslim Necropolis (11th to 15th centuries) of Sahl ben Malik in Granada (Spain). A complete skeleton of a woman and the skeletal remains of a full-term fetus located under the mother's left femur, were discovered in this burial. None of the evidence for the mother was decisive in determining the cause of death. However, evidence of physiological stress in the woman and possible gynecological complications may have contributed to the death of both individuals. The link between the individuals and their cause of death is examined, discussed and compared with similar archaeological records.


Assuntos
Sepultamento/história , Islamismo/história , Morte Materna/história , Adulto , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Feto/anatomia & histologia , História Medieval , Humanos , Paleopatologia , Gravidez , Espanha
16.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 41(12): 1497-1503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence of the iliocapsularis muscle in fetal period and its relationship with the hip joint capsule. METHODS: Twenty-one formalin-fixed fetuses (12 female and 9 male) with a mean gestational age of 29 ± 3.89 weeks (range 25-36) were dissected to reveal morphological properties of iliocapsularis muscle. RESULTS: Iliocapsularis muscle was observed in 39 out of 42 sides (92%). Its proximal attachment was detected either below the proximal attachment of rectus femoris muscle in 21 out of 39 sides (54%), or it was forming a common tendon with rectus femoris on the anterior inferior iliac spine in 10 out of 39 sides (26%), or it was forming an arch along the superior-medial-inferior sides of the proximal attachment of rectus femoris muscle in 8 out of 39 sides (20%). Muscle fibers originating from the anteromedial part of hip joint capsule were also constant in all sides. Distal attachment of iliocapsularis muscle was distal to the lesser trochanter in all specimens. Its form was as a broad muscle in 32 out of 39 sides (82%) and as a thin rectangular muscular slip in 7 out of 39 sides (18%). Iliopsoas and iliocapsularis muscles had their particular fascia in 34 out of 39 sides (87%), and in the other 5 sides, there was no fascia which prominently separated the two muscles. Its length was longer in females than males (p = 0.031) and it was wider on the right side (p = 0.029). Linear functions were y = 0.49 + 0.17 × weeks and y = 6.94 + 0.89 × weeks for width and length, respectively. CONCLUSION: Data obtained with the present study about iliocapsularis muscle in fetal period revealed that it is an individual and constant muscle. Its dimension, location, and course over the hip joint capsule support the idea that it tightens the hip capsule and stabilizes the femoral head.


Assuntos
Variação Anatômica , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Quadril/anatomia & histologia , Cápsula Articular/anatomia & histologia , Músculo Esquelético/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Feminino , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Ílio/anatomia & histologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
17.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 1023-1032, Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012391

RESUMO

The suprarenal glands are bilaterally supplied by three suprarenal arteries and drained by a single suprarenal vein. Variable vascular origins of the fetal suprarenal gland have been documented in different population groups viz. Indian, Polish and Argentinian. However, there is lack of a detailed description regarding the course, relations, number of branches and vertebral levels of the origins of the vasculature of the suprarenal glands in fetuses. This study aimed to identify and document the vascular supply of the suprarenal glands in fetuses in a South African setting. Fifty fetal specimens (26 males; 24 females) with a gestational age ranging between 12 and 20 weeks, were bilaterally micro-dissected (n=100) using a Zeiss Stemi DV4 microscope. Data was recorded and the frequencies of the origin, course, relations, number of branches and vertebral levels of the suprarenal vascular supply were determined. Arterial supply: Origin: (i) The superior suprarenal artery (SSA) bilaterally arose from the inferior phrenic arteries in 98 % of the fetuses; (ii) the middle suprarenal artery (MSA) frequently arose from the renal artery (RA) on the right side (46 %) and the abdominal aorta on the left side (34 %); while (iii) the inferior suprarenal artery (ISA) predominantly arose from the RA in 91 % of the specimens, bilaterally. Course and relations: The suprarenal arteries followed a superior, inferior, lateral, supero-lateral and infero-lateral course to the gland. These arteries were closely related to the crura of the diaphragm, the inferior vena cava, the left inferior phrenic vein and the pancreas. Number of branches: The branches ranged from one to seven for the SSA, one to four for the MSA and one to three for the ISA. Vertebral levels: The SSA predominantly arose from the first lumbar (L1) vertebral body (32 %), the MSA arose from the middle third of the intervertebral disc between the L1 and the second lumbar (L2) vertebrae (19 %) and the ISA arose from the L2 vertebral body (28 %). Venous drainage: In 1 % of the specimens, an additional right suprarenal vein (ARSV) was observed. This ARSV followed a superomedial course into the inferior vena cava, just below the entrance of the main right suprarenal vein. The arteries supplying the suprarenal gland presented varying origins and number of branches, corroborating with the reviewed literature and standard anatomical textbooks. The findings of this study may aid pediatric surgeons in understanding the vascular morphology (and the variations thereof) of the suprarenal gland, when performing adrenelectomy surgery in neonates.


Las glándulas suprarrenales son irrigadas bilateralmente por tres arterias suprarrenales y drenadas por una sola vena suprarrenal. Los orígenes vasculares variables de la glándula suprarrenal fetal se han documentado en diferentes grupos de población: indios, polacos y argentinos. Sin embargo, no existe una descripción detallada del curso, las relaciones, el número de ramas y los niveles vertebrales de los orígenes de la vasculatura de las glándulas suprarrenales en los fetos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y documentar el suministro vascular de las glándulas suprarrenales en fetos en una población sudafricana. Cincuenta especímenes fetales (26 hombres; 24 mujeres) con una edad gestacional que oscila entre las 12 y las 20 semanas, fueron micro-diseccionados bilateralmente (n = 100) utilizando un microscopio Zeiss Stemi DV4. Se registraron los datos y se determinaron las frecuencias de origen, curso, relaciones, número de ramas y niveles vertebrales del suministro vascular suprarrenal. Suministro arterial: Origen: (i) La arteria suprarrenal superior (SSA) surgió bilateralmente de las arterias frénicas inferiores en el 98 % de los fetos; (ii) la arteria suprarrenal media (MSA) surgió frecuentemente de la arteria renal (AR) en el lado derecho (46 %) y en la parte abdominal de la aorta en el lado izquierdo (34 %); mientras que (iii) la arteria suprarrenal inferior (AIS) surgió predominantemente de la AR en el 91 % de los especímenes, bilateralmente. Curso y relaciones: las arterias suprarrenales seguían un curso superior, inferior, lateral, superolateral e inferolateral hacia la glándula. Estas arterias estaban estrechamente relacionadas con la crura del diafragma, la vena cava inferior, la vena frénica inferior izquierda y el páncreas. Número de ramas: Las ramas variaron de una a siete para la SSA, de una a cuatro para la MSA y de una a tres para la ISA. Niveles vertebrales: la SSA surgió predominantemente del primer cuerpo vertebral lumbar (L1) (32 %), la MSA surgió del tercio medio del disco intervertebral entre la L1 y la segunda vértebra lumbar (L2) (19 %) y la ISA surgió del cuerpo vertebral L2 (28 %). Drenaje venoso: en el 1 % de las muestras, se observó una vena suprarrenal derecha (ARSV) adicional. Este ARSV siguió un curso superomedial hacia la vena cava inferior, justo debajo de la entrada de la vena suprarrenal derecha principal. Las arterias que irrigaban la glándula suprarrenal presentaban diversos orígenes y número de ramas, lo que corrobora la literatura revisada y los libros de texto anatómicos estándar. Los hallazgos de este estudio pueden ayudar a los cirujanos pediátricos a comprender la morfología vascular (y sus variaciones) de la glándula suprarrenal, al realizar una cirugía de adrenelectomía en neonatos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Artérias/anatomia & histologia , Veias/anatomia & histologia , Glândulas Suprarrenais/irrigação sanguínea , Feto/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul , Variação Anatômica
18.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(5): 369-376, sept. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183867

RESUMO

Hepatic organogenesis is a complex process involving various molecular and cellular determinants. Knowledge of the anatomical and functional structure of the liver and its relationship with other abdominal organs is fundamental from a surgical point of view. Clinical autopsies were performed upon twelve fetal specimens. Photographic footage was reviewed for fetal livers presenting macroscopic abnormalities, and relevant cases were included. A search was conducted employing terms pertaining hepatic malformations’ morphogenetic, anatomical and pathological features. A thorough review was elaborated introducing an updated classification based on autopsy findings and available literature. Twelve fetal specimens underwent clinical autopsies. Gestational age ranged between 18 and 38 weeks (mean 28 weeks). All livers displayed symmetrical lobes. Seven of them presented at least one dysmorphic feature on macroscopic examination. Hepatic malformations can be classified into anomalies due to excessive development, defective development or extrinsic factors. The relevance of the proper identification of liver malformations lies in the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations with different degrees of morbidity associated with them


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/anormalidades , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Cadáver , Morfogênese , Autopsia/métodos , Fígado/patologia , Organogênese
19.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221569, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442281

RESUMO

The present study aimed to better characterize the morphogenesis of the femur from the embryonic to the early fetal periods. Sixty-two human fetal specimens (crown-rump length [CRL] range: 11.4-185 mm) from the Kyoto Collection were used for this study. The morphogenesis and internal differentiation process of the femur were analyzed in 3D using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The cartilaginous femur was first observed at Carnegie stage 18. Major anatomical landmarks were formed prior to the initiation of ossification at the center of the diaphysis (CRL, 40 mm), as described by Bardeen. The region with very high signal intensity (phase 5 according to Streeter's classification; i.e., area described as cartilage disintegration) emerged at the center of the diaphysis, which split the region with slightly low signal intensity (phase 4; i.e., cartilage cells of maximum size) in fetuses with a CRL of 40.0 mm. The phase 4 and phase 5 regions became confined to the metaphysis, which might become the epiphyseal cartilage plate. Femur length and ossified shaft length (OSL) showed a strong positive correlation with CRL. The OSL-to-femur length ratio rapidly increased in fetuses with CRL between 40 and 75 mm, which became moderately increased in fetuses with a CRL of ≥75 mm. Cartilage canal invasion occurred earlier at the proximal epiphysis (CRL, 62 mm) than at the distal epiphysis (CRL, 75 mm). Morphometry and Procrustes analysis indicated that changes in the femur shape after ossification were limited, which were mainly detected at the time of initial ossification and shortly after that. In contrast, femoral neck anteversion and torsion of the femoral head continuously changed during the fetal period. Our data could aid in understanding the morphogenesis of the femur and in differentiating normal and abnormal development during the early fetal period.


Assuntos
Fêmur/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Morfogênese , Cartilagem/anatomia & histologia , Cartilagem/embriologia , Estatura Cabeça-Cóccix , Epífises/anatomia & histologia , Fêmur/anatomia & histologia , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fêmur/embriologia , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Osteogênese
20.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol ; 54(4): 468-476, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the performance of the routine 11-13-week scan in detecting fetal non-chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from 100 997 singleton pregnancies attending for a routine ultrasound examination of fetal anatomy, performed according to a standardized protocol, at 11-13 weeks' gestation. All continuing pregnancies had an additional scan at 18-24 weeks and 71 754 had a scan at either 30-34 or 35-37 weeks. The final diagnosis of fetal abnormality was based on the results of postnatal examination in cases of live birth and on the findings of the last ultrasound examination in cases of pregnancy termination, miscarriage or stillbirth. The performance of the 11-13-week scan in the detection of fetal abnormalities was determined. RESULTS: The study population contained 1720 (1.7%) pregnancies with a fetal abnormality, including 474 (27.6%) detected on the first-trimester scan, 926 (53.8%) detected on the second-trimester scan and 320 (18.6%) detected in the third trimester or postnatally. At 11-13 weeks' gestation, we diagnosed all cases of acrania, alobar holoprosencephaly, encephalocele, tricuspid or pulmonary atresia, pentalogy of Cantrell, ectopia cordis, exomphalos, gastroschisis and body-stalk anomaly and > 50% of cases of open spina bifida, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, atrioventricular septal defect, complex heart defect, left atrial isomerism (interrupted inferior vena cava with normal intracardiac anatomy), lower urinary tract obstruction, absence of extremities, fetal akinesia deformation sequence and lethal skeletal dysplasia. Common abnormalities that were detected in < 10% of cases at 11-13 weeks included ventriculomegaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, isolated cleft lip, congenital pulmonary airway malformation, ventricular septal defect, abdominal cysts, unilateral renal agenesis or multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis, duplex kidney, hypospadias and talipes. CONCLUSIONS: A routine 11-13-week scan, carried out according to a standardized protocol, can identify many severe non-chromosomal fetal abnormalities. A summary statistic of the performance of the first-trimester scan is futile because some abnormalities are always detectable, whereas others are either non-detectable or sometimes detectable. To maximize prenatal detection of abnormalities, additional scans in both the second and third trimesters are necessary. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Feto/anatomia & histologia , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Medição da Translucência Nucal/métodos , Gravidez/etnologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos
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