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1.
Food Chem ; 302: 125141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416000

RESUMO

Four jams were made using two wild species of Physalis spp., two containing seeds (P1WS and P2WS) and two without seeds (P1WHS and P2WHS). Physicochemical, nutraceutical and rheological properties of the jams were determined and a sensory evaluation made. P1WS and P2WS jams had lower carbohydrates contents, reducing sugars and calories, and higher fiber contents than P1WHS and P2WHS. The presence of seeds in the jams increased phenols and flavonoids. However, the seedless jams had better sensory acceptance. The dynamic rheological testing indicated a gel-like behavior (G'>G'') in whole jams. Also, shearing flow testing showed shear-thinning and thixotropic behaviors, which are shared characteristics with others fruit jams, such as mango or gabiroba. The presence of seeds in the jam affected directly yield stress, apparent viscosity, hysteresis area, and viscoelastic parameters, which were described in the sensory analysis as a "less desirable texture". The use of seeds from wild species of Physalis spp., increased the nutritional value of jam. However, it would be necessary to improve consumer acceptance through technological processes prior to marketing.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Physalis/química , Reologia , Sementes/química , Paladar , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/análise , Viscosidade
2.
Food Chem ; 302: 125332, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404871

RESUMO

Wheat bran (WB) was treated using xylanase and arabinofuranosidase from Thermotoga maritima and added to steamed breads on 15% flour weight basis. The antioxidant capacity and water and oil retention capacity of brans were increased while their soluble xylooligosaccharides and phenolic acids content were increased. Two enzymes treatment was found to be more effective in decreasing the resistance to extension, softening degree, water absorption and development time, and in increasing the extensibility, stability time, porosity and sensorial characteristics of the steamed breads. Two enzymes treatment had significantly (P < 0.05) greater specific volume, springiness and cohesiveness and lower crumb firmness, gumminess, chewiness than single enzyme treatment. All results highlighted that combination of xylanase and arabinofuranosidase can improve the degrees hydrolysis of WB and its soluble AX xylooligosaccharides produced, having a synergetic effect on the dough rheology and nutritional and quality characteristics of steamed bread.


Assuntos
Pão , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Hidrólise , Valor Nutritivo , Reologia , Vapor , Paladar , Triticum
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12761-12769, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675233

RESUMO

There is convincing evidence that consuming whole grains (WGs) may decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Wheat bran (WB) is a rich source of dietary fiber and phytochemicals with health-promoting properties. However, the active components especially the interaction between different components in WG wheat have not been fully explored. Here, we investigated whether one of the major WB phytochemicals, alkylresorcinol (AR) C21, and the major active intestinal microbial metabolite of fiber, butyrate, could synergistically suppress human colon cancer cells. Our results demonstrated for the first time that the combination of C21 and butyrate synergistically inhibited the growth of human colon cancer cells and induced apoptosis. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the cotreatment of C21 and butyrate induced significant up-regulations in cleaved Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), cleaved caspase 3, p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), cytochrome C, lipid-conjugated membrane-bound form of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3-II), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expressions, indicating the synergistic anticancer effects of C21 and butyrate were associated with induction of apoptosis, autophagy, and ER stress pathways. Notably, the C21 concentrations in the large intestinal tract of mice treated with human relevant doses of C21, were from 0.86 to 1.78 µmol/g, suggesting the C21 doses used in vitro may be achievable after daily WG wheat intake. These results provide novel insights into the dietary prevention of CRC regarding the potential interaction of bioactive WG wheat phytochemicals and the microbial metabolites of fiber.


