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1.
Food Chem ; 402: 134494, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36303372

RESUMO

The non-covalent interactions between protein and polysaccharide have the potential to design responsive materials. In this study, soy protein isolate fiber/soy soluble polysaccharide (SPIF/SSPS) non-covalent complex was used to create an emulsion, and the pH-response performance was evaluated by investigating their microstructure, interfacial properties, and stability at pH values of 2.0-10.0. The SPIF/SSPS complex was relatively stable at pH 2.0 and 4.0, and the corresponding emulsions had uniform droplets that showed outstanding storage stability after 21 days. However, the SPIF/SSPS complex was dissociated gradually with the elevation of pH, especially under alkaline condition, that caused the flocculation and coalescence in emulsion. This phenomenon not only relate to electrostatic repulsion, but also relate to the disintegration of SPIF. Furthermore, the encapsulated curcumin is released rapidly from emulsion when the pH increased above 6.0. This research may provide an outstanding pH-response strategy that have the potential for pH-triggered release.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Soja , Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Emulsões/química , Soja/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Fibras na Dieta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 411-419, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soy protein isolate (SPI) is widely used as an alternative to animal-based protein, and its gelling property is essential for producing plant protein-based foods. Insoluble dietary fiber has been used to improve the properties of protein gels. RESULTS: Effects of partial replacement of SPI by okara dietary fiber (ODF) on the gelling properties of ODF-fortified SPI gels with and without 0.1 m NaCl were investigated. The presence of ODF hindered the SPI self-aggregation and reduced the surface hydrophobicity of SPI. The presence of ODF reduced the hydrophobic interaction and improved the proportion of disulfide bonds in the gels. In the microstructure, the swollen ODF promoted the local aggregation of SPI at 0.1 m NaCl. Texture profile analysis showed that 5% and 10% ODF improved the SPI gel hardness in the absence of NaCl, whereas only 5% ODF improved the gel hardness at 0.1 m NaCl. The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance imaging revealed that ODF shortened the T2 relaxation time of the free water in the gel. The gel of ODF-10 had the highest storage modulus. CONCLUSION: Using an appropriate amount of ODF to replace SPI could improve the quality of SPI gel and increase the dietary fiber content in the product. In addition, the appropriate ratio of ODF/SPI varied in different solution environments. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Sódio , Proteínas de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Géis/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fibras na Dieta
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 255-263, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about specific functional characteristics, such as viscosimetric, conductometric, tensiometric and structural properties of polysaccharide aqueous solutions is highly important in the successful and adequate application in food emulsion formulation. For the first time detailed characterization of sugar beet fibers aqueous solutions in comparison to high molecular weight (sugar beet pectin) and low molecular weight [octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) maltodextrin] hydrocolloids/stabilizers was performed through viscometry, conductometry, tensiometry and component analysis. RESULTS: Sugar beet fibers and its water-soluble fraction were investigated. All sugar beet fiber samples showed substantial surface-active properties but different effect on the viscosity values of aqueous solutions. Sugar beet pectin had higher impact on aqueous solutions viscosity values compared to sugar beet fiber samples. Structural bonding between investigated polysaccharides were evaluated through conductometric measurements. Intermolecular linking and probable embedding of OSA maltodextrin molecules into the sugar beet fiber complex structure was detected in conductometric studies. The increased concentration of sugar beet fibers in the presence of sugar beet pectin led to the accelerated increase in specific conductivity values indicating effects of 'macromolecular crowding', intermolecular and intramolecular conformation changes and charge formation. CONCLUSIONS: Detailed characterization of sugar beet fibers provided scientific insight towards fundamental characteristics of sugar beet fiber aqueous solutions. The presented characteristics are particularly applicable in the field of food emulsion stabilization due to the presented surface-active properties of sugar beet fibers as well as specific characteristics of investigated multi-polysaccharide systems. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Condutometria , Pectinas/química , Beta vulgaris/química , Anidridos Succínicos , Emulsões/química , Água/química , Fibras na Dieta , Açúcares
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 103(1): 195-204, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35860991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) has beneficial physiological effects, such as the promoting of intestinal peristalsis, the improving of intestinal flora, and the absorbing of some harmful substances. Okara, a byproduct of soybean processing, is a potential source of IDF. But the larger particle size and poor water solubility of okara IDF have adverse effects on sensory properties and functional characteristics. Therefore, we used an emerging type of physical method is electron beam irradiation (EBI) to modify okara, and investigated that the effects of EBI doses on the structure and functional properties of okara IDF. RESULTS: It was found that the electron beam treatment damaged the crystalline structure of IDF. Observation of the surface of EBI-treated IDF revealed a loose and porous morphology rather than the typical smooth structure. At a dose of 6 kGy, a smallest particle size and largest specific surface area of IDF was obtained, and these factors increased the apparent viscosity of an IDF dispersion. The water holding capacity, swelling capacity and the oil holding capacity upon irradiation at 6 kGy increased 74.13%, 84.76% and 41.62%, respectively. In addition, the capacity for adsorption of cholesterol, sodium cholate, glucose and nitrite ion were improved after electron beam treatment. CONCLUSION: The modified okara IDF showed improved particle sizes and hydration properties, and these changes correlated with an improvement to the rough taste of IDF and improvements to the texture and storage period upon supplementation into food. © 2022 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Elétrons , Soja/química , Adsorção , Água
5.
Food Chem ; 402: 133531, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36127192

