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1.
Am J Public Health ; 109(7): 969-974, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095409

RESUMO

The recent lawsuits against Johnson & Johnson have raised the issue of what and when talcum powder manufacturers knew about the presence of asbestos in their products and what they did or did not do to protect the public. Low-level exposure to asbestos in talc is said to result in either mesothelioma or ovarian cancer. Johnson & Johnson has claimed that there was "no detectable asbestos" in their products and that any possible incidental presence was too small to act as a carcinogen. But what exactly does "nondetected" mean? Here, we examine the historical development of the argument that asbestos in talcum powder was "nondetected." We use a unique set of historical documents from the early 1970s, when low-level pollution of talc with asbestos consumed the cosmetics industry. We trace the debate over the Food and Drug Administration's efforts to guarantee that talc was up to 99.99% free of chrysotile and 99.9% free of amphibole asbestos. Cosmetic talc powder manufacturers, through their trade association, pressed for a less stringent methodology and adopted the term "nondetected" rather than "asbestos-free" as a term of art.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Talco/toxicidade , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 371: 1-2, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946862

RESUMO

Dr. Garabrant presented a paper concerning a comparison of asbestos fiber potency and elongate mineral particle (EMP) potency for mesothelioma in humans at the Elongate Mineral Particles Conference in Charlottesville, Virginia in 2017. I was a participant at the Conference. Following Dr. Garabrant's talk, I rose in question period to point out that he had not considered information about the occurrence of mesothelioma in several cohorts that was published after the studies that he cited. These additional data were still not addressed in the paper published in your Journal. I believe that your readers would be interested in these, so this letter is written to draw the additional data to their attention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Animais , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
Int J Occup Environ Med ; 9(1): 23-31, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29319052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational exposures to respirable synthetic vitreous fiber (SVF) and dust are associated with many lung diseases including lung cancer. Low-dose computed tomography is used for screening patients who are highly suspicious of having lung carcinoma. However, it seems not to be cost-effective. Serum biomarkers could be a useful tool for the surveillance of occupational exposure, by providing the possibility of diagnosing lung cancer in its early stages. OBJECTIVE: To determine if serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA) 21-1 levels in workers exposed more than normal population to respirable SVF and dust may be used as indicators of progression towards lung cancer. METHODS: An analytic cross-sectional study, including 145 personnel of a glass wool company, along with 25 age-matched healthy individuals, was conducted to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to respirable SVFs and dust and serum levels of two lung/pleura serum tumor markers, CEA and CYFRA 21-1, measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Individuals exposed to higher than the recommended levels of respirable SVF had higher serum concentrations of CEA and CYFRA 21-1, compared to controls (p=0.008 and 0.040, respectively), as well as in comparison to those exposed to lower than recommended OSHA levels (p=0.046 and 0.033, respectively). Workers with >9 years work experience, had significantly (p=0.045) higher levels of serum CYFRA 21-1 than those with ≤9 years of experience. CONCLUSION: It seems that working for >9 years in sites with detectable levels of respirable SVF and dust would increase the levels of known lung cancer serum tumor markers. Transferring these workers to sites with respirable SVF concentrations lower than the limit of detection in the air is recommended.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Poeira/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino
4.
J Immunotoxicol ; 15(1): 12-23, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237319

RESUMO

With the rapid development of synthetic alternatives to mineral fibers, their possible effects on the environment and human health have become recognized as important issues worldwide. This study investigated effects of four fibrous materials, i.e. nanofibrillar/nanocrystalline celluloses (NCF and CNC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and crocidolite asbestos (ASB), on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses found in the lungs, as well as the effects on spleen and peripheral blood immune cell subsets. BALB/c mice were given NCF, CNC, CNT, and ASB on Day 1 by oropharyngeal aspiration. At 14 days post-exposure, the animals were evaluated. Total cell number, mononuclear phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and LDH levels were significantly increased in ASB and CNT-exposed mice. Expression of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was quite different in mice exposed to four particle types, as well as expression of antigen presentation-related surface proteins on BAL cells. The results revealed that pulmonary exposure to fibrous materials led to discrete local immune cell polarization patterns with a TH2-like response caused by ASB and TH1-like immune reaction to NCF, while CNT and CNC caused non-classical or non-uniform responses. These alterations in immune response following pulmonary exposure should be taken into account when testing the applicability of new nanosized materials with fibrous morphology.