Assuntos
Butiratos/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Resorcinóis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/microbiologia , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Resorcinóis/química
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12796-12805, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659898

RESUMO

Whole-grain dietary fiber is rich in bound-form phenolics, and the biological activity of this special structural feature has attracted increasing attention. In this study, rice bran dietary fiber (RBDF) was subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation to investigate the liberation of bound phenolics and their potential activities. Bound phenolics were released at a higher ratio during colonic fermentation (27.57%) than gastrointestinal digestion (2.68%). Nine phenolic compounds were detected from the fermentation supernatants. The released phenolics showed radical scavenging activity (DPPH and ABTS assays) and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19.11 µg GAE/mL). Compared with phenolics-removed RBDF (PR-RBDF), RBDF had a significantly stronger prebiotic effect on the microbes associated with diabetes (Lactobacillus spp., Akkermansia muciniphila, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii). These findings indicate that bound phenolics may act as important functional components that could contribute to the health benefits of whole-grain dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Prebióticos/análise , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Oryza/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
5.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(4): 601-605, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect and mechanism of wheat bran fiber on lipid metabolism in ApoE~(-/-)mice fed a high fat diet. METHODS: Twenty 7-week-old male ApoE~(-/-)mice were randomly divided into two groups and fed either a high fat diet as AS model group or a high fat diet adding 0. 8% wheat bran fiber as W-fiber group. And five C57 BL/6 mice with the same genetic background were used as control group. After 18 weeks feeding, HE staining were performed for atherosclerotic lesions from transverse section of the aorta and hepatic histological examination. Liver homogenate total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG)and free fatty acids(FFAs)were analyzed. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions involved in hepatic lipid metabolism, including sterol regulatory element binding protein 1(SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase(FAS), acetyl-coA carboxylase(ACC), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2(SREBP-2), low-density lipoproteins receptor(LDLR) and scavenger receptor B1(SR-B1). RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, compared with control group, atherosclerotic plaque of the aorta and hepatic steatosis was obvious in the mice of AS model group, and wheat bran fiber alleviated the area of atheromatous plaque and hepatic lipid accumulation. Compared with AS model group, wheat bran fiber decreased liver homogenate TC level((60. 56±13. 49) µmol/g vs. (51. 10±5. 94) µmol/g)(P<0. 05), reduced protein expression of SREBP-1, FAS and ACC(P<0. 05), increased protein expression of SREBP-2SR-B1(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: Taken together, wheat bran fiber can delay the occurance of AS by regulating the related protein expressions involved in lipid metabolism and improving hepatic lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1 , Triglicerídeos , Triticum
6.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(3): 251-255, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580563

