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1.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199338

RESUMO

The fecal metabolome in early life has seldom been studied. We investigated its evolution in pre-term babies during their first weeks of life. Multiple (n = 152) stool samples were studied from 51 babies, all <32 weeks gestation. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed by headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Data were interpreted using Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution System (AMDIS) with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) reference library. Statistical analysis was based on linear mixed modelling, the number of VOCs increased over time; a rise was mainly observed between day 5 and day 10. The shift at day 5 was associated with products of branched-chain fatty acids. Prior to this, the metabolome was dominated by aldehydes and acetic acid. Caesarean delivery showed a modest association with molecules of fungal origin. This study shows how the metabolome changes in early life in pre-term babies. The shift in the metabolome 5 days after delivery coincides with the establishment of enteral feeding and the transition from meconium to feces. Great diversity of metabolites was associated with being fed greater volumes of milk.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrição Enteral , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Microextração em Fase Sólida
2.
Food Chem ; 362: 130231, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237653

RESUMO

The silkworm (Bombyx mori) is an important economic insect that can be used as food in many countries in Asia. However, silkworms and their metabolites are an important source of allergens, which can induce severe allergic reactions. So far, there are no systematic studies on the potential allergens in silkworm and its metabolites. These studies have important guiding significance for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of silkworm allergy. The aim of this study was to identify the potential allergens from larva, pupa, moth, silk, slough and feces of silkworm and analyze the sequence homology of silkworm allergens with other allergens identified in the Allergenonline database. We have found 45 potential allergens in silkworm. The results of the homology comparison suggested that silkworm allergens likely cross-react with those of Dermatophagoides farinae, Aedes aegypti, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Triticum aestivum and Malassezia furfur.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Bombyx/química , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animais , Ásia , Bombyx/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Reações Cruzadas , Fezes/química , Hipersensibilidade , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/química , Mariposas/química , Pupa/química , Seda/química
3.
Cell Prolif ; 54(7): e13075, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34101283

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Oestrogen deficiency is an aetiological factor of postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO), which not only decreases bone density in vertebrae and long bone but also aggravates inflammatory alveolar bone loss. Recent evidence has suggested the critical role of gut microbiota in osteoimmunology and its influence on bone metabolisms. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on alveolar bone loss under oestrogen-deficient condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inflammatory alveolar bone loss was established in ovariectomized (OVX) rats, and rats were daily intragastrically administered with probiotics until sacrifice. Gut microbiota composition, intestinal permeability, systemic immune status and alveolar bone loss were assessed to reveal the underlying correlation between gut microbiota and bone metabolisms. RESULTS: We found administration of probiotics significantly prevented inflammatory alveolar bone resorption in OVX rats. By enriching butyrate-producing genera and enhancing gut butyrate production, probiotics improved intestinal barrier and decreased gut permeability in the OVX rats. Furthermore, the oestrogen deprivation-induced inflammatory responses were suppressed in probiotics-treated OVX rats, as reflected by reduced serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and a balanced distribution of CD4+ IL-17A+ Th17 cells and CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ Treg cells in the bone marrow. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that probiotics can effectively attenuate alveolar bone loss by modulating gut microbiota and further regulating osteoimmune response and thus represent a promising adjuvant in the treatment of alveolar bone loss under oestrogen deficiency.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/patologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Perda do Osso Alveolar/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/patologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Células Th17/citologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Células Th17/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
4.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063409

RESUMO

Brahmi essence, developed from Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. standardized extract and mulberry juice, was proven to improve the memory speed of healthy participants aged 55-80 years old, following a 12-week dietary program. However, the metabolites have not yet been reported. Our objective was to characterize the altered metabolites in the plasma, urine, and feces of healthy volunteers after consumption of Brahmi essence for 12 weeks, using the LC-MS metabolomics approach. The altered metabolites were selected from OPLS-DA S-plots; 15 metabolites in the plasma, 7 in the urine, and 17 in the feces samples were tentatively identified by comparison with an online database and literature. The metabolites in the plasma samples were in the classes of amino acids, acylcarnitine, and phospholipids. Benzeneactamide-4-O-sulphate and 3-hydroxyhippuric acid were found in urine samples. The metabolites in the class of amino acids, together with jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin, were identified in the fecal samples. The aminoacyl-tRNA, aromatic amino acids, and branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathways were mainly related to the identified metabolites in all three samples. It could be implied that those metabolites and their pathways might be linked with the effect of Brahmi essence on memory speed.