Assuntos
Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Celulose/química , Imunidade Celular , Pulmão/imunologia , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Pneumonia/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Materiais Biomiméticos/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Celulose/efeitos adversos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Nanoestruturas/efeitos adversos , Nanotubos de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia/etiologia , Aspiração Respiratória , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2
5.
J Immunotoxicol ; 15(1): 24-28, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29241379

RESUMO

Fluoro-edenite (FE) is an asbestiform mineral fiber spotted in the lava rocks excavated from a stone quarry in Biancavilla (Italy). The derived material had been employed locally for building purposes. Previous studies found evidence that exposure to asbestos may induce autoimmunity, with frequency of anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA). The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between FE exposure and autoimmune responses in an exposed population. For the study, 60 subjects living in the area of Biancavilla and 60 subjects as control group were randomly invited to participate. A free medical check, including spirometry and a high-resolution computer tomography chest scan, was given to all participants. ANA were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. On medical check, no subject showed any sign and/or symptoms of illness. Prevalence for samples positive to ANA were 70% (n = 42) and 25% (n = 15), respectively, for exposed and non-exposed subjects (p < 0.05). The presence of pleural plaques (PP) was found in 21 (30%) of the exposed subjects and in 2 (3%) of the non-exposed participants. PP subjects were always ANAs positive. In conclusion, as already it was observed with exposure to asbestos fibers, levels of ANA seemed to significantly increase in subjects who had been exposed to FE. Furthermore, all subjects showing PP were also ANA-positive. This first finding in subjects exposed to FE should encourage researchers to further investigate associations between autoimmune unbalance and environmental exposure to asbestiform fibers.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/sangue , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Pulmão/imunologia , Doenças Pleurais/epidemiologia , Adulto , Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/imunologia , Prevalência , Espirometria
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 66(8): 214-218, 2017 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28253224

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma is a neoplasm associated with occupational and environmental inhalation exposure to asbestos* fibers and other elongate mineral particles (EMPs) (1-3). Patients have a median survival of approximately 1 year from the time of diagnosis (1). The latency period from first causative exposure to malignant mesothelioma development typically ranges from 20 to 40 years but can be as long as 71 years (2,3). Hazardous occupational exposures to asbestos fibers and other EMPs have occurred in a variety of industrial operations, including mining and milling, manufacturing, shipbuilding and repair, and construction (3). Current exposures to commercial asbestos in the United States occur predominantly during maintenance operations and remediation of older buildings containing asbestos (3,4). To update information on malignant mesothelioma mortality (5), CDC analyzed annual multiple cause-of-death records† for 1999-2015, the most recent years for which complete data are available. During 1999-2015, a total of 45,221 deaths with malignant mesothelioma mentioned on the death certificate as the underlying or contributing cause of death were reported in the United States, increasing from 2,479 deaths in 1999 to 2,597 in 2015 (in the same time period the age-adjusted death rates§ decreased from 13.96 per million in 1999 to 10.93 in 2015). Malignant mesothelioma deaths increased for persons aged ≥85 years, both sexes, persons of white, black, and Asian or Pacific Islander race, and all ethnic groups. Despite regulatory actions and the decline in use of asbestos the annual number of malignant mesothelioma deaths remains substantial. The continuing occurrence of malignant mesothelioma deaths underscores the need for maintaining measures to prevent exposure to asbestos fibers and other causative EMPs and for ongoing surveillance to monitor temporal trends.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 7: 44862, 2017 03 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332562