RESUMO

Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is attracting worldwide attention due to its nutritional and biological properties. Nowadays, this pseudocereal is cultivated worldwide in different environmental conditions. This work evaluates the nutritional profile, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of five quinoa cultivars (Negra Collana, Chullpi Real, Salcedo Inia, Pasankalla and Kancolla) from Spain and from the Andean region, looking for the key factor of quinoa composition. Nutritional profile was similar for the same cultivar among the locations but, protein and iron contents were higher (p < 0.05) in Spanish seeds compared to the Andean ones. PCA and Pearson correlation coefficient reveal that the darkest quinoa cultivars, Negra and Pasankalla, had the best bioactive profile because the greater dietary fiber, polyphenol content, and antioxidant capacity (p < 0.05), regardless of origin zone. Concluding, the genetic variability seems to have a higher influence than the geographic factors on the nutritional and antioxidant composition of quinoa.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa , Chenopodium quinoa/genética , Chenopodium quinoa/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Geografia , Ferro/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 402: 134111, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36152554

RESUMO

Dietary fiber can act as a carrier of bound phenolics in the distal tracts of the gut, where potential microbial processing occurs, but specific mechanism is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the release characteristic and activity of bound polyphenols from wheat bran soluble dietary fiber (SDF) during simulated gastrointestinal digestion and colonic fermentation in vitro. The result suggested that the bioaccessibility of bound polyphenols in colonic fermentation was 7.42 times that in gastrointestinal digestion stage. Gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid were the most abundant polyphenol metabolites after the fermentation for 6 h. The released phenolics exhibited strong radical scavenging activity (DPPH, 99.22 ± 2.05 µmol TE/100 g DW; ABTS, 330.27 ± 3.56 µmol TE/100 g DW). Fecal fermentation of SDF significantly reduced the value of F/B and stimulated the growth of beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides, Akkermansia, and Faecalibacterium. Therefore, bound polyphenols may maintain gut health through their prebiotic activity.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Polifenóis , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Digestão , Ácido Vanílico , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ácido Gálico
7.
Food Chem ; 402: 134253, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162172

RESUMO

In this study, shell-core fibers were successfully prepared by using Eudragit S100 (ES100) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/pectin (PEC) through coaxial electrospinning technology. The electrospun fiber was characterized by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the coaxial electrospun fiber encapsulated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1.0320 (L. rhamnosus) had higher thermal stability than the electrospun fiber prepared by uniaxial electrospinning. L. rhamnosus encapsulated by coaxial electrospun fiber maintained 90.07% and 91.96% survivability in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. After continuous simulated gastrointestinal fluid treatment, the survival rate of L. rhamnosus encapsulated by coaxial electrospun fiber was 81.40%. The results indicate that shell-core fiber-encapsulated probiotics can improve the tolerance of probiotics to the harsh environment of gastrointestinal tract. The fiber prepared in this study can be applied to the preparation of functional fermented food such as probiotic yogurt fermentation in the future.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Nanofibras , Probióticos , Álcool de Polivinil/química , Fibras na Dieta , Probióticos/química , Pectinas , Nanofibras/química
8.
Food Chem ; 403: 134056, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191416

