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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130883, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438179

RESUMO

The effects of acetylation, hydroxypropylation, cellulase hydrolysis and crosslinking on adsorption capacities and in vitro hypoglycemic activities of millet bran dietary fibre (MBDF) were studied. The results demonstrated that both acetylation and hydroxypropylation improved water swelling ability of MBDF, and adsorption capacities of cholesterol, cholate and copper ion on MBDF. Acetylation and hydroxypropylation also enhanced α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activities, glucose-binding ability and glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI) of MBDF. Acetylated MBDF showed the highest cholate (77.31 mg/g) and cholesterol (13.97 mg/g) adsorption capacities. The crosslinking improved adsorption of cholate, cholesterol, copper ion (25.64 mg/g) and nitrite ion (181.59 µg/g) on MBDF; but reduced α-amylase inhibition activity (p < 0.05). Moreover, cellulase hydrolyzed MBDF exhibited the highest GDRI (39.60%) and α-amylase inhibition activity (34.53%), but the lowest oil and cholate adsorption capacities. The results suggest that the modified MBDFs can be used as an ingredient of hypoglycemic foods.


Assuntos
Celulase , Milhetes , Acetilação , Adsorção , Celulase/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta , Hidrólise , Hipoglicemiantes , Milhetes/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 366: 130618, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330028

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of the micronization (MT), steam explosion (SE), and gamma irradiation (GI) treatment on the chemical composition, structure, physicochemical properties, and in vitro digestibility of dietary fiber from soybean hulls. GI (1200 kGy) treatment exerted the optimum effects on improving soluble dietary fiber content, in vitro gross energy digestibility (IVGED), and reducing sugar yield (RS) in the three modification methods, increased by 342.88%, 55.24%, and 117.02%, respectively. Compared with GI treatment, MT-GI combined treatment could further enhance the degradation effect of irradiation and improve the physicochemical properties (p<0.05) in soybean fibers. From the results of correlation analysis, RS was a significant positive correlation (p<0.05) with IVGED, and RS = -112.24 + 4.90 × IVGED (r2 = 0.82, p<0.01). In summary, MT-GI combined treatment could be considered the ideal modification method to improve the quality of soybean fiber.


Assuntos
Soja , Vapor , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130751, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384987

RESUMO

Wheat bran is a rich source of phenolic compounds, and the health benefits of phenolic compounds depend on its bioaccessibility. The release behavior and functional properties of phenolic compounds in different particle size wheat bran during in vitro digestion were investigated. Coarse wheat bran (CWB, 1110.39 µm) was milled by airflow impact mill to produce medium wheat bran (MWB, 235.68 µm), fine wheat bran (FWB, 83.73 µm) and superfine wheat bran (SWB, 19.16 µm). The reduction in particle size increased the release of phenolic compounds, mainly ferulic acid, after digestion. The free p-coumaric acid content in SWB was nearly five times higher than that in CWB, MWB and FWB due to the complete destruction of aleurone cell walls. Moreover, SWB showed higher bioaccessible phenolic compounds content (65.51%) than CWB. The improved phenolic bioaccessibility increased the antioxidant capacities and carbohydrate-digestive enzymes inhibitory activities of SWB and significantly reduced its starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fenóis , Antioxidantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Tamanho da Partícula , Fenóis/análise
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 500, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599144

