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1.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4227346, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603431

RESUMO

For the first time and by using an entire sample, we discussed the estimation of the unknown parameters θ 1, θ 2, and ß and the system of stress-strength reliability R=P(Y < X) for exponentiated inverted Weibull (EIW) distributions with an equivalent scale parameter supported eight methods. We will use maximum likelihood method, maximum product of spacing estimation (MPSE), minimum spacing absolute-log distance estimation (MSALDE), least square estimation (LSE), weighted least square estimation (WLSE), method of Cramér-von Mises estimation (CME), and Anderson-Darling estimation (ADE) when X and Y are two independent a scaled exponentiated inverted Weibull (EIW) distribution. Percentile bootstrap and bias-corrected percentile bootstrap confidence intervals are introduced. To pick the better method of estimation, we used the Monte Carlo simulation study for comparing the efficiency of the various estimators suggested using mean square error and interval length criterion. From cases of samples, we discovered that the results of the maximum product of spacing method are more competitive than those of the other methods. A two real-life data sets are represented demonstrating how the applicability of the methodologies proposed in real phenomena.


Assuntos
Fibra de Carbono , Funções Verossimilhança , Método de Monte Carlo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuições Estatísticas
2.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131110, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470162

RESUMO

Fibrous activated carbon has attracted emerging research interests due to its remarkable adsorption performance for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Though this adsorption behavior for VOCs is closely related to the pore structure on the surface of activated carbon fiber (ACF), few researchers paid attentions to the influence of textural properties of this adsorption process. Especially, cotton-based activated carbon fiber (CACF) for adsorbing benzene pollutant is rarely reported. Herein, in order to develop a high-performance adsorbent for the removal of VOCs pollutants, this work studied the influence of textural properties of CACF on the adsorption of benzene. The results showed that the increase of carbonization temperature would lead to the reduction of mesopores but the increase of micropores for CACF; the embedment of phosphoric acid and its derivatives into the carbon layers contributed to the formation of pore structure for CACF; furthermore, specific surface area of CACF can also be enlarged by increasing the concentration of phosphoric acid. More importantly, it was found that the adsorption capacity of CACF for benzene was strongly dependent on the specific surface area and volume of micropores within CACF because micropores can provide more favorable binding sites. This adsorption process preferred to occur on the wall of micropores, then the accumulated benzene would slowly fill the pores. Interestingly, the decrease of pore size of micropores can unexpectedly improve the affinity of CACF to benzene on the contrary. This work provides a new strategy to develop porous structured ACF materials for the high-performance adsorption of VOCs.


Assuntos
Benzeno , Carvão Vegetal , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Porosidade
3.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5)2021 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428753

RESUMO

Objective. Neural interfaces based on carbon fiber (CF) electrodes have demonstrated key positive attributes such as minimal foreign body response and mechanical strength to self-insert in brain tissue. However, carbon does not form a low impedance electrode interface with neural tissue. Electrodeposited platinum iridium (PtIr) has been used to improve electrode interface properties for metallic bioelectrodes.Approach. In this study, a PtIr electrodeposition process has been performed on CF microelectrode arrays to improve the interfacial properties of these arrays. We study the film morphology and composition as well as electrode durability and impedance.Results. A PtIr coating with a composition of 70% Pt, 30% Ir and a thickness of ∼400 nm was observed. Pt and Ir were evenly distributed within the film. Impedance was decreased by 89% @ 1 kHz. Accelerated soak testing in a heated (T= 50∘C) saline solution showed impedance increase (@ 1 kHz) of ∼12% after 36 days (89 equivalent) of soaking.


Assuntos
Irídio , Platina , Fibra de Carbono , Impedância Elétrica , Galvanoplastia , Microeletrodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444254