RESUMO

Once penetrated into the lungs of exposed people, asbestos induces an in vivo biomineralisation process that leads to the formation of a ferruginous coating embedding the fibres. The ensemble of the fibre and the coating is referred to as asbestos body and is believed to be responsible for the high toxicological outcome of asbestos. Lung tissue of two individuals subjected to prolonged occupational exposure to crocidolite asbestos was investigated using synchrotron radiation micro-probe tools. The distribution of K and of elements heavier than Fe (Zn, Cu, As, and Ba) in the asbestos bodies was observed for the first time. Elemental quantification, also reported for the first time, confirmed that the coating is highly enriched in Fe (~20% w/w), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicated that Fe is in the 3+ oxidation state and that it is present in the form of ferritin or hemosiderin. Comparison of the results obtained studying the asbestos bodies upon removing the biological tissue by chemical digestion and those embedded in histological sections, allowed unambiguously distinguishing the composition of the asbestos bodies, and understanding to what extent the digestion procedure altered their chemical composition. A speculative model is proposed to explain the observed distribution of Fe.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/patologia , Calcinose/metabolismo , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos
8.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 11(5): 419-425, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28276807

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The presence of asbestos fibres (AFs) in drinking water could be linked with gastrointestinal cancers. However, it is not regulated in several countries due to conflicting evidence. Areas covered: Some reports mainly associated AF ingestion with gastric and colorectal cancer. Experimental evidence suggested a role for timing and extent of exposure, and showed that ingested AFs induce toxic effects on the stomach, ileum and colon, histological alterations and negative effects at a molecular level, cross the placenta and enter foetal organs (including the liver), and seem able to act as a co-carcinogen agent. Occupational studies suggest associations between asbestos exposure and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and observations exist indicating the possibility that AFs could enter the liver and bile through enteric absorption. Expert commentary: A risk threshold (AF concentration in drinking water) for digestive cancers has not been convincingly identified so far and regulations, where adopted, have weak scientific basis and may not be adequate. With further and more definitive studies, evidence might become sufficient to justify monitoring plans, persuade countries with no current limits to set a maximum level of AFs in drinking water and might induce a revision of the existing legislations, pointing to efficient primary prevention policies.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Epidemiol Prev ; 40(6): 472-475, 2016.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27919155

RESUMO

The recent finding of asbestos fibres in drinking water (up to 700.000 fibres/litres) in Tuscany (Central Italy) leads to concerns about health risks in exposed communities. Exposure to asbestos has been linked with cancer at several levels of the gastrointestinal tract, and it has been documented, in an animal model, a direct cytotoxic effect of asbestos fibres on the ileum. It has been recently described a possible link between asbestos and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and asbestos fibres have been detected in humans in histological samples from colon cancer and in gallbladder bile. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility of an enterohepatic translocation of asbestos fibres, alternative to lymphatic translocation from lungs. In animal models, asbestos fibres ingested with drinking water act as a co-carcinogen in the presence of benzo(a) pyrene and, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC ), there is evidence pointing to a causal effect of ingested asbestos on gastric and colorectal cancer. The risk seems to be proportional to the concentration of ingested fibres, to the extent of individual water consumption, to exposure timing, and to the possible exposure to other toxics (i.e., benzo(a)pyrene). Furthermore, the exposure to asbestos by ingestion could explain the epidemiological finding of mesothelioma in subjects certainly unexposed by inhalation. In conclusion, several findings suggest that health risks from asbestos could not exclusively derive from inhalation of fibres. Health hazards might also be present after ingestion, mainly after daily ingestion of drinking water for long periods. In Italy, a systemic assessment of the presence of asbestos fibres in drinking water is still lacking, although asbestos-coated pipelines are widely diffused and still operating. Despite the fact that the existence of a threshold level for health risks linked to the presence of asbestos in drinking water is still under debate, the precautionary principle should impose all possible efforts in order to revise health policies concerning this topic, and a systematic monitoring of drinking water to quantify the presence of asbestos is certainly needed in all regions. Further epidemiological studies aimed to the identification of exposed communities and to an adequate health risk assessment in their specific geographical areas are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos , Água Potável/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/etiologia , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/prevenção & controle , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
10.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 26(1): 63-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242170