RESUMO

Trends in dietary nutrition and their personalization are progress in medical science and point out the necessity of adaptation and development of innovations in health system. The main objective of this article is to review the role of dietary fibre as prebiotics in nutrition with different functionality, its influence on modulation of intestinal microbiota, which has an essential role in maintenance of healthy organisms in people of all ages.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009710, 2019 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. A previous version of this review was not able to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS and recommended that further high quality RCTs were conducted to explore the clinical and cost effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review: 1. Clinical homeopathy where a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition; 2. Individualised homeopathic treatment, where a homeopathic remedy based on a person's individual symptoms is prescribed after a detailed consultation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic treatment for IBS. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialised Register and trials registers from inception to 31 August 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies that compared homeopathic treatment with placebo, other control treatments, or usual care, in adults with IBS were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was global improvement in IBS as measured by an IBS symptom severity score. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, abdominal pain, stool frequency, stool consistency, and adverse events. The overall certainty of the evidence supporting the primary and secondary outcomes was assessed using the GRADE criteria. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess risk of bias. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes and the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Four RCTs (307 participants) were included. Two studies compared clinical homeopathy (homeopathic remedy, asafoetida or asafoetida plus nux vomica) to placebo for IBS with constipation (IBS-C). One study compared individualised homeopathic treatment (consultation plus remedy) to usual care for the treatment of IBS in female patients. One study was a three armed RCT comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to supportive listening or usual care. The risk of bias in three studies (the two studies assessing clinical homeopathy and the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care) was unclear on most criteria and high for selective reporting in one of the clinical homeopathy studies. The three armed study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care and supportive listening was at low risk of bias in four of the domains and high risk of bias in two (performance bias and detection bias).A meta-analysis of the studies assessing clinical homeopathy, (171 participants with IBS-C) was conducted. At short-term follow-up of two weeks, global improvement in symptoms was experienced by 73% (46/63) of asafoetida participants compared to 45% (30/66) of placebo participants (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.18; 2 studies, very low certainty evidence). In the other clinical homeopathy study at two weeks, 68% (13/19) of those in the asafoetida plus nux vomica arm and 52% (12/23) of those in the placebo arm experienced a global improvement in symptoms (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.15; very low certainty evidence). In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care (N = 20), the mean global improvement score (feeling unwell) at 12 weeks was 1.44 + 4.55 (n = 9) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 1.41 + 1.97 (n=11) in the usual care arm (MD 0.03; 95% CI -3.16 to 3.22; very low certainty evidence).In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care, the mean IBS symptom severity score at 6 months was 210.44 + 112.4 (n = 16) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 237.3 + 110.22 (n = 60) in the usual care arm (MD -26.86, 95% CI -88.59 to 34.87; low certainty evidence). The mean quality of life score (EQ-5D) at 6 months in homeopathy participants was 69.07 (SD 17.35) compared to 63.41 (SD 23.31) in usual care participants (MD 5.66, 95% CI -4.69 to 16.01; low certainty evidence).For In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to supportive listening, the mean IBS symptom severity score at 6 months was 210.44 + 112.4 (n = 16) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 262 + 120.72 (n = 18) in the supportive listening arm (MD -51.56, 95% CI -129.94 to 26.82; very low certainty evidence). The mean quality of life score at 6 months in homeopathy participants was 69.07 (SD 17.35) compared to 63.09 (SD 24.38) in supportive listening participants (MD 5.98, 95% CI -8.13 to 20.09; very low certainty evidence).None of the included studies reported on abdominal pain, stool frequency, stool consistency, or adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results for the outcomes assessed in this review are uncertain. Thus no firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness and safety of homeopathy for the treatment of IBS can be drawn. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs are required to assess the efficacy and safety of clinical and individualised homeopathy for IBS compared to placebo or usual care.


Assuntos
Homeopatia/métodos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Constipação Intestinal/etiologia , Constipação Intestinal/terapia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 741-750, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426216

