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1.
Neurol India ; 69(5): 1331-1337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747807

RESUMO

Background: Monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) has evoked mixed results for symptomatic relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). However, intraepidermal nerve-fiber density (IENFD) the gold standard for small-fiber neuropathy has not been evaluated. Objective: We assessed the IENFD, pain symptoms and quality of life (QoL) with MIRE therapy compared to placebo in painful DPN. Material and Methods: Participants with type 2 diabetes and painful DPN were randomized to receive MIRE or sham therapy dosed thrice a week for 12 weeks. Quantitative assessment of IENFD was performed from 3 mm skin punch-biopsy specimens at baseline and after 12 weeks. We also assessed the QoL with Norfolk QOL, symptom severity with visual analogue scale (VAS), and neuropathy assessment with Michigan neuropathy severity instrument and neuropathy disability score. Results: Thirty-eight participants were enrolled and 30 completed the study protocol. The mean age of participants in MIRE cohort was 59.1 ± 9.2 years, duration of diabetes 12.9 ± 3.1 years, and symptom duration of 3.9 ± 3.7 months. The mean IENFD was 0.90 ± 0.73/mm2 (P < 0.01) and 1.71 ± 1.11/mm2 in the MIRE cohort and 0.60 ± 0.89/mm2 and 2.17 ± 0.98/mm2 (P < 0.01) in sham cohort at baseline and after 3 months. The median decline in VAS was 5.1 (4.0-7.6) and 3.0 (0.4-5.6) points (intergroup difference, P = 0.01); and an increase in Norfolk QoL-DN by 15 (11-18) and 4 (4-14.2) points (intergroup difference, P = 0.021) in MIRE and sham cohort, respectively after 3 months. Conclusions: MIRE therapy does not increase IENFD over short-term usage. However, MIRE therapy provides symptomatic benefit and improves QoL in patients with painful DPN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Neuropatias Diabéticas/terapia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas , Medição da Dor , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(3): 176-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were compared between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases and healthy controls. METHOD: The study included adults diagnosed with ADHD based on the DSM-5 criteria and age and gender matched healthy controls. Spectral area optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on the 52 eyes of 26 participants with ADHD and the 52 eyes of the 26 healthy control individuals. RESULTS: Comparing the data on the 52 eyes of 26 ADHD participants and the 52 eyes of 26 healthy control participants indicated that the central macular thickness (CMT) and the RNFL thicknesses, the ganglion cell complex (GCC), the mean inner macular ring (MIRAVG) and the mean outer macular ring (MOR-AVG) thicknesses were significantly lower in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in the literature on the RNFL thickness in adult ADHD patients. Our findings demonstrated that RNFL thickness is lower in ADHD cases as the unmyelinated axons are reduced in ADHD. Hence, the quantitative and reproducible nature of Spectral Domain-OCT thickness measurements can be used as biomarkers to monitor disease progression in ADHD cases.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
3.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 391, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that attacks the central nervous system, with optic neuritis (ON) being a common early manifestation. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness may be a biomarker of neuroaxonal damage in MS patients. We sought to evaluate changes in RNFL thickness over 4 years in Omani MS patients with or without ON in comparison to a healthy control group. METHODS: This retrospective case-control study involved 27 MS patients and 25 healthy controls. Optical coherence tomography was performed upon first diagnosis and at a four-year follow-up. Differences in mean RNFL thickness were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 51 eyes from the MS group and 50 eyes from the control group were evaluated. There was a significant reduction in mean RNFL thickness among MS patients with ON at follow-up (81.21 versus 72.14 µm; P = .003), whereas no significant RNFL thinning was observed among MS patients without ON. However, there was a significant reduction in RNFL thickness among MS patients compared to healthy controls (76.79 versus 93.72 µm; P = .009), regardless of ON presence/absence. CONCLUSIONS: Axonal damage was seen in the optic nerves of Omani MS patients. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in RNFL thickness among MS patients with ON as the disease progressed; however, while there was evidence of RNFL thinning in MS patients without ON, this difference lacked statistical significance. Evaluation of RNFL thickness may represent a useful biomarker for monitoring disease progression in MS and its association with ON.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Neurite Óptica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Seguimentos , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Fibras Nervosas , Omã/epidemiologia , Neurite Óptica/diagnóstico , Neurite Óptica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
4.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(14): 4, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730793

