Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 6.652
Filtrar
1.
J Virol ; 96(18): e0103422, 2022 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040179

RESUMO

The duration of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA shedding is much longer than that of infectious SARS-CoV-2 in most COVID-19 patients. It is very important to determine the relationship between test results and infectivity for efficient isolation, contact tracing, and post-isolation. We characterized the duration of viable SARS-CoV-2, viral genomic and subgenomic RNA (gRNA and sgRNA), and rapid antigen test positivity in nasal washes, oropharyngeal swabs, and feces of experimentally infected Syrian hamsters. The duration of viral genomic RNA shedding is longer than that of viral subgenomic RNA, and far longer than those of rapid antigen test (RAgT) and viral culture positivity. The rapid antigen test results were strongly correlated with the viral culture results. The trend of subgenomic RNA is similar to that of genomic RNA, and furthermore, the subgenomic RNA load is highly correlated with the genomic RNA load. IMPORTANCE Our findings highlight the high correlation between rapid antigen test and virus culture results. The rapid antigen test would be an important supplement to real-time reverse transcription-RCR (RT-PCR) in early COVID-19 screening and in shortening the isolation period of COVID-19 patients. Because the subgenomic RNA load can be predicted from the genomic RNA load, measuring sgRNA does not add more benefit to determining infectivity than a threshold determined for gRNA based on viral culture.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Cricetinae , Fezes/virologia , Genômica , Humanos , Mesocricetus , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
2.
Nature ; 607(7918): 345-350, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768512

RESUMO

Enteric viruses like norovirus, rotavirus and astrovirus have long been accepted as spreading in the population through fecal-oral transmission: viruses are shed into feces from one host and enter the oral cavity of another, bypassing salivary glands (SGs) and reaching the intestines to replicate, be shed in feces and repeat the transmission cycle1. Yet there are viruses (for example, rabies) that infect the SGs2,3, making the oral cavity one site of replication and saliva one conduit of transmission. Here we report that enteric viruses productively and persistently infect SGs, reaching titres comparable to those in the intestines. We demonstrate that enteric viruses get released into the saliva, identifying a second route of viral transmission. This is particularly significant for infected infants, whose saliva directly transmits enteric viruses to their mothers' mammary glands through backflow during suckling. This sidesteps the conventional gut-mammary axis route4 and leads to a rapid surge in maternal milk secretory IgA antibodies5,6. Lastly, we show that SG-derived spheroids7 and cell lines8 can replicate and propagate enteric viruses, generating a scalable and manageable system of production. Collectively, our research uncovers a new transmission route for enteric viruses with implications for therapeutics, diagnostics and importantly sanitation measures to prevent spread through saliva.


Assuntos
Saliva , Glândulas Salivares , Viroses , Vírus , Astroviridae , Aleitamento Materno , Células Cultivadas , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/imunologia , Lactente , Norovirus , Rotavirus , Saliva/virologia , Glândulas Salivares/virologia , Esferoides Celulares/virologia , Viroses/transmissão , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
BMC Vet Res ; 18(1): 195, 2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35606875