RESUMO

Hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial consortium that utilizes crude oil as carbon and energy source was isolated from marine sediment collected at a depth of 2100 m. Molecular characterization by 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that these isolates as Oceanobacillus sp., Nesiotobacter sp., Ruegeria sp., Photobacterium sp., Enterobacter sp., Haererehalobacter sp., Exiguobacterium sp., Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudoalteromonas sp. Self-immobilized consortium degraded more than 85% of total hydrocarbons after 10 days of incubation with 1% (v/v) of crude oil and 0.05% (v/v) of Tween 80 (non-ionic surfactant) at 28 ±â€¯2 °C. The addition of nitrogen and phosphorus sources separately i.e. 0.1% (v/v) of CO (NH2)2 or K2HPO4 enhanced the hydrocarbon utilization percentage. The pathways of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons were confirmed by FTIR, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy analyses. These results demonstrated a novel approach using hydrocarbonoclastic self-immobilized deep sea bacterial consortium for eco-friendly bioremediation.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/fisiologia , Petróleo/metabolismo , Acinetobacter/genética , Acinetobacter/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Células Imobilizadas , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Oceano Índico , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Pseudoalteromonas/genética , Pseudoalteromonas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/genética , Rhodobacteraceae/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6796-6805, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are excellent opportunities for greater incorporation into our diets of pulses, which are rich in proteins and dietary fibers, if their functional properties are modified to fit a wide range of applications in the food industry. The objective of this research was to produce high protein and fiber extrudates from yellow pea and red lentil flours using conventional and N2 gas injection assisted extrusion cooking methods. The effects of process variables on extrudate functional and thermal properties were also investigated. RESULTS: The cold viscosity of extrudates produced by N2 gas injection were higher than those produced by conventional extrusion, indicating that gas-assisted extrusion does affect the end-product pasting properties. At higher barrel temperatures (150-175 °C) extrudates did not exhibit any thermal transition in their thermograms, and thus their starches were completely gelatinized and proteins completely denatured during extrusion. In general, water solubility of extrudates produced by N2 gas injection was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those produced by conventional extrusion. Emulsion capacity and stability of yellow pea extrudates were in the range of 44-50% and 42-47%, respectively, and the counterpart values of red lentil extrudates were very similar (in the range of 43-47% and 43-46%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Nitrogen gas injection assisted extrusion cooking can be used practically in development of pulse extrudates which contain high protein and dietary fiber. This novel and innovative technique is a reliable alternative method to the conventional CO2 gas injection assisted extrusion cooking methods in the snack food and food ingredient industries. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Lens (Planta)/química , Ervilhas/química , Culinária/instrumentação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Temperatura Alta , Lathyrus , Nitrogênio/química , Viscosidade
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6850-6858, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transparent Testa8 (TT8) and Homeobox12 (HB12) are two transcriptional factors in plant phenylpropanoid pathways and were reported to be positively related to lignin content. Alfalfa with silenced TT8 (TT8i) and HB12 (HB12i) was therefore generated using the RNA interference (RNAi) technique. Although lignin was found to be high in HB12i, such gene-silencing of alfalfa resulted in nutrient profiles that might be suitable for grazing. To extend the nutritional evaluation of transformed alfalfa, ground samples of 11 HB12i, 5 TT8i and 4 wild type (WT) were incubated in rumen fluid : buffer solution for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h at 39 °C. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradations at each time point, and production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h were analyzed, as well as degradation and production kinetics. The correlations and regressions between nutritive profiles and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectral parameters were determined. RESULTS: Both transformed genotypes had lower DM degradation and HB12i had lower VFA production compared with WT. Structural carbohydrate (STC) parameters were found to be negatively correlated with DM degradation and VFA production. The kinetics of DM degradation and VFA production were predicted from spectral parameters with good estimation power. CONCLUSION: Silencing of HB12 and TT8 affected fermentation characteristics of alfalfa and some fermentation characteristics were predictable from spectral parameters using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Inativação Gênica , Medicago sativa/genética , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 301: 125304, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394335

RESUMO

Black rice is a variety of pigmented rice. It contains numerous nutritional and bioactive components, including essential amino acids, functional lipids, dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, γ-oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and phytic acid. There have been several studies of black rice due to its alleged beneficial health effects when consumed regularly. This review focuses on the historical aspects, chemical composition, and nutritional and functional properties of black rice. Furthermore, a discussion of the development of new foods and beverages with applications and processing technologies designed to improve their quality attributes. The nutritional value of black rice means that it has the potential to be used in the production of healthy foods and beverages, such as functional products and gluten-free cereals, thereby providing extra health benefits to consumers.


Assuntos
Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/fisiologia , Antocianinas/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Minerais/análise , Fenóis/análise , Tocoferóis/análise , Tocotrienóis/análise
12.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 76(3): 148-153, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465181

