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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 740, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: From 2016, the Government of India introduced the oral rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization schedule. Currently, two indigenously developed vaccines (ROTAVAC, Bharat Biotech; ROTASIIL, Serum Institute of India) are included in the Indian immunization program. We report the rotavirus disease burden and the diversity of rotavirus genotypes from 2005 to 2016 in a multi-centric surveillance study before the introduction of vaccines. METHODS: A total of 29,561 stool samples collected from 2005 to 2016 (7 sites during 2005-2009, 3 sites from 2009 to 2012, and 28 sites during 2012-2016) were included in the analysis. Stools were tested for rotavirus antigen using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Genotyping was performed on 65.8% of the EIA positive samples using reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to identify the G (VP7) and P (VP4) types. Multinomial logistic regression was used to quantify the odds of detecting genotypes across the surveillance period and in particular age groups. RESULTS: Of the 29,561 samples tested, 10,959 (37.1%) were positive for rotavirus. There was a peak in rotavirus positivity during December to February across all sites. Of the 7215 genotyped samples, G1P[8] (38.7%) was the most common, followed by G2P[4] (12.3%), G9P[4] (5.8%), G12P[6] (4.2%), G9P[8] (4%), and G12P[8] (2.4%). Globally, G9P[4] and G12P[6] are less common genotypes, although these genotypes have been reported from India and few other countries. There was a variation in the geographic and temporal distribution of genotypes, and the emergence or re-emergence of new genotypes such as G3P[8] was seen. Over the surveillance period, there was a decline in the proportion of G2P[4], and an increase in the proportion of G9P[4]. A higher proportion of mixed and partially typed/untyped samples was also seen more in the age group 0-11 months. CONCLUSIONS: This 11 years surveillance highlights the high burden of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in Indian children < 5 years of age before inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in the national programme. Regional variations in rotavirus epidemiology were seen, including the emergence of G3P[8] in the latter part of the surveillance. Having pre-introduction data is important to track changing epidemiology of rotaviruses, particularly following vaccine introduction.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Hospitalização , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/genética , Doença Aguda , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Gastroenterite/virologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017438

RESUMO

About 50% of individuals infected with the novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) suffer from intestinal infection as well as respiratory infection. They shed virus in their stool. Municipal sewage systems carry the virus and its genetic remnants. These viral traces can be detected in the sewage entering a wastewater treatment plant (WTP). Such virus signals indicate community infections but not locations of the infection within the community. In this paper, we frame and formulate the problem in a way that leads to algorithmic procedures homing in on locations and/or neighborhoods within the community that are most likely to have infections. Our data source is wastewater sampled and real-time tested from selected manholes. Our algorithms dynamically and adaptively develop a sequence of manholes to sample and test. The algorithms are often finished after 5 to 10 manhole samples, meaning that-in the field-the procedure can be carried out within one day. The goal is to provide timely information that will support faster more productive human testing for viral infection and thus reduce community disease spread. Leveraging the tree graph structure of the sewage system, we develop two algorithms, the first designed for a community that is certified at a given time to have zero infections and the second for a community known to have many infections. For the first, we assume that wastewater at the WTP has just revealed traces of SARS-CoV-2, indicating existence of a "Patient Zero" in the community. This first algorithm identifies the city block in which the infected person resides. For the second, we home in on a most infected neighborhood of the community, where a neighborhood is usually several city blocks. We present extensive computational results, some applied to a small New England city.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Fezes/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Características de Residência , Esgotos/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Massachusetts , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22641, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019489

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Rotavirus is routinely diagnosed by the detection of antigens or the viral genome. However, these tests have limitations, in that they do not detect all rotavirus strains. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 27-month-old girl who was hospitalized for 4 days with severe gastroenteritis, including high fever, vomiting, diarrhea, mild dehydration, and periumbilical pain. Notably, the patient previously received the Rotarix vaccine. DIAGNOSES: The laboratory tests were negative for rotavirus, astrovirus, adenovirus, and norovirus as well as common diarrhea-causing bacteria. Human-bovine recombinant rotavirus was detected by MinION sequencing. INTERVENTIONS: To investigate the cause agents from the unexplained severe gastroenteritis infant, the stool sample was prepared by random amplification for Nanopore MinION sequencing. OUTCOMES: Treatment through the administration of ORS solution and galtase powder with probiotics was successful after the diagnosis of unusual rotavirus infection. LESSONS: This case report is the first detection of an unusual human-bovine recombinant rotavirus in an idiopathic gastroenteritis using Nanopore MinION sequencing.


Assuntos
Gastroenterite/virologia , Sequenciamento por Nanoporos/métodos , Infecções por Rotavirus/diagnóstico , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/efeitos adversos , Rotavirus/genética , Dor Abdominal , Doença Aguda , Pré-Escolar , Desidratação/etiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Hidratação/métodos , Gastroenterite/patologia , Gastroenterite/terapia , Humanos , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Rotavirus/complicações , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vômito/etiologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4620, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934242

RESUMO

Metagenomic techniques have enabled genome sequencing of unknown viruses without isolation in cell culture, but information on the virus host is often lacking, preventing viral characterisation. High-throughput methods capable of identifying virus hosts based on genomic data alone would aid evaluation of their medical or biological relevance. Here, we address this by linking metagenomic discovery of three virus families in human stool samples with determination of probable hosts. Recombination between viruses provides evidence of a shared host, in which genetic exchange occurs. We utilise networks of viral recombination to delimit virus-host clusters, which are then anchored to specific hosts using (1) statistical association to a host organism in clinical samples, (2) endogenous viral elements in host genomes, and (3) evidence of host small RNA responses to these elements. This analysis suggests two CRESS virus families (Naryaviridae and Nenyaviridae) infect Entamoeba parasites, while a third (Vilyaviridae) infects Giardia duodenalis. The trio supplements five CRESS virus families already known to infect eukaryotes, extending the CRESS virus host range to protozoa. Phylogenetic analysis implies CRESS viruses infecting multicellular life have evolved independently on at least three occasions.


Assuntos
Entamoeba/virologia , Giardia/virologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Fezes/parasitologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Genoma Viral , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Virais , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Adulto Jovem
5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 9089768, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923488

RESUMO

Purpose: We investigated sequences of the feline coronaviruses (FCoV), which include feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) and feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), from China and other countries to gain insight into the adaptive evolution of this virus. Methods: Ascites samples from 31 cats with suspected FIP and feces samples from 8 healthy cats were screened for the presence of FCoV. Partial viral genome sequences, including parts of the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, were obtained and aligned with additional sequences obtained from the GenBank database. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis was conducted, and the possibility of recombination within these sequences was assessed. Analysis of the levels of selection pressure experienced by these sequences was assessed using methods on both the PAML and Datamonkey platforms. Results: Of the 31 cats investigated, two suspected FIP cats and one healthy cat tested positive for FCoV. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all of the sequences from mainland China cluster together with a few sequences from the Netherlands as a distinct clade when analyzed with FCoV sequences from other countries. Fewer than 3 recombination breakpoints were detected in the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, suggesting that analyses for positive selection could be conducted. A total of 4, 12, 4, and 4 positively selected sites were detected in the nsp12-nsp14, S, N, and 7b genes, respectively, with the previously described site 245 of the S gene, which distinguishes FIPV from FECV, being a positive selection site. Conversely, 106, 168, 25, and 17 negative selection sites in the nsp12-14, S, N, and 7b genes, respectively, were identified. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence that the FCoV genes encoding replicative, entry, and virulence proteins potentially experienced adaptive evolution. A greater number of sites in each gene experienced negative rather than positive selection, which suggests that most of the protein sequence must be conservatively maintained for virus survival. A few of the sites showing evidence of positive selection might be associated with the more severe pathology of FIPV or help these viruses survive other harmful conditions.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica/genética , Coronavirus Felino/genética , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Panleucopenia Felina/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Gatos , China , Coronavirus Felino/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/patologia , Panleucopenia Felina/patologia , Mutação , Filogenia , Recombinação Genética , Seleção Genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 39(10): e315-e317, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932332

RESUMO

In the current study, we report on 4 children with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, of which 3 of them were asymptomatic. These patients had both pharyngeal swabs and anal swabs testing during hospital or after discharge. All the 4 children showed long-time positive viral RNA in the stool specimens after pharyngeal swabs turned negative during the follow-up stage, especially in the asymptomatic children. The positive RNA in stool specimens of asymptomatic children last for more than 54 days after admission or 30 days after discharge.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Faringe/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação
7.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(5): 560-564, 2020 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical characteristics of fecal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleic acid-positive in patients with coronavirus dasease 2019 (COVID-19) and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of this disease. METHODS: The clinical data of 16 patients with fecal SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid positive, who hospitalized in the North Branch of the First Hospital of Changsha (Changsha Public Health Rescue Center) from January to February 2020, were retrospectively analyzed. Their clinical manifestations, laboratory data and imaging data were summarized. RESULTS: Among the 16 patients, there were 9 males (56.25%) and 7 females (43.75%), the ratio of males to females was 1∶1.29. The age of onset was (43.3±14.6) years. There were 15 patients with contact history of Wuhan, 1 patient with contact history of local patient.Twelve patients were common type (75%), and 4 patients were severe type (25%). Clinical symptoms included fever in 14 patients (87.5%), cough in 12 patients (75%), shortness of breath in 5 patients (31.25%), pharyngalgia in 10 patients (62.5%), fatigue in 7 patients (43.75%), and diarrhea in 4 patients (25%). There were 14 patients (87.5%) with normal or decreased white blood cell count, 11 patients (68.75%) with decreased lymphocyte count, 15 patients (93.75%) with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, 13 patients (81.25%) with increased hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, 5 patients (31.25%) with increased procalcitonin, and 8 patients (50%) with increased serum ferritin in peripheral blood, and stool routine was basically normal. Compared with the common type, there was significant difference in the white blood cell and lymphocyte counts in the severe type (P<0.01); the infection indicators, such as hypersensitivity C-reactive protein and serum ferritin, were significantly increased, with significant difference (all P<0.01); but the procalcitonin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was not significantly different (both P>0.05). Chest CT mainly showed patchy shadows and interstitial changes. According to imaging examination, 4 patients (25%) showed unilateral pneumonia and 12 patients (75%) showed bilateral pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: The patients have the clinical symptoms of COVID-19, but gastrointestinal symptoms (such as diarrhea) are more common, and the changes of white blood cell count, lymphocyte count, hypersensitivity C-reactive protein, ferritin are more obvious in severe patients.The positivity of fecal nucleic acid suggests the possibility of digestive tract transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and fecal nucleic acid testing can be used as a routine testing method in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Ferritinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1328-1334, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867445

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the characteristics and differences of diarrhea-related symptoms caused by different pathogens, and the clinical features of various pathogens causing diarrhea. Methods: Etiology surveillance program was conducted among 20 provinces of China from 2010 to 2016. The acute diarrhea outpatients were collected from clinics or hospitals. A questionnaire was used to survey demographics and clinical features. VFeces samples were taken for laboratory detection of 22 common diarrhea pathogens, to detect and analyze the clinical symptom pattern characteristics of the patient's. Results: A total of 38 950 outpatients were enrolled from 20 provinces of China. The positive rates of Rotavirus and Norovirus were the highest among the five diarrhea-causing viruses (Rotavirus: 18.29%, Norovirus: 13.06%). In the isolation and culture of 17 diarrhea-causing bacterial, Escherichia coli showed the highest positive rates (6.25%). The clinical features of bacterial diarrhea and viral diarrhea were mainly reflected in the results of fecal traits and routine examination, but pathogenic Vibrio infection was similar to viral diarrhea. Conclusion: Infectious diarrhea presents different characteristics due to various symptoms which can provide a basis for clinical diagnosis.


Assuntos
Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/virologia , Vigilância da População , China/epidemiologia , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Benef Microbes ; 11(5): 477-488, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877228

RESUMO

Neonatal calf diarrhoea is one of the challenges faced by intensive farming, and probiotics are considered a promising approach to improve calves' health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of potential probiotic lactobacilli on new-born dairy calves' growth, diarrhoea incidence, faecal score, cytokine expression in blood cells, immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels in plasma and faeces, and pathogen abundance in faeces. Two in vivo assays were conducted at the same farm in two annual calving seasons. Treated calves received one daily dose of the selected lactobacilli (Lactobacillus reuteri TP1.3B or Lactobacillus johnsonii TP1.6) for 10 consecutive days. A faecal score was recorded daily, average daily gain (ADG) was calculated, and blood and faeces samples were collected. Pathogen abundance was analysed by absolute qPCR in faeces using primers directed at Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, coronavirus, Cryptosporidium parvum and three Escherichia coli virulence genes (eae, clpG and Stx1). The faecal score was positively affected by the administration of both lactobacilli strains, and diarrhoea incidence was significantly lower in treated calves. No differences were found regarding ADG, cytokine expression, IgA levels and pathogen abundance. Our findings showed that oral administration of these strains could improve gastrointestinal health, but results could vary depending on the calving season, which may be related to pathogen seasonality and other environmental effects.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Diarreia , Lactobacillus johnsonii/metabolismo , Lactobacillus reuteri/metabolismo , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/sangue , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Diarreia/terapia , Diarreia/veterinária , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/virologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Infecções por Rotavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
10.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B ; 21(9): 749-751, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893532

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was found initially in Wuhan, China in early December 2019. The pandemic has spread to 216 countries and regions, infecting more than 23310 000 people and causing over 800 000 deaths globally by Aug. 24, 2020, according to World Health Organization (https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/ novel-coronavirus-2019). Fever, cough, and dyspnea are the three common symptoms of the condition, whereas the conventional transmission route for SARS-CoV-2 is through droplets entering the respiratory tract. To date, infection control measures for COVID-19 have been focusing on the involvement of the respiratory system. However, ignoring potential faecal transmission and the gastrointestinal involvement of SARS-CoV-2 may result in mistakes in attempts to control the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenteropatias/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
11.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(10): 901-903, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975066

RESUMO

In this report, we describe the case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) in an infant with mild fever and diarrhea in the absence of respiratory distress. A 45-day-old male infant with COVID-19 was transferred to our pediatric department. He had mild fever and diarrhea at admission. Positive-to-negative nasal swab conversion occurred on the 21st day from the onset of symptoms. However, stool swab positivity persisted during the 6-week admission period and for 7 weeks during follow-up at an outpatient clinic after discharge. Negative conversion in a stool specimen occurred on the 142nd day from the onset of symptoms. This case highlights the potential of fecal virus shedding as an important feature of viral transmission in infants and young children.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Betacoronavirus , Diarreia/etiologia , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias
12.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911718

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to determine prevalence and potential risk factors of feline coronavirus (FCoV) shedding. Four consecutive fecal samples of 179 cats from 37 German breeding catteries were analyzed for FCoV ribonucleic acid (RNA) by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Prevalence of shedding was calculated using different numbers of fecal samples per cat (1-4) and different sampling intervals (5-28 days). Information on potential risk factors for FCoV shedding was obtained by a questionnaire. Risk factor analysis was performed using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Most cats (137/179, 76.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 69.8-82.2) shed FCoV at least at once. None of the tested 37 catteries was free of FCoV. Prevalence calculated including all four (76.5%, 95% CI 69.8-82.2) or the last three (73.7%, 95% CI 66.8-79.7) samples per cat was significantly higher than the prevalence calculated with only the last sample (61.5%, 95% CI 54.2-68.3; p = 0.0029 and 0.0175, respectively). Young age was significantly associated with FCoV shedding while the other factors were not. For identification of FCoV shedders in multi-cat households, at least three fecal samples per cat should be analyzed. Young age is the most important risk factor for FCoV shedding.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Coronavirus Felino/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/epidemiologia , Peritonite Infecciosa Felina/virologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22192, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of infantile enteritis. In common enterocolitis, probiotic organisms, including Lactobacilli, are effective in treating diarrhea. A new species, Lactobacillus plantarum (LRCC5310), which was shown to inhibit the adherence and proliferation of rotavirus in the small intestine through animal experiments, was investigated for the efficacy and safety of patients with rotaviral enteritis. METHODS: LRCC5310 (Group I) and control (Group II) groups consisting of children who were hospitalized for rotaviral enteritis were compared, and the medical records of patients (Group III) who were hospitalized for rotaviral enteritis during the same study period were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical symptoms were compared and stool samples were collected to compare changes in virus multiplication between Groups I and II. RESULTS: Groups I, II, and III comprised 15, 8, and 27 children, respectively. There were no differences in clinical information among the groups at admission. In Group I, a statistically significant improvement was noted in the number of patients with diarrhea, number of defecation events on Day 3, and total diarrhea period as opposed to Group II (P = .033, P = .003, and P = .012, respectively). The improvement of Vesikari score in Group I was greater than that in the other groups (P = .076, P = .061, and P = .036, respectively). Among rotavirus genotypes, 9 (22.5%) strains and 8 (20.0%) strains belonged to the G9P8 and G1P8 genotypes, respectively. The virus reduction effect, as confirmed via stool specimens, was also greater in Group I. No significant side effects were noted in infants. CONCLUSION: LRCC5310 improved clinical symptoms, including diarrhea and Vesikari score, and inhibited viral proliferation in rotaviral gastroenteritis.


Assuntos
Enterite/terapia , Lactobacillus plantarum , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Rotavirus/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Enterite/epidemiologia , Enterite/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 847-852, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903228

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid-positive patients in our hospital and evaluated the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on the gastrointestinal tract. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-seven patients in the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 17, 2020 to March 2, 2020 with fecal/perianal swab samples were selected as subjects and the results of real-time fluorescence reverse transcriptase-PCR SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection of fecal/perianal swabs were used to divide subjects into positive and negative groups. RESULTS: Fecal/perianal swabs of 53.61% (52/97) patients were positive including 31 males (59.62%) and 21 females (40.38%). The negative group had more females than males (P = 0.001). The distribution of case classification based on the most severe condition observed after admission was different between groups: five (5.15%) critical type patients were all from the positive group (P = 0.029). There was no statistical difference in clinical manifestations between the groups. In the positive group, the mean nucleic acid-negative conversion time was 14.13 ± 8.61 days, which was significantly later than the negative group (6.98 ± 5.16 days; P < 0.001). In the positive group, 92% (48/52) had nucleic acid-negative conversion with a mean nucleic acid-negative conversion time of 22.58 ± 10.30 days. Among them, 41 (78.85%) cases were delayed compared with pharynx/nasal swab nucleic acid-negative conversion time. CONCLUSIONS: The positive rate of fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid in male patients was higher than that in female patients. Fecal/perianal swab nucleic acid positive may be an indicator of critical conditions in those with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Canal Anal/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008520, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776938