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Feline parvovirus (FPV) is a member of the family Parvoviridae, which is a major enteric pathogen of cats worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of feline parvovirus in Beijing of China and analyze the genetic features of detected viruses. RESULTS: In this study, a total of 60 (8.5%) parvovirus-positive samples were detected from 702 cat fecal samples using parvovirus-specific PCR. The complete VP2 genes were amplified from all these samples. Among them, 55 (91.7%) sequences were characterized as FPV, and the other five (8.3%) were typed as canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) variants, comprised of four CPV-2c and a new CPV-2b strain. In order to investigate the origin of CPV-2 variants in cats, we amplified full-length VP2 genes from seven fecal samples of dogs infected with CPV-2, which were further classified as CPV-2c. The sequences of new CPV-2b/MT270586 and CPV-2c/MT270587 detected from feline samples shared 100% identity with previous canine isolates KT156833 and MF467242 respectively, suggesting the CPV-2 variants circulating in cats might be derived from dogs. Sequence analysis indicated new mutations, Ala91Ser and Ser192Phe, in the FPV sequences, while obtained CPV-2c carried mutations reported in Asian CPV variants, showing they share a common evolutionary pattern with the Asian 2c strains. Interestingly, the FPV sequence (MT270571), displaying four CPV-specific residues, was found to be a putative recombinant sequence between CPV-2c and FPV. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene showed that amino acid and nucleotide mutations promoted the evolution of FPV and CPV lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will be helpful to further understand the circulation and evolution of feline and canine parvovirus in Beijing.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina , Infecções por Parvoviridae , Animais , Pequim , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/genética , Doenças do Gato/virologia , Gatos/virologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/genética , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/genética , Vírus da Panleucopenia Felina/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/genética , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Parvovirus Canino/genética , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia
5.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265426, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an efficacious treatment for patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI). Stool banks facilitate FMT by providing screened faecal suspensions from highly selected healthy donors. Due to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the potential risk of SARS coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission via FMT, many stool banks were forced to temporarily halt and adjust donor activities. GOAL: The evaluation of a strategy to effectively continue stool banking activities during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY: To restart our stool banking activities after an initial halt, we implemented periodic SARS-CoV-2 screening in donor faeces and serum, and frequent donor assessment for COVID-19 related symptoms. FMT donor and recipient data obtained before (2016-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020-August 2021) were compared to assess stool banking efficacy. RESULTS: Two out of ten donors developed COVID-19. No differences during versus before the COVID-19 pandemic were observed in the number of approved faeces donations (14 vs 22/month, p = 0.06), FMT requests for rCDI (3.9 vs 4.3/month, p = 0.6); rCDI patients eligible for FMT (80.6% vs 73.3%, p = 0.2); rCDI cure rate (90.3% vs 89.2%, p = 0.9); CDI-free survival (p = 0.7); the number of non-rCDI patients treated with FMT (0.5/month vs 0.4/month), and the number of possibly FMT related adverse events (9.5% vs 7.8%, p = 0.7). Two FMTs for rCDI were delayed due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: There is a continued need for FMT treatment of rCDI during the COVID-19 pandemic. Appropriate donor screening and SARS-CoV-2 infection prevention measures can be implemented in existing protocols without increasing the burden for donors, and allow safe, effective and efficient FMT during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Stool banks should evaluate their SARS-CoV-2 donor screening protocols for long-term sustainability and efficacy, and share their experiences to help the utilisation, standardisation and improvement of stool banks worldwide.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Microbiota Fecal/métodos , Fezes/virologia , Bancos de Tecidos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/transmissão , Infecções por Clostridium/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Science ; 375(6585): 1100-1104, 2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271341
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264577, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213667

RESUMO

Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is considered the leading cause of calf diarrhea worldwide, including Bangladesh. In this study we aimed to identify risk factors for BRV infection and determine the G and P genotypes of BRV strains in diarrheic calves. Fecal samples were collected from 200 diarrheic calves in three districts between January 2014 and October 2015. These samples were screened to detect the presence of BRV using rapid test-strips BIO K 152 (RTSBK). The RTSBK positive samples were further tested by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the silver staining technique to detect rotavirus dsRNA. Risk factors were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The G and P genotypes of BRV were determined by RT-PCR and sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the neighbor-joining method using CLC sequence viewer 8.0. About 23% of the diarrheic calves were BRV positive. The odds of BRV infection were 3.8- (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.0-14.7) and 3.9-times (95% CI:1.1-14.2) higher in Barisal and Madaripur districts, respectively, than Sirrajganj. The risk of BRV infection was 3.1-times (95% CI: 1.5-6.5) higher in calves aged ≤ 5 weeks than those aged >5 weeks. Moreover, the risk of BRV infection was 2.6-times (95% CI:1.1-5.8) higher in crossbred (Holstein Friesian, Shahiwal) than indigenous calves. G6P[11] was the predominant genotype (94.4%), followed by G10P[11] (5.6%). The BRV G6 strains were found to be closest (98.9-99.9%) to Indian strains, and BRV G10 strains showed 99.9% identities with Indian strain. The VP4 gene of all P[11] strains showed >90% identities to each other and also with Indian strains. The most frequently identified BRV genotype was G6P[11]. About 23% of calf diarrhea cases were associated with BRV. To control disease, high-risk areas and younger crossbred calves should be targeted for surveillance and management. The predominant genotype could be utilized as the future vaccine candidate or vaccines with the dominant genotype should be used to control BRV diarrhea in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Diarreia/patologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/genética , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/classificação , Proteínas do Capsídeo/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Rotavirus/classificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216004