RESUMO

Introduction: It is recommended to limit the consumption of sodium to 2 g / day and consume 25 g / 2000 kcal of fiber. Baked and cookies are the key food-vehicle to achieve these recommendations. x Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of the optimal healthy bread with nutritional information in a breakfast, teatime or snack (DMC) in real consumption situation. Methodology: In the offices of the Faculty of Medicine, a tray was delivered with: infusions, sweeteners, milk powder, jams, healthy bread, commercial orange juice and nutritional information to be consumed by participants as DMC. 100 students, teachers and non-teachers performed the acceptance test of different components of the tray using a scale of 1 (dislike very much) to 10 (like very much), they answered demographic data, what was your DM C, amount of bread consumed and the price they would pay for it. Results: 43.4% consumed the tray for teatime. Most consumed infusion: coffee. 100% consumed the bread and 91% accompanied it with jam. The average value of acceptability was 8.57 ± 1.44 without significant differences by age, sex or Body Mass Index. 76% consumed at least 3/4. The average price they were willing to pay was $ 54.65 / kilo ±12.32 (reference French bread $ 50 / kilo). The average scores of acceptability were: 8.82±1.27 for presentation of the tray, 8.53±1.43 of the DMC consumed and 8.17±2 of the commercial orange juice. Conclusions: The acceptability of the bread in real situation of consumption was very good, being an effective strategy to reduce the ingestion of NaCl and increase the fiber.


Assuntos
Dieta Hipossódica/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Valor Nutritivo , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Pão , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento do Consumidor , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Microbiol Res ; 227: 126310, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421714

RESUMO

Deployment of plant endophytes at field level is reported to make an impact on agricultural crop productivity; development and deployment of suitable crop specific plant probiotics in a suitable delivery matrix is a value-added task. In our study, we attempted to develop bioformulations of native, fungal endophytes of Coleus forskohlii to improve plant yield using two different carrier-based materials (talc and wheat bran). Initially, fungal endophytes (RF1, SF1, and SF2) were grown on sterilized wheat bran under solid state condition and their growth kinetics and pattern were analyzed by ergosterol content and scanning electron microscope, respectively. 10-day-grown fungal endophytic cultures were used for the development of two types of formulations (wheat bran and talc-based formulations) and tested for their efficacy on host plant, C. forskohlii under field conditions. Interestingly, application of wheat bran-based endophytic formulations significantly (p < 0.01) enhanced plant height (12-29%), number of branches (51-63%), root biomass (26-33%), photosynthetic pigments (32-101%), and forskolin content (35-56%) compared to talc-based formulations under field conditions. Shelf life of endophytes (RF1, SF1, and SF2) in both formulations revealed spore viability in wheat bran-based formulations for 6 months storage period as compared to talc-based formulations. Overall, the present investigation envisages developing plant probiotic bioformulations of functional endophytes of C. forskohlii to enhance root biomass and in planta forskolin content.


Assuntos
Endófitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Endófitos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Plectranthus/microbiologia , Probióticos , Biomassa , Colforsina/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas , Fibras na Dieta/microbiologia , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Viabilidade Microbiana , Fotossíntese , Pigmentos Biológicos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Probióticos/economia
14.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190044, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432987

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several factors can lead to changes in dietary practices of the older adults; which contributes with nutritional recommendations not being met. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber consumption and to identify associated factors. METHODOLOGY: Population-based, cross-sectional study that used data from a health survey in the municipality of Campinas, SP, Brazil, held in 2008/2009, in which 1,509 individuals aged 60 or older were assessed. Food consumption was estimated through a 24-hour recall, and the prevalence of inadequacy was calculated according to the Institute of Medicine's cut-off point for total fiber (30 g/day for men and 21 g/day for women). Associated factors were identified using the hierarchical Poisson regression model to estimate the prevalence, adjusted for block distal (sociodemographic) and proximal variables (health and lifestyle indicators). RESULTS: Inadequate consumption was observed in 90.1% of the population, and after adjustments in the final model, this rate remained significantly higher among males (RP = 1.06), seniors with a partner (RP = 1.05), lower income (RP = 0.95), physically inactive (RP = 1.05) and those who would not like to change body weight (RP = 1.05). CONCLUSION: Considering that inadequacy of dietary fiber was very high, the whole 60-year-old or older population must be targeted for nutritional intervention in order to ensure adequate intake of this nutrient.