RESUMO

Respirator use has been shown to be associated with overall discomfort. Activated carbon fiber (ACF) has potential as an alternative adsorbent for developing thinner, lightweight, and efficient respirators due to its larger surface area, microporosity, and fabric form. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the adsorption characteristics of commercially available ACF in respirator cartridges with varying ACF composition for toluene protection. Seven ACF types (one cloth, six felt) with varying properties were tested. Seven ACF cartridge configurations with varying ACF composition were challenged with five toluene concentrations (20-500 ppm) at constant air temperature (23 °C), relative humidity (50%), and air flow (32 LPM). Breakthrough curves were obtained using photoionization detectors. Breakthrough times (10%, 50%, and 5 ppm) and adsorption capacities were compared among ACF cartridge configurations to determine their suitable application in respiratory protection. Results showed that ACF cartridges containing the densest ACF felt types had the longest average breakthrough times (e.g., ~250-270 min to reach 5 ppm breakthrough time) and those containing ACF felt types with the highest specific surface areas had the highest average adsorption capacity (~450-470 mg/g). The ACF cartridges demonstrated breakthrough times of <1 h for 500 ppm toluene and 8-16 h for 20 ppm toluene. The ACF cartridges are more reliable for use at low ambient toluene concentrations but still have potential for use at higher concentrations for short-term protection. ACF felt forms with appropriate properties (density of ~0.07 g/cm3; specific surface area of ~2000 m2/g) have shown promising potential for the development of lighter and thinner respirators for protection against toluene.


Assuntos
Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória , Tolueno , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Projetos Piloto , Ventiladores Mecânicos
5.
J Mech Behav Biomed Mater ; 122: 104659, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229171

RESUMO

In this work, graphene oxide/carbon fibers/polyetheretherketone (GO/CF/PEEK) composite coatings on Ti-6Al-4V (TC4) alloy were fabricated by electrostatic powder spraying method. The coatings with 0.02 wt% GO and 25 wt% CF were made to improve the wear resistance, cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of the TC4 as orthopedic/dental implants. The physicochemical properties involving coating thickness, Vickers hardness, micromorphology, phase structures and contact angles were investigated. The results indicated that the GO/CF/PEEK coatings can significantly decrease the coefficient of friction (COF) (from 0.433 ± 0.017 to 0.085 ± 0.008) and enhance the wear resistance of TC4 alloy during the wet friction process in sliding contact with a Si3N4 ball. The results showed that few scratches appeared on the GO/CF/PEEK coating. As the in vitro cytotoxicity test by murine fibroblast L929 cells shown, the GO/CF/PEEK coating revealed good cytocompatibility. More importantly, GO/CF/PEEK coating exhibited excellent suppression toward Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) owing to the antibacterial nature of GO. Therefore, the GO/CF/PEEK composite coated TC4 could be considered as a prospective orthopedic/dental implant material for bone tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Ligas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzofenonas , Fibra de Carbono , Grafite , Teste de Materiais , Camundongos , Polímeros , Estudos Prospectivos , Staphylococcus aureus , Propriedades de Superfície , Titânio
6.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 603: 582-593, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216954

RESUMO

The development of recyclable photocatalyst with high adsorption and excellent photocatalytic performance has attracted considerable attention. Herein, we report a three-component photocatalyst by constructing porous amine functionalized zirconium metal organic framework (UiO-66-NH2) and broad photo-responsive AgI on flexible carbon fiber cloth (CFC). UiO-66-NH2 nanoparticles (200-400 nm) were in-situ grown on the surface of CFC (16.5 ± 0.5 µm, 4 × 4 cm2) by a solvothermal route, then AgI particles (50-100 nm) were synthesized on CFC/UiO-66-NH2 via a modified chemical bath deposition method. The obtained CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI can effectively adsorb 19.0% levofloxacin (LVFX) or 18.4% ciprofloxacin (CIP) in 60 min in the dark and degrade 84.5% LVFX or 79.6% CIP in 120 min under visible light irradiation. Furthermore, the filter-membrane-shaped CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI can be utilized to treat the flowing sewage (CIP, 10 mg/L, ~1 L/h), and the removing efficiency of CIP reached 71.0% after 10 grades. Therefore, this work demonstrates the huge application prospect of recyclable CFC/UiO-66-NH2/AgI with high adsorption and photocatalytic capacity in flowing sewage treatment under visible light illumination.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Aminas , Antibacterianos , Fibra de Carbono , Catálise , Iodetos , Compostos de Prata , Zircônio
7.
Talanta ; 233: 122582, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215074

