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1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1836-1839, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018357

RESUMO

Measuring neural activity from well-defined neural populations deep inside the brain has an important value in neuroscience. Fiber photometry is an important technique for evaluating neuron activity inside the brain. Besides, miniature wireless systems to record neuronal activity in a fully untethered experimental setting have recently become extremely interesting for experimenters. Still, a noise-robust wireless fiber photometry system for this purpose does not exist. Using an isosbestic excitation wavelength for recording with GCaMP6 has recently been suggested to reduce the different types of noises. We present the design of a wireless fiber photometry system at 470 nm for calcium-dependent fluorescence emission of GCaMP6 using a calcium-independent isosbestic excitation wavelength of 410 nm. Synthetic emission fluorescence light was played from a function generator to drive an LED at 530 nm at test the photometry platform. The setup has been fixed at 4.18 mW light power after linearity assessment while the analog circuit has THD of 0.35%. Then, the recorded synthetic neuronal activity was transmitted wirelessly to the base station. Finally, the isosbestic response has been aligned and removed from the calcium-dependent fluorescence signal to have a noiseless neuronal activity.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fotometria , Animais , Encéfalo , Laxantes , Neurônios
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22266, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational hyperinsulinism is a metabolic disease which is widely concerned at home and abroad. It is a clinical consensus that the embryo implantation ability of patients with hyperinsulinemia is decreased and the abortion rate after implantation is high. The treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism with Multiple dietary fiber diets has been proven. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or recommendation, it is necessary to carry out a systematic evaluation of Multiple dietary fiber diet, to provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched from their inception to August 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Nature, Science online, Chinese Biomedical Database WanFang, VIP medicine information, and CNKI. Primary outcomes: Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin. Additional outcomes: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), total serum cholesterol (TC). Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews (SR) of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Multiple dietary fiber diet interventions in the treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism. CONCLUSION: The SR of this study will summarize the current published evidence of Multiple dietary fiber for the treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism, which can further guide the promotion and application of it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a SR, the outcomes are based on the published evidence, so examination and agreement by the ethics committee are not required in this study. We intend to publish the study results in a journal or conference presentations. OPEN SCIENCE FRA NETWORK (OSF) REGISTRATION NUMBER: August 19, 2020. osf.io/tbc7z. (https://osf.io/tbc7z).


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Complicações na Gravidez/dietoterapia , Glicemia/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
3.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4373-4376, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018964

RESUMO

A new multi-material polymer fiber electrode has been developed for smart clothing applications. The conductive fiber is optimized for bipotential measurements such as surface electromyogram (sEMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG). The main benefit of this fiber is its flexibility and being a dry and non-obtrusive electrode. It can be directly integrated into a garment to make a smart textile for real time biopoten-tial monitoring. A customized wireless electronic system has been developed to acquire electrophysiological signal from the fiber. The receiver base station is connected to a PC host running Matlab. The multi-material polymer fiber electrode recording setting were first optimized in length and inter-electrode distance by recording different sEMG signals. The typical sEMG signal to noise ratio ranges from 19.1 dB to 33.9 dB depending on the geometry. These value are comparable with those obtained with Ag/AgCl electrodes and dry electrode-base commercial system such as Delsys Trigno. The frequency domain analysis obtained from the power spectral density reveals that the new flexible fiber-electrode enables high sEMG signals recording quality while being suitable for integration in smart clothing fabric. A muscle fatigue analysis and ECG recording are also presented in this study. The multi-material polymer fiber electrodes demonstrate a viable solution for sEMG and ECG data acquisition.


Assuntos
Polímeros , Têxteis , Fibras na Dieta , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletrodos
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(3): e20190650, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876139

RESUMO

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of inclusion levels of dietary fiber in the Japanese quail diets. 480 Japanese quail were distributed in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and 12 replicates composed of 8 birds each. The treatments were constituted by five increasing levels of fiber in the diet: 2.78; 3.08; 3.38; 3.68; 3.98%. The parameters of productive performance, water consumption, egg quality, total lipids in the egg, excreta humidity, weight of digestive organs and intestinal morphology were evaluated. There was no significant effect of the use of different fiber levels on feed intake, egg production, viability, live weight, relative and absolute weight of gizzard, small intestine and cecum, and in excreta moisture of Japanese quais. Higher dietary fiber levels resulted in improvements in feed conversion per mass and per dozen eggs and higher water consumption. There was no significant difference for egg quality, except fot the color of the yolk where it was observed higher pigmentation of this structure with higher levels of fiber inclusion, and the lipid concentration in the buds was influenced in a quadratic manner. The inclusion of fiber promoted improvement in the villi of the duodenum and cecum.


