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1.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(2): 289-302, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961431

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is regarded as a pregnancy-associated hypertension disorder that is related to excessive inflammatory responses. Although the gut microbiota (GM) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) have been related to hypertension, their effects on PE remain unknown. We determined the GM abundance and faecal SCFA levels by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing and gas chromatography, respectively, using faecal samples from 27 patients with severe PE and 36 healthy, pregnant control subjects. We found that patients with PE had significantly decreased GM diversity and altered GM abundance. At the phylum level, patients with PE exhibited decreased abundance of Firmicutes albeit increased abundance of Proteobacteria; at the genus level, patients with PE had lower abundance of Blautia, Eubacterium_rectale, Eubacterium_hallii, Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Alistipes, and Subdoligranulum, albeit higher abundance of Enterobacter and Escherichia_Shigella. The faecal levels of butyric and valeric acids were significantly decreased in patients with PE and significantly correlated with the above-mentioned differential GM abundance. We predicted significantly increased abundance of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-synthesis pathway and significantly decreased abundance of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway in patients with PE, based on phylogenetic reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt). Finally, we evaluated the effects of oral butyrate on LPS-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. We found that butyrate significantly reduced the blood pressure (BP) in these rats. In summary, we provide the first evidence linking GM dysbiosis and reduced faecal SCFA to PE and demonstrate that butyrate can directly regulate BP in vivo, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for PE.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Butiratos/análise , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/microbiologia , Ácidos Pentanoicos/análise , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo , Dinâmica Populacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/microbiologia , Gravidez , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
2.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(1): 106-114, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190655

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of the antiparasitic drug ivermectin on the dung beetles Copris acutidens Motschulsky, Onthophagus bivertex Heyden, O. lenzii Harold and Phelotrupes auratus auratus Motschulsky in Japan. Ivermectin was detected in cattle dung from 1 to 3 or 7 days post-treatment, with a peak at 3 days post-treatment in two pour-on administrations (500 µg kg-1). In C. acutidens, adult survivals and numbers of brood balls were significantly reduced in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment, and adult emergence rates were significantly decreased in dung collected at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. Feeding activity of C. acutidens was inhibited in dung collected at 3 days post-treatment, but was not significantly different from that seen in control dung at 7 and 14 days post-treatment. In O. bivertex and O. lenzii, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival or feeding activities, but the numbers of brood balls of O. bivertex constructed in dung collected at 3 and 7 days post-treatment were significantly lower than observed with control dung. The adult emergence rates of O. bivertex and O. lenzii were significantly reduced in dung collected at 1 to 3 and 1 to 7 days post-treatment, respectively. In P. auratus, there were no effects of ivermectin on adult survival, oviposition, feeding activity, or larval survival (until the third instar) in dung at 3 days post-treatment. The environmental risks affecting the populations of dung beetles in Japan are discussed.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/toxicidade , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Ivermectina/toxicidade , Animais , Antiparasitários/análise , Fezes/química , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Ivermectina/análise , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Subcrônica
3.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 225-236, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760063

RESUMO

N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) is a plasticizer detected in the environment suggesting potential human exposure. These studies investigated the in vitro hepatic clearance and disposition of [14C]NBBS in rodents following a single gavage (2, 20 or 200 mg/kg) or intravenous (IV) administration (20 mg/kg). NBBS was cleared slower in hepatocytes from humans compared to rodents. [14C]NBBS was well-absorbed in male rats following gavage administration and excreted extensively in urine (70-76 %) and feces (11-15 %) 72 h following administration. Following a 20 mg/kg gavage dose in male rats, 25 % of the dose was excreted in bile by 24 h suggesting that observed fecal excretion was due to biliary excretion. The radioactivity was distributed to tissues with 14 % and 8 % of the administered dose remaining in tissues at 24 and 72 h, respectively. There was no apparent dose-dependent effect in disposition in male rats. Disposition patterns were similar in female rats (urine, 83 %; feces, 14 %) and male (urine, 69 %; feces, 11 %) and female (urine, 72 %; feces, 9 %) mice following gavage administration of 20 mg/kg. The disposition following IV administration was similar to that of gavage. Urinary radiochemical profiles were similar between doses, routes, species, and sexes. Among numerous metabolites identified, oxidative metabolites of NBBS predominated.