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been speculated to modulate feeding behavior through multiple factors, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Evidence on this relationship in humans is however lacking. We aimed to explore if specific bacterial genera relate to eating behavior, diet, and SCFA in adults. Moreover, we tested whether eating-related microbiota relate to treatment success in patients after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Anthropometrics, dietary fiber intake, eating behavior, 16S-rRNA-derived microbiota, and fecal and serum SCFA were correlated in young overweight adults (n = 27 (9 F), 21-36 years, BMI 25-31 kg/m2). Correlated genera were compared in RYGB (n = 23 (16 F), 41-70 years, BMI 25-62 kg/m2) and control patients (n = 17 (11 F), 26-69 years, BMI 25-48 kg/m2). In young adults, 7 bacteria genera, i.e., Alistipes, Blautia, Clostridiales cluster XVIII, Gemmiger, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Streptococcus, correlated with healthier eating behavior, while 5 genera, i.e., Clostridiales cluster IV and XIVb, Collinsella, Fusicatenibacter, and Parabacteroides, correlated with unhealthier eating (all | r | > 0.4, FDR-corrected p < 0.05). Some of these genera including Parabacteroides related to fiber intake and SCFA, and to weight status and treatment response in overweight/obese patients. In this exploratory analysis, specific bacterial genera, particularly Parabacteroides, were associated with weight status and eating behavior in two small, independent and well-characterized cross-sectional samples. These preliminary findings suggest two groups of presumably beneficial and unfavorable genera that relate to eating behavior and weight status, and indicate that dietary fiber and SCFA metabolism may modify these relationships. Larger interventional studies are needed to distinguish correlation from causation.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 754-758, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622588

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of polystyrene (PS) and PS-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun materials on the adhesion ability of Porphyromonas gingivalis( P. gingivalis), a common periodontal pathogen. Methods: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials were prepared with stainless steel needles in high-voltage electric field. The growth and adhesion of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The changes in the amount of P. gingivalis biofilm formed on the surface of different materials were measured according to viable colony forming units (CFU). The effect of surface charge of the different materials on the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis was determined through changing the charge properties on the surface of the electrospun materials. Results: SEM images showed that both PS and PS-PVP can be used to form electrospun fibers with a diameter of 0.2 µm. SEM images and CFU counts of the biofilm at 24 h and 48 h showed that there was a smaller amount of P. gingivalis biofilm on the surface of the two materials ( P<0.05). After treatment with tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), the surface charge of the PS-PVP electrospun material changed from being negatively charged to being positively charged, and the amount of bacterial adhesion on the surface increased significantly in comparison to that of untreated PS and PS-PVP materials ( P<0.05). Conclusion: PS and PS-PVP electrospun materials can be used to reduce the adhesion ability of P. gingivalis on the surface of different materials, and this ability may be related to the surface charge properties of the materials.


Assuntos
Porphyromonas gingivalis , Povidona , Biofilmes , Fibras na Dieta , Poliestirenos , Povidona/farmacologia
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 506, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623524

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate diets containing monensin (MON) associated or not with virginiamycin (VM) or functional oil based on cashew nut shell and castor beans (FOcc) for beef cattle in feedlots on nutritional (intake and digestibility) and productive parameters. A total of 1410 non-castrated Nellore cattle were selected, with an average age of 18 months and with an initial mean body weight (BW) of 305 ± 41.52 kg. The diet showed a roughage to concentrate ratio of 23:77, with the supply of corn silage as a source of roughage. The following additive inclusions in the diet were evaluated: (1) MON: 27 mg MON/kg dry matter (DM); (2) MON + VM: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 19 mg VM/kg DM; and (3) MON + FOcc: 22 mg MON/kg DM + 500 mg FOcc/kg DM. Statistical analyses were obtained through a linear model using initial BW and days of feedlot as covariables and comparisons between treatments using mutually orthogonal linear contrasts with a 5% significance level. The association or not of MON with VM or FOcc does not affect any of the nutritional and productive parameters evaluated. Animals that receive diets with MON + VM have higher average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE) than those that receive MON + FOcc without showing differences in nutritional parameters. The supply of MON associated with VM or FOcc does not increase intake and productive performance and, consequently, efficiency of feedlot beef cattle. However, in the case of use associated with MON, the VM provides greater performance than FOcc without changing food intake.