Assuntos
Inquéritos sobre Dietas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Meat Sci ; 157: 107883, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284235

RESUMO

The effects of sodium tripolyphosphate replacement with citrus fiber on color, texture, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of an alternatively-cured all-pork Bologna sausage during 98 d of storage at storage 0-1 °C were studied. Replacement of sodium phosphates in processed meat with citrus fiber could enable manufacturers to make their products more consistent with the current "clean label" trend. The Bologna sausage was assigned one of five treatments: sodium tripolyphosphate control (0.38%), no-sodium-tripolyphosphate control, or one of several citrus fiber levels (0.50%, 0.75%, 1.00%). Citrus fiber treatments resulted in Bologna sausage with acceptable technological parameters, as indicated by similar cook/chill yields and emulsion stability compared to the sodium tripolyphosphate control. The results showed the replacement of sodium tripolyphosphate with citrus fiber did not significantly alter most physical, chemical or sensory characteristics of the Bologna sausage during refrigerated storage.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Fosfatos/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta , Aditivos Alimentares , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Humanos , Polifosfatos/química , Suínos
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(9): 3636-3647, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260524

RESUMO

It was shown previously that high dietary fiber (DF) and immune system stimulation (ISS) with systemic Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide independently increased the threonine (Thr) requirement to maximize growth performance and protein deposition (PD). However, no additive effects on the Thr requirement were observed when both DF and ISS were present. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether supplementing Thr to meet previously estimated requirements for high DF and systemic immune challenge would maintain performance of pigs exposed to an enteric immune challenge when fed high DF. A total of 128 pigs (22.6 ± SD = 1.6 kg initial BW) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (n = 8 pens/treatment and 4 pigs/pen) for 28 d. Treatments were a low-fiber (LF; 13% total DF) or high-fiber (HF; 20% total DF) diet with either a standard (STD; 0.65% SID) or supplemental (SUP; 0.78% SID) Thr level. After a 7-d adaptation, pigs were orally inoculated with 2 mL (2.3 × 109 CFU/mL) of Salmonella typhimurium (ST). Blood samples and rectal swabs were obtained and rectal temperature recorded to determine clinical responses and ST shedding. On day 7 postinoculation, 1 pig/pen was euthanized and mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and digesta (ileum, cecum, and colon) were sampled to assess ST colonization and translocation. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on day 0, 7, and 21 postinoculation to calculate ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Rectal temperature increased (P < 0.05) 24 h postinoculation and remained elevated at day 6. Serum albumin concentration decreased (P < 0.05), whereas haptoglobin concentration increased (P < 0.05) postinoculation. There was no fiber or Thr effect (P > 0.05) on ST counts in the ileum and cecum, but a fiber × Thr interaction (P < 0.05) was observed in the colon. Supplemental Thr improved (P < 0.05) growth performance in LF- and HF-fed challenged pigs. However, performance of supplemented HF challenged pigs was less than (P < 0.05) supplemented LF challenged pigs. These results suggest that Thr supplemented to meet requirements for high DF and systemic immune challenge was not sufficient to maintain growth performance of pigs fed HF diets and challenged with an enteric pathogen.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Treonina/farmacologia , Animais , Derrame de Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/imunologia , Suínos/imunologia , Suínos/microbiologia
17.
Food Chem ; 299: 125115, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288161

RESUMO

The nutritional and antinutritional components of minor millets were correlated with mixolab dough mixing behavior and in vitro protein and starch digestibility. Total arabinoxylan (r = -0.53, p < 0.05) and dietary fiber (r = -0.66, p < 0.05) content significantly (p < 0.05) increased protein weakening. Peak viscosity negatively correlated with phenolic (r = -0.55, p < 0.05) content. The dietary fiber and phenolics suppressed retrogradation. Protein digestibility negatively correlated with tannin (r = -0.70, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = -0.69, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = -0.79, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = -0.72, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.84, p < 0.05). A positive correlation of resistant starch (RS) with total dietary fiber (r = 0.85, p < 0.05), phenolics (r = 0.89, p < 0.05), flavonoids (r = 0.83, p < 0.05), phytic acid (r = 0.43, p < 0.05) and tannin content (r = 0.79, p < 0.05) was observed. Millets predicted lower glycemic index than wheat and it was found to be negatively associated with the RS (r = -0.96, p < 0.05) and total dietary fiber content (r = -0.89, p < 0.05) and positively correlated (r = 0.98, p < 0.05) with rapidly digestible starch. The millets may be diversified for personalized nutrition and development of functional food.