RESUMO

Gelation of soybean proteins with different coagulates as affected by okara nano-sized dietary fiber (NDF) were investigated. As compared with the MgCl2 tofu, the tofu induced by glocono-δ-lactone was softer with higher moisture and denser microstructure. As the volumetric ratio of NDF increased, pH, viscosity, particle size, and zeta potential of the NDF soymilk steadily increased. Regardless of coagulate type, tofu proteins' prevalence of α-helix + ß-turn increased with the NDF ratio up to 40 % while ß-sheet + random coil decreased. At the same time, intermolecular interactions (predominate hydrophobic interaction) significantly decreased, leading to form more porous structures in the two types of tofu. Accordingly, yield and moisture of tofu increased gradually with the NDF ratio, water holding capacity increased and then decreased, hardness decreased continuously. Results suggested that NDF affected the secondary structure and intermolecular interactions of soymilk proteins, which was independent of coagulate.


Assuntos
Alimentos de Soja , Leite de Soja , Proteínas de Soja/química , Leite de Soja/química , Fibras na Dieta , Viscosidade , Soja/química
9.
Food Chem ; 403: 134336, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191423

RESUMO

Konjac glucomannan's influence on the regulation of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and gut microbial flora was evaluated in this study. In addition, a high-fat diet and streptozotocin were used to induce type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. At the end of the study, we analyzed various parameters such as body weight, plasma lipid profile, insulin levels by immunohistochemistry, degree of fibrosis in the liver, protein expression of PPAR-γ and p-SREBP-1C and gut microbial changes using 16S rRNA sequencing. The results of our study suggest that KGM supplementation significantly reduced the plasma lipid profile (TC, TG, VLDL, LDL, etc.). In addition, KGM has improved insulin levels, which were visualized using immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, KGM also regulated the protein expression of key regulatory proteins of lipid metabolism PPAR-γ and p-SREBP-1C (Group 3). Similar results were seen in the groups treated with the standard drug rosiglitazone (group 4). Finally, the 16S rRNA sequencing shows that KGM contributes to gut microbiota composition alterations, and it was observed using the Simpson, Shannon, Chao-1, and actual otus indices (group 3). KGM further alters the production of beneficial SCFAs and helps host good health. Furthermore, several metabolic pathways have been activated in T2DM rats. As a result, it becomes apparent that the digestive system's microbiome will play a role in T2DM. KGM has various health advantages but is particularly useful in treating hyperlipidemia and diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Insulinas , Ratos , Animais , PPAR gama/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Insulinas/farmacologia , Insulinas/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/farmacologia
10.
Food Chem ; 398: 133801, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961168

RESUMO

Effects of pectin, inulin, and their combination on the production of microbiota-derived indoles and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) from different colon segments were investigated in a batch system inoculated with microbiota from proximal colon (PC) and distal colon (DC) compartments of the Simulator of Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem. Bacteria from DC compartment had a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a stronger capacity to produce indoles and SCFAs than bacteria from PC compartment. Fiber supplementation significantly increased the production of SCFAs, indole-3-propionic acid, and indole-3-lactic acid, but decreased the production of oxindole, tryptamine, and serotonin. Pectin specifically promoted the production of indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-aldehyde. Interestingly, supplementation of pectin or inulin increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes whereas supplementation of a mixture of two fibers decreased it. Overall, these results suggest that fiber supplementation and colon segment affect the composition of gut microbiota and the microbial catabolism of tryptophan.