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the retinal vascular response to hyperoxia in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Methods: This prospective study included 27 eyes in 27 patients with POAG and 14 eyes in 14 age- and sex-matched healthy participants. Retinal radial peripapillary capillary (RPC) perfusion was measured by OCTA before and after inhaling oxygen in all participants. Systemic hemodynamic variables were also examined and recorded before and after hyperoxia. Results: Hyperoxia significantly reduced the perfused vessel density (PVD) of RPCs in both healthy controls (baseline and hyperoxia: 54.2 ± 4.1 and 51.0 ± 4.4, respectively, P < 0.001) and patients with POAG (baseline and hyperoxia: 44.7 ± 6.1 and 43.2 ± 5.4, respectively, P = 0.001). However, the changes in peripapillary PVD between the two gas conditions in patients with POAG were significantly lower than in healthy controls, including both the absolute change (baseline-hyperoxia: 1.5 ± 2.0 and 3.2 ± 1.2, respectively, P = 0.006) and relative change (ratio of absolute change and baseline value: 3.0% ± 4.6% and 6.0% ± 2.4%, respectively, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Retinal microvasculature responds to hyperoxia by reducing RPC perfusion in both healthy participants and patients with POAG. However, this vasoreactivity capacity was significantly impaired in patients with POAG.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Hiperóxia/fisiopatologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Vasos Retinianos/fisiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
5.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1127-34, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628746

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) on distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury and expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa in ulcerative colitis (UC) mice at different time points. METHODS: A total of 51 C57BL/6N mice were randomized into a 7-day control group (n=8), a 7-day model group (n=7), a 7-day moxibustion group (n=7), a 14-day control group (n=6), a 14-day model group (n=14) and a 14-day moxibustion group (n=9). In the model groups and the moxibustion groups, 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was given for 7-day free drinking to establish the UC model. Three days into modeling, moxibustion was applied at "Zusanli" (ST 36) in the 7-day moxibustion group and the 14-day moxibustion group, once a day, 10 min a time for 5 days and 12 days respectively. HE staining was used to observe the morphology of colonic tissue, the percentages of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosal injury were calculated. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detected the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa. RESULTS: Mucosal injury can be observed in mice after modeling, displaying epithelial layer disappearance, abnormal crypt structure or crypt disappearance. Compared with the 7-day control group, colon length was shortened (P<0.001), percentages of overall, distal, middle colonic mucosal injury were increased (P<0.001), the expressions of positive nerve fibers of distal, middle and proximal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were increased (P<0.001, P<0.05, P<0.01) in the 7-day model group. Compared with the 7-day model group, the expressions of positive nerve fibers of middle and distal colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa were decreased in the 7-day moxibustion group (P<0.05). Compared with the 14-day control group, the colon length was shortened (P<0.01), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was increased (P<0.001) in the 14-day model group. Compared with the 14-day model group, colon length was lengthened (P<0.05), percentage of overall colonic mucosal injury was decreased (P<0.05) in the 14-day moxibustion group. CONCLUSION: Moxibustion at "Zusanli" (ST 36) can reduce the expressions of positive nerve fibers of colonic mucosa and CGRP positive nerve fibers of distal colonic mucosa, thus, improve the colonic mucosal injury.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Moxibustão , Animais , Calcitonina , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Colite Ulcerativa/terapia , Mucosa Intestinal , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fibras Nervosas
6.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 3, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605876