Assuntos
Pão , Milhetes , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/farmacocinética , Amido/farmacocinética , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Índice Glicêmico , Milhetes/química , Panicum/química , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Reologia , Setaria (Planta)/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Viscosidade , Xilanos/análise
18.
Food Chem ; 299: 125117, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288164

RESUMO

This work evaluated nutritional and organoleptic properties of murta, a Chilean native berry, impregnated with Lactobacillus casei var. rhamnosus and dehydrated by different methods: freeze- (FD), convective- (CD) and vacuum- (VD) drying. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that L. casei localized at the peduncle and near the peduncle of the impregnated fruit. Murta enriched with probiotics contained higher L. casei viable counts after dehydration with FD compared to CD and VD methods. Overall, drying resulted in a decrease in crude fibre and phenolic compounds, which was attributed to L. casei metabolic activity suggesting that murta berries could act as prebiotics for L. casei. Among drying methods, L. casei enriched FD murta presented less alterations in the microstructure, less drying-induced damage and obtained a higher sensory acceptability score than CD and VD murta. Taken together, these results will contribute to the development of functional foods from regional products improving local economy.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Myrtaceae/química , Chile , Dessecação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Liofilização , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Myrtaceae/microbiologia , Fenóis/análise , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Sensação , Vácuo
19.
Food Chem ; 299: 125095, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279124

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2), a multifunctional signaling molecule, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the present study, hydrogen-rich water (HRW) (2 ppm) was used for the processing of sprouted black barley (Hordeum distichum L.), and the results showed that the HRW treatment could significantly increase the germination rate and growth rate of black barley (P < 0.05). A chemical component analysis showed that in sprouted black barley, the HRW treatment could change the distribution of phytochemicals (e.g., the ionic strength of guanosine), increase the concentrations of free vanillic acid, coumaric acid, sinapic acid, conjugated sinapic acid, Ca and Fe and the hydroxyl radical scavenging rate, and decrease the protein, fat, starch and dietary fibre contents compared with the results obtained after treatment with ultra-pure water (P < 0.05). HRW can be used for the processing of sprouted grains to effectively increase their germination efficiency and concentrations of bioactive phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Hordeum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Radical Hidroxila/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/análise , Água/química , Água/farmacologia
20.
Food Chem ; 299: 125092, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280001

RESUMO

The health-promoting functions of fruit phenolic compounds are mainly attributed to their metabolites. The organic cultivation of fruits is becoming increasingly popular. Thus, this study evaluates whether the differences in red Grenache grapes derived from organic culture conditions influence the bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds in rats. Organic and nonorganic (conventional) red Grenache grapes (OG and CG, respectively) were characterized and administered to Wistar rats (65 mg gallic acid equivalents/kg bw). Serum was recollected at different time points, and the phenolic metabolites were quantified by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. The results showed that organic cultivation increased the oligomeric proanthocyanidin and anthocyanidin contents and decreased the content of free flavanols and dietary fiber. The serum profile of OG-administered rats showed higher metabolite concentrations at 2 h and reduced metabolite concentration at 24 h compared with the CG-administered rats. Thus, this particular serum kinetic behavior might influence the bioactivity of their phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Agricultura Orgânica , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Vitis/química , Animais , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Masculino , Fenóis/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Proantocianidinas/análise , Proantocianidinas/farmacocinética , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
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