Assuntos
Coturnix , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0229841, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946470

RESUMO

Starch based gluten-free bread (formulations containing mixture of corn and potato starch with hydrocolloids) are deficient in nutrients and do not contain health promoting compounds. Therefore they could be supplemented with raw materials rich in such components, especially antioxidants. Among them pseudo-cereals, seeds, fruits and vegetables are often applied to this purpose. Potato pulp produced by processing red fleshed (Magenta Love) and purple fleshed (Violetta) varieties could become a new innovative substrate for gluten-free bread enrichment, because of high levels of endogenous polyphenols, namely flavonoids, flavonols, phenolic acids and especially anthocyanins with high antioxidant potential, as well as dietary fiber. Study material consisted of gluten-free bread enriched in the pulp. Dietary fiber, acrylamide content and antioxidant and antiradical potential of the bread were determined. Sensory evaluation included crumb elasticity, porosity and other characteristics, taste and smell. Among all analyzed gluten-free breads, the sample containing 7.5% share of freeze-dried red potato pulp Magenta Love was characterized by high content of phenolic compounds and dietary fiber, pronounced antioxidant activity, low levels of potentially dangerous acrylamide and good physical and sensory characteristics. Therefore such an addition (7.5% Magenta Love) could be recommended for industrial production of gluten-free bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Farinha/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Solanum tuberosum/química , Verduras/química , Acrilamida/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Glutens/imunologia , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Polifenóis/análise , Porosidade , Olfato , Amido/isolamento & purificação , Paladar
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD011625, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postpartum constipation, with symptoms, such as pain or discomfort, straining, and hard stool, is a common condition affecting mothers. Haemorrhoids, pain at the episiotomy site, effects of pregnancy hormones, and haematinics used in pregnancy can increase the risk of postpartum constipation. Eating a high-fibre diet and increasing fluid intake are usually encouraged. Although laxatives are commonly used in relieving constipation, the effectiveness and safety of available interventions for preventing postpartum constipation should be ascertained. This is an update of a review first published in 2015. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of interventions for preventing postpartum constipation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, and two trials registers ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (7 October 2019), and screened reference lists of retrieved trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any intervention for preventing postpartum constipation versus another intervention, placebo, or no intervention in postpartum women. Interventions could include pharmacological (e.g. laxatives) and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g. acupuncture, educational and behavioural interventions). Quasi-randomised trials and cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion; none were identified. Trials using a cross-over design were not eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the results of the search to select potentially relevant trials, extracted data, assessed risk of bias, and the certainty of the evidence, using the GRADE approach. We did not pool results in a meta-analysis, but reported them per study. MAIN RESULTS: We included five trials (1208 postpartum mothers); three RCTs and two quasi-RCTs. Four trials compared a laxative with placebo; one compared a laxative plus a bulking agent versus the same laxative alone, in women who underwent surgical repair of third degree perineal tears. Trials were poorly reported, and four of the five trials were published over 40 years ago. We judged the risk of bias to be unclear for most domains. Overall, we found a high risk of selection and attrition bias. Laxative versus placebo We included four trials in this comparison. Two of the trials examined the effects of laxatives that are no longer used; one has been found to have carcinogenic properties (Danthron), and the other is not recommended for lactating women (Bisoxatin acetate); therefore, we did not include their results in our main findings. None of the trials included in this comparison assessed our primary outcomes: pain or straining on defecation, incidence of postpartum constipation, or quality of life; or many of our secondary outcomes. A laxative (senna) may increase the number of women having their first bowel movement within 24 hours after delivery (risk ratio (RR) 2.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.24 to 3.75; 1 trial, 471 women; low-certainty evidence); may have little or no effect on the number of women having their first bowel movement on day one after delivery (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.22; 1 trial, 471 women; very low-certainty evidence); may reduce the number of women having their first bowel movement on day two (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.45; 1 trial, 471 women; low-certainty evidence); and day three (RR 0.05, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.89; 1 trial, 471 women; low-certainty evidence); and may have little or no effect on the number of women having their first bowel movement on day four after delivery (RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.87; 1 trial, 471 women; very low-certainty evidence), but some of the evidence is very uncertain. Adverse effects were poorly reported. Low-certainty evidence suggests that the laxative (senna) may increase the number of women experiencing abdominal cramps (RR 4.23, 95% CI 1.75 to 10.19; 1 trial, 471 women). Very low-certainty evidence suggests that laxatives taken by the mother may have little or no effect on loose stools in the baby (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.16 to 2.41; 1 trial, 281 babies); or diarrhoea (RR 2.46, 95% CI 0.23 to 26.82; 1 trial, 281 babies). Laxative plus bulking agent versus laxative only Very low-certainty evidence from one trial (147 women) suggests no evidence of a difference between these two groups of women who underwent surgical repair of third degree perineal tears; only median and range data were reported. The trial also reported no evidence of a difference in the incidence of postpartum constipation (data not reported), but did not report on quality of life. Time to first bowel movement was reported as a median (range); very low-certainty evidence suggests little or no difference between the two groups. A laxative plus bulking agent may increase the number of women having any episode of faecal incontinence during the first 10 days postpartum (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.23; 1 trial, 147 women; very low-certainty evidence). The trial did not report on adverse effects of the intervention on babies, or many of our secondary outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to make general conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of laxatives for preventing postpartum constipation. The evidence in this review was assessed as low to very low-certainty evidence, with downgrading decisions based on limitations in study design, indirectness and imprecision. We did not identify any trials assessing educational or behavioural interventions. We identified four trials that examined laxatives versus placebo, and one that examined laxatives versus laxatives plus stool bulking agents. Further, rigorous trials are needed to assess the effectiveness and safety of laxatives during the postpartum period for preventing constipation. Trials should assess educational and behavioural interventions, and positions that enhance defecation. They should report on the primary outcomes from this review: pain or straining on defecation, incidence of postpartum constipation, quality of life, time to first bowel movement after delivery, and adverse effects caused by the intervention, such as: nausea or vomiting, pain, and flatus.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Laxantes/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Puerperais/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Defecação , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Laxantes/efeitos adversos , Períneo/lesões , Período Pós-Parto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760409