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present normative data of optical coherence tomography (OCT), electrophysiological, and ocular biometry parameters and their correlation in minipigs. Methods: Eighty-eight eyes of 44 minipigs underwent full-field electroretinogram (ERG) recording and ocular biometry. However, 10 eyes of 6 minipigs were excluded because of poor OCT image quality. The thickness of the retinal sublayers was measured on a vertical line at 5 locations with a 1 mm interval from the disc margin to the dorsal periphery and at 10 locations on the visual streak. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were measured in 15 eyes of 8 minipigs. Results: All minipigs were female with a mean age and axial length of 13.83 ± 10.56 months and 20.33 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. The implicit time of the a-wave and b-wave in scotopic 3.0 ERGs was longer than that in photopic 3.0 ERG. The implicit time of the n2-wave and p2-wave in VEP was 25.67 ± 7.41 ms and 52.96 ± 10.38 ms, respectively. The total retinal layer (TRL) and nerve fiber layer (NFL) became thinner near the periphery. The inner retinal sublayers near the visual streak were thicker than those at other locations. Central TRL and NFL thickness on visual streak was 223.06 ± 23.19 µm and 74.03 ± 13.93 µm, respectively. The temporal TRL and NFL on the visual streak were thicker than those on the nasal side. Conclusions: The normative electrophysiological and OCT parameters used in our study can be used as reference data in further pig studies. Translational Relevance: This study presents normative data of minipigs, which are adequate animal models for preclinical studies.


Assuntos
Eletrorretinografia , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
7.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 1, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605878

RESUMO

Purpose: To introduce and evaluate the performance in detecting glaucomatous abnormalities of a novel method for extracting en face slab images (SMAS), which considers varying individual anatomy and configuration of retinal nerve fiber bundles. Methods: Dense central retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were acquired in 16 participants with glaucoma and 19 age-similar controls. Slab images were generated by averaging reflectivity over different depths below the inner limiting membrane according to several methods. SMAS considered multiple 16 µm thick slabs from 8 to 116 µm below the inner limiting membrane, whereas 5 alternative methods considered single summary slabs of various thicknesses and depths. Superpixels in eyes with glaucoma were considered abnormal if below the first percentile of distributions fitted to control data for each method. The ability to detect glaucoma defects was measured by the proportion of abnormal superpixels. Proportion of superpixels below the fitted first percentile in controls was used as a surrogate false-positive rate. The effects of slab methods on performance measures were evaluated with linear mixed models. Results: The ability to detect glaucoma defects varied between slab methods, χ2(5) = 120.9, P < 0.0001, with SMAS showing proportion of abnormal superpixels 0.05 to 0.09 greater than alternatives (all P < 0.0001). No slab method found abnormal superpixels in controls. Conclusions: SMAS outperformed alternatives in detecting abnormalities in eyes with glaucoma. SMAS evaluates all depths with potential retinal nerve fiber bundle presence by combining multiple slabs, resulting in greater detection of reflectance abnormalities with no increase in surrogate false positives. Translational Relevance: SMAS may be used to objectively detect glaucoma defects in en face optical coherence tomography images.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Doenças Retinianas , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
8.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(5. Vyp. 2): 231-237, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669332

RESUMO

The term systemic amyloidosis unites a group of diseases with a single pathogenetic mechanism involving diffuse deposition of a pathological fibrillar protein (amyloid) in the intercellular space of various organs. Among the systemic forms of amyloidosis, light chain amyloidosis (AL-amyloidosis) occurs most often in clinical practice, while transthyretin amyloidosis (TTR-amyloidosis) is its most common hereditary form. Laser corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) allows for in vivo and non-invasive assessment of the state of corneal nerve fibers (CNF). PURPOSE: To assess the state of CNF in systemic amyloidosis by confocal microscopy data obtained in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The main study group included 16 patients (6 men and 10 women, mean age 60.5±11.6 years) with morphologically confirmed primary AL-amyloidosis, and 14 patients (5 men and 9 women, mean age 59.4±11.3 years) with genetically and morphologically confirmed hereditary TTR-amyloidosis. The control group included 23 healthy volunteers of the same age range without any neurological pathologies. The state of CNF was assessed by in vivo CCM data recorded on the HRT III system and its consequently processing using authors' self-developed program Liner 1.2. The criteria for neuropathy intensity was the degree of CNF tortuosity characterized by coefficients of anisotropy (KΔL) and symmetry (Ksym) of CNF orientation. RESULTS: According to the NIS scale, the manifestations of neuropathy in the subgroup of patients with TTR-amyloidosis were significantly more pronounced compared to AL-amyloidosis patients. The severity of clinical manifestations of neuropathy did not depend on the duration of TTR-amyloidosis and AL-amyloidosis (Spearman R rs=0.21, p=0.58 and rs= -0.49, p=0.055, respectively). Changes in the quantitative indicators (a decrease in the anisotropy coefficient and an increase in the symmetry coefficient of the fibers orientation) confirm increased tortuosity of CNF in systemic amyloidosis. CONCLUSION: The clinical picture of systemic amyloidosis is characterized by polymorphism of neurological manifestations that include various symptoms of damage to the peripheral somatic and autonomic nervous system. In vivo CCM can be used to reveal qualitative and quantitative changes in CNF in patients with systemic amyloidosis. However, statistical unreliability of the identified quantitative changes allows considering the state of CNF in amyloidosis only as a component of the disease monitoring algorithm, but not as a biomarker of the disease.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares , Fibras Nervosas , Idoso , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/complicações , Neuropatias Amiloides Familiares/diagnóstico , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638865