Assuntos
Inulina , Microbiota , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Indóis/metabolismo , Inulina/metabolismo , Pectinas/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 398: 133834, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961174

RESUMO

Insoluble dietary fibre from citrus peels (CIDF) was found to have adsorption and inhibitory effect on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL). CIDF-400 exhibited the greatest adsorption and activity inhibition effect on PL. The fluorescence quenching spectra indicated that CIDF could quench PL through a dynamic quenching process induced by the electrostatic interactions with only one binding site between them. The synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra showed that CIDF might combine with PL to induce the increase in hydrophobicity and the reduction in polarity of tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Try) residues, which further led to the conformational alternations of PL. Moreover, circular dichroism (CD) showed that CIDF altered the secondary structure of PL, decreased α-helical structure content, and increased ß-sheet structure content, potentially resulting in PL structure opening and its active site exposure. This study provides new perspectives for the application of CIDFs produced from agricultural waste in regulating lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Citrus , Lipase , Adsorção , Dicroísmo Circular , Citrus/química , Fibras na Dieta , Lipase/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo
12.
Bioresour Technol ; 367: 128242, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332855

RESUMO

In this study, an ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX)-assisted deep eutectic solvent (DES) pretreatment method was developed for the rapid separation of wheat straw fractions, which reduced the pretreatment time for DES and improved the pretreatment efficiency. This study describes the feasibility of the AFEX-assisted DES pretreatment in terms of both progressive and parallel relationships and analyzes the subsequent enzymatic effect in generating glucose from cellulose. Ammonia fiber expansion-assisted DES one-pot pretreatment at 120 °C, for 1.5 h resulted in an enzymatic efficiency of 98.0 ± 3.1 %. Moreover, the enzyme efficiency remained greater than 85 % after three recovery cycle experiments. The comparison between regenerated-lignin (d-lignin) and alkaline-lignin showed that regenerated lignin has a lower molecular weight and belongs to para-hydroxy-phenyl-guaiacyl-syringyl (H-G-S) type lignin. This study developed is a green and efficient pretreatment process with great potential in the separation and utilization of biomass fractions.


Assuntos
Amônia , Lignina , Triticum , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Hidrólise , Carboidratos , Biomassa , Fibras na Dieta , Solventes
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159335, 2023 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228792

RESUMO

Microplastics, tiny plastic fragments from 1 µm to 5 mm, are widespread globally, even in remote environments. Due to their small sizes, they are easily ingested by organisms and contaminate the food chain. Recently, the biodegradation of some recalcitrant plastics by larva of Tenebrio molitor L. (mealworm) has been reported. However, the effects of microplastic feeding on them are limited. In our study, we selected rigid micro-polystyrene (MPS) as the model plastic to investigate the influences of particle size and larval age on plastic consumption and degradation, and the effects of microplastic feeding on the survival and development of mealworms at different larval ages. The smaller the microplastic fragment was, the more plastics the mealworms consumed, though there was a limit on particle size. Mealworms of three-month-old had the highest consumption rate. Both depolymerization and modification on the functional groups were only observed in frass excreted by three-month old mealworms. Additionally, mealworms cofed with wheat bran and MPS of this age had comparable mortality, larval growing curve and pupation distribution as the control group with wheat bran. Our results demonstrated that mealworms in this larval stage had the greatest resistance to high doses of microplastic feeding. We suggested that microplastic waste could be provided to three-month old mealworms as half replacement of bran diet to result in the greatest plastic consumption and degradation.


Assuntos
Tenebrio , Animais , Tenebrio/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Plásticos/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula , Microplásticos , Fibras na Dieta
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

RESUMO

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Valor Nutritivo
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243874, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285606

RESUMO

Abstract In recent days, cheapest alternative carbon source for fermentation purpose is desirable to minimize production cost. Xylanases have become attractive enzymes as their potential in bio-bleaching of pulp and paper industry. The objective of the present study was to identify the potential ability on the xylanase production by locally isolated Bacillus pumilus BS131 by using waste fiber sludge and wheat bran media under submerged fermentation. Culture growth conditions were optimized to obtain significant amount of xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was recorded after 72 hours of incubation at 30 °C and 7 pH with 4.0% substrate concentration. In the nutshell, the production of xylanase using inexpensive waste fiber sludge and wheat-bran as an alternative in place of expensive xylan substrate was more cost effective and environment friendly.


Resumo Nos últimos dias, a fonte alternativa de carbono mais barata para fins de fermentação é desejável para minimizar o custo de produção. As xilanases têm se tornado enzimas atraentes como seu potencial no biobranqueamento da indústria de papel e celulose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a capacidade potencial na produção de xilanase por Bacillus pumilus BS131 isolado localmente usando lodo de fibra residual e farelo de trigo em meio de fermentação submersa. As condições de crescimento da cultura foram otimizadas para obter uma quantidade significativa de xilanase. A produção máxima de xilanase foi registrada após 72 horas de incubação a 30 °C e pH 7 com concentração de substrato de 4,0%. Resumindo, a produção de xilanase usando lodo de fibra residual de baixo custo e farelo de trigo como uma alternativa no lugar do substrato de xilano caro foi mais econômica e ecológica.