Assuntos
Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Plastificantes/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Animais , Bile/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Plastificantes/metabolismo , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
4.
Toxicol Lett ; 319: 31-39, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707105

RESUMO

The bioabsorption and biotoxicity of cadmium are closely related to its binding form. Currently, total concentration is used as the indicator for evaluating cadmium toxicity in food, but it might not accurately reflect cadmium's toxic effects. This study attempted to evaluate the toxicity of the different forms of cadmium including cadmium-malate, cadmium-glutathione, and cadmium-metallothionein that are commonly found in food. The in vitro physiologically based extraction test (PBET) combined with Visual MINTEQ modeling was used to predict the toxicity of different forms of cadmium, and acute toxicity testing was performed in mice for validating their results. The in vivo experimental results showed that different forms of cadmium had diverse biotoxicities of which PBET was a good predictor. In particular, the simulation of cadmium ions in PBET using the MINTEQ software revealed that the free cadmium ion content in the simulated intestinal fluid had a superior linear relationship than the total cadmium concentration with the toxicology indexes. Verification using the other two forms of cadmium confirmed the accuracy of the prediction of their biotoxicity. These findings hopefully provide an important reference for a more accurate and rapid safety assessment of cadmium in food.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cádmio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Cádmio/toxicidade , Análise de Alimentos , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cádmio/análise , Simulação por Computador , Fezes/química , Contaminação de Alimentos , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Software , Distribuição Tecidual
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 409-417, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833363

RESUMO

Naringin has been documented to possess various bioactivities. Due to thorny endogenous interferences, the metabolism pathways of naringin and exact amounts of derived phenolic catabolites have not been definitely assigned. In this work, stable isotope-labeling-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods were developed to eliminate the endogenous interferences. [2',3',5',6'-D4]-naringin was orally administrated to rats. Urine and feces samples were collected and then analyzed with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A total of 21 flavonoid metabolites and 11 phenolic catabolites were screened. The metabolism and catabolism pathways were proposed. Furthermore, deuterated naringin and its main metabolites were determined with rapid resolution liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (RRLC-QqQ-MS/MS). The overall recovery of ingested deuterated naringin was calculated as 56.9% without endogenous interferences. The obtained results provide essential information for further pharmacological studies of naringin.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Fezes/química , Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/metabolismo , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Feminino , Flavanonas/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Food Chem ; 302: 125339, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419771

RESUMO

Intake of red and processed meat has been suspected to increase colorectal cancer risk potentially via endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds or increased lipid and protein oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of inulin fortification of a pork sausage on these parameters. For four weeks, healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed one of three diets: inulin-fortified pork sausage, control pork sausage or a standard chow diet. Fecal content of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC), nitrosothiols and nitrosyl iron compounds (FeNO) were analyzed in addition to liver metabolism and oxidation products formed in liver, plasma and diets. Intriguingly, inulin fortification reduced fecal ATNC (p = 0.03) and FeNO (p = 0.04) concentrations. The study revealed that inulin fortification of processed meat could be a strategy to reduce nitroso compounds formed endogenously after consumption.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Inulina/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne , Compostos Nitrosos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Carcinógenos/análise , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Nitrosos/análise , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Carne Vermelha , Suínos
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 276: 108973, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785456

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to measure the effect of the nutritional status of Creole goat kids on the host responses and the nematode population established after an experimental H. contortus infection. Fifty six kids were fed with 4 diets corresponding to 2 nutritional statuses: the low nutritional status (HAY, hay ad libitum and HB, Hay ad libitum + banana) and the high nutritional status (HS, hay ad libitum + soya meal and HSB, hay ad libitum + banana + soya meal). For each diet, 8 kids were experimentally infected with 10,000 H. contortus infective larvae (L3) and 6 kids were kept as non-infected controls. From the day of infection until 6 weeks post-infection, samples were collected to measure individual intake, total tract digestibility, parasitological and hematological parameters. The dry matter intake (DMI), the average daily gain (ADG), the crude protein (CP) and the digestible CP intake were higher in goats fed the HS and HSB diets, but no statistically significant interaction between the nutritional status and the infection was observed. The packed cell volume (PCV), the red blood cell counts (RBC) and the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) were higher with the HS and the HSB diets. In kids with the high nutritional status the nematode burden and pathophysiological impact of the infection were significantly lower but not the FEC. In conclusion, this reduced establishment rate was associated with an increased production of eggs by the female parasites and suggested a phenomenon of density-dependent prolificacy of H. contortus probably inherent to the fitness of the parasite population.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia/veterinária , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/normas , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Eosinófilos/citologia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/fisiopatologia , Doenças das Cabras/prevenção & controle , Cabras , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Hemoncose/fisiopatologia , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Pepsinogênio A/sangue
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756623