RESUMO

Neuronal morphological changes in the epidermis are considered to be one of causes of abnormal skin sensations in dry skin-based skin diseases. The present study aimed to develop an in vitro model optimised for human skin to test the external factors that lead to its exacerbation. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons (hiPSC-SNs) were used as a model of human sensory neurons. The effects of chemical substances on these neurons were evaluated by observing the elongation of nerve fibers, incidence of blebs (bead-like swellings), and the expression of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyl transferase 2 (NMNAT2). The nerve fiber length increased upon exposure to two common cosmetic preservatives-methylparaben and phenoxyethanol-but not to benzo[a]pyrene, an air pollutant at the estimated concentrations in the epidermis. Furthermore, the incidence of blebs increased upon exposure to benzo[a]pyrene. However, there was a decrease in the expression of NMNAT2 in nerve fibers, suggesting degenerative changes. No such degeneration was found after methylparaben or phenoxyethanol at the estimated concentrations in the epidermis. These findings suggest that methylparaben and phenoxyethanol promote nerve elongation in hiPSC-SNs, whereas benzo[a]pyrene induces nerve degeneration. Such alterations may be at least partly involved in the onset and progression of sensitive skin.


Assuntos
Bioensaio , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Etilenoglicóis/farmacocinética , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas , Parabenos/farmacologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Fibras Nervosas/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Nicotinamida-Nucleotídeo Adenililtransferase/biossíntese , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/patologia
10.
Turk Psikiyatri Derg ; 32(3): 176-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were compared between adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases and healthy controls. METHOD: The study included adults diagnosed with ADHD based on the DSM-5 criteria and age and gender matched healthy controls. Spectral area optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed on the 52 eyes of 26 participants with ADHD and the 52 eyes of the 26 healthy control individuals. RESULTS: Comparing the data on the 52 eyes of 26 ADHD participants and the 52 eyes of 26 healthy control participants indicated that the central macular thickness (CMT) and the RNFL thicknesses, the ganglion cell complex (GCC), the mean inner macular ring (MIRAVG) and the mean outer macular ring (MOR-AVG) thicknesses were significantly lower in the ADHD group. CONCLUSION: This is the first study in the literature on the RNFL thickness in adult ADHD patients. Our findings demonstrated that RNFL thickness is lower in ADHD cases as the unmyelinated axons are reduced in ADHD. Hence, the quantitative and reproducible nature of Spectral Domain-OCT thickness measurements can be used as biomarkers to monitor disease progression in ADHD cases.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
11.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 10(12): 16, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34647964

RESUMO

Purpose: Early detection of structural changes in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and corresponding changes in visual function is important in early degenerative diseases of the retina, but the sensitivity of both measurements is limited by the inherent variability in healthy subjects. This study investigates the relationships between RGC-related layer thicknesses and foveal and parafoveal flicker modulation sensitivity (FMS) across photopic and mesopic light levels in healthy subjects. Methods: Photopic and mesopic FMS was measured in 56 young adults, at the point of fixation and at an eccentricity of 5 degrees, in each of the four quadrants. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used to measure retinal thicknesses. Relationships between foveal and parafoveal FMS and the retinal thickness in the corresponding region were examined after adjusting for confounding variables. Results: Total macular and inner retinal layer (IRL) thicknesses in the parafoveal ring were significant predictors of photopic (P = 0.034) and mesopic (P = 0.034) parafoveal FMS, respectively. The superior peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness was a contributing factor to the inferior parafoveal FMS (photopic: P = 0.006 and mesopic: P = 0.021) and the inferior pRNFL thickness was also a contributing factor to the superior parafoveal FMS (photopic: P < 0.001 and mesopic: P = 0.015). Conclusions: The pRNFL thicknesses predict parafoveal FMS for both mesopic and photopic conditions in healthy eyes. Translational Relevance: The measurement of rapid flicker sensitivity in the parafoveal retina together with the pRNFL thickness profiles measured before the onset of disease, may provide a more sensitive biomarker for detecting loss of sensitivity caused by the earliest neurodegenerative changes in the eyes.