RESUMO

As the SARS-CoV-2 virus wreaks havoc on the populations, health care infrastructures and economies of nations around the world, finding ways to protect health care workers and bolster immune responses in the general population while we await an effective vaccine will be the difference between life and death for many people. Recent studies show that innate immune populations may possess a form of memory, termed Trained Immunity (TRIM), where innate immune cells undergo metabolic, mitochondrial, and epigenetic reprogramming following exposure to an initial stimulus that results in a memory phenotype of enhanced immune responses when exposed to a secondary, heterologous, stimulus. Throughout the literature, it has been shown that the induction of TRIM using such inducers as the BCG vaccine and ß-glucan can provide protection through altered immune responses against a range of viral infections. Here we hypothesize a potential role for ß-glucan in decreasing worldwide morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, and posit several ideas as to how TRIM may actually shape the observed epidemiological phenomena related to COVID-19. We also evaluate the potential effects of ß-glucan in relation to the immune dysregulation and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Ultimately, we hypothesize that the use of oral ß-glucan in a prophylactic setting could be an effective way to boost immune responses and abrogate symptoms in COVID-19, though clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment and to further examine differential effects of ß-glucan's from various sources.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645008

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
10.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 57(2): 144-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adequate fiber intake is associated with digestive health and reduced risk of several noncommunicable diseases and is recognized as essential for human health (World Health Organization, 2003). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a daily fiber consumption of ≥25 g, but previous studies observed a fiber intake in Brazil lower than recommended. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe fiber intake among adults in Brazil and also respondents' knowledge and perceptions about their fiber intake. METHODS: National online survey with community-dwelling Brazilian individuals. The survey was conducted during September 2018, using an online platform with closed-ended questions. A representative sample of Brazilian internet users stratified by sex, age, socioeconomic status and geographic region was adopted. Sample size was calculated using a 2% error margin and 95% confidence interval (n=2,000). Data was descriptively analyzed using measures of frequency, central tendency and dispersion. RESULTS: Sample included 2,000 individuals who were well-balanced in terms of sex (51.2% female), with mean age of 35.9 years (most represented age group was 35-54 years, 39.6%) and from all country geographic regions (49.4% from Southeast). A total of 69.7% of them consider their usual diet as healthy and 78.4% reported consuming fibers regularly. Fibers from natural sources are consumed at least once a day by 69.5% of the sample, while daily fiber supplements were reported by 29.9%. Absence of regular fiber intake was reported by 21.7% of respondents and the most common reason was "lack of knowledge about fiber sources" (39.3%). When informed about the food sources of each type of fiber (soluble and insoluble) and asked about the regular intake, only 2.5% answered that they do not consume any of them regularly (as opposed to 21.7% before receiving information about specific fiber sources). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that fiber intake in Brazil is probably insufficient with a high proportion of individuals reporting irregular or absent ingestion of fiber sources in their daily lives. Lack of knowledge about fiber sources and fiber types seems to play a role in this inadequate intake, highlighting the need for nutritional education to achieve healthy dietary patterns in the country.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 37164-37172, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32705554

RESUMO

In a previous study, a thermostable α-amylase-producing bacterium (designated HB23) was isolated from an Algerian hydrothermal spring. In the present study, the native strain was subjected to a statistical optimization aimed at enhancing the α-amylase production. To achieve this, thirteen factors have been studied, among which are cultural and nutritional parameters. Wheat bran, a by-product of the grain milling industry, was the factor that positively influenced α-amylase production. A modified L27 Taguchi design was used to screen these factors. Furthermore, a Box-Behnken matrix, supplemented by the use of response surface methodology (RSM), allowed for the identification of optimum levels of the following factors: a 1% inoculum size, 15 g/L soluble starch, 5 g/L wheat bran, and 1 g/L tryptone. Optimized conditions resulted in an amylolytic activity of 320 U/mL, which is a tenfold increase when compared with unoptimized production level. Phenotypical and molecular identification of strain HB23 revealed its close relationship to various Tepidimonas strains, specifically to Tepidimonas fonticaldi. The crude enzyme preparation turned out to be compatible with various laundry detergents and led to a substantial improvement in their washing performance. A comparison of the performance of the crude enzyme preparation with that of the commercial α-amylase (Termamyl® 300 L) highlights the potential of the HB23 enzyme as a bio-additive in detergent formulations.


Assuntos
Detergentes , alfa-Amilases , Burkholderiales , Fibras na Dieta , Amido
12.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620937170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600125

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1 is a 2019 novel coronavirus, which only in the European area has led to more than 300,000 cases with at least 21,000 deaths. This manuscript aims to speculate that the manipulation of the microbial patterns through the use of probiotics and dietary fibers consumption may contribute to reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune system response in COVID-19 infection. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Dieta , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127372, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615381

RESUMO

The physicochemical and physiological properties of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from bamboo shoots were investigated in present study. IDF showed better adsorption capacity than the corresponding SDF from the same species. Microstructure observation results indicated that the surface of IDF was porous, whereas the SDF was relatively flat and compact. The cholesterol-adsorption capacities of IDF and SDF from Fargesia spathacea were relatively higher than the other species. Both SDF and IDF from F. spathacea showed potential prebiotic effects, although the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium promotion effects of SDF were relatively stronger than IDF. Compared with control, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids in IDF and SDF supplement groups were increased by 1.28 and 0.71 folds, respectively. These results suggested that F. spathacea dietary fibers with strong cholesterol-adsorption activity and prebiotic potential, could be used as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods production.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Prebióticos , Fenômenos Químicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional/análise
14.
Food Chem ; 332: 127444, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653769