Assuntos
Bacillus/metabolismo , Bacillus pumilus/metabolismo , Esgotos , Temperatura , Fibras na Dieta , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
16.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 45(11): 1716-1719, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328507

RESUMO

We studied the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on the levels of free hypoglycemic agents in vitro, i.e., glimepiride and the biguanides buformin and metformin. The levels of free buformin and free metformin were not affected by mixtures of DFs, i.e., cellulose, chitosan, pectin (PE), and glucomannan (GM), in fluids of pH 1.2 and 6.8 (similar to the pH of the stomach and intestines, respectively). However, the free biguanide level was significantly reduced by mixing with PE or sodium alginate (AL), in water. The free glimepiride level was reduced in the mixture of AL, PE, and GM (in a solution with a pH of 6.8). The changes in aqueous AL solution pH seemed to reflect the free metformin levels. Therefore, the effects of DFs on free drug levels were dependent on drug type, hypoglycemic agent, and mixing solution. In this study, the oral regimen concentrations of the drug and DFs were used. Based on these results, it is important to consider the interactions between hypoglycemic agents and DFs.


Assuntos
Hipoglicemiantes , Metformina , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Buformina/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia
17.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(12): 375, 2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36329298

RESUMO

Enzymes are one of the most significant products produced primarily from microbial sources for human requirements. The purpose of this work was to isolate, screen, and optimize enzyme production under solid-state fermentation. In the present study, amylase-producing bacteria were isolated from the local region of Ambala. A total of six samples were taken, out of which 14 isolates were isolated, among which seven isolates were found to be amylase producing. Highest amylase yield was obtained from isolate A11, further studied for the production of amylase under solid substrate fermentation (SSF), and also optimized the conditions for increased production of amylase. The molecular and biochemical characterization confirmed it as a strain of Alkalihalobacillus clausii. It was observed that growth parameters showed a profound effect on the production. The bacterium produces ample amount (7.3 × 103 IU/g) of alpha amylase using wheat bran using OVAT (one variable at a time) approach. Further using RSM (Response Surface Methodology) resulted in 3.78-fold increase in alpha amylase production, i.e., 27.57 × 103 IU/g.


Assuntos
Amilases , alfa-Amilases , Humanos , Fermentação , Fibras na Dieta , Bactérias/genética
18.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364717