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is often accompanied by metabolic imbalance and Berberine can relieve the symptoms of IBD, but the mechanism is still unclear. To explore the relationship between IBD, metabolism and Berberine, dextran sulfate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) model was built and urine and feces samples were analyzed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, followed by multivariate statistical analyses. Targeted metabolomics was applied to verify and supplement the result of amino acids tested by non-targeted metabolomics. The study found that Berberine could ameliorate UC and improve metabolic disorders. The level of 4 metabolites increased and 35 decreased in urine and these metabolites mainly belong to amino acid, glucide, organic acid and purine. Besides, Berberine could reduce the level of 5 metabolites and raise the level of 7 metabolites in feces, which mainly belong to amino acid and lipid. Additionally, these altered metabolites were mainly related to amino acids metabolism, purine metabolism, vitamin metabolism, lipid metabolism and citrate cycle pathways. Furthermore, microbiome metabolism may be regulated by Berberine in UC. In general, this study provides a useful approach for exploring the mechanism of Berberine in the treatment of UC from the perspective of metabolomics.


Assuntos
Berberina/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica/métodos , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/urina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/química , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4519-4531, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634399

RESUMO

Prebiotics and dietary fibers are nondigestible ingredients that may confer benefits to the host by selectively stimulating beneficial intestinal bacteria and microbial-derived metabolites that support gut and host health. This experiment evaluated the effects of a blend of prebiotics and dietary fibers on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and fecal metabolites related to gastrointestinal health in adult dogs. Four diets containing either 5% cellulose (control; CT), 5% dietary fiber and prebiotic blend (FP), 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (SE), or 5% fiber blend plus 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (FSE) were formulated to meet or exceed the AAFCO (2017) nutritional requirements for adult dogs. Eight adult female beagles (mean age 4.2 ± 1.1 yr; mean BW = 10.8 ± 1.4 kg; mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.6) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 14 d (10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of total and fresh fecal and total urine collection). All animals remained healthy throughout the study, with serum metabolites being within reference ranges for adult dogs. All diets were well accepted by the dogs, resulting in similar (P > 0.05) daily food intakes among treatments. Likewise, fecal output and scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among dietary treatments, with the latter being within the ideal range (2.5-2.9) in a 5-point scale. All diets were highly digestible and had similar (P > 0.05) ATTD of dry matter (81.6%-84.4%), organic matter (86.4%-87.3%), and crude protein (86.6%-87.3%). However, total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility was greater for dogs fed the FSE diet (P < 0.05) in contrast with dogs fed the CT and SE diets, whereas dogs fed FP diets had intermediate TDF digestibility, but not different from all other treatments. Fecal acetate and propionate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for dogs fed FP and FSE diets. Fecal concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were greater for dogs fed CT (P < 0.05) compared with dogs fed the other three treatments. No shifts in fecal microbial richness and diversity were observed among dietary treatments. Overall, the data suggest that dietary supplementation of fiber and prebiotic blend was well tolerated by dogs, did not cause detrimental effects on fecal quality or nutrient digestibility, and resulted in beneficial shifts in fecal metabolites that may support gut health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarina/administração & dosagem
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 876, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protozoa in human faecal samples with uncertain impact on public health. Studies on the prevalence of Blastocystis in HIV-positive patients are limited and dated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 156 HIV-positive patients to evaluate the prevalence of Blastocystis-subtypes by molecular amplification and sequencing the small subunit rRNA gene (SSU rDNA), to identify the risk factors for its transmission, to examine the relationship between the presence of the protist and gastrointestinal disorders. Furthermore, the evaluation of the faecal calprotectin by immunoassay from a sample of subjects was performed to evaluate the gut inflammation in Blastocystis-carriers. RESULTS: Blastocystis-subtypes ST1, ST2, ST3, ST4 were identified in 39 HIV-positive patients (25%). No correlation was found between the presence of the protist and virological or epidemiological risk factors. Blastocystis was more frequently detected in homosexual subjects (p = 0.037) infected by other enteric protozoa (p = 0.0001) and with flatulence (p = 0.024). No significant differences in calprotectin level was found between Blastocystis-carriers and free ones. CONCLUSIONS: Blastocystis is quite common in HIV-positive patients on ART showing in examined patients 25% prevalence. Homosexual behaviour may represent a risk factor for its transmission, while CD4 count and viremia didn't correlate with the presence of the protist. The pathogenetic role of Blastocystis remains unclear and no gut inflammation status was detected in Blastocystis-carriers. The only symptom associated with Blastocystis was the flatulence, evidencing a link between the presence of the protist and the composition and stability of gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Blastocystis/patogenicidade , Soropositividade para HIV/parasitologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/parasitologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Blastocystis/genética , Infecções por Blastocystis/etiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180509, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644641