Assuntos
Monensin , Virginiamicina , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Monensin/farmacologia
7.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 81, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence concerning dietary fiber on newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is sparse. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and newly-diagnosed T2DM in a middle-aged Chinese population. METHODS: Using data from the Hangzhou Nutrition and Health Survey collected between June 2015 and December 2016, we investigated the associations between dietary patterns and the risk of chronic non- communicable diseases. Anthropometric measurements and samples collection for biochemical assays are conducted by the well-trained staff and nurse, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of dietary fiber intake on the risk of newly-diagnosed T2DM in crude and adjusted models. RESULTS: Among 3250 participants, 182 (5.6%) people were identified as newly-diagnosed T2DM. Pearson correlation coefficients revealed a significant inverse association of total dietary fiber with BMI, SBP, DBP, HbA1c and LDL-C in all participants, participants with and without T2DM (P < 0.05). Compared with the study participants in the first quartile (Q1, the lowest consumption)of dietary fiber intake, participants in the fourth quartile (Q4) had a lower prevalence of newly-diagnosed T2DM(OR = 0.70; 95%CI:0.49-1.00; P < 0.05), after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In this middle-aged Chinese population, higher intake of dietary fiber was significantly associated with lower risk of newly-diagnosed T2DM. However, our findings need to be confirmed in future large-scale prospective studies.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , China/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(9): 4153-4161, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586267

RESUMO

The consumption of dietary fiber in Brazil and its relationship with the intake of ultra-processed foods was evaluated. The analysis used food consumption data, with a 24-hour food record of residents aged ≥10 years (n=34.003) from the 2008-2009 Family Budgets Survey. The food products were divided into groups: in natura or minimally processed ingredients; processed culinary ingredients; processed and ultra-processed ingredients. The contribution of each food group and selected subgroups to the total fiber intake, the relation between quintiles of ultra-processed foods (evaluated by the % of total energy intake), average dietary fiber content (g/1,000kcal), and the prevalence of inadequate fiber consumption, was estimated. In natura or minimally processed foods revealed significantly higher fiber density than ultra-processed foods and corresponded to the majority percentile contribution of dietary fiber, notably derived from rice and beans. Individuals in the largest quintile of ultra-processed consumption were 1.5 times more likely to ingest inadequate fiber intake. The consumption of ultra-processed foods had a negative impact on fiber intake. Reducing the consumption of these foods can bring benefits to the quality of the Brazilian diet.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Fast Foods , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Ingestão de Energia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos
9.
Am J Vet Res ; 82(10): 787-794, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare measurements of crude fiber (CF) and total dietary fiber (TDF) for various dog foods and their effect on the calculated nitrogen-free extract and metabolizable energy (ME) content, and to compare label-guaranteed and laboratory-analyzed macronutrient values. SAMPLES: 51 dog foods fed to client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis. PROCEDURES: Foods were analyzed for dry matter, ash, crude protein, acid-hydrolyzed fat, CF, and TDF. Metabolizable energy was calculated by use of a formula with modified Atwater factors and formulas recommended by the National Research Council that included both CF and TDF values. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation between CF and TDF values. RESULTS: Only a few foods failed to conform to the guaranteed analysis for all macronutrients except for CF, in which approximately 40% of the foods exceeded the guaranteed maximum values. The CF and TDF values were moderately correlated (r = 0.843). Correlations among CF- and TDF-based ME estimations were moderate with use of the modified Atwater formula and strong with use of the National Research Council formulas (r = 0.86 and r = 0.91, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Values for CF were the most variable of the macronutrients of the evaluated dog foods and results suggested that CF is an incomplete and inaccurate measurement of dietary fiber content and, thus, its inaccuracy may lead to inaccurate and variable ME values.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Osteoartrite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Fibras na Dieta , Cães , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Osteoartrite/veterinária
10.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 472, 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550484

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the addition of red propolis extract (RPE), in different roughage: concentrate (R:C) ratios, influences the intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters, and serum biochemistry of sheep. We used eight Santa Inês sheep with an average body weight of 29.45 ± 1.58 kg, housed in metabolism cages for 60 days, and distributed in two simultaneous Latin square designs in a 2 × 2 factorial scheme. The factors consisted of two R:C ratios (70:30 and 30:70) with or without the addition of 15 mL/day of RPE. No interactions were found (P > 0.05) between R:C ratios and with or without RPE. Sheep fed 30:70 ratio showed higher (P < 0.05) intake and dry matter (DM) digestibility and non-fibrous carbohydrates and lower (P < 0.05) intake and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility. The addition of RPE did not influence (P > 0.05) the intake or nutrients digestibility, but the sheep that received RPE had a higher (P < 0.05) ruminal pH and longer (P < 0.05) time of rumination (min/kg DM) compared to the group without propolis. The ruminal ammonia concentration was higher for sheep fed 70:30 ratio, but the concentrations of total protein and albumin did not differ between R:C ratios. The addition of 15 mL of RPE does not influence the intake, digestibility, ingestive behavior, and rumen ammonical nitrogen of sheep. There is no association between the R:C ratio and the addition of 15 mL/day of RPE for sheep.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Própole , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Extratos Vegetais , Própole/farmacologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico
11.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579130