Assuntos
Disco Óptico , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
12.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 27, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705024

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the presence of choroidal microvascular dropout (MvD) in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) eyes and to characterize the topographical distribution for the mechanistic interpretation of MvD development. Methods: We performed optical coherence tomography angiography on 47 open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and 19 NAION eyes with ß-zone peripapillary atrophy (ßPPA). We recorded the presence of MvD and compared between the peripapillary topographical measures of MvD, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect, and ßPPA in angular width and location. Results: MvD was present in both diseases, marginally more frequently in NAION eyes (19/19, 100.0%) than in OAG eyes (38/47, 80.6%, P = 0.050), without a discernable difference in appearance. NAION eyes also showed wider MvD and RNFL defects compared to OAG eyes (both P < 0.001). In topographical measurements, the distribution of MvD showed a strong correspondence to superimposition areas of ßPPA and RNFL defects, more distinctly than to RNFL defects (all P < 0.001). The outline of superimposition area also remarkably resembled the MvD area. Conclusions: MvD was present in both the OAG and NAION groups. The ßPPA-RNFL defect superimposition area topographically and morphologically matched MvD. Further investigations are needed to elucidate the role of RNFL defects in the pathogenesis of MvD and the clinical significance.


Assuntos
Corioide/irrigação sanguínea , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Microvasos/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/diagnóstico , Vasos Retinianos/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Glaucoma/complicações , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico/patologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/etiologia , Neuropatia Óptica Isquêmica/fisiopatologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Campos Visuais
13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 2, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34605879

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) soma density and capillary density in glaucomatous eyes. Methods: Six glaucoma subjects with known hemifield defects and 6 age-matched controls were imaged with adaptive optics - optical coherence tomography (AO-OCT) at 6 locations: 3 degrees, 6 degrees, and 12 degrees temporal to the fovea above and below the midline. GCL soma density and capillary density were measured at each location. Coefficients of determination (pseudo R2) and slopes between GCL soma and capillary density were determined from mixed-effects regressions and were compared between glaucoma and control subjects, between more and less affected hemifield in subjects with glaucoma, and between subjects with early and moderate glaucoma, both in a local, bivariate model and then a global, multivariable model controlling for eccentricity and soma size. Results: The global correlation between GCL soma and capillary density was stronger in control versus subjects with glaucoma (R2 = 0.59 vs. 0.22), less versus more affected hemifields (R2 = 0.55 vs. 0.01), and subjects with early versus moderate glaucoma subjects (R2 = 0.44 vs. 0.18). When controlling for eccentricity and soma size, we noted an inverse soma-capillary density local relationship in subjects with glaucoma (-388 ± 190 cells/mm2 per 1% change in capillary density, P = 0.046) and more affected hemifields (-602 ± 257 cells/mm2 per 1% change in capillary density, P = 0.03). Conclusions: An inverted soma-capillary density local relationship in areas affected by glaucoma potentially explains weaker global correlations observed between GCL soma and capillary density, suggesting cell-vessel mismatch is associated with the disease.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Densidade Microvascular/fisiologia , Disco Óptico/irrigação sanguínea , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/patologia
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 62(13): 9, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643665