RESUMO

In order to evaluate iron chelate in diets for sows during gestation and lactation and its effects on iron supplementation for piglets, a total of 50 pregnant sows in the third parity order were distributed according to a randomized block design with two treatments: diet without iron chelate supplementation (n=20); diet supplemented with 0.15% of iron chelate (n=30). The litters of sows were distributed into five different treatments: sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows without iron chelate supplementation and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving intramuscular iron-dextran; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets receiving oral iron supplementation; sows supplemented with iron chelate and piglets without iron supplementation. No influence of dietary supplementation of iron chelate was verified on the productive parameters of the sows. For the piglets, iron-dextran supplementation promoted higher weaning weight in comparison to non-supplemented piglets, although not differing to those received oral iron supplementation. Thus, iron chelate supplementation did not improve the productive parameters of sows, but it increased iron excretion in the feces, thus requiring iron supplementation for the piglets after birth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Animais Lactentes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Quelantes de Ferro/administração & dosagem , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fezes/química , Feminino , Quelantes de Ferro/análise , Lactação , Gravidez
12.
Nature ; 574(7779): 543-548, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645720

RESUMO

Multicellular organisms have co-evolved with complex consortia of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, collectively referred to as the microbiota1. In mammals, changes in the composition of the microbiota can influence many physiologic processes (including development, metabolism and immune cell function) and are associated with susceptibility to multiple diseases2. Alterations in the microbiota can also modulate host behaviours-such as social activity, stress, and anxiety-related responses-that are linked to diverse neuropsychiatric disorders3. However, the mechanisms by which the microbiota influence neuronal activity and host behaviour remain poorly defined. Here we show that manipulation of the microbiota in antibiotic-treated or germ-free adult mice results in significant deficits in fear extinction learning. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing of the medial prefrontal cortex of the brain revealed significant alterations in gene expression in excitatory neurons, glia and other cell types. Transcranial two-photon imaging showed that deficits in extinction learning after manipulation of the microbiota in adult mice were associated with defective learning-related remodelling of postsynaptic dendritic spines and reduced activity in cue-encoding neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. In addition, selective re-establishment of the microbiota revealed a limited neonatal developmental window in which microbiota-derived signals can restore normal extinction learning in adulthood. Finally, unbiased metabolomic analysis identified four metabolites that were significantly downregulated in germ-free mice and have been reported to be related to neuropsychiatric disorders in humans and mouse models, suggesting that microbiota-derived compounds may directly affect brain function and behaviour. Together, these data indicate that fear extinction learning requires microbiota-derived signals both during early postnatal neurodevelopment and in adult mice, with implications for our understanding of how diet, infection, and lifestyle influence brain health and subsequent susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Metabolômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Transtorno Autístico/metabolismo , Sangue/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/metabolismo , Sinais (Psicologia) , Espinhas Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Espinhas Dendríticas/patologia , Espinhas Dendríticas/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Medo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Vida Livre de Germes , Indicã/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/imunologia , Inibição Neural , Neuroglia/patologia , Neuroglia/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/imunologia , Neurônios/patologia , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/imunologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Esquizofrenia/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Nervo Vago/fisiologia
13.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3075-3082, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599971

RESUMO

The hypocholesterolemic effect of amaranth was studied in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet that was supplemented with amaranth flour, AF, or isolated protein, AI. Likewise, an in vitro test was carried out, in which the capacity of the AI, AF, the digested isolate, DAI, and the digested amaranth flour, DAF, to displace the cholesterol of the model micelles was evaluated. The in vivo results showed an increase in the excretion of cholesterol through feces (77% for AF7; 23% and 108% for AI30 and AF30, respect control) and a decrease in the content of hepatic cholesterol (98% for AF7; 96% and 53% for AI30 and AF30 respect control); whereas in vitro it was shown that both AF and DAF have greater power to displace cholesterol than the AI and DAI (IC50 0.1, 0.71, 0.2, and 2.1 for AF, DAF, AI, and DAI, respectively). These evidences show that the proteins and fibers of amaranth have an effect on cholesterol metabolism. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Nowadays, consumers give great importance to the effect that food has on health. The results shown in this work evidence the potential hypocholesterolemic activity presented by amaranth, this is of great importance due to the increase in the incidence of dyslipidemia in the world population and the importance of amaranth as a nonextensive crop of excellent agronomic, nutritional, and bioactive properties suitable for preparation of functional foods.