RESUMO

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are important causes of death in both captive and wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Nothing is known about the prevalence of EEHVs in wild or domestic elephants in China. To determine if EEHVs are present in elephants in China, 126 wild elephants from three populations and 202 captive individuals from zoos (n = 155) and the Wild Elephant Valley (n = 47) were screened using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction assays with EEHV-redundant and EEHV1/4/5-specific primers. EEHV1B and EEHV4 were detected in samples from both wild (EEHV1B:8/126; EEHV4:2/126) and captive (EEHV1B:5/155; EEHV4:9/155) elephants, while EEHV1A (six cases) and EEHV5 (one case) were only present in the captive elephants from the Wild Elephant Valley. EEHV1 was detected in blood and trunk and oral swabs; EEHV4 was detected in trunk and oral swabs as well as feces; EEHV5 was found in trunk and oral swabs. No significant age or sex association with EEHV1A, EEHV1B, or EEHV5 positivity was observed. An age association with EEHV4 positivity was found, with all unweaned elephants being EEHV4 positive, but an association with the sex of the elephant was not observed. These findings represent the first documentation of EEHV presence in captive and wild elephants in China. These findings also document EEHV1B and EEHV4 shedding in feces and demonstrate the utility of fecal screening as a tool for investigating EEHV4 infection in wild populations of elephants. It is recommended that EEHV testing be included in surveillance programs for captive and wild elephants in China.


Assuntos
Elefantes , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/genética , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , China , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Herpesviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vigilância da População
9.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215766

RESUMO

Few studies have shown the presence of norovirus (NoV) RNA in blood circulation but there is no data on norovirus antigenemia. We examined both antigenemia and RNAemia from the sera of children with NoV infections and studied whether norovirus antigenemia is correlated with the levels of norovirus-specific antibodies and clinical severity of gastroenteritis. Both stool and serum samples were collected from 63 children admitted to Mie National Hospital with acute NoV gastroenteritis. Norovirus antigen and RNA were detected in sera by ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. NoV antigenemia was found in 54.8% (34/62) and RNAemia in 14.3% (9/63) of sera samples. Antigenemia was more common in the younger age group (0-2 years) than in the older age groups, and most patients were male. There was no correlation between stool viral load and norovirus antigen (NoV-Ag) levels (rs = -0.063; Cl -0.3150 to 0.1967; p = 0.6251). Higher levels of acute norovirus-specific IgG serum antibodies resulted in a lower antigenemia OD value (n = 61; r = -0.4258; CI -0.62 to -0.19; p = 0.0006). Norovirus antigenemia occurred more commonly in children under 2 years of age with NoV-associated acute gastroenteritis. The occurrence of antigenemia was not correlated with stool viral load or disease severity.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/sangue , Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Norovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Pré-Escolar , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Cinética , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Norovirus/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Carga Viral
10.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215796

RESUMO

Bats are widespread mammals of the order Chiroptera. They are key for ecosystem functioning, participating in crucial processes. Their unique ability amongst mammals to fly long distances, their frequently large population sizes, and their longevity favor infectious agent persistence and spread. This includes a large variety of viruses, encompassing many important zoonotic ones that cause severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Despite this, the understanding of the viral ecological diversity residing in bat populations remains unclear, which complicates the determination of the origins of zoonotic viruses. To gain knowledge on the viral community of a widely distributed insectivorous bat species, we characterized the guano virome of a native Chilean bat species (Myotis chiloensis (Waterhouse, 1840)). By applying a novel enrichment strategy, we were able to secure a consequent percentage of viral reads, providing unprecedented resolution for a bat virome. This in turn enabled us to identify and assemble a new bat alphacoronavirus from Chilean bats closely related to PEDV, an important viral pathogen with high mortality rates in suckling piglets. This study highlights the importance of applying and improving high-resolution virome studies in this vital order to ultimately enhance epidemiological surveillance for potentially zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Alphacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Viroma , Alphacoronavirus/classificação , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Chile , Fezes/virologia , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Viroma/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1824, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115615