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate differences by sex in the neuroretina of rats with chronic glaucoma over 24 weeks of follow-up, and to assess by sex the influence on neurodegeneration of different methods of inducing ocular hypertension. Methods: Forty-six Long-Evans rats-18 males and 28 females-with induced chronic glaucoma were analyzed. Glaucoma was achieved via 2 models: repeatedly sclerosing the episcleral veins (9 male/14 female) or by injecting poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres measuring 20 to 10 µm (Ms20/10) into the anterior chamber (9 male/14 female). The IOP was measured weekly by tonometer; neuroretinal function was recorded by dark/light-adapted electroretinography at baseline and weeks 12 and 24; and structure was analyzed by optical coherence tomography using the retina posterior pole, retinal nerve fiber layer and ganglion cell layer protocols at baseline and weeks 8, 12, 18, and 24. Results: Males showed statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher IOP in both chronic glaucoma models, and greater differences were found in the episcleral model at earlier stages. Males with episclerally induced glaucoma showed a statistically higher increase in retinal thickness in optical coherence tomography recordings than females and also when comparing Ms20/10 at 12 weeks. Males showed a higher percentage of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness loss in both models. Ganglion cell layer thickness loss was only detected in the Ms20/10 model. Males exhibited worse dark/light-adapted functionality in chronic glaucoma models, which worsened in the episcleral sclerosis model at 12 weeks, than females. Conclusions: Female rats with chronic glaucoma experienced lower IOP and structural loss and better neuroretinal functionality than males. Sex and the ocular hypertension-inducing method influenced neuroretinal degeneration.


Assuntos
Glaucoma/complicações , Degeneração Retiniana/etiologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Eletrorretinografia , Feminino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Degeneração Retiniana/diagnóstico , Degeneração Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
15.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685754

RESUMO

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive nervous system disease that causes motor neuron (MN) degeneration and results in patient death within a few years. To recapitulate the cytopathies of ALS patients' MNs, SOD1G85R mutant and corrected SOD1G85G isogenic-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines were established. Two SOD1 mutant ALS (SOD1G85R and SOD1D90A), two SOD1 mutant corrected (SOD1G85G and SOD1D90D), and one sporadic ALS iPSC lines were directed toward MNs. After receiving ~90% purity for MNs, we first demonstrated that SOD1G85R mutant ALS MNs recapitulated ALS-specific nerve fiber aggregates, similar to SOD1D90A ALS MNs in a previous study. Moreover, we found that both SOD1 mutant MNs showed ALS-specific neurite degenerations and neurotransmitter-induced calcium hyperresponsiveness. In a small compound test using these MNs, we demonstrated that gastrodin, a major ingredient of Gastrodia elata, showed therapeutic effects that decreased nerve fiber cytopathies and reverse neurotransmitter-induced hyperresponsiveness. The therapeutic effects of gastrodin applied not only to SOD1 ALS MNs but also to sporadic ALS MNs and SOD1G93A ALS mice. Moreover, we found that coactivation of the GSK3ß and IGF-1 pathways was a mechanism involved in the therapeutic effects of gastrodin. Thus, the coordination of compounds that activate these two mechanisms could reduce nerve fiber cytopathies in SOD1 ALS MNs. Interestingly, the therapeutic role of GSK3ß activation on SOD1 ALS MNs in the present study was in contrast to the role previously reported in research using cell line- or transgenic animal-based models. In conclusion, we identified in vitro ALS-specific nerve fiber and neurofunctional markers in MNs, which will be useful for drug screening, and we used an iPSC-based model to reveal novel therapeutic mechanisms (including GSK3ß and IGF-1 activation) that may serve as potential targets for ALS therapy.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/patologia , Mutação/genética , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Animais , Axônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Axônios/patologia , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Ácido Glutâmico/farmacologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Degeneração Neural , Neuritos/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 24(10): 683-689, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665008