RESUMO

By-products of Belgian endive represent an interesting yet underutilised source of dietary fibre (DF). Dietary fibre concentrates (DFC) that are low in sugar and neutral in taste are sought by the food industry to increase DF content and improve texture in food products. The aim was to set up a biorefinery process to produce DFC from forced roots of Belgian endive (DFC-BE) and characterise the resulting product. As a control, non-treated forced roots powder (FRP-BE) was tested. Water extraction significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the content of sugars, phenolic acids (PA) and sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in DFC-BE. In contrast, total dietary fibre concentration (TDF) was higher in DFC-BE (81.82 g/100 g DW) in comparison to FRP-BE (49.04 g/100 g DW). DFC-BE offers an excellent water holding capacity (WHC) of 14.71 g water/g DW and a swelling capacity (SWC) of 23.46 mL water/g DW, suggesting possible use as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Bélgica , Alimento Funcional/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Verduras/química
15.
Food Chem ; 333: 127491, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659672

RESUMO

A cascade process for the sequential recovery of proteins and feruloylated arabinoxylan from wheat bran is proposed, involving a protein isolation step, enzymatic destarching and subcritical water extraction. The protein isolation step combining lactic acid fermentation and cold alkaline extraction reduced the recalcitrance of wheat bran, thus improving the total yields of the subsequent subcritical water extraction. The time evolution of subcritical water extraction of feruloylated arabinoxylan was compared at two temperatures (160 °C and 180 °C). Longer residence times enhanced the purity of target feruloylated arabinoxylans, whereas higher temperatures resulted in faster extraction at the expense of significant molar mass reduction. The radical scavenging activity of the extracted feruloylated arabinoxylans was preserved after the initial protein isolation step. This study opens new possibilities for the cascade valorization of wheat bran into enriched protein and non-starch polysaccharide fractions, which show potential to be used as functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Xilanos/química , Xilanos/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Alta , Peso Molecular
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614877

RESUMO

METHODS: A cross-over study within a split-plot design was performed using healthy (n = 10) and CKD cats [IRIS Stage 1 and 2; n = 10]. Cats were fed dry Prescription Diet® k/d® Feline with chicken, during a pre-trial period and then randomly assigned to two fiber treatments for 4 weeks each. Treatment foods were formulated similar to pre-trial food, with the exception that they contained 0.500% betaine, 0.586% oat beta glucan, and either 0.407% short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) fiber or 3.44% apple pomace. Both foods had similar crude fiber percent (2.0 and 2.1% for scFOS and apple pomace, respectively) whereas soluble fiber was 0.8 and 1.6%, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma metabolites separated cats based on health status. At baseline, cats with CKD had significantly higher circulating concentrations of creatinine, urea, and some microbial and host tryptophan metabolites including several indole sulfates and kynurenate. Healthy cats had higher concentrations of the antioxidant α-tocopherol after consuming apple pomace; alternatively, they had higher concentrations of inflammatory sphingolipid metabolites after consuming scFOS, but not after consuming apple pomace. The CKD cats had higher concentrations of the more oxidized glutathione metabolites after consuming apple pomace compared with scFOS, as well as higher concentrations of inflammatory sphingolipid metabolites after consuming apple pomace, but not scFOS. After consuming scFOS, CKD cats had lower concentrations of the phenolic uremic toxins guaiacol sulfate and 4-vinylphenol sulfate compared with after consuming apple pomace. At baseline, there were five significant microbiota OTU differences in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Overall, the OTUs in CKD cats were more resistant to change after feeding either fiber source. Counts of an unclassified genus in the family S24-7 in the order Bacteroidales (OTU 100296), were lower in CKD cats compared with healthy cats at baseline (P = 0.001), but increased after consumption of food containing scFOS (P = 0.006). Linear regression analysis showed that this genus had significant negative correlations with several microbial uremic toxins. None of the baseline differences in OTUs between healthy and CKD cats changed after CKD cats consumed food containing apple pomace. CONCLUSIONS: Health status impacts the influence of dietary fermentable fibers on the feline plasma metabolome and fecal microbiome. A more readily fermented fiber such as scFOS is preferable to apple pomace as a fiber source for cats with CKD.