RESUMO

We conducted a study to determine the survival of bacterial cells under in vitro digestion. For this purpose, ice cream mixes were prepared: control, with 4% inulin, 2.5% inulin and 1.5% apple fiber and 4% apple fiber. Each inoculum (pH = 4.60 ± 0.05), containing 9 log cfu g-1 bacteria, at 5% (w/w) was added to the ice cream mixes (Lacticaseibacilluscasei 431, Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei L-26, Lacticaseibacillusrhamnosus, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12) and fermentation was carried out to pH 4.60 ± 0.05. The in vitro digestion method simulated the stages of digestion that occur in the mouth, stomach and small intestine under optimal controlled conditions (pH value, time and temperature). At each stage of digestion, the survival rate of probiotic bacteria was determined using the plate-deep method. As expected, in the oral stage, there was no significant reduction in the viability of the probiotic bacteria in any ice cream group compared to their content before digestion. In the stomach stage, Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 strain had the highest viable counts (8.48 log cfu g-1) among the control samples. Furthermore, a 4% addition of inulin to ice cream with Bifidobacterium BB-12 increased gastric juice tolerance and limited strain reduction by only 16.7% compared to the number of bacterial cells before digestion. Regarding ice cream samples with Bifidobacterium BB-12, replacing part of the inulin with apple fiber resulted in increased survival at the stomach stage and a low reduction in the bacterial population of only 15.6% compared to samples before digestion. At the stomach stage, the positive effect of the addition of inulin and apple fiber was also demonstrated for ice cream samples with Lacticaseibacilluscasei 431 (9.47 log cfu g-1), Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (8.06 log cfu g-1) and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei L-26 (5.79 log cfu g-1). This study showed the highest sensitivity to simulated gastric stress for ice cream samples with Lacticaseibacillusrhamnosus (4.54 log cfu g-1). Our study confirmed that the 4% addition of inulin to ice cream increases the survival rate of L. casei and Bifidobacterium BB-12 in simulated intestinal juice with bile by 0.87 and 2.26 log cfu g-1, respectively. The highest viable count in the small intestine stage was observed in ice cream with L. acidophilus. The addition of inulin increased the survival of L. rhamnosus by 10.8% and Bifidobacterium BB-12 by about 22% under conditions of simulated in vitro digestion compared to their control samples. The survival rates of L. casei and L. paracasei were also highly affected by the 4% addition of apple fiber, where the increase under gastrointestinal passage conditions was determined to range from 7.86-11.26% compared to their control counterparts. In comparison, the lowest survival rate was found in the control ice cream with L. rhamnosus (47.40%). In our study at the intestinal stage, only five ice cream groups: a sample with 4% inulin and L. acidophilus, a control sample with Bifidobacterium BB12, a sample with 2.5% inulin and 1.5% apple fiber with Bifidobacterium BB12, a control sample with L. rhamnosus, a sample with 4% fiber and L. rhamnosus reported bacterial cell counts below 6 log cfu g-1 but higher than 5 log cfu g-1. However, in the remaining ice cream groups, viable counts of bacterial cells ranged from 6.11 to 8.88 log cfu g-1, ensuring a therapeutic effect. Studies have clearly indicated that sheep milk ice cream could provide a suitable matrix for the delivery of probiotics and prebiotics and contribute to intestinal homeostasis. The obtained results have an applicative character and may play an essential role in developing new functional sheep milk ice cream.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium animalis , Sorvetes , Malus , Probióticos , Ovinos , Animais , Sorvetes/microbiologia , Inulina/farmacologia , Leite/microbiologia , Lactobacillus acidophilus , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão
19.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364734

RESUMO

Despite being largely preventable, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of death globally. Recent studies suggest that the immune system, particularly a form of systemic chronic inflammation (SCI), is involved in the mechanisms leading to CVD; thus, targeting SCI may help prevent or delay the onset of CVD. In a recent placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, an oat product providing 3 g of ß-Glucan improved cholesterol low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels and lowered cardiovascular risk in adults with borderline high cholesterol. Here, we conducted a secondary measurement of the serum samples to test whether the oat product has the potential to reduce SCI and improve other clinical outcomes related to healthy aging. We investigated the effects of the oat product on a novel metric for SCI called Inflammatory Age® (iAge®), derived from the Stanford 1000 Immunomes Project. The iAge® predicts multimorbidity, frailty, immune decline, premature cardiovascular aging, and all-cause mortality on a personalized level. A beneficial effect of the oat product was observed in subjects with elevated levels of iAge® at baseline (>49.6 iAge® years) as early as two weeks post-treatment. The rice control group did not show any significant change in iAge®. Interestingly, the effects of the oat product on iAge® were largely driven by a decrease in the Eotaxin-1 protein, an aging-related chemokine, independent of a person's gender, body mass index, or chronological age. Thus, we describe a novel anti-SCI role for oats that could have a major impact on functional, preventative, and personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Avena , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Humanos , LDL-Colesterol , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Colesterol , Grão Comestível/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Nutrients ; 14(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364808

RESUMO

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease, and as the number of individuals with diabetes increases there is a concomitant increase in the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Diabetes contributes to the development of DKD through a number of pathways, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and the gut-kidney axis, which may be amenable to dietary therapy. Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fibre that alters the gut microbial consortium, leading to an increase in the microbial production of short chain fatty acids. Evidence from animal and human studies indicate that short chain fatty acids are able to attenuate inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways, which may mitigate the progression of DKD. In this review, we evaluate and summarise the evidence from both preclinical models of DKD and clinical trials that have utilised RS as a dietary therapy to limit the progression of DKD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Animais , Humanos , Amido Resistente , Amido/uso terapêutico , Amido/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo
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