RESUMO

Visual field defect caused by glaucoma seriously affects the quality of life of patients, and clinically, this type of visual field defect has been considered to be irreversible. The aim of this study is to use binocular virtual reality training (VR training) to repair visual field defect in glaucoma patients, improve the quality of life of patients, and provide a new therapeutic strategy for the rehabilitation of glaucoma. Seventy glaucoma patients (median 56, range 15-84 years) were recruited and divided into control and training groups. Fifty-four patients' data were analyzed. The training group (n = 30) received binocular VR training for 3 months. The control group (n = 24) maintained the conventional treatment without any other intervention. Their visual field index (VFI) and mean defect (MD), and retinal nerve fiber layer average thickness (RNFL) and ganglion cell layer average thickness (GCL) average thickness before training and during followup were analyzed. In the training group, the VFI value (Z = 3.277; p = 0.001) and MD value (Z = 3.913; p < 0.0001) were significantly improved after 1 month of training. After 3 months of training, the VFI value (Z = 3.761; p < 0.0001) and MD value (Z = 3.133; p = 0.002) were significantly improved. There was no significant difference with the changes of average thickness of RNFL (p = 0.350) and GCL average (p = 0.383) after 3 months of training; whereas in the control group, except for a further reduction in GCL average thickness (Z = 3.158; p = 0.002) compared with the baseline data, the other followup data were not statistically significant compared with the baseline data. Our data suggested that binocular VR training can significantly improve the visual field defect of glaucoma patients but warrants further study with large sample size. Clinical Trail registration number: ChiCTR1900027909.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Realidade Virtual , Glaucoma/terapia , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Qualidade de Vida , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Campos Visuais
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5491, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620856

RESUMO

Many neuron types consist of populations with continuously varying molecular properties. Here, we show a continuum of postsynaptic molecular properties in three types of neurons and assess the functional correlates in cerebellar unipolar brush cells (UBCs). While UBCs are generally thought to form discrete functional subtypes, with mossy fiber (MF) activation increasing firing in ON-UBCs and suppressing firing in OFF-UBCs, recent work also points to a heterogeneity of response profiles. Indeed, we find a continuum of response profiles that reflect the graded and inversely correlated expression of excitatory mGluR1 and inhibitory mGluR2/3 pathways. MFs coactivate mGluR2/3 and mGluR1 in many UBCs, leading to sequential inhibition-excitation because mGluR2/3-currents are faster. Additionally, we show that DAG-kinase controls mGluR1 response duration, and that graded DAG kinase levels correlate with systematic variation of response duration over two orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate that continuous variations in metabotropic signaling can generate a stable cell-autonomous basis for temporal integration and learning over multiple time scales.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebelar/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Animais , Córtex Cerebelar/citologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp/métodos , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/antagonistas & inibidores , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Xantenos/farmacologia
18.
J Int Med Res ; 49(10): 3000605211050791, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and macular thicknesses, included ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thickness, in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). METHODS: This was a retrospective, nonrandom, observational case series study. Comprehensive ophthalmic examinations and systemic examinations were performed. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography scanning was used to measure peripapillary RNFL thickness and macular volume. RESULTS: In total, 108 eyes in 54 patients with SIH were evaluated; these were compared with 108 eyes in 54 healthy controls. The mean ages were 38.2 ± 9.4 years (patients with SIH) and 38.9 ± 9.4 years (healthy controls). In both groups, 33 patients were women (61.1%). The peripapillary RNFL and GCIPL were thinner in patients with SIH than in healthy controls (100.08 ± 9.94 µm vs 104.83 ± 8.35 µm and 81.46 ± 5.67 µm vs 85.67 ± 4.57 µm, respectively). Among patients with SIH, the GCIPL was thinner in patients with visual field defects (79.81 ± 5.62 µm vs 82.39 ± 5.12 µm). CONCLUSIONS: The RNFL and GCIPL were thinner in patients with SIH than in healthy controls. The GCIPL was thinner in eyes with visual field defects among patients with SIH.