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Cross-Over , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 595-602, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat bran, nopal, and psyllium are examples of particulate, viscous and particulate, and viscous fibers, respectively, with laxative properties yet contrasting fermentability. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the fermentability of these fibers in vitro and their effects on intestinal function relevant to laxation in vivo using MRI. METHODS: Each fiber was predigested prior to measuring gas production in vitro during 48-h anaerobic incubation with healthy fecal samples. We performed a randomized, 3-way crossover trial in 14 healthy volunteers who ingested 7.5 g fiber twice on the day prior to study initiation and once with the study test meal. Serial MRI scans obtained after fasting and hourly for 4 h following meal ingestion were used to assess small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes, and T1 of the ascending colon (T1AC) as measures of colonic water. Breath samples for hydrogen analysis were obtained while patients were in the fasted state and every 30 min for 4 h following meal ingestion. RESULTS: In vitro, the onset of gas production was significantly delayed with psyllium (mean ± SD: 14 ± 5 h) compared with wheat bran (6 ± 2 h, P = 0.003) and was associated with a smaller total gas volume (P = 0.01). Prefeeding all 3 fibers for 24 h was associated with an increased fasting T1AC (>75% of values >90th centile of the normal range). There was a further rise during the 4 h after psyllium (0.3 ± 0.3 s P = 0.009), a fall with wheat bran (-0.2 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.02), but no change with nopal (0.0 ± 0.1 s, P = 0.2). SBWC increased for all fibers; nopal stimulated more water than wheat bran [AUC mean (95% CI) difference: 7.1 (0.6, 13.8) L/min, P = 0.03].Breath hydrogen rose significantly after wheat bran and nopal but not after psyllium (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both viscous and particulate fibers are equally effective at increasing colonic T1 over a period of 24 h. Mechanisms include water trapping in the small bowel by viscous fibers and delivery of substrates to the colonic microbiota by more fermentable particulate fiber. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03263065.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Psyllium/química , Água , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 603-612, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole grains and other foods containing fiber are thought to be inversely related to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether these associations reflect fiber or fiber source remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with CRC risk in the large NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC among 478,994 US adults, aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed using a self-administered FFQ at baseline in 1995-1996, and 10,200 incident CRC cases occurred over 16 y and 6,464,527 person-years of follow-up. We used 24-h dietary recall data, collected on a subset of participants, to evaluate the impact of measurement error on risk estimates. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, including folate, we observed an inverse association for intake of whole grains (HRQ5 vs.Q1 : 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.90; P-trend < 0.001), but not dietary fiber (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04; P-trend = 0.40), with CRC incidence. Intake of whole grains was inversely associated with all CRC cancer subsites, particularly rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). Fiber from grains, but not other sources, was associated with lower incidence of CRC (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96; P-trend < 0.001), particularly distal colon (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96; P-trend = 0.005) and rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.88; P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary guidance for CRC prevention should focus on intake of whole grains as a source of fiber.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grãos Integrais , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111558, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640331