RESUMO

The human gut contains a complex microbiota dominated by bacteriophages but also containing other viruses and bacteria and fungi. There are a growing number of techniques for the extraction, sequencing, and analysis of the virome but currently no standardized protocols. This study established an effective workflow for virome analysis to investigate the virome of stool samples from two understudied ethnic groups from Malaysia: the Jakun and Jehai Orang Asli. By using the virome extraction and analysis workflow with the Oxford Nanopore Technology, long-read sequencing successfully captured close to full-length viral genomes. The virome composition of the two indigenous Malaysian communities were remarkably different from those found in other parts of the world. Additionally, plant viruses found in the viromes of these individuals were attributed to traditional food-seeking methods. This study establishes a human gut virome workflow and extends insights into the healthy human gut virome, laying the groundwork for comparative studies.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Genoma Viral , Povos Indígenas , Vírus/genética , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Malásia , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Viroma/genética , Vírus/classificação
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215886

RESUMO

Rat hepatitis E virus (rat HEV) was first identified in wild rats and was classified as the species Orthohepevirus C in the genera Orthohepevirus, which is genetically different from the genotypes HEV-1 to HEV-8, which are classified as the species Orthohepevirus A. Although recent reports suggest that rat HEV transmits to humans and causes hepatitis, the infectivity of rat HEV to non-human primates such as cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys remains controversial. To investigate whether rat HEV infects non-human primates, we inoculated one cynomolgus monkey and five rhesus monkeys with a V-105 strain of rat HEV via an intravenous injection. Although no significant elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was observed, rat HEV RNA was detected in fecal specimens, and seroconversion was observed in all six monkeys. The partial nucleotide sequences of the rat HEV recovered from the rat HEV-infected monkeys were identical to those of the V-105 strain, indicating that the infection was caused by the rat HEV. The rat HEV recovered from the cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys successfully infected both nude and Sprague-Dawley rats. The entire rat HEV genome recovered from nude rats was identical to that of the V-105 strain, suggesting that the rat HEV replicates in monkeys and infectious viruses were released into the fecal specimens. These results demonstrated that cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys are susceptible to rat HEV, and they indicate the possibility of a zoonotic infection of rat HEV. Cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys might be useful as animal models for vaccine development.


Assuntos
Hepatite Viral Animal/transmissão , Hepevirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Macaca fascicularis , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/transmissão , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Ratos , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Replicação Viral
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2842, 2022 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35181717

RESUMO

In neonates, rotavirus (RV) infection is generally nosocomial. The control of rotaviral infection within hospital settings is challenging due to prolonged shedding of the virus and contamination of the surrounding environment. There are few studies that have reported asymptomatic infection within neonates. In this study, neonates were screened for RV infection and possible clinical manifestations that may play a role in RV acquisition were analysed. Stool samples were collected from 523 hospitalized neonates admitted for > 48 h in a low-cost and higher-cost tertiary centre. RV antigen was screened using ELISA and the samples which tested positive were confirmed by semi-nested RT-PCR. RV was detected in 34% of participants and genotypes identified included G12P[11] (44.4%), G10 P[11] (42.6%), G10G12P[11] (10.1%) and G3P[8] (2.9%). ICU admissions were associated with higher viral shedding (p < 0.05). Hospitalization in the low-cost facility ICU was associated with higher RV acquisition risk (p < 0.05). RV was detected in higher rates (36.9%) among neonates with gastrointestinal manifestations. G10P[11] was the predominant genotype for several years (1988-2016) among neonates within India. The preponderance of an emerging G12P[11] genotype and heterotypic distribution was documented. RV surveillance is important to identify emerging strains and establish the road ahead in managing RV infection.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/genética , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Rotavirus/genética , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
14.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215920