Assuntos
Amaranthus/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/análise , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta , Fezes/química , Fígado/química , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109720, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585392

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Selenium plays important roles in antagonizing the toxicity of methylmercury. The underlying mechanism for the antagonism between Se and MeHg is still not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: The role of gut flora against the toxicity of environmental contaminants is receiving more and more attention. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Se against MeHg-poisoning in the modulation of gut flora and the decomposition of MeHg. METHODS: MeHg-poisoned rats were treated with sodium selenite every other day for 90 days. Fecal samples were collected on Day 8, 30, 60 and 90. Gut flora in feces was determined using 16S rRNA gene profiling, and the concentrations of Se and total mercury (THg) were measured by ICP-MS, and the concentration of MeHg was measured by CVAFS. RESULTS: Gut flora at both the ranks of phylum and genus in the MeHg-poisoned rats after Se treatment was modulated towards that in the control group, suggesting the restoration of the profile of gut flora. Increased THg was found in fecal samples after Se treatment on day 30. The percentage of MeHg (of total mercury) in the MeHg-poisoned group was in the range of 81-105% while it was 65-84% in the Se treatment group on different days, suggesting the increased decomposition of MeHg in MeHg-poisoned rats after Se treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that MeHg poisoning damaged the abundance of gut flora and decreased their capacity for the decomposition of MeHg. After Se treatment, the abundance of gut flora was partially restored and the decomposition and excretion of MeHg was enhanced. These findings suggest that the modulation of gut flora may be one way to promote the health status in MeHg-poisoned rats and possibly in human beings.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/prevenção & controle , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Selenito de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Selenito de Sódio/análise
15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 390-395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590801

RESUMO

Anthropogenic micro debris in the marine environment is a growing concern worldwide, affecting multiple trophic levels, from primary consumers such as zooplankton, to meso- and apex predators like marine mammals and marine birds. In 2016-2017, during the processing of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina vitulina) and gray seal (Halichoerus grypus atlantica) fecal samples for fish otoliths and organic hard parts as part of a prey study, anthropogenic micro debris (>500 µm) was detected in 6% (n = 2/32) of harbor seal and 1% (n = 2/129) of gray seal samples. Spectral analysis identified the fragments as cellophane, alkyd resin and poly(ethylene:propylene:diene) (EPDM) rubber. These results show the potential indirect ingestion of micro debris, which can impact the health and welfare of marine wildlife. This is the first report of micro debris presence in wild populations of phocid seals for the northwestern Atlantic.


Assuntos
Phoca , Poluentes da Água/análise , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Fezes/química , Massachusetts , Focas Verdadeiras
16.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 185: 109667, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569031

RESUMO

In most resource-oriented sanitation (ROS) systems, the composting process has been a sustainable treatment method for source separated feces. Nonetheless, a slow and low degradation efficiency-combined with hygienic concerns, especially for the high amount of waste produced -makes the selection of the composting bulk additives a critical decision for the process. This study presents the efficiency improvement of adding different natural additives to enhance the composting process of the source separated feces in ROS systems. Three different natural additives, including sawdust, rice husk, and rice husk charcoal were utilized for the composting process of fresh feces with an additive w/w ratio of 2:1. To evaluate the impact of additives on compost properties, chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of composting materials were measured. Results indicated that using rice husk charcoal as an additive of the process was effective and generated a degradation of more than 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), reduced the nitrogen loss to less than 0.2%, and improved the germination index (GI) to more than 80%. Moreover, in terms of fecal indicators, the Escherichia coli (E. coli) stains were totally removed after five weeks. The efficacy of utilizing rice husk charcoal as a composting matrix in resource oriented sanitation systems can be, therefore, demonstrated as a nature-based treatment for source separated feces.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Compostagem , Fezes/química , Oryza/química , Madeira/química , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fezes/microbiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo/química
17.
Genome Biol ; 20(1): 212, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639026

RESUMO

Among the laboratory and bioinformatic processing steps for human microbiome studies, a lack of consistency in DNA extraction methodologies is hindering the ability to compare results between studies and sometimes leading to errant conclusions. The purpose of this article is to highlight the issues related to DNA extraction methods and to suggest minimum standard requirements that should be followed to ensure consistency and reproducibility.