RESUMO

Diarrhea is a leading cause of antibiotic consumption among children in low- and middle-income countries. While vaccines may prevent diarrhea infections for which children often receive antibiotics, the contribution of individual enteropathogens to antibiotic use is minimally understood. We used data from the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) to estimate pathogen-specific incidence of antibiotic-treated diarrhea among children under five years old residing in six countries of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia before rotavirus vaccine implementation. GEMS was an age-stratified, individually-matched case-control study. Stool specimens were obtained from children presenting to sentinel health clinics with newly-onset, acute diarrhea (including moderate-to-severe and less-severe diarrhea) as well as matched community controls without diarrhea. We used data from conventional and quantitative molecular diagnostic assays applied to stool specimens to estimate the proportion of antibiotic-treated diarrhea cases attributable to each pathogen. Antibiotics were administered or prescribed to 9,606 of 12,109 moderate-to-severe cases and 1,844 of 3,174 less-severe cases. Across all sites, incidence rates of clinically-attended, antibiotic-treated diarrhea were 12.2 (95% confidence interval: 9.0-17.8), 10.2 (7.4-13.9) and 1.9 (1.3-3.0) episodes per 100 child-years at risk at ages 6 weeks to 11 months, 12-23 months, and 24-59 months, respectively. Based on the recommendation for antibiotic treatment to be reserved for cases with dysentery, we estimated a ratio of 12.6 (8.6-20.8) inappropriately-treated diarrhea cases for each appropriately-treated case. Rotavirus, adenovirus serotypes 40/41, Shigella, sapovirus, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium were the leading antibiotic-treated diarrhea etiologies. Rotavirus caused 29.2% (24.5-35.2%) of antibiotic-treated cases, including the largest share in both the first and second years of life. Shigella caused 14.9% (11.4-18.9%) of antibiotic-treated cases, and was the leading etiology at ages 24-59 months. Our findings should inform the prioritization of vaccines with the greatest potential to reduce antibiotic exposure among children.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Países em Desenvolvimento , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/etiologia , Adenoviridae , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Ásia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/etiologia , Cryptosporidium , Disenteria/tratamento farmacológico , Disenteria/epidemiologia , Disenteria/etiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/etiologia , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Vacinas contra Rotavirus , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica , Shigella
16.
Science ; 369(6506): 936-942, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820119

RESUMO

Intestinal microbiota have been proposed to induce commensal-specific memory T cells that cross-react with tumor-associated antigens. We identified major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-binding epitopes in the tail length tape measure protein (TMP) of a prophage found in the genome of the bacteriophage Enterococcus hirae Mice bearing E. hirae harboring this prophage mounted a TMP-specific H-2Kb-restricted CD8+ T lymphocyte response upon immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide or anti-PD-1 antibodies. Administration of bacterial strains engineered to express the TMP epitope improved immunotherapy in mice. In renal and lung cancer patients, the presence of the enterococcal prophage in stools and expression of a TMP-cross-reactive antigen by tumors correlated with long-term benefit of PD-1 blockade therapy. In melanoma patients, T cell clones recognizing naturally processed cancer antigens that are cross-reactive with microbial peptides were detected.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Bacteriófagos/imunologia , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/virologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/terapia , Proteínas da Cauda Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Epitopos/imunologia , Fezes/virologia , Antígenos H-2/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias/dietoterapia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Proteínas da Cauda Viral/uso terapêutico
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 611, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poliovirus has been targeted for eradication since 1988. Kenya reported its last case of indigenous Wild Poliovirus (WPV) in 1984 but suffered from an outbreak of circulating Vaccine-derived Poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) in 2018. We aimed to describe Kenya's polio surveillance performance 2016-2018 using WHO recommended polio surveillance standards. METHODS: Retrospective secondary data analysis was conducted using Kenyan AFP surveillance case-based database from 2016 to 2018. Analyses were carried out using Epi-Info statistical software (version 7) and mapping was done using Quantum Geographic Information System (GIS) (version 3.4.1). RESULTS: Kenya reported 1706 cases of AFP from 2016 to 2018. None of the cases were confirmed as poliomyelitis. However, 23 (1.35%) were classified as polio compatible. Children under 5 years accounted for 1085 (63.6%) cases, 937 (55.0%) cases were boys, and 1503 (88.1%) cases had received three or more doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). AFP detection rate substantially increased over the years; however, the prolonged health workers strike in 2017 negatively affected key surveillance activities. The mean Non-Polio (NP-AFP) rate during the study period was 2.87/ 100,000 children under 15 years, and two adequate specimens were collected for 1512 (88.6%) AFP cases. Cumulatively, 31 (66.0%) counties surpassed target for both WHO recommended AFP quality indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of Kenya's AFP surveillance system surpassed the minimum WHO recommended targets for both non-polio AFP rate and stool adequacy during the period studied. In order to strengthen the country's polio free status, health worker's awareness on AFP surveillance and active case search should be strengthened in least performing counties to improve case detection. Similar analyses should be done at the sub-county level to uncover underperformance that might have been hidden by county level analysis.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Poliovirus/imunologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paralisia/virologia , Vacina Antipólio Oral/efeitos adversos , Vigilância da População , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software
18.
Ann Afr Med ; 19(3): 198-202, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820733

RESUMO

Background: Rotavirus remains one of the main causative agents of gastroenteritis in young children. This happens, especially in countries (e.g., Nigeria) that have not yet introduced the vaccine into the national immunization program. A significant prevalence of Rotavirus infection both in children and adults without major symptoms has earlier been reported. This study aimed at defining the prevalence of asymptomatic Rotavirus infection from apparently healthy children in Maiduguri, Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria. Methods: A total of 269 stool samples were randomly collected from apparently healthy children <15 years of age from July 2017 to June 2018. All samples were screened using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit for the presence of Rotavirus antigen. The Rotavirus-positive samples were further subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to determine their RNA electropherotypes. Results: A total of 59 stool samples (19.9%) were Rotavirus positive with peaks observed in the cold dry season, among male children, and 6-10 years of age group. A total of 50 randomly selected Rotavirus-positive samples were subjected to PAGE, and none of the samples showed either long or short profiles. Conclusion: This study shows that Rotavirus can be shed into environments without any signs and symptoms. In view of this, the Rotavirus vaccine should be considered a priority and be introduced in the existing national immunization program in Nigeria, particularly in Borno State.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Fezes/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/epidemiologia , Rotavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Gastroenterite/virologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia
19.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 52: 100912, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread worldwide. Herein, we aimed to clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients presenting with diarrhea. METHODS: A descriptive design was adopted from Jan 10 to Feb 17, 2020. All the cases included were diagnosed with COVID-19 under the interim guidance of the WHO. RESULTS: 912 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to hospital, in which, 90 cases (9.87%) presented with diarrhea. Among the 90 cases, 8 cases (9%) presented with diarrhea as the initial symptom, and 24%, 17%, and 24% of the patients complained of nausea, vomiting, and poor appetite, respectively. The most common fecal characteristics on admission were watery stool (64%) and mushy stool (28%). For the defecation frequency, 37% of the cases defecated over three times a day. The median time from illness onset to diarrhea was 3.0 days (IQR 0.0-5.0) and the median duration of diarrhea was 5.0 days (IQR 2.0-9.3). CONCLUSION: Clinicians are required to promptly identify the patients with initial diarrhea symptoms and pay adequate attention to the nutrient requirements of the patients with diarrhea during hospitalization. Standardized management is also recommended for the discharge of the patients to avoid potential fecal-oral transmission.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(14): 7889-7904, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744718

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In late December 2019 in Wuhan (China), Health Commission reported a cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology, subsequently isolated and named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus 2 (CoV-2). In this review, the main transmission routes and causes of mortality associated with COVID-19 were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A review was carried out to recognize relevant research available until 10 April 2020. RESULTS: The main transmission routes of COVID-19 have been the following: animal to human and human-to-human pathways, namely: respiratory transmission; oro-fecal transmission; air, surface-human transmission. Transmission from asymptomatic persons, healthcare transmission, and interfamily transmission have been well documented. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 possesses powerful pathogenicity and transmissibility. It is presumed to spread primarily via respiratory droplets and close contact. The most probable transmission pathway is definitely the inter-human one. Asymptomatic patients seem to play a crucial role in spreading the infection. Because of COVID-19 infection pandemic potential, careful surveillance is essential to monitor its future host adaptation, viral evolution, infectivity, transmissibility, and pathogenicity in order to gain an effective vaccine and flock immunity and reduce mortality as soon and as much as it is possible.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Escarro/virologia
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