RESUMO

Water-insoluble ß-glucan has been reported to have beneficial effects on human health. However, no studies have thoroughly characterized the structure and function of water-insoluble ß-glucan in oat bran. Thus, the structure and effect of water-insoluble ß-glucan on weight gain and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were analyzed. First, water-insoluble ß-glucan was isolated and purified from oat bran. Compared with water-soluble ß-glucan, water-insoluble ß-glucan had higher DP3:DP4 molar ratio (2.12 and 1.67, respectively) and molecular weight (123,800 and 119,200 g/mol, respectively). Notably, water-insoluble ß-glucan exhibited more fibrous sheet-like structure and greater swelling power than water-soluble ß-glucan. Animal experiments have shown that oral administration of water-insoluble ß-glucan tended to lower the final body weight of obese mice after 10 weeks treatment. In addition, water-insoluble ß-glucan administration significantly improved the serum lipid profile (triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) and epididymal adipocytes size. What is more, water-insoluble ß-glucan reduced the accumulation and accelerated the decomposition of lipid in liver. In conclusion, water-insoluble ß-glucan (oat bran) could alleviate obesity in HFD-fed mice by improving blood lipid level and accelerating the decomposition of lipid.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Água/química , beta-Glucanas/análise
12.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500650

RESUMO

Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.


Assuntos
Nutrientes/química , Feófitas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Sargassum/química , Alga Marinha/química , Antioxidantes/química , Carotenoides/química , Clorofila A/química , Fibras na Dieta , Humanos , Malásia , Minerais/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Verduras/química
13.
J Anim Sci ; 99(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505134

RESUMO

Twelve Angus steers (BW 452.8 ± 6.1 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were used to determine the impact of trace mineral (TM) source on digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) composition, ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu, Zn, and Mn, and relative binding strength of trace minerals located in the rumen insoluble digesta fraction. Steers were fed a medium-quality grass hay diet (DM basis: 10.8% CP, 63.1% neutral detergent fiber [NDF], 6.9 mg Cu/kg, 65.5 mg Mn/kg, and 39.4 mg Zn/kg) supplemented with protein for 21 d. Treatments consisted of either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) sources (n = 6 steers/treatment) to provide 20, 40, and 60 mg supplemental Cu, Mn, and Zn/kg DM, respectively. Following a 21-d adaptation period, total fecal output was collected for 5 d. Dry matter (P < 0.07) and CP (P < 0.06) digestibility tended to be reduced, and NDF (P < 0.04) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) (P < 0.05) digestibility were reduced in STM- vs. HTM-supplemented steers. On day 6, ruminal fluid was collected at 0, 2, and 4 h post-feeding and analyzed for VFA. There were no treatment x time interactions for VFA. Steers receiving HTM had less (P < 0.02) molar proportions of butyric acid and greater (P < 0.05) total VFA concentrations than STM-supplemented steers. Steers were then fed the same diet without supplemental Cu, Zn, or Mn for 14 d. On day 15 steers received a pulse dose of 20 mg Cu, 40 mg Mn, and 60 mg Zn/kg DM from either STM or HTM (n = 6 steers/treatment). Ruminal samples were obtained at 2-h intervals starting at -4 and ending at 24 h relative to dosing. There was a treatment x time interaction (P < 0.03) for ruminal soluble Cu, Mn, and Zn concentrations. Ruminal soluble mineral concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for Cu at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 14 h; for Mn at 4 and 6 h; and for Zn at 4, 6, and 8 h post-dosing in STM compared with HTM-supplemented steers. Copper concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) at 12 and 24 h and Zn concentrations in ruminal solid digesta were greater at 24 h in HTM-supplemented steers. Upon dialysis against Tris-EDTA, the percent Zn released from digesta was greater (P < 0.05) at 12 h (P < 0.03) and 24 h (P < 0.05), and the percent Cu released was greater (P < 0.02) at 24 h post-dosing in HTM steers when compared with STM-supplemented steers. Results indicate that Cu and Zn from HTM have low solubility in the rumen and appear to be less tightly bound to ruminal solid digesta than Cu and Zn from STM. The lower ruminal soluble concentrations of Cu and Zn in steers given HTM were associated with greater fiber digestibility.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Rúmen
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3865-3874, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468679