RESUMO

Linda virus (LindaV) was first identified in a pig farm in Styria, Austria in 2015 and associated with congenital tremor (CT) type A-II in newborn piglets. Since then, only one more LindaV affected farm was retrospectively discovered 10 km away from the initially affected farm. Here, we report the recent outbreak of a novel LindaV strain in a farrow-to-finish farm in the federal state Carinthia, Austria. No connection between this farm and the previously affected farms could be discovered. The outbreak was characterized by severe CT cases in several litters and high preweaning mortality. A herd visit two months after the onset of clinical symptoms followed by a diagnostic workup revealed the presence of several viremic six-week-old nursery pigs. These animals shed large amounts of virus via feces and saliva, implying an important epidemiological role for within- and between-herd virus transmission. The novel LindaV strain was isolated and genetically characterized. The findings underline a low prevalence of LindaV in the Austrian pig population and highlight the threat when introduced into a pig herd. Furthermore, the results urge the need to better understand the routes of persistence and transmission of this enigmatic pestivirus in the pig population.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Pestivirus/veterinária , Pestivirus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Fazendas , Fezes/virologia , Pestivirus/classificação , Pestivirus/genética , Pestivirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pestivirus/virologia , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
15.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215935

RESUMO

Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is an important emerging pathogen associated with a wide variety of diseases in swine, including acute diarrhoea, respiratory distress, skin lesions, severe neurological disorders, and reproductive failure. Although PSV is widespread, serological assays for field-based epidemiological studies are not yet available. Here, four PSV strains were recovered from diarrheic piglets, and electron microscopy revealed virus particles with a diameter of ~32 nm. Analysis of the entire genome sequence revealed that the genomes of PSV isolates ranged 7569-7572 nucleotides in length. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolated viruses were classified together with strains from China. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies for the recombinant PSV-VP1 protein were developed to specifically detect PSV infection in cells, and we demonstrated that isolated PSVs could only replicate in cells of porcine origin. Using recombinant PSV-VP1 protein as the coating antigen, we developed an indirect ELISA for the first time for the detection of PSV antibodies in serum. A total of 516 swine serum samples were tested, and PSV positive rate was 79.3%. The virus isolates, monoclonal antibodies and indirect ELISA developed would be useful for further understanding the pathophysiology of PSV, developing new diagnostic assays, and investigating the epidemiology of the PSV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/genética , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Sequência de Bases , China , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/sangue , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/sangue , Replicação Viral , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216014

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections have spilled over from humans to companion and wild animals since the inception of the global COVID-19 pandemic. However, whole genome sequencing data of the viral genomes that infect non-human animal species have been scant. Here, we detected and sequenced a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant (AY.3) in fecal samples from an 11-year-old domestic house cat previously exposed to an owner who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. Molecular testing of two fecal samples collected 7 days apart yielded relatively high levels of viral RNA. Sequencing of the feline-derived viral genomes showed the two to be identical, and differing by between 4 and 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pairwise comparisons to human-derived lineage AY.3 sequences collected in the same geographic area and time period. However, several mutations unique to the feline samples reveal their divergence from this cohort on phylogenetic analysis. These results demonstrate continued spillover infections of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants that threaten human and animal health, as well as highlight the importance of collecting fecal samples when testing for SARS-CoV-2 in animals. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published case of a SARS-CoV-2 delta variant in a domestic cat in the United States.


Assuntos
COVID-19/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Animais de Estimação/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Animais , COVID-19/transmissão , COVID-19/virologia , Gatos , Feminino , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/classificação , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
17.
J Gen Virol ; 103(2)2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35138239

RESUMO

A novel picornavirus was isolated from the faeces of a diarrhoeic cow using MA-104 cells at the third blind passage. This virus, named Den1/2021/JPN, was completely sequenced using total RNA from the cell culture supernatant by deep sequencing. The genome of Den1/2021/JPN had a standard picornavirus genome organisation with conserved picornaviral motifs. The 5' untranslated region harboured a type-II internal ribosomal entry site. Den1/2021/JPN was most closely related to a bovine parechovirus (Bo_ParV) named cow/2018/4, which has been recently identified in publicly available databases. Phylogenetic analyses and pairwise sequence comparison revealed that Den1/2021/JPN and Bo_ParV cow/2018/4 clustered with parechoviruses and were most closely related to Parechovirus E identified in birds of prey, exhibiting nucleotide sequence similarity of 64.2-64.5 %, 58.6-59.7 % and 66.3-66.4 % in the polyprotein, P1 and 2C+3 CD coding regions, respectively. This study presents the first report on the isolation of Bo_ParV. Den1/2021/JPN and Bo_ParV cow/2018/4, which are candidates for a novel species in the genus Parechovirus.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral , Parechovirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae , RNA Viral , Animais , Bovinos , Japão , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia
18.
Infect Genet Evol ; 98: 105214, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051652

RESUMO

A novel Norovirus (NoV) was identified by viral metagenomic analysis in fox fecal samples from the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The virus exhibited typical genomic characteristics of NoVs. It was closely related to the canine NoV GVII strains with 86.0-86.2% and 91.9% amino acid identities in the capsid protein VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. The fox NoV clustered phylogenetically with the two canine NoV GVII strains, and it was distant from other NoVs. According to the new classification criteria of NoVs, the new fox NoV belongs to the same genotype as GVII, similar to canine GVII NoVs. Moreover, key amino acid residues in the Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding sites and the HBGA binding pattern of the fox NoV differed significantly from those of human and canine GVII NoVs. This study identified a new GVII norovirus from wild foxes in China. These findings enrich our understanding of the diversity of NoVs and provide further evidence regarding the genetic heterogeneity of NoVs in carnivores.


Assuntos
Raposas , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , China , Fezes/virologia , Norovirus/classificação
19.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062336

RESUMO

Group A rotaviruses remain the leading cause of diarrhoea in children aged <5 years. Mozambique introduced rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix®) in September 2015. We report rotavirus genotypes circulating among symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Manhiça District, Mozambique, pre- and post-vaccine introduction. Stool was collected from enrolled children and screened for rotavirus by enzyme-immuno-sorbent assay. Positive specimens were genotyped for VP7 (G genotypes) and VP4 (P genotypes) by the conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The combination G12P[8] was more frequently observed in pre-vaccine than in post-vaccine introduction, in moderate to severe diarrhoea (34%, 61/177 vs. 0, p < 0.0001) and controls (23%, 26/113 vs. 0, p = 0.0013) and mixed genotypes (36%, 24/67 vs. 7% 4/58, p = 0.0003) in less severe diarrhoea. We observed changes in post-vaccine compared to pre-vaccine introduction, where G3P[4] and G3P[8] were prevalent in moderate to severe diarrhoea (10%, 5/49 vs. 0, p = 0.0002; and 14%, 7/49 vs. 1%, 1/177, p < 0.0001; respectively), and in less severe diarrhoea (21%, 12/58 vs. 0, p = 0.003; and 24%, 14/58 vs. 0, p < 0.0001; respectively). Our surveillance demonstrated the circulation of similar genotypes contemporaneously among cases and controls, as well as switching from pre- to post-vaccine introduction. Continuous surveillance is needed to evaluate the dynamics of the changes in genotypes following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia Molecular , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Vacinas Atenuadas
20.
Viruses ; 14(1)2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35062362

RESUMO

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an emerging public health concern and there is an urgent need for ways to rapidly identify cases so that outbreaks can be managed effectively. Conventional testing for HAV relies on anti-HAV IgM seropositivity. However, studies estimate that 10-30% of patients may not be diagnosed by serology. Molecular assays that can directly detect viral nucleic acids have the potential to improve diagnosis, which is key to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we developed a real-time PCR (RT-PCR) assay to detect HAV RNA for the identification of acute HAV infection. Primers were designed to target the conserved 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of HAV, and the assay was optimized on both the Qiagen Rotor-Gene and the BD MAX. We successfully detected HAV from patient serum and stool samples with moderate differences in sensitivity and specificity depending on the platform used. Our results highlight the clinical utility of using a molecular assay to detect HAV from various specimen types that can be implemented in hospitals to assist with diagnostics, treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Fezes/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Hepatite A/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Soro/virologia , Primers do DNA , Surtos de Doenças , Genótipo , Hepatite A/virologia , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...