Assuntos
Hipotensão Intracraniana , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
19.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 328, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes in quadrant and clock-hour sectors by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on forty-one PACG patients (41eyes) and twenty-seven healthy subjects (27 eyes). All subjects underwent OCTA (DRI OCT Triton; Topcon Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness imaging with swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). The peripapillary vessel density of quadrant and clock-hour sectors was quantified by imageJ software. The diagnostic capability of OCTA and OCT parameters was evaluated by the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (AUCs). Pearson correlation analysis or Spearman correlation test was used to evaluate the correlation between vessel density parameters and related factors. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the peripapillary vessel density of glaucomatous group was lower to different degrees in the four quadrants and each clock-hour sectors, and vessel density reduced most at 7 o'clock. The difference between the diagnostic ability of peripapillary vessel density and peripapillary RNFL thickness was not statistically significant, except 4 o'clock and inferior quadrant. The inferior quadrant peripapillary vessel density had the best diagnostic value (AUC0.969), followed by the 7 o'clock vessel density (AUC0.964), average vessel density (AUC0.939) and the 7 o'clock RNFL thickness (AUC0.919). The average peripapillary vessel density was correlated with average RNFL and visual field (VF) mean deviation (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In PACG, the diagnostic ability of the peripapillary vessel density is equivalent to the peripapillary RNFL thickness. Understanding spatial characteristics of the peripapillary vessel density in PACG may be helpful for clinical diagnosis and monitoring the progress of diseases.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Angiografia , Estudos Transversais , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521167

RESUMO

Objective: To study the oropharyngeal sensory function by Current Perception Threshold(CPT) detection, to explore the detection method of oropharyngeal sensory function in normal population, and to analyze the possible influencing factors. Methods: Fifty-eight normal subjects were included prospectively in this study. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI) were collected. The age of the subjects ranged from 20 to 76 (43.27±13.52) years old. There were 34 females with 17 in childbearing period and 17 in menopause; and 24 males were included.In all the cases, 6 cases were in low BMI, 39 cases were in normal BMI, 10 cases were overweight and 3 cases were suffering from obesity. The CPT system of Neurometer was used to stimulate bilateral palatoglossal arch and tongue base.The current used was 2000 Hz, 250 Hz and 5 Hz respectively.The function of type Aß, Aδ and C sensory nerve fibers were tested and the CPT values were recorded.The values were inversely proportional to pharyngeal sensation function.To evaluate the oropharyngeal sensory function of the subjects, the CPT values of each frequency at each testing point were compared. SPSS 25.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The CPT value of palatoglossal arch was significantly lower than that of tongue base (t=-2.58,-2.65,-2.54,-2.47,-2.37,-2.77,P<0.05), 2 000 Hz>250 Hz>5 Hz, and there was no significant difference between left and right sides(t=-0.03,-0.51,-0.49,0.06,-0.16,0.13,P>0.05). The CPT value of male was slightly higher than that of female (t=0.92,1.55,0.27,0.78,1.44,1.26,0.35,0.77,1.27,0.24,0.78,0.96,P>0.05). The CPT values of women in childbearing period were significantly less than those in menopausal women (t=-3.90,-3.64,-2.14,-4.20,-4.28,-4.28,-3.52,-4.46,-3.41,-3.63,-4.66,-2.86,P<0.05). The CPT value increased with age, and the values of all frequency of 20 to 30 years old group was significantly lower than those of subjects over 40 years old at each point (The t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 2 000 Hz were -5.57,-6.22,-10.18,-11.00;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 250 Hz were -6.39,-8.79,-6.39,-15.61;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 5 Hz were -7.09, -5.57, -9.26, -15.23;the t values of tongue base at 2 000 Hz were -3.11,-3.88,-7.60,-8.55;the t values of tongue base at 250 Hz were -6.31,-10.59,-8.52,-10.60;the t values of tongue baseat 5 Hz were -6.69,-5.09,-8.70,-7.07,P<0.05).The values at all frequencies and testing points of 30-40 years old group were significantly lower than those of all subjects over 60 years old (The t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 2 000 Hz were -10.91,-12.42;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 250 Hz were -6.25,-10.87;the t values of bilateral palatoglossal arch at 5 Hz were -5.53,-11.01;the t values of tongue base at 2 000 Hz were -8.62,-10.12;the t values of tongue base at 250 Hz were -6.89,-7.82;the t values of tongue base at 5 Hz were -6.13,-6.48,P<0.05). Conclusions: CPT can be used to evaluate oropharyngeal sensory function. The sensitivity of tongue base is lower than that of palatoglossal arch, there is no significant difference in oropharyngeal sensory function between male and female,between left and right sides. There are many factors influencing oropharyngeal sensory function. Age, hormone level changes may affect the sensitivity of oropharyngeal sensory function.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas , Sensação , Adulto , Idoso , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Faringe , Limiar Sensorial , Adulto Jovem
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