Assuntos
Bacopa/química , Fezes/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Morus/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Plasma/química , Urina/química , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromatografia Líquida , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética
5.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064882

RESUMO

Paratuberculosis is an important disease of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Early detection is crucial for successful infection control, but available diagnostic tests are still dissatisfying. Methods allowing a rapid, economic, and reliable identification of animals or herds affected by MAP are urgently required. This explorative study evaluated the potential of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to discriminate between cattle with and without MAP infections. Headspaces above fecal samples and alveolar fractions of exhaled breath of 77 cows from eight farms with defined MAP status were analyzed in addition to stable air samples. VOCs were identified by GC-MS and quantified against reference substances. To discriminate MAP-positive from MAP-negative samples, VOC feature selection and random forest classification were performed. Classification models, generated for each biological specimen, were evaluated using repeated cross-validation. The robustness of the results was tested by predicting samples of two different sampling days. For MAP classification, the different biological matrices emitted diagnostically relevant VOCs of a unique but partly overlapping pattern (fecal headspace: 19, alveolar gas: 11, stable air: 4-5). Chemically, relevant compounds belonged to hydrocarbons, ketones, alcohols, furans, and aldehydes. Comparing the different biological specimens, VOC analysis in fecal headspace proved to be most reproducible, discriminatory, and highly predictive.


Assuntos
Ar , Fezes/química , Gases/análise , Odorantes/análise , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
6.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 66(6): 371-373, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105914

RESUMO

Despite the visible progress in reducing morbidity and mortality from intestinal infections and acute diarrhea associated with them, especially in childhood, the problem of their diagnosis and treatment remains relevant. The article discusses the structure, function and application of lipocalin-2 in infectious diseases as a non-invasive biomarker of bacterial inflammation in the intestine.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Inflamação , Biomarcadores , Fezes/química , Humanos , Lipocalina-2/análise
7.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 52(2): 548-554, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130397

RESUMO

Ponazuril, a novel coccidiocidal triazinetrione, has shown promise in addressing apicomplexan diseases in mammals and birds. This study describes the pharmacokinetics of ponazuril in healthy adult Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) following a single oral dose administered at two different dosages. Peafowl (four males and four females) were administered compounded ponazuril at 20 or 40 mg/kg orally in a double crossover design, with a 2-wk washout period. Blood was collected from each bird at 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after administration for plasma concentration of ponazuril using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Fecals were evaluated for coccidial shedding for 3 consecutive d prior to the ponazuril trial, 1 wk after the first dose of ponazuril, and 1 wk after the second dose of the trial. After the first trial, one peafowl administered 20 mg/kg ponazuril was shedding coccidia, but no coccidia were detected by the end of the second trial. Ponazuril reached peak concentrations (Tmax) at 21.38 h + 5.25 and 22.04 h + 7.39, and peak concentration (Cmax) were 11.82 µg/ml + 3.01 and 18.42 µg/ml + 4.13, for 20 and 40 mg/kg doses, respectively. Ponazuril was detected at 120 h with a concentration of 9.48 µg/ml + 2.59 and 12.25 µg/ml + 2.89 and a half-life of 219.4 + 58.7 h and 186.7 + 58.7 h, for and 40 mg/kg doses, respectively. Ponazuril in peafowl was well absorbed orally, plasma concentrations increased with dose, and elimination was slower than current dosages for birds would suggest. No obvious adverse effects were observed at either dosage.


Assuntos
Coccidiostáticos/farmacocinética , Galliformes/metabolismo , Triazinas/farmacocinética , Administração Oral , Animais , Coccidiostáticos/sangue , Coccidiostáticos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fezes/química , Feminino , Masculino , Triazinas/sangue , Triazinas/química
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146395, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030364

RESUMO

There has been an ever-increasing attention over years for investigating microplastics in feces of lower to higher trophic organisms from diverse environments. Focusing on the standardization of methodologies for reliable generation and comparison of data is one of the important aspects in microplastic area. This first review, comprising 20 studies in total, critically summarizes and compares the methodological approaches for the determination of microplastics in feces as well outlines the levels and characteristics of microplastics detected in feces worldwide. Contaminations and QA/QC measures are also discussed. Despite variations among the approaches, most studies (n = 12) described herein rely on the digestion processes involving H2O2 (n = 7) and KOH (n = 6) for the separation of microplastics, whereas very few included wet sieving (n = 5), density separation using NaCl (n = 3) and NaI (n = 1) and enzymatic digestion (n = 2). Microscopical sorting and spectroscopic methods such as infrared and Raman were combined for identification and characterization of microplastics. The detected microplastics varied by size, shape, color and polymer types and the differences in reporting units of microplastic abundance make comparison across studies difficult. Taking advantage of the current knowledge, our review identified analytical challenges and suggested appropriate methods on research into microplastic contamination in feces. This work will serve as a valuable information of available analytical methods for examining microplastics in feces and will stimulate further research to advance our understanding of microplastics from feces.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(26): 7446-7457, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951908