RESUMO

This study describes fibre size and type-specific airborne asbestos exposures in an asbestos product factory. Forty-four membrane filter samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy to determine the size distribution of asbestos fibres, by workshop. Fibre frequencies of bivariate (length by width) categories were calculated and differences between workshops were tested by analysis of variance. Data were recorded for 13,435 chrysotile and 1075 tremolite fibres. The proportions between size metrics traditionally measured and potentially biologically important size metrics were found to vary in this study from proportions reported in other cohort studies. One, common size distribution was generated for each asbestos type over the entire factory because statistically significant differences in frequency between workshops were not detected. This study provides new information on asbestos fibre size and type distributions in an asbestos factory. The extent to which biologically relevant fibre size indices were captured or overlooked between studies can potentially reconcile currently unexplained differences in asbestos-related disease (ARD) risk between cohorts. The fibre distributions presented here, when combined with similar data from other sites, will contribute to the development of quantitative models for predicting risk and our understanding of the effects of fibre characteristics in the development of ARD.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , China , Estudos de Coortes , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Occup Environ Med ; 73(5): 290-9, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26715106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have conducted a population-based study of pleural mesothelioma patients with occupational histories and measured asbestos lung burdens in occupationally exposed workers and in the general population. The relationship between lung burden and risk, particularly at environmental exposure levels, will enable future mesothelioma rates in people born after 1965 who never installed asbestos to be predicted from their asbestos lung burdens. METHODS: Following personal interview asbestos fibres longer than 5 µm were counted by transmission electron microscopy in lung samples obtained from 133 patients with mesothelioma and 262 patients with lung cancer. ORs for mesothelioma were converted to lifetime risks. RESULTS: Lifetime mesothelioma risk is approximately 0.02% per 1000 amphibole fibres per gram of dry lung tissue over a more than 100-fold range, from 1 to 4 in the most heavily exposed building workers to less than 1 in 500 in most of the population. The asbestos fibres counted were amosite (75%), crocidolite (18%), other amphiboles (5%) and chrysotile (2%). CONCLUSIONS: The approximate linearity of the dose-response together with lung burden measurements in younger people will provide reasonably reliable predictions of future mesothelioma rates in those born since 1965 whose risks cannot yet be seen in national rates. Burdens in those born more recently will indicate the continuing occupational and environmental hazards under current asbestos control regulations. Our results confirm the major contribution of amosite to UK mesothelioma incidence and the substantial contribution of non-occupational exposure, particularly in women.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Idoso , Amianto Amosita/efeitos adversos , Amianto Amosita/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbesto Crocidolita/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Asbestose/complicações , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/química , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/análise , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Medição de Risco
12.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 73(1): 425-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26253001

RESUMO

Exposure to synthetic mineral fibres (SMF) may occur in a number of workplace scenarios. To protect worker health, a number of different organisations worldwide have assessed the health risk of these materials and established workplace exposure limits. This paper outlines the basic principles of risk assessment and the scientific methods used to derive valid (justifiable) occupational exposure limits (OELs) and goes on to show how, for SMF, and particularly for refractory ceramic fibre (otherwise known as aluminosilicate wool, RCF/ASW), the methods used and the associated outcomes differ widely. It is argued that the resulting differences in established OELs prevent consistent and appropriate risk management of SMF worldwide, and that development of a transparent and harmonised approach to fibre risk assessment and limit-setting is required.


Assuntos
Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Silicatos de Alumínio , Animais , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos , Níveis Máximos Permitidos , Local de Trabalho
13.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 139(8): 1052-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230599

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Numerous articles in the scientific literature indicate that pathogenic fibers with respect to asbestos-related diseases are those that exceed 5 µm in length. Nonetheless, some authors have expressed concerns regarding pathogenicity of shorter fibers. OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific evidence regarding pathogenicity (or lack thereof) of fibers less than or equal to 5 µm in length, with particular attention to publications indicating that such fibers might be hazardous. DATA SOURCES: The scientific literature was reviewed for experimental animal studies and human studies that address the role of fiber size in causation of disease. Sources included original studies, as well as review articles related to the topic. CONCLUSIONS: Experimental animal studies involving inhalation of fibers have demonstrated that fibers greater than 5 µm in length are associated with both pulmonary fibrosis (ie, asbestosis) and malignancies (carcinoma of the lung and mesothelioma). There is no convincing evidence for a pathogenic effect for fibers that are 5 µm or less in length. Fiber analyses of human lung tissue samples provide further support for pathogenicity of long fibers, particularly the more biopersistent amphibole fibers. Similar observations have been reported for nonasbestos mineral fibers. Concerns expressed by some authors (eg, the greater abundance of short fibers) do not alter these conclusions. Similarly, in vitro studies demonstrating biological activity of short fibers do not override inhalational studies of whole animals or the epidemiological findings in humans.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Fibras Minerais/classificação
15.
New Solut ; 25(2): 172-88, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910492

RESUMO

This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress.


Assuntos
Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Pintura/normas , Responsabilidade Social , Asbestos/história , Asbestos/envenenamento , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/história , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/história , Aquecimento Global/história , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Indústrias/história , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias/normas , Conhecimento , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/história , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/história , Pintura/história , Pintura/envenenamento , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Má Conduta Científica/história , Má Conduta Científica/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/história , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/legislação & jurisprudência
16.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 20(4): 366-70, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24811832

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The word asbestos is a poorly attributed term, as it refers to two very different minerals with very different characteristics. One is the serpentine mineral of which the white asbestos, chrysotile, is the most common. The other is the amphibole asbestos, which includes the blue asbestos crocidolite and the brown asbestos amosite. Although today chrysotile is the only type used commercially, the legacy of past use of amphibole asbestos remains. This review clarifies the differences between the two mineral families referred to as asbestos and summarizes the scientific basis for understanding the important differences in the toxicology and epidemiology of these two minerals. RECENT FINDINGS: Biopersistence and sub-chronic inhalation toxicology studies have shown that exposure to chrysotile at up to 5000 times the current threshold limit value (0.1 fibers/cm) produces no pathological response. These studies demonstrate as well that following short-term exposure the longer chrysotile fibers rapidly clear from the lung and are not observed in the pleural cavity. In contrast, short-term exposure to amphibole asbestos results quickly in the initiation of a pathological response in the lung and the pleural cavity. SUMMARY: Significant progress has been made in understanding the factors that influence inhalation toxicology studies of fibers and epidemiological studies of workers. Evaluation of the toxicology and epidemiology studies of chrysotile indicates that it can be used safely under controlled use. In contrast, even short-term exposure to amphibole asbestos can result in disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Amiantos Anfibólicos/toxicidade , Asbestos Serpentinas/toxicidade , Asbestose/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Amiantos Anfibólicos/análise , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Risco
17.
Contact Dermatitis ; 70(6): 351-60, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24684557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs) are used in products for insulation and as reinforcement in materials. Contamination of the skin may arise through direct or indirect contact, and from the deposition of airborne fibres. The scientific basis regarding the effects on skin of MMVFs dates from 1970-1980. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether currently used insulation MMVF products still cause skin discomfort. METHODS: Focus group interviews and structured interviews were performed among workers engaged in insulation tasks and among do-it-yourself consumers with a recent experience of MMVF products. RESULTS: A majority of interviewees experienced skin discomfort when handling MMVF products. Complaints caused by traditional (yellow) glass fibre products were more severe than those caused by products of rock or slag wool fibres. The wrists, forearms, neck and face were the locations where the skin was most affected. The situations causing problems varied between occupational tasks, but working with the hands over the head or in narrow spaces were described as the worst situations. Building construction apprentices performed insulation tasks more often than senior workers. CONCLUSIONS: MMVF insulation products do still cause skin discomfort. Updated knowledge about people's experiences of work with such products should influence legislation.


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/efeitos adversos , Dermatite Irritante/etiologia , Dermatite Ocupacional/etiologia , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Compostos de Cálcio/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional , Projetos Piloto , Silicatos/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Occup Environ Med ; 71(5): 353-7, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24569623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asbestos is a known carcinogen. However, little is known about the differential effects of size-specific asbestos fibres. Previous research has examined the relationship with lung cancer of each fibre group in the absence of others. Attempts to model all fibre groups within a single regression model have failed due to high correlations across fibre size groups. METHODS: We compare results from frequentist models for individual fibre size groups, and a hierarchical Bayesian model that included all fibre groups to estimate the relationship of size-specific asbestos fibre groups to lung cancer mortality. The hierarchical model assumes partial exchangeability of the effects of size-specific asbestos fibre groups to lung cancer, and is capable of handling the strong correlation of the exposure data. RESULTS: When fibre groups are modelled independently with a frequentist model, there appears to be an increase in the dose-response with increasing fibre size. However, when subject to a hierarchical structure, this trend vanishes, and the effects of distinct fibre groups appear largely similar. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first occasion where distinct asbestos fibre groups have been assessed in a single regression model; however, even the use of a hierarchical modelling structure does not appear to overcome all the statistical fluctuations arising from the high correlations across fibre groups. We believe these results should be compared with other occupational cohorts with similar fibre group information. Finally, results for the smallest fibre group may be suggestive of a carcinogenic potential for nanofibres.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Tamanho da Partícula , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Nanofibras/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Indústria Têxtil
19.
Med Lav ; 105(1): 63-73, 2014.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24552095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Starting from a project aimed at assessing the carcinogenic risk in some industrial sectors covered by Local Health Authority No.1 (LHA) in Perugia (USL Umbria1, Italian acronym), worksites for abatement of materials containing asbestos (MCA) were examined in order to estimate respirable fibres exposure levels in workers. Abatement work is, indeed, a fast developing sector, but is not free from asbestos risks in the long-term, particularly carcinogenic risks; this kind of work therefore requires maximum effort in respecting prevention standards prescribed in the relative legislation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the research was to define the personal levels of exposure to respirable fibres and to create a reliable database for the interpretation of possible asbestos-related cases of neoplasms that may occur in the future in workers of this important occupational sector. METHODS: The authors took in consideration operations both on compact MCA and on friable MCA. In the case of compact MCA, exposure values measured by the LHA via their own sampling were compared to those measured by the companies involved in the project. In the case of friable MCA, however, sampling was only performed by the LHA and the assessment covered not only workers' exposure levels but also the pollution levels in the areas in the vicinity of the work site. RESULTS: In the case of compact MCA, results showed moderate average values of personal fibre exposure, and always considerably lower than the limit values (100 fibres/litre) prescribed by law (Legislative Decree 81/08); however, the average values detected by the LHA (15,8 fibres/litre) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those detected by companies (4,9 fibres/litre). In the case of friable MCA, however, average personal exposure values of workers (106,8 fibres/litre) were even higher than the limit values prescribed by current regulations, while in areas near the work sites, average fibre pollution levels (1,04 fibres/litre) were always very low and lacked significant variations (p > 0.05) during the different phases of work. CONCLUSIONS: According to the authors, the data collected show how in MCA abatement operations a carcinogenic risk in the long-term is in any case present, and this both in compact MCA work, where not all the prevention measures were accurately observed, and even more so, in friable MCA work, where average exposure levels of workers showed a heavy trend to exceed the above mentioned limit values. Considering the different evolution of the results of sampling carried out by the LHA and by the companies, the authors also highlight the need to provide mandatory technical guidelines for industrial hygiene laboratories so that sampling and analysis methods are as homogeneous as possible, thus making the results of research easily comparable.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Asbestos/análise , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Itália , Fibras Minerais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise
20.
Curr Opin Pulm Med ; 20(2): 194-8, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24452103

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Manufactured (artificial) fibers represent an important and continuously growing volume among substitutes to natural fibers. A major proportion of the population in an industrialized society has been, is, or will be in contact with these fibers. The fibrous configuration of asbestos is well recognized as being an important parameter in toxicity, and now that of synthetic fibers is also suspected of inducing serious health effects on the respiratory system. There is an ongoing debate about the actual fibrogenic effect of these man-made mineral fibers (MMMFs) in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: Several case reports have demonstrated the biopersistance of MMMFs in the lung of workers who were exposed to rock wool or fiberglass for long periods of time and were diagnosed with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. A 20-year follow up also identified refractory ceramic fibers in workers' lung tissue, with significant association between cumulative fiber exposure and radiographic pleural changes. Newly emerging man-made fiber industries appear to induce new types of occupational diseases. SUMMARY: Exposure of workers in MMMFs production plants is correlated to high risk for developing pneumoconiosis. Large epidemiological studies are needed in order to determine dose metrics for risk assessment and management.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Pneumoconiose/fisiopatologia , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/imunologia , Cerâmica , Testes Imunológicos de Citotoxicidade , Vidro , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Manufaturas , Pneumoconiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumoconiose/imunologia , Radiografia , Medição de Risco
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