RESUMO

The scope of this article is to evaluate the prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake and associated factors among elderly adults. A cross-sectional population-based study evaluating participants from the Health Survey of the City of Campinas (ISACAMP) was conducted in 2014/2015, with 1,074 elderly individuals (≥60 years). Dietary fiber intake was obtained using a 24-hour recall, and the prevalence of inadequate fibers was estimated according to the cut-off point of the Institute of Medicine (30 g/day for men and 21 g/day for women). The factors evaluated were sociodemographic conditions (sex, age, schooling, income, marital status), health (number of reported diseases) and lifestyle (physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption). The prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake was 86.6%, being higher in men (RP=1.10), single or divorced (RP=1.09) and physically inactive (PR=1.07). Elderly adults with higher incomes and who reported having 1 to 2 chronic non-communicable diseases had a higher intake of fibers. The high prevalence of inadequate dietary fiber intake in the elderly adults indicates that health and nutrition actions should be developed to ensure adequate dietary intake of these compounds.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Estilo de Vida , Masculino
15.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
16.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444731

RESUMO

Diet has long been the focus of attention as a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases. As such, a better understanding of it is crucial to establish priorities for dietary guidelines and to inform, design, and implement strategies for preventing, helping manage, and stopping the progression of sleep and mental health-related symptoms/disorders. The aim of the current study is to conduct the largest investigation of diet, sleep, and mental health to date by utilizing the UK Biobank (UKB) dataset to identify the associations between diet and (i) sleep quality/health, and (ii) mental health symptomatology. This cross-sectional population-based study involved 502,494 middle-aged adults. UKB food frequency, sleep, and psychological factors and mental health questionnaires at baseline were used. Scores were also calculated for healthy diet, healthy sleep, mental health symptomatology, partial fibre intake, and milk intake. We observed positive associations with healthy diet and sleep and mental health, especially benefits of high intakes of vegetable, fruit, fish, water, and fibre. However, processed meat and milk intake were adversely associated with sleep and mental health. These findings make clear that there are health and wellbeing benefits and drawbacks of different diets, but do not, at this stage, demonstrate the clear causal relationships, which would support dietary interventions that might play a role in the treatment and also self-management of sleep and mental health disorders/symptoms. Further research is required to understand mechanisms of actions of which diet acts on to modulate sleep and mental health, while taking comorbidity of sleep and mental health disorders/symptoms into consideration.


Assuntos
Dieta , Saúde Mental , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Carne , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leite , Verduras
17.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444826

RESUMO

Carbohydrate-containing crops provide the bulk of dietary energy worldwide. In addition to their various carbohydrate forms (sugars, starches, fibers) and ratios, these foods may also contain varying amounts and combinations of proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, prebiotics, and anti-nutritional factors that may impact diet quality and health. Currently, there is no standardized or unified way to assess the quality of carbohydrate foods for the overall purpose of improving diet quality and health outcomes, creating an urgent need for the development of metrics and tools to better define and classify high-quality carbohydrate foods. The present report is based on a series of expert panel meetings and a scoping review of the literature focused on carbohydrate quality indicators and metrics produced over the last 10 years. The report outlines various approaches to assessing food quality, and proposes next steps and principles for developing improved metrics for assessing carbohydrate food quality. The expert panel concluded that a composite metric based on nutrient profiling methods featuring inputs such as carbohydrate-fiber-sugar ratios, micronutrients, and/or food group classification could provide useful and informative measures for guiding researