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1.
Chirurgia (Bucur) ; 115(4): 448-457, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876018

RESUMO

Background: In Romania, colorectal cancer does not benefit yet from a national screening program. In order to decrease the harm and burden of colorectal cancer (CRC), opportunistic programs relying on endoscopy has been adopted by each centre according to its capacity. A colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme based on faecal immunochemical test (FIT) was launched at Ponderas Academic Hospital (PAH) in 2019. Aim: The present study analyses the outcomes after the first 1500 tests in the PAH-FIT-CRC Screening Program. We have also aimed to compare the efficiency of the FIT testing program with the screening colonoscopies performed in our Center, withing the same time interval (2019). Methods: The test was recommended in asymptomatic patients over 45 years, and it was followed by a colonoscopy when the test results were positive. Furthermore, we performed a retrospective observational study gathering data from all the consecutive patients prospectively included in the respective databases of our hospital, comparing the efficacy of the two colorectal cancer screening methods (FIT versus colonoscopy). Results: Between 01.01.2019 and 01.01.2020, 1524 screening colonoscopies were performed, and the resulting data were compared with those obtained in the FIT group (1500 FIT tests freely distributed). In the screening colonoscopy group, the polyp detection rate was 38.98% and 22 (1.44%) adenocarcinomas were identified. In the FIT group, the FIT uptake rate was 71% with a positivity rate of 21.7%. The colonoscopy compliance rate for positive FIT patients was 29.4%, with only 2 adenocarcinomas detected. Conclusions: Following data analysis, the need for improvement of uptake rate and colonoscopy compliance rate was suggested, due to the lower acceptance of FIT tests and colonoscopies, especially among men. Moreover, special efforts should be made in order to improve quality indicators for screening colonoscopies (especially adenoma detection rate) with the purpose of decreasing interval CRC.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos Adenomatosos/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Fezes , Colonoscopia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Romênia , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237505, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790727

RESUMO

Increased intestinal permeability (IP) and inflammation are both linked with functionality of the intestinal barrier and in particular enterocytes. Currently, almost all assessment methods of the intestinal barrier function are invasive. The present study aimed to quantify selected proteins as novel biomarkers in excreta of broiler chickens to facilitate non-invasive assessment of gut barrier function using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). It was further hypothesised that probiotics as feed additives may counteract gut barrier dysfunction. A 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used with the main factors being gut barrier dysfunction models (control, rye-based diet, and dexamethasone-DEX) with and without probiotic supplementation (a three-strain Bacillus) using 72 male Ross 308 day-old chickens. Each of the 6 experimental treatments was replicated 12 times. On d 21 of age, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d) uptake into serum was examined to test IP. Fresh excreta samples were collected on d 20. The biomarkers included alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT), intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), lipocalin-2 (LCN2), fibronectin (FN), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP), ovotransferrin (OVT) and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1). Only DEX increased (P<0.001) FITC-d passage to the blood on d 21 of age, indicating a greater IP. The excreta concentrations of A1AT, I-FABP and SOD1 were unaltered by the experimental treatments. DEX increased (P<0.05) FN concentration in excreta compared with control birds. Conversely, inclusion of rye in the diet reduced (P<0.05) FN but increased (P<0.001) OVT in excreta. Independently, DEX decreased IAP (P<0.05) in excreta compared with control and rye-fed birds. The excreta concentration of LCN2 tended (P = 0.086) to increase in birds injected by DEX. There was no demonstrable effect of probiotic addition on any of the studied parameters. Among the tested biomarkers, FN, IAP, and LCN2 revealed promise as biomarkers of intestinal barrier function quantified by ELISA kits.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Biomarcadores/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238006, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857814