RESUMO

Soluble dietary fibers being fermented by gut microbiota constitute a pivotal prerequisite for soluble dietary fibers exhibiting physiological functions. However, the relationship between fiber type and gut microbiota metabolism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of fiber types on short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) biosynthesis in a simulated colon. Results showed that different soluble dietary fibers caused distinct metabolic profiles both in SCFAs and organic acids. Further analysis revealed that the SCFA biosynthesis pathway was related to the chain structure of fiber polysaccharides. Moreover, the microbial community structure showed substantial difference among experimental groups. Parabacteroides was substantially elevated in the resistant starch group, while Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in other groups. Correlation analysis further revealed that SCFA biosynthesis was correlated with microbial taxa at different taxonomic levels. Totally, the present study provided an insight into targeted intervention of gut microorganisms for dictating SCFA and organic acid production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Following the disruption of normal paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) services during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we prospectively audited the first-time use of home faecal calprotectin testing. We aimed to provide an alternative to laboratory tests and to assess the value of home testing as part of our regular services going forward. METHODS: Home test kits as well as accompanying user instructions were made available to our patients with paediatric IBD that required faecal calprotectin test between 17 April and 12 August 2020. Once the user completed the test, results were automatically uploaded to the result portal and clinical staff were alerted. A user feedback questionnaire was sent to users that had completed the home test. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 41 (76%) aged between 4.7 and 18.1 years used the home test. A total of 45 home tests were done, one of which produced an invalid result. The decision to modify management was made in 12 (29%) of the patients, while 14 (34%) had no changes made and 15 (37%) required further assessment. Twenty (48.8%) responded to the questionnaire and 85% stated that they preferred the home test to the laboratory testing method. CONCLUSIONS: Home calprotectin tests were useful in guiding clinical management during a time when laboratory testing was less available. They may offer benefits as part of routine paediatric IBD monitoring to help target appointments and reduce unnecessary hospital attendances in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fezes/química , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Pandemias , Testes Imediatos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes de Química Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Portais do Paciente , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Health Phys ; 121(1): 73-76, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232236

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This work considers the implications of cloth masks due to the COVID-19 pandemic on suspected plutonium inhalations and dose assessment. In a plutonium inhalation scenario, the greater filtration efficiency for large particles exhibited by cloth masks can reduce early fecal excretion without a corresponding reduction in dose. For plutonium incidents in which cloth masks are worn, urinary excretion should be the preferred method of inferring dose immediately after the inhalation, and fecal excretion should be considered unreliable for up to 10 days.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Fezes/química , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Plutônio/análise , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Plutônio/farmacocinética , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Sistema Respiratório/química
12.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 197, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal biomarkers are considered to be useful surrogate markers for endoscopic activity. Given the mechanisms of fecal biomarkers, we hypothesized that the extent of ulcerative colitis (UC; pancolitis, left-sided colitis, and proctitis) could affect the usefulness of fecal biomarkers for assessing endoscopic and clinical disease activity; however, few studies have evaluated the utility of fecal biomarkers in the disease extent of UC. METHODS: Fecal calprotectin, a fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin, and fecal lactoferrin were used as fecal biomarkers. UC patients, who underwent colonoscopy within 30 days of the fecal biomarker test, participated in this observational study. Clinical and endoscopic disease activity was assessed using the Lichtiger Index and Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES), respectively. RESULTS: A total of 162 colonoscopies were performed on 133 UC patients. A correlation analysis between each biomarker and the MES for each disease-extent subgroup showed a decreased correlation in the proctitis compared with the other groups. With the exception of proctitis, it was possible to distinguish between MES 0 and MES ≥ 1 with high area-under-the-curve values for fecal calprotectin and fecal lactoferrin. The fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin was superior at discriminating MES 0 for proctitis. CONCLUSIONS: For the practical application of fecal biomarkers for UC patients, it is necessary to consider disease extent before use. In particular, patients with proctitis exhibit a low correlation between stool biomarkers and endoscopic findings. The usefulness of these biomarkers for endoscopic remission is reduced, except for the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Biomarcadores/análise , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Fezes/química , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4105-4116, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977918