RESUMO

Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and various infectious diseases; lately most notably COVID-19 have been in the front line of research worldwide. Although targeting different organs, these pathologies have common biochemical impairments - redox disparity and, prominently, dysregulation of the inflammatory pathways. Research data have shown that diet components like polyphenols, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibres as well as lifestyle (fasting, physical exercise) are important factors influencing signalling pathways with a significant potential to improve metabolic homeostasis and immune cells' functions. In the present manuscript we have reviewed scientific data from recent publications regarding the beneficial cellular and molecular effects induced by dietary plant products, mainly polyphenolic compounds and PUFAs, and summarize the clinical outcomes expected from these types of interventions, in a search for effective long-term approaches to improve the immune system response.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
20.
Food Chem ; 329: 127089, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516705

RESUMO

Schizophyllum commune VE_07 was produced in different culture media containing pine sawdust (PS), grape residue (GR), cotton cake (CC) and jatropha seed cake (JC). The content of phenolics and antioxidant activity were determined for the substrates and mushrooms produced. The content of ß-glucans and the composition of S. commune were also evaluated. The medium formulated with 94% grape residue enabled the highest values of yield, biological efficiency, and productivity. Mushrooms grown in this condition showed the highest value (13.14%) of ß-glucans. The contents of proteins and dietary fibre were 16.59% and 59.61%, respectively. Mushrooms grown in cotton cake showed the highest phenolic content (291.51 ± 1.83 mg GAE/ 100 g mushroom) and antioxidant activity (58.15 ± 0.86 DPPH % scavenging). The results obtained indicate that substrate composition affected the production of S. commune and its chemical composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Biocombustíveis , Schizophyllum/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Glucanos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Schizophyllum/química , Vitis/metabolismo
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