RESUMO

Isoflavones are a group of phytoestrogens of important environmental concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects. This article presents a rapid, green, and sustainable method for determining four isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, formononetin, and biochanin A) in environmental waters complying with current trends in Analytical Chemistry. The method consists of in-syringe dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) as the extraction approach, using carbon fibers as extraction material. The synthesis of carbon fibers is simple and sustainable, since it only requires a natural product such as raw cotton as precursor, which is thermally treated (600 °C for 30 min) in an inert (Ar) atmosphere to convert it into carbon fibers. After extraction, the final eluate is analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The proposed methodology allows the determination of the four isoflavones in water samples at the ng L-1 range, with limits of detection in the range from 17 to 25 ng L-1, relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.8 to 10.1%, and good batch-to-batch repeatability (RSD < 13%). The method was finally applied to six environmental water samples from different sources and two swimming pool waters, and concentrations of all analytes up to 490 ng L-1 were found. The highest concentrations were found in those samples close to crop fields. Relative recovery values (80-121%) showed that the aqueous matrices considered in this work did not significantly affect the extraction process. This method overcomes the drawbacks of the previous works with the same purpose, such as consuming large volumes of organic solvents or prolonged extraction times. Moreover, this procedure would allow the extraction stage to be carried out in situ, since only the sorbent material (previously synthesized in the laboratory) and disposable syringes are required.


Assuntos
Isoflavonas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fibra de Carbono , Cromatografia Líquida , Isoflavonas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 21(12): 6151-6159, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229816

RESUMO

In this work, we demonstrate controlled introduction of O-functional groups on commercial carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) with different nanotube morphologies obtained by dry- and wet-spinning by treatment with gaseous ozone (O3(g)). Our test samples were (1) wet-spun fibers of smalldiameter (1-2 nm) singlewall (SW)-CNTs and (2) dry-spun fibers containing large-diameter (20 nm) multiwall (MW)-CNTs. Our results indicate that SW-CNTFs undergo oxygenation to a higher extent than MW-CNTFs due to the higher reactivity of SW-CNTs with a larger curvature strain. Oxygenation resulting from O3 exposure was evidenced as increase in surface O atomic% (at% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS) and as reductions in G/D (by Raman spectroscopy) as well as electrical conductivities due to changes in nanotube graphitic structure. By XPS, we identified the emergence of various types of O-functionalities on the fiber surfaces. After long duration O3 exposure (>300 s for SW-CNTFs and >600 s for MW-CNTFs), both sp² C═O (carbonyl) and sp³ C-O moieties (ether/hydroxy) were observed on fiber surfaces. Whereas, only sp³ C-O (ether/hydroxy) components were observed after shorter exposure times. O3 treatment led to only changes in surface chemistry, while the fiber morphology, microstructure and dimensions remained unaltered. We believe the surface chemistry controllability demonstrated here on commercial fibers spun by different methods containing nanotubes of different structures is of significance in aiding the practical application development of CNTFs.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Ozônio , Fibra de Carbono , Condutividade Elétrica , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica
9.
Chemosphere ; 282: 131058, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111633

RESUMO

This study describes a versatile, robust and fast sample pre-concentration novel method based on chemical vapour deposition grown iron nanoparticles dispersed hierarchical carbon fiber forest (Fe-ACF/CNF) for the determination of multi-pesticide residue in water samples. This method was developed by the implementation of Fe-ACF/CNF to magnetic solid-phase extraction method (MSPE) for the adsorption of twenty-nine pesticides of various classes using gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector. Fe-ACF/CNF was grown via tip growth mechanism and Fe-nanoparticles are moved to the tip of CNF. The presence of Fe-nanoparticles is responsible for the magnetic property of proposed adsorbents. The Fe-ACF/CNF is competent enough to extract twenty-nine pesticides of different physico-chemical characteristics from water samples. All the predominant parameters including the amount of sorbent desorption time, temperature, sonication effect, regeneration, and reusability of Fe-ACF/CNF were thoroughly investigated. Acceptable linearity was obtained in the range of 20-500 µg/L with a correlation coefficient value ≥ 0.990 for all pesticides. The accuracy of the developed method was evaluated and the obtained recovery of the spiked samples was within 70-120% (standard deviation ≤ 15%) and reusability up to the 4th cycle. The limit of detection and quantification values was in the range of 1.44-5.15 and 4.76-17.0 µg/L, respectively. The obtained results are also cross verified with real water samples from the Gomti river (Lucknow, India) and shown the excellent extraction efficiency of Fe-ACF/CNF.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Fibra de Carbono , Florestas , Ferro , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
World Neurosurg ; 152: 61-70, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062294

RESUMO

The management of spine tumors is multimodal and personalized to each individual patient. Patients often require radiation therapy after surgical fixation. Although titanium implants are used most commonly, they produce significant artifact, leading to decreased confidence in target-volume coverage and normal tissue sparing. Carbon-based materials have been found to have minimal effects on dose perturbation in postoperative radiation therapy and have shown biostability and biocompatibility that are comparable to titanium implants. Using the PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, we conducted a systematic review of carbon-based screw and rod fixation systems in the treatment of spinal tumors. We reviewed clinical studies regarding safety of spine fixation with carbon fiber-reinforced (CFR) implants and biomechanical studies, as well as radiation and dosimetric studies. The radiolucency of CFR-polyether ether ketone implants has the potential to benefit patients with spine tumor. Clinical studies have shown no increase in complications with implementation of CFR-polyether ether ketone implants, and these devices seem to have sufficient stiffness and pullout strength. However, further trials are necessary to determine if there is a clinically significant impact on local tumor control.


Assuntos
Próteses e Implantes , Fusão Vertebral/instrumentação , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Benzofenonas , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Fibra de Carbono , Humanos , Polímeros
11.
Chemosphere ; 279: 130832, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134432

RESUMO

Contamination of water by nitrate has become a worldwide problem, being high levels of this ion detected in the surface, and groundwater, mainly due to the intensive use of fertilizers, and to the discharge of not properly treated effluents. This study aims to evaluate the electrocatalytic process, carried out in a cell divided into two compartments by a cation exchange membrane, and with a copper plate electrode as cathode, identifying the effects of current density, pH, the use of a catalyst in the nitrate reduction, and the production of gaseous compounds. The highest nitrate reduction was obtained with a current density of 2.0 mA cm-2, without pH adjustment and, in this condition, nitrite ion was mainly formed. The application of activated carbon fibers with palladium (1% wt. and 3% wt.) in an alkaline medium presented an increase in gaseous compounds formation. With 2.0 mA cm-2, pH adjustment, and applying 3% wt. Pd catalyst, the highest selectivity to gaseous compounds was obtained (95%) with no nitrite detection. These results highlight the viability of using the process developed at this work for the treatment of nitrate contaminated waters.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Nitratos , Fibra de Carbono , Catálise , Nitritos
12.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 126: 112140, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082951

RESUMO

Multiscale 3D carbon architectures are of particular interest in tissue engineering applications, as these structures may allow for three-dimensional cell colonization essential for tissue growth. In this work, carbon fiber/microlattice hybrid architectures are introduced as innovative multi-scale scaffolds for tissue engineering. The microlattice provides the design freedom and structural integrity, whereas the fibrous component creates a cellular microenvironment for cell colonization. The hybrid structures are fabricated by carbonization of stereolithographically 3D printed epoxy microlattice architectures which are pre-filled with cotton fibers within the empty space of the architectures. The cotton filling result in less shrinkage of the architecture during carbonization, as the tight confinement of the fibrous material prevents the free-shrinkage of the microlattices. The hybrid architecture exhibits a compressive strength of 156.9±25.6 kPa, which is significantly higher than an empty carbon microlattice architecture. Furthermore, the hybrid architecture exhibits a flexible behavior up to 30% compressive strain, which is also promising towards soft-tissue regeneration. Osteoblast-like murine MC3T3-E1 cells are cultured within the 3D hybrid structures. Results show that the cells are able to not only proliferate on the carbon microlattice elements as well as along the carbon fibers, but also make connections with each other across the inner pores created by the fibers, leading to a three-dimensional cell colonization. These carbon fiber/microlattice hybrid structures are promising for future fabrication of functionally graded scaffolds for tissue repair applications.


Assuntos
Engenharia Tecidual , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Fibra de Carbono , Força Compressiva , Camundongos , Osteoblastos , Impressão Tridimensional
13.
Chemosphere ; 280: 130626, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162068

RESUMO

Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) is widely used for decontamination. The main issues associated with nZVI are agglomeration and oxidation in the long term. In this study, the carbothermal reduction of cotton fiber was conducted for the synthesis of nZVI supported on cotton carbon fiber (nZVI/CF) to address the agglomeration and oxidation of nZVI. Synergistic adsorption and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation using nZVI/CF for removing levofloxacin (LEV) are reported herein. The nZVI concentration and morphology were conveniently adjusted by soaking cotton fiber in ferric nitrate solutions of various Fe3+ concentrations. The carbothermal reduction of the cotton fiber at 900 °C contributed to the reduction of Fe3+ into nZVI. A nZVI/CF-900-0.3 system was obtained through the carbothermal reduction of cotton fiber soaked in 0.3 M ferric nitrate. Favorable adsorption of nZVI/CF-900-0.3 to LEV facilitated LEV degradation under PMS activation. Approximately 93.83% of LEV (C0 = 20 ppm) was removed within 60 min with 0.2 g/L of the catalyst and 1 mM PMS. It was preferable to use nZVI + CF-900 to activate PMS for degrading LEV, thus confirming the favorable effect of LEV adsorption on further degradation. The nZVI/CF-900-0.3 exhibited excellent long-term stability given that it was able to activate PMS after it was stored for 6 months. ·SO4- played an important role in LEV degradation in the presence of PMS.


Assuntos
Ferro , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Levofloxacino , Peróxidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
14.
Environ Res ; 201: 111591, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186081

RESUMO

N2O is the most significant anthropogenic greenhouse gas, which cause the ozone depletion. Hence, the room temperature detection of N2O is highly desirable. In this work, The TCN(II)-KOH-rGO/CF modified electrode was successfully fabricated by drop coating method. The synthesized electrode was successfully characterized by SEM, TEM, FT-IR and XRD. The sensor electrode was used to detect different N2O concentration in flow conditions at room temperature. TCN(II)-KOH-rGO/CF modified electrode showed high sensitivity towards N2O, a wide range from 1ppm to 16 ppm and low detection of 1 ppm N2O were achieved for the TCN(II)-KOH-rGO/CF modified electrode. The limit of detection and the response towards this nitrogen oxide is competitive to other sensing methods. In addition, the sensitivity of the electrochemical sensor electrode was compared with the online Gas Chromatography. Additionally, the selectivity of the working electrode was analyzed and specified. The working electrode stability was analyzed for more than 30 days shows good stability. The fabricated TCN(II)-KOH-rGO/CF electrode is easier to prepare to get excellent analytical performance towards N2O. Hence, the proposed TCN(II)-KOH-rGO/CF electrode could be the suitable material for detection of N2O in the real site process.


Assuntos
Carbono , Elétrons , Fibra de Carbono , Cianetos , Grafite , Níquel , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(40): 57398-57411, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34091853

RESUMO

Activated carbon fiber (ACF) was modified by Zn(NO3)2, ZnCl2, and Zn(CH3COO)2), respectively, and then, TiO2 was loaded on the modified ACFs. The adsorption and photocatalysis performance were explored through the removal of toluene, and TiO2/ACF-Ac modified by Zn(CH3COO)2) with the best toluene degradation performance was selected. The characterization results of a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) indicated that the samples were rough, and TiO2 was mainly loaded on the surface containing large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups in anatase phase. An ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer (UV-vis DRS) revealed that the catalyst enhanced the light response range. The photoelectric chemical experiment results demonstrated that the modified ACFs remarkably improved the charge transmission and the separation efficiency of electrons and holes. The adsorption saturation time reached 40 h and toluene photodegradation rate was 70%. Four toluene degradation intermediate products were determined by GC-MS, and the removal mechanism of toluene by TiO2/ACF-Ac was discussed.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Tolueno , Adsorção , Fibra de Carbono , Catálise , Titânio , Zinco
16.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073192

RESUMO

Sustainable technologies for energy production and storage are currently in great demand. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) offer promising solutions for both. Several attempts have been made to improve carbon felt electrode characteristics with various pretreatments in order to enhance performance. This study was motivated by gaps in current knowledge of the impact of pretreatments on the enrichment and microbial composition of bioelectrochemical systems. Therefore, electrodes were treated with poly(neutral red), chitosan, or isopropanol in a first step and then fixed in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Four MECs consisting of organic substance-degrading bioanodes and methane-producing biocathodes were set up and operated in batch mode by controlling the bioanode at 400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl (3M NaCl). After 1 month of operation, Enterococcus species were dominant microorganisms attached to all bioanodes and independent of electrode pretreatment. However, electrode pretreatments led to a decrease in microbial diversity and the enrichment of specific electroactive genera, according to the type of modification used. The MEC containing isopropanol-treated electrodes achieved the highest performance due to presence of both Enterococcus and Geobacter. The obtained results might help to select suitable electrode pretreatments and support growth conditions for desired electroactive microorganisms, whereby performance of BESs and related applications, such as BES-based biosensors, could be enhanced.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Biofilmes , Fibra de Carbono , Eletrodos , Carbono , Eletrólise , Geobacter
17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 601: 317-325, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087592

RESUMO

A free-standing catalyst electrode for urea electrolysis was synthesized by electroless plating of NiCoB alloy onto a flexible carbon felt. The synthesized NiCoB@C catalyst exhibited porous and partially amorphous metallic structure depending on its composition, as analysed by XRD, XPS, and TEM; thus, NiCoB@C catalyst showed a high catalytic activity for urea oxidation reaction as well as hydrogen evolution reaction. The required cell voltage in the electrolysis cell with NiCoB@C as anode and cathode was as low as 1.34 V for the current densities 10 mA cm-2. Similar performance of the urea electrolysis for H2 production using 0.33 M urea and a fresh urine in 1 M KOH was observed. The result indicated that NiCoB could be incorporated on to carbon felt by electroless plating, and it could be used as free-standing bifunctional electrodes for urea electrolysis using urea as well as urine.


Assuntos
Carbono , Nanopartículas , Fibra de Carbono , Eletrólise , Ureia
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(20): 23905-23914, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980008

RESUMO

The growing applications of wearable electronics, electronic textiles, and biomedical devices have sparked explosive demand for high-performance flexible sensors. Herein, we report a facile approach for fabricating a highly sensitive carbon hybrid fiber, which is composed of a graphene fiber skeleton and carbon nanotube (CNT) branches. In this hierarchical fiber, in situ grown CNTs prohibit the stacking of graphene sheets and bridge graphene layers simultaneously, making the hybrid fiber fluffy and conductive. Due to the well-designed architecture, the assembled fiber sensor exhibits satisfactory performance with a high gauge factor (up to 1127), a fast response time (less than 70 ms), and excellent reliability and stability (>2000 cycles). This work provides a feasible and scalable pathway for the fabrication of ultrasensitive fiber-based sensors, achieving the full realization of monitoring human physiological signals and architecting a real-time human-machine controlling system. Moreover, these practical sensors are used to monitor the sitting posture to prevent cervical spondylosis and lumbar disc herniation.


Assuntos
Fibra de Carbono/química , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Têxteis , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Condutividade Elétrica , Humanos
19.
Waste Manag ; 128: 73-82, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971379

RESUMO

In this work, a novel method to valorize the polymeric matrix of residual carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in the recycling process of carbon fibers by pyrolysis is presented. The experiments have been carried out with an expired epoxy-based pre-preg and in a lab-scale installation composed of two reactors. In the first one, pyrolysis and oxidation have been carried out, while in the second one, the gases and vapors resulting from the thermal decomposition of the polymeric resin have been thermally treated. The following operating parameters have been studied in the pyrolysis step: dwell time, the use of N2 (N2 flow, no N2 flow and not even to inert the reaction medium) and the solid bed material of the second reactor. In the oxidation step, temperature and time have been optimized by using the theory of experiments based on 2 k factorial design was used. It has been demonstrated that clean carbon fibers and a gaseous fraction with 75% by volume of H2 can be obtained. This is possible through a combined process of (1) CFRP thermal decomposition at 500 °C, (2) thermal treatment of gases and vapors at 900 °C in a solid bed tubular reactor filled with a waste refractory material and (3) oxidation of pyrolysis solid at 500 °C during 165 min in presence of 1.3 L air min-1.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Pirólise , Fibra de Carbono , Gases , Hidrogênio , Reciclagem
20.
Anal Methods ; 13(20): 2320-2330, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960336

RESUMO

Here, we provide evidence that functionalizing the carbon-fiber surface with amines significantly improves direct electrochemical adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). ATP is an important extracellular signaling molecule throughout the body and can function as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Several methods have been developed over the years to monitor and quantitate ATP signaling in cells and tissues; however, many of them are limited in temporal resolution or are not capable of measuring ATP directly. FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes is a widely used technique to measure neurotransmitters in real-time. Many electrode treatments have been developed to study the interaction of cationic compounds like dopamine at the carbon surface yet studies investigating how to improve anionic compounds, like ATP, at the carbon fiber surface are lacking. In this work, carbon-fibers were treated with N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) which reacts with carboxylic acid groups on the carbon surface followed by reaction with ethylenediamine (EDA) to produce NH2-functionalized carbon surfaces. Overall, we a 5.2 ± 2.5-fold increase in ATP current with an approximately 9-fold increase in amine functionality, as analyzed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, on the carbon surface was observed after modification with EDC-EDA. This provides evidence that amine-rich surfaces improve interactions with ATP on the surface. This study provides a detailed analysis of ATP interaction at carbon surfaces and ultimately a method to improve direct and rapid neurological ATP detection in the future.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina , Aminas , Carbono , Fibra de Carbono , Microeletrodos
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