RESUMO

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine constitute the most effective ingredients of weight loss in tea. However, whether combination of EGCG and caffeine exhibits anti-obesity synergy remains unclear. Here, we showed low-doses of EGCG and caffeine used in combination led to synergistic anti-obesity effects equivalent to those of high-dose EGCG. Furthermore, combination treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on altering gut microbiota, including decreased Firmicutes level and increased Bifidobacterium level. Other notable effects of combination treatment included synergistic effects on: increasing fecal acetic acid, propionic acid, and total SCFAs; decreasing expression of GPR43; and increasing microbial bile salt hydrolase gene copies in the gut, facilitating generation of unconjugated BAs and enhancing fecal BA loss. Additionally, combination treatment demonstrated synergistic effects toward increasing the expression of hepatic TGR5 and decreasing the expression of intestinal FXR-FGF15, resulting in increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1. Thus, the synergistic effect may be attributed to regulation of gut microbiota and BA metabolism.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/administração & dosagem , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas G/metabolismo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947712

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Following the disruption of normal paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) services during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, we prospectively audited the first-time use of home faecal calprotectin testing. We aimed to provide an alternative to laboratory tests and to assess the value of home testing as part of our regular services going forward. METHODS: Home test kits as well as accompanying user instructions were made available to our patients with paediatric IBD that required faecal calprotectin test between 17 April and 12 August 2020. Once the user completed the test, results were automatically uploaded to the result portal and clinical staff were alerted. A user feedback questionnaire was sent to users that had completed the home test. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 41 (76%) aged between 4.7 and 18.1 years used the home test. A total of 45 home tests were done, one of which produced an invalid result. The decision to modify management was made in 12 (29%) of the patients, while 14 (34%) had no changes made and 15 (37%) required further assessment. Twenty (48.8%) responded to the questionnaire and 85% stated that they preferred the home test to the laboratory testing method. CONCLUSIONS: Home calprotectin tests were useful in guiding clinical management during a time when laboratory testing was less available. They may offer benefits as part of routine paediatric IBD monitoring to help target appointments and reduce unnecessary hospital attendances in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fezes/química , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Pandemias , Testes Imediatos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Testes de Química Clínica/estatística & dados numéricos , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Masculino , Portais do Paciente , Preferência do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Valores de Referência , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(1): 166-181, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019116

RESUMO

Atmospheric, soil, and feces samples were collected in Ny-Ålesund during July 2015. The concentrations, distributions, congener profiles, and contaminant migration levels were analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) as priority contaminants (16 PAHs). Mean concentrations in the gas and particle phases were 37.8 ng m-3 and 2.9 ng m-3, respectively, and mean concentrations in soil and reindeer/bird feces were 329.1 ng g-1 and 720.7 ng g-1, respectively, on a dry weight (d.w.) basis. In more than three phases, naphthalene and phenanthrene dominated the concentrations of the 16 total PAHs (Σ16PAH) and the concentration of PAHs in the gas phase was much higher than in the particle phase. The main sources of local PAHs may be coal combustion and air-surface exchange. There was a volatilization tendency from soil to air for 2-4 ring PAHs, and exchange fluxes were ~ 105 times greater than the deposition fluxes of 5-6 ring PAHs. The underground migration of PAHs was investigated in Ny-Ålesund; the results showed flux values of ~ 0.07% from the initial PAH concentrations.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Rena , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Atmosfera , Aves , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fezes/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Svalbard
16.
Health Phys ; 121(1): 73-76, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34002728

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This work considers the implications of cloth masks due to the COVID-19 pandemic on suspected plutonium inhalations and dose assessment. In a plutonium inhalation scenario, the greater filtration efficiency for large particles exhibited by cloth masks can reduce early fecal excretion without a corresponding reduction in dose. For plutonium incidents in which cloth masks are worn, urinary excretion should be the preferred method of inferring dose immediately after the inhalation, and fecal excretion should be considered unreliable for up to 10 days.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Fezes/química , Exposição por Inalação/estatística & dados numéricos , Máscaras , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Plutônio/análise , Exposição à Radiação/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento de Radiação , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Plutônio/farmacocinética , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Sistema Respiratório/química
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(6): 2264-2274, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934170

RESUMO

Cashew apple by-product (CAB) is an important agro-industrial waste still underutilized, although it has been characterized as source of a variety of nutrients and bioactive compounds. This study evaluated the capability of freeze-dried CAB (FCAB) submitted to a simulated gastrointestinal digestion of inducing changes in relative abundance of distinct microbial groups found as part of human colonic microbiota, as well as in pH and short-chain fatty acid production during a 24-h in vitro fermentation using a pooled human fecal inocula. FCAB increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus/Enterococcus during colonic fermentation, besides to decrease the relative abundance of Bacteroides/Prevotella, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides, and Clostridium histolyticum. FCAB increased the counts of lactic acid bacteria and decreased the counts of Enterobacteriaceae during colonic fermentation. Furthermore, FCAB decreased pH and increased the production of short-chain fatty acids in colonic fermentation media. These effects could be linked to contents of dietary fibers and the presence of fructans and different phenolic compounds found in FCAB. These results showed that FCAB induced positive alterations in composition and metabolic activity of human colonic microbiota in vitro, which indicate prebiotic properties.