Assuntos
DNA/isolamento & purificação , Genômica/normas , Microbiota , DNA/normas , Fezes/química , Humanos
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(12): 10737-10747, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521345

RESUMO

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is correlated with alcohol consumption, and ALD progression depends on various factors. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial for mitigating ALD. However, the valuable effects of LAB-derived dairy products remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of Lactococcus chungangensis CAU 1447 dry cells (CAU 1447) and cream cheese derived from CAU 1447 on ALD progression following long-term alcohol consumption in rats. Oral administration of CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese significantly reduced alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride levels. We found that CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese downregulated mRNA encoding various cytokines and antioxidative factors in the liver. Oral CAU 1447 cream cheese administration increased short-chain fatty acid, butyrate, and acetate levels in feces. Thus, administration of CAU 1447 and CAU 1447 cream cheese induced hepatoprotective effects, indicating potential applications as a supplement for ALD mitigation.


Assuntos
Lactococcus , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fatores Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Queijo/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 1): 113183, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541814

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) are considered emerging environmental pollutants, posing potential risks for human and animal health: the misuse of antimicrobials in food-producing animals could favour the maintenance and spread of resistances in bacteria. The occurrence of ARGs in Italian swine farming - which has specific characteristics - was investigated in order to explore resistance spread dynamics. Two farrow-to-finish pig farms were longitudinally monitored: faecal samples from animals and environmental samples were collected. DNA was extracted and tetA, ermB, qnrS and mcr1 ARGs were analysed by qPCR for their ability to confer resistance to highly or critically important antimicrobials (CIAs). Moreover, 16SrDNA gene was analysed to assess bacterial abundance. ermB and tetA genes were found in animal samples and manure samples. On the contrary, mcr1 was exclusively found in weaners, while qnrS occurred in all animal categories but sows and finishers. Among the analysed genes, ermB and tetA showed the highest absolute and relative abundances. Our results indicate that ermB and tetA ARGs are widely disseminated in the explored farms, suggesting efficient maintenance among bacteria and persistence in the environment. Interestingly, the presence of qnrS and mcr1, limited to just a few animal categories, highlights inefficient dissemination of these genes in the farm environment, in particular for mcr1, a stable plasmid gene conferring resistance to the last-resort antimicrobial, colistin. Paying close attention only to the finishing phase would have hampered the discovery of resistances to CIAs at farm level, which we instead identified thanks to an intensive longitudinal monitoring programme.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Suínos/microbiologia , Agricultura , Animais , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Itália , Masculino , Esterco/microbiologia , Plasmídeos
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4532-4539, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560750

RESUMO

Dietary fibers can influence a dog's overall health, but high concentrations of soluble dietary fibers can cause soft stools. An in vitro model could be useful to predict the rate fibers are fermented once they reach the colon. Pet food companies are constantly searching for new ingredients to differentiate their products from competitors. Miscanthus grass (MG), pea fiber (PF), and sorghum bran (SB) are novel fiber sources that could be alternatives to standards like cellulose (CE) and beet pulp (BP). The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of fiber source on organic matter disappearance (OMD), estimated organic matter disappearance (EOMD), and fermentation end-product concentrations using an in vitro fermentation procedure and dog fecal inoculum. Total dietary fiber (TDF) residues from MG, CE, BP, PF, and SB were fermented in vitro with buffered dog feces. Fecal samples were collected and maintained in anaerobic conditions until the dilution and inoculation. Test tubes containing the fibrous substrates were incubated for 4, 8, and 12 h at 39 °C. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA), OMD, and EOMD were determined for each fiber source and time point. Beet pulp had the highest OMD, EOMD, and SCFA production of all tested fiber sources (38.6% OMD, 26.2% EOMD, 2.72 mmol SCFA/g of substrate). Sorghum bran led to greater concentrations of BCFA (59.86 µmol/g of substrate) and intermediate OMD and EOMD compared to the other tested fibers. Cellulose and MG were poorly fermented with the lowest OMD, EOMD, SCFA, and BCFA compared to other fibers. In conclusion, MG could be used as an insoluble minimally fermentable replacement fiber for CE in dog foods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Poaceae , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Celulose/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fermentação , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
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