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two prebiotics in different concentrations on nutrient digestibility, fermentative products and immunological variables in adult dogs. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly divided into six blocks according to their metabolic body weights (BW0.75); within these groups, dogs were randomized to four treatments: control without prebiotics (CO); inclusion of 0.5% prebiotic blend Yes-Golf (B1); inclusion of 1.0% galactooligosaccharide (GOS); and inclusion of 1.0% prebiotic blend Yes-Golf (B2). The experiment lasted 30 days, with 20 days adaptation and 10 days stool and blood collection. Results were analyzed for normality and means were separated by ANOVA and adjusted by the Tukey test at the significance level of 5.0%. Prebiotic supplementation had no effect on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), total stool production and fecal scores (p > 0.05). Prebiotics evaluated also did not alter fecal pH, nor the concentrations of ammonia, lactic acid, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and most fecal branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) (p > 0.05). The addition of GOS decreased the concentration of iso-valeric acid (p = 0.0423). Regarding immunological variables, concentrations of fecal IgA were not influenced by the treatments. Treatments GOS and B2 increased the total number of polymorphonuclear cells, as well as the oxidative burst in relation to treatments B1 and CO (p < 0.0001). Treatment B2 improved the rate of S. aureus phagocytosis in relation to CO (p = 0.0111), and both the GOS and B2 treatments had a better index for E. coli phagocytosis than the CO treatment (p = 0.0067). In conclusion, there was indication that both prebiotics GOS and B2 at 1.0% inclusion improved the immunity of healthy dogs.


Assuntos
Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Colo/imunologia , Colo/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Cães , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Leucócitos/citologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/fisiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236944, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745090

RESUMO

Gut dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a growing number of non-communicable diseases. High through-put sequencing technologies and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiling enables surveying of the composition and function of the gut microbiota and provide key insights into host-microbiome interactions. However, a methodological problem with analyzing stool samples is that samples are treated and stored differently prior to submission for analysis potentially influencing the composition of the microbiota and its metabolites. In the present study, we simulated the sample acquisition of a large-scale study, in which stool samples were stored for up to two days in the fridge or at room temperature before being handed over to the hospital. To assess the influence of time and temperature on the microbial community and on SCFA composition in a controlled experimental setting, the stool samples of 10 individuals were exposed to room and fridge temperatures for 24 and 48 hours, respectively, and analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, qPCR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the influence of storage time and temperature on the absolute abundance of methanogens, and of Lactobacillus reuteri. The results indicate that values obtained for methanogens, L. reuteri and total bacteria are still representative even after storage for up to 48 hours at RT (20°C) or 4°C. The overall microbial composition and structure appeared to be influenced more by laboratory errors introduced during sample processing than by the actual effects of temperature and time. Although microbial activity was demonstrated by elevated SCFA at both 4°C and RT, SCFAs ratios were more stable over the different conditions and may be considered as long as samples are come from similar storage conditions.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Bactérias/genética , Disbiose/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702056

RESUMO

Breadfruit is a traditional staple crop from Pacific islands with the potential to improve worldwide food security and mitigate diabetes. Flour produced from breadfruit is a gluten-free, low glycemic index, nutrient dense and complete protein option for modern foods but basic scientific knowledge of health impacts of a breadfruit-based diet in animals and humans was lacking. We designed a series of studies to provide basic and fundamental data on impacts of a breadfruit-based diet through an in vitro and in vivo model. Cooked breadfruit flour was digested through a multi-stage enzyme digestion model to estimate protein digestibility in comparison to wheat flour. Breadfruit protein was found to be easier to digest than wheat protein in the enzyme digestion model. The flour digestions were applied to Caco-2 cells to test the cytotoxicity and to measure the immunogenicity through cytokine expression. No significant differences were observed for immune factors and cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ) on Caco-2 cells between the breadfruit and wheat groups. A breadfruit-based rodent chow was formulated by substitution of all of the wheat in the standard formulation with breadfruit. The diets were isocaloric, nutrient equivalent and used to feed male and female C57BL/6 mice for 21 days. No sign of malnutrition, discomfort, illness or death was observed among the mice because of the diet. The histology and the cytokine expression of the mice ileum from both groups were analyzed and showed similar results. The expression of major bacteria was measured in the colon and showed similar results. Mice fed the breadfruit diet had a significantly higher growth rate and body weight than standard diet fed mice. No negative health outcomes were observed in studies with in vitro or in vivo models and breadfruit flour is a healthy alternative to other starches for modern foods.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Farinha , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Fezes/química , Humanos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Minerais/análise , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo
7.
Pediatrics ; 146(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated 4 diagnostic strategies to predict the presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children who present with chronic nonbloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study including 193 patients aged 6 to 18 years who underwent a standardized diagnostic workup in secondary or tertiary care hospitals. Each patient was assessed for symptoms, C-reactive protein (>10 mg/L), hemoglobin (<-2 SD for age and sex), and fecal calprotectin (≥250 µg/g). Patients with rectal bleeding or perianal disease were excluded because the presence of these findings prompted endoscopy regardless of their biomarkers. Primary outcome was IBD confirmed by endoscopy or IBD ruled out by endoscopy or uneventful clinical follow-up for 6 months. RESULTS: Twenty-two of 193 (11%) children had IBD. The basic prediction model was based on symptoms only. Adding blood or stool markers increased the AUC from 0.718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.604-0.832) to 0.930 (95% CI: 0.884-0.977) and 0.967 (95% CI: 0.945-0.990). Combining symptoms with blood and stool markers outperformed all other strategies (AUC 0.997 [95% CI: 0.993-1.000]). Triaging with a strategy that involves symptoms, blood markers, and calprotectin will result in 14 of 100 patients being exposed to endoscopy. Three of them will not have IBD, and no IBD-affected child will be missed. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluating symptoms plus blood and stool markers in patients with nonbloody diarrhea is the optimal test strategy that allows pediatricians to reserve a diagnostic endoscopy for children at high risk for IBD.


Assuntos
Diarreia/etiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Endoscopia Gastrointestinal , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Proteína S100A12/análise , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1094-1102, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618660

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bile acid (BA) diarrhea is the cause in ∼26% of chronic unexplained (nonbloody) diarrhea (CUD) based on SeHCAT testing. To assess fecal BA excretion and healthcare utilization in patients with CUD. METHODS: In a retrospective review of 1,071 consecutive patients with CUD who completed 48-hour fecal BA testing, we analyzed the symptoms, diagnostic tests performed, and final diagnoses. RESULTS: After 135 patients were excluded because of mucosal diseases, increased BA excretion was identified in 476 (51%) of the 936 patients with CUD: 29% with selective increase in primary BA and 22% with increased total BA excretion (35% with normal primary BA excretion). There were no differences in demographics, clinical symptoms, or history of cholecystectomy in patients with elevated total or selective primary fecal BA excretion compared with patients with normal excretion. Before the 48-hour fecal BA excretion test was performed, patients completed on average 1.2 transaxial imaging, 2.6 endoscopic procedures, and 1.6 miscellaneous tests/person. Less than 10% of these tests identified the etiology of CUD. Total fecal BAs >3,033 µmol/48 hour or primary BAs >25% had a 93% negative predictive value to exclude mucosal disease. Among patients with increased fecal BA excretion, >70% reported diarrhea improved with BA sequestrant compared with 26% with normal fecal BA excretion. Patients with selective elevation in primary fecal BAs were 3.1 times (95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.63) more likely to respond to BA sequestrant therapy compared with those with elevated total fecal BAs. DISCUSSION: Increased fecal BA excretion is frequent (51%) in patients with CUD. Early 48-hour fecal BA evaluation has the potential to decrease healthcare utilization in CUD.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/química , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 115(7): 1110-1116, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618662

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) for hemoglobin are increasingly used in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. The use of uniform positivity thresholds (cutoffs) within screening populations is expected to imply lower positive predictive values (PPVs) and higher numbers of colonoscopies needed (numbers needed to scope [NNSs]) to detect advanced neoplasms among screening participants at lower risk compared with those at higher risk. We aimed to assess such variation and its potential implications in a large screening cohort. METHODS: A quantitative FIT (FOB Gold; Sentinel Diagnostics, Milan, Italy) was conducted in fecal samples collected by 4,332 participants of screening colonoscopy before bowel preparation. Participants were classified into 3 risk groups (low, medium, and high) by tertiles of a previously derived risk-factor-based risk score. We determined the variation of PPVs and NNSs for detecting advanced neoplasms (i.e., CRC or advanced adenoma) when using the same FIT cutoffs and variation of FIT cutoffs that would yield uniform PPVs across risk groups. RESULTS: When a fixed FIT cutoff of 10 µg/g was used, the PPV increased from 23.3% to 41.8% from the low- to the high-risk group, with NNS decreasing from 4.3 to 2.4 (P < 0.001). Similar variations of PPVs and NNSs across risk groups were observed at higher FIT cutoffs. When risk group-specific cutoffs were defined to achieve fixed PPVs of 25%, 30%, and 35% across all risk groups, cutoffs varied from 5.3 to 11.4, 6.5 to 18.7, and 7.5 to 31.0 µg hemoglobin/g feces, respectively, between high- and low-risk groups (P < 0.05 for all differences). DISCUSSION: Using risk-adapted cutoffs may help to achieve target levels of PPV and NNS and might be an option to consider for personalized FIT-based CRC screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Fezes/química , Imunoquímica/métodos , Idoso , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
10.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127506, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673867

RESUMO

Ubiquitous exposure to the neonicotinoid insecticide nitenpyram has raised concerns about its potential toxicity. In this study, we explored its health effects on the female offspring of mice that had been exposed during pregnancy. We found that exposure of pregnant mice to nitenpyram resulted in decreased levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose in female offspring, and additional research uncovered gut microbiota disturbances, accompanied by abnormal fecal metabolic profiles. Based on Pearson correlation analysis, we found that decreased abundance of Lactobacillus may play the most critical role, and changes in gut bacterial purine metabolism, BCAAs metabolism, and the TCA cycle are all closely related to the abundance of Lactobacillus. In summary, these results help explain the observed serum biochemical abnormalities and provide new insights into the intergenerational toxicity of nitenpyram.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Glicemia/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Triglicerídeos/sangue
11.
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 23(Z1): 69-76, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32594729

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association between the clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in recipients and the choice of donor, and to observe the characteristics of intestinal flora and metabolites among different donors. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted. Donor whose feces was administrated for more than 30 recipients was enrolled. Data of 20 FMT donors and corresponding recipients at Intestinal Microecology Diagnosis and Treatment Center of the Tenth People's Hospital from October 2018 to December 2019 were collected retrospectively. During follow-up, the efficacy of each recipient 8-week after FMT treatment was recorded and analyzed. Based on the efficacy of each donor, the donors were divided into three groups: high efficacy group (effective rate >60%, 10 donors), moderate efficacy group (effective rate 30%-60%, 6 donors) and low efficacy group (effective rate <30%, 4 donors). The structure of the bacterial flora and the content of fecal short-chain fatty acids in each group of donors were detected and compared among groups. Association of the efficacy of each donor group with the morbidity of complications, and association of efficacy of recipients with donors were analyzed. The evaluation indicators of FMT efficacy included objective clinical effectiveness and/or subjective effectiveness. Objective effectiveness indicated clinical cure plus clinical improvement, and subjective effectiveness indicated marked effectiveness plus medium effectiveness through questionnaire during follow-up. Results: A total of 1387 recipients were treated by 20 donors, including 749 cases of chronic constipation, 141 cases of chronic diarrhea, 107 cases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 121 cases of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 83 cases of autism, and 186 cases of other diseases, such as radiation bowel injury, intestinal pseudo-obstruction, paralytic intestinal obstruction, functional bloating and allergic diseases. There were 829 cases, 403 cases, and 155 cases in high efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and low efficacy group respectively. Baseline data among 3 groups were not significantly different (all P> 0.05). In comparison of bacterial abundance (operational taxonomic unit, OTU) among different effective donor groups, the high efficacy group was the highest (330.68±57.28), the moderate efficacy group was the second (237.79±41.89), and the low efficacy group was the lowest (160.60±49.61), whose difference was statistically significant (F=16.910, P<0.001). In comparison of bacterial diversity (Shannon index), the high efficacy group and the moderate efficacy group were higher (2.96±0.36 and 2.67±0.54, respectively), and the low efficacy group was lower (2.09±0.55), whose difference was statistically significant (F=5.255, P=0.017). In comparison of butyric acid content among three groups, the high efficacy group had the highest [(59.20±9.00) µmol/g], followed by middle efficacy group [(46.92±9.48) µmol/g], and the low efficacy group had the lowest [(37.23±5.03) µmol/g], whose difference was statistically significant (F=10.383, P=0.001). The differences of acetic acid and propionic acid among three groups were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). A total of 418 cases developed complications (30.1%). Morbidity of complication in low efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and high efficacy group was 40.6% (63/155), 30.0% (121/403) and 28.2% (243/829) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=9.568, P=0.008). The incidence of diarrhea in low efficacy group, moderate efficacy group and high efficacy group was 7.1% (11/155), 4.0% (16/403) and 2.8% (23/829) respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2)=7.239, P=0.027). Comparing the incidences of other types of complications, no statistically significant differences were found (all P>0.05). Follow up began 8 weeks after the FMT treatment. The total follow-up rate was 83.6% (1160/1387). The overall effective rate 58.3% (676/1160). Effective rates of various diseases were as follows: chronic constipation 54.3% (328/604), chronic diarrhea 88.5% (115/130), IBD 56.1% (55/98), IBS 55.1% (59/107), autism 61.6% (45/73), and other diseases 50.0% (74/148). Comparing the effective rate of three groups of donors for different diseases, there was no statistically significant difference in chronic diarrhea (P>0.05); there was a positive correlation trend in IBD, IBS and autism, but the differences were not statistically significant (all P>0.05). For chronic constipation and other diseases, high efficacy group had the highest effective rate [65.0% (243/374) and 63.2% (55/87)], followed by moderate efficacy group [49.4% (86/174) and 38.1% (16/42)], and low efficacy group had the lowest [16.1% (9/56) and 15.8% (3/19)], whose differences were significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Different donors have different efficacy in different diseases. Chronic constipation, radiation bowel injury, etc. need to choose donors with high efficacy. IBD, IBS and autism may also be related to the effectiveness of donors, while chronic diarrhea is not associated to the donor. The efficiency of the donor is negatively correlated to the morbidity of complications. The abundance and diversity of intestinal flora and the content of butyric acid may affect the efficacy of the donor.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/terapia , Seleção do Doador , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Enteropatias/terapia , Butiratos/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Food Chem ; 331: 127291, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559598

RESUMO

This study investigated inulin and calcium-rich milk mineral incorporation into a pork sausage in order to examine the effects on microbiome and biochemical activity in the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion. Rats (n = 48) were fed one of four sausages; a pork sausage enriched with 1) inulin (6.0%) and milk mineral (3%), 2) inulin (6.0%), 3) milk mineral (3%) or 4) control sausages without enrichment. NMR-based metabolomics revealed that inulin-enrichment increased the fecal concentration of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Milk mineral-enrichment also increased SCFA concentrations, although less pronounced. In addition, milk mineral reduced the concentration of nitroso compounds in feces and small intestinal content. Combined enrichment with both inulin and milk mineral showed no cumulative effect on SCFA formation and seemed to oppose the milk mineral-induced reduction of nitroso compound formation. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that alterations of the gut microbiome contributed to the observed effects.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Leite/química , Minerais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/química , Masculino , Ratos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234971, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584863

RESUMO

Intensive pig management involves in a commercial setting the housing and implementation of certain procedures, such as castration and tail docking, which may be stressful for the animal. Good farming practices include the reduction of stress due to management processes, but assessing the level of stress perceived entirely through behavioural observations can be challenging. The monitoring stress-related physiological markers, like glucocorticoids (GC), can be an accurate alternative that would presumably be more objective. In order to avoid an additional stressor by taking blood, a non-invasive approach is advisable. We used an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and the effect of transport to examine the suitability of different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring adrenocortical function in domestic pigs using saliva and faeces as sample matrices. An assay measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) with a 3ß,11ß-diol group has proven suited to determine adrenocortical activity, showing an overall increase of 180% in fGCM concentrations related to ACTH administration and of 70% related to transport, respectively. A cortisol EIA was used to detect salivary glucocorticoid (sGC) concentrations, revealing a 1100% increase in sGC concentrations after ACTH administration. The stability of fGCM concentrations post-defecation was determined to assess possible changes in measured fGCM concentrations in unpreserved faecal material over time, with fGCM concentrations being relatively stable (maximal 12% change) under natural conditions for approximately two days after defecation. This implicates that untreated faecal material from pigs can be analysed for up to two days after collection without appreciable level of depreciation in fGCM concentrations. Being able to assess the physiological stress response of domestic pigs non-invasively can help to improve the well-being of commercially reared pigs.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Córtex Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/metabolismo , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/química
14.
Food Chem ; 331: 127363, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590269

RESUMO

Rhubarb is a popular food in Europe with laxative properties attributed to anthraquinones. Long term usage of rhubarb anthraquinones has been linked to colonic toxicity, including the formation of melanosis coli, which is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. The major purgative anthraquinone in rhubarb is thought to be sennoside A, which is metabolised by colonic microflora. Here, we sought to identify the toxic metabolite responsible for melanosis coli in rats dosed with rhubarb anthraquinones for up to 90 days. Three metabolites were detected in rat faeces using HPLC. Of these, rhein was identified as the metabolite that accumulated most over time. Fecal flora from treated rats were capable of greater biotransformation of sennoside A to rhein compared to that from control rats. Cell culture experiments suggested that apoptosis and autophagy induced by rhein is the likely mechanism of chronic toxicity of rhubarb anthraquinones.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/farmacocinética , Antraquinonas/toxicidade , Rheum/química , Animais , Antraquinonas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biotransformação , Catárticos/química , Catárticos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/patologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Células HT29 , Humanos , Laxantes/farmacocinética , Laxantes/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Senosídeos/farmacocinética , Senosídeos/toxicidade
15.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 319(2): G227-G237, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597706

RESUMO

Antibiotic treatment is a standard therapy for Clostridioides difficile infection, but dysbiosis of the gut microbiota due to antibiotic exposure is also a major risk factor for the disease. Following an initial episode of C. difficile infection, a relentless cycle of recurrence can occur, where persistent treatment-related dysbiosis predisposes the patient to subsequent relapse. This study uses a longitudinal study design to compare the effects of a narrow-spectrum (ridinilazole) or broad-spectrum antibiotic (vancomycin) on intestinal bile acid profiles and their associations with gut bacteria over the course of C. difficile infection treatment. At the end of treatment (day 10), subjects receiving vancomycin showed a nearly 100-fold increase in the ratio of conjugated to secondary bile acids in their stool compared with baseline, whereas subjects receiving ridinilazole maintained this ratio near baseline levels. Correlation analysis detected significant positive associations between secondary bile acids and several Bacteroidales and Clostridiales families. These families were depleted in the vancomycin group but preserved at near-baseline abundance in the ridinilazole group. Enterobacteriaceae, which expanded to a greater extent in the vancomycin group, correlated negatively and positively with secondary and conjugated primary bile acids, respectively. Bile acid ratios at the end of treatment were significantly different between those who recurred and those who did not. These results indicate that a narrow-spectrum antibiotic maintains an intestinal bile acid profile associated with a lowered risk of recurrence.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to demonstrate in humans the relationships between Clostridioides difficile antibiotic treatment choice and bile acid metabolism both during therapy and after treatment cessation. The results show a microbiota- and metabolome-preserving property of a novel narrow-spectrum agent that correlates with the agent's favorable sustained clinical response rates compared with broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos
16.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568232

RESUMO

Nowadays, stool DNA can be isolated and analyzed by several methods. The long fragments of DNA in stool can be detected by a qPCR assay, which provides a reliable probability of the presence of pre-neoplastic or neoplastic colorectal lesions. This method, called fluorescence long DNA (FL-DNA), is a fast, non-invasive procedure that is an improvement upon the primary prevention system. This method is based on evaluation of fecal DNA integrity by quantitative amplification of specific targets of genomic DNA. In particular, the evaluation of DNA fragments longer than 200 bp allows for detection of patients with colorectal lesions with very high specificity. However, this system and all currently available stool DNA tests present some general issues that need to be addressed (e.g., the frequency at which tests should be carried out and optimal number of stool samples collected at each timepoint for each individual). However, the main advantage of FL-DNA is the possibility to use it in association with a test currently used in the CRC screening program, known as the immunochemical-based fecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Indeed, both tests can be performed on the same sample, reducing costs and achieving a better prediction of the eventual presence of colorectal lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA/análise , Fezes/química , Adulto , Análise de Dados , Fluorescência , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Padrões de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Temperatura
18.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127219, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512331

RESUMO

There is a great need for simple methods for digestate management for potential household sanitation systems based on anaerobic digestion of minimally diluted fecal waste in countries that lack safe sanitation. Herein, a full-scale three-stage filter for nitrogen and phosphorus removal from anaerobic digester effluent was implemented in Madagascar. It included a trickling filter with crushed charcoal (for aerobic nitrification), a submerged anaerobic filter with bamboo chips (for denitrification), and a submerged filter with scrap iron (for phosphorus removal). All filter materials were sourced locally. Three parallel replicate systems were operated in two sequential 8-week phases for a total of 16 continuous weeks. Though the influent feed was not as expected, with much of nitrogen in the feed coming in as organic N and not as NH3-N, the filters still removed 38-49% of total incoming nitrogen. The filters achieved high rates of nitrogen transformation along with removing solids (73-82% turbidity removal), chemical oxygen demand (67-75% removal), and phosphorus (31-50% removal). Overall, the reaction rates from this full-scale study were in line with previous lab-scale investigations with scaled-down systems, supporting their application in real-world scenarios. Based on this study, simple effluent filters can support nutrient removal for small-scale and onsite fecal sludge treatment systems.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Reatores Biológicos , Carvão Vegetal , Desnitrificação , Fezes/química , Humanos , Nitrificação , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes , Fósforo , Esgotos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502191