Assuntos
Anacardium , Microbiota , Clostridiales , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Humanos , Prebióticos/análise
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109496, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939976

RESUMO

An increased risk of developing lung cancer has been associated with exposure to cigarette smoke carcinogens and alteration in the gut microbiota. However, there is limited understanding about the impact of exposure to NNK and BaP, the two important components of cigarette smoke carcinogens, on gut microbiota in lung cancer. The present study characterized the influence of exposure to a mixture of NNK plus BaP on lung cancer, feces metabolite composition, and gut microbiota in the A/J mice. The A/J mice were administered NNK plus BaP, and the changes in gut microbiota and feces metabolic profiles were characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics, respectively. Results presented here illustrated that a mixture of NNK plus BaP exposure triggered lung carcinogenesis as shown by light microscopy and histopathological evaluation. 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota indicated that exposure to NNK plus BaP could modified fecal bacterial composition. Elevated levels of Actinobacteria, Bifidobacterium, and Intestinimonas and reduced levels of Alistipes, Odoribacter, and Acetatifactor are associated with NNK plus BaP triggered lung cancer. In addition, metabolomics profile revealed the regulation of metabolism including purine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, steroid hormone biosynthesis, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid metabolism, and others. In conclusion, the results provide some guidance for using gut microbes as biomarkers to assess the progression of lung cancer, and lead to interventional targets to control the development of the disease in the future.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Benzo(a)pireno/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrosaminas/farmacologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/complicações , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/patologia , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Disbiose/etiologia , Disbiose/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/complicações , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Metabolômica , Camundongos Endogâmicos
19.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(7): 2589-2594, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987692

RESUMO

An obligate anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase and oxidase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterium designated AGMB00486T was isolated from swine faeces. The optimal growth of the isolate occurred at pH 8.0 and 37 ℃. Furthermore, the growth was observed in the presence of up to 4% (w/v) NaCl but not at salinity levels higher than 5%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain AGMB00486T was a member of the genus Anaerococcus and that the isolate was most closely related to Anaerococcus vaginalis KCTC 15028T (96.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) followed by Anaerococcus hydrogenalis KCTC 15014T (96.7%) and Anaerococcus senegalensis KCTC 15435T (96.3%). Whole-genome sequence analysis determined that the DNA G+C content of strain AGMB00486T was 30.1 mol%, and the genome size, numbers of tRNA and rRNA genes were 2,268,866 bp, 47 and 8, respectively. The average nucleotide identity values between strain AGMB00486T and the three related type strains were 77.0, 77.4 and 77.2%, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids (> 10%) of strain AGMB00486T were C14:0, C16:0 and C16:0 DMA. Accordingly, these distinct phenotypic and phylogenetic properties revealed that strain AGMB00486T represents a novel species, for which the name Anaerococcus faecalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AGMB00486T (= KCTC 15945T = CCTCC AB 202009T).


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Fosfolipídeos , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Fezes/química , Firmicutes , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
20.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(4): 829-832, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the off-label use of multitarget stool DNA (mt-sDNA) testing in the primary care setting. METHODS: We reviewed all mt-sDNA orders between July 1, 2018, and June 30, 2019, to determine the frequency of off-label mt-sDNA orders. RESULTS: Nine hundred two patients with mt-sDNA orders were evaluated, of which 160/902 patients (17.7%) met at least 1 criterion for off-label mt-sDNA order. Increasing age was associated with off-label order (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.32 [95% CI, 1.86-2.89] for every 10-year increase in age, P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, increased age (OR 1.04 [1.02-1.06], P = 0.001) and need for diagnostic colonoscopy (OR 2.9 [1.01-8.34], P = 0.048) were associated with a positive mt-sDNA result. DISCUSSION: Off-label mt-sDNA testing is common, and further efforts are needed to educate patients and providers on appropriate use of mt-sDNA for colorectal cancer screening.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Fezes/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
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