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) isotopic discrimination (i.e. the difference in natural 15N abundance between the animal proteins and the diet; Δ15N) is known to correlate with N use efficiency (NUE) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in ruminants. However, results from the literature are not always consistent across studies, likely due to isotopic discrimination pathways that may differ with the nature of diets. The objective of the present study was to assess at which level, from rumen to tissues, Δ15N originates and becomes related to NUE and FCE in fattening yearling bulls when they are fed two contrasted diets. Twenty-four Charolais yearling bulls were randomly divided into two groups and fed during 8 months, from weaning to slaughter, either 1) a high starch diet based on corn silage supplying a balanced N to energy ratio at the rumen level (starch) or 2) a high fiber diet based on grass silage supplying an excess of rumen degradable N (fiber). All animals were slaughtered and samples of different digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, ileal and fecal contents), animal tissues (duodenum, liver and muscle), blood and urine were collected for each animal. Ruminal content was further used to isolate liquid-associated bacteria (LAB), protozoa and free ammonia, while plasma proteins were obtained from blood. All samples along with feed were analyzed for their N isotopic composition. For both diets, the digestive contribution (i.e. the N isotopic discrimination occurring before absorption) to the Δ15N observed in animal tissues accounted for 65 ± 11%, leaving only one third to the contribution of post-absorptive metabolism. Concerning the Δ15N in digestive pools, the majority of these changes occurred in the rumen (av. Δ15N = 2.12 ± 0.66‰), with only minor 15N enrichments thereafter (av. Δ15N = 2.24 ± 0.41‰), highlighting the key role of the rumen on N isotopic discrimination. A strong, significant overall relationship (n = 24) between Δ15N and FCE or NUE was found when using any post-absorptive metabolic pool (duodenum, liver, or muscle tissues, or plasma proteins; 0.52 < r < 0.73; P ≤ 0.01), probably as these pools reflect both digestive and post-absorptive metabolic phenomena. Fiber diet compared to starch diet had a lower feed efficiency and promoted higher (P ≤ 0.05) Δ15N values across all post-absorptive metabolic pools and some digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, and ileal contents). The within-diet relationship (n = 12) between Δ15N and feed efficiency was not as strong and consistent as the overall relationship, with contrasted responses between the two diets for specific pools (diet x pool interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Our results highlight the contrasted use of N at the rumen level between the two experimental diets and suggests the need for different equations to predict FCE or NUE from Δ15N according to the type of diet. In conclusion, rumen digestion and associated microbial activity can play an important role on N isotopic discrimination so rumen effect related to diet may interfere with the relationship between Δ15N and feed efficiency in fattening yearling bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
20.
Life Sci ; 256: 117960, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intestinal GC-C/cGMP pathway may be involved in visceral hypersensitivity and fluid secretion in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The guanylcyclase C agonist linaclotide, approved for IBS- constipation, is contraindicated in children as it may cause severe diarrhea. In contrast, drugs increasing cGMP by inhibiting phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) are well tolerated in children with pulmonary hypertension. Accordingly, we investigated whether beneficial effects of linaclotide in IBS might be shared by PDE-5inhibitor tadalafil without the severe diarrhea reported for linaclotide. Since depression is commonly comorbid with IBS and is implicated in its pathophysiology; and since tadalafil is absorbed systemically and crosses blood brain barrier, whereas linaclotide does not, impact of both drugs on behavioral changes in IBS was also investigated. METHODS: 72 rats were divided into 6groups (control naive, control tadalafil, control linaclotide, untreated IBS, IBS tadalafil, and IBS linaclotide-treated). IBS was induced by 0 to 4 °C intragastric saline for 14 days. RESULTS: Both drugs reduced visceral hypersensitivity and colonic C fos. Tadalafil, and to a greater extent, linaclotide increased colonic cGMP, fecal pellets (8.66 ± 4.6 (IBS),versus14.8 ± 3.3(tadalafil), 20 ± 1.2(linaclotide), fecal water content (29.8 ± 5.5 (IBS), versus 47.83 ± 12.6 (tadalafil), 63.58 ± 11.6 (linaclotide) and reduced intestinal transit time (% distance travelled: 29 ± 6.1(IBS), versus 40.58 + 7.5(tadalafil), 51.83 ± 8.3(linaclotide). Tadalafil, but not linaclotide, increased hippocampal cGMP, and improved behavioral tests scores compared to linaclotide (immobility time: 97.3 ± 12.5 s (IBS) versus 68 ± 12.8(tadalafil), 80 ± 17.06 (linaclotide). CONCLUSION: Systemic PDE-5 inhibitors might be alternatives to locally acting guanyl cyclase agonists in IBS, inducing less severe diarrhea and more beneficial effects on the associated behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/complicações , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Tadalafila/uso terapêutico , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Colo/fisiopatologia , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , GMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Intestino Grosso/metabolismo , Masculino , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Reflexo/efeitos dos fármacos , Natação , Tadalafila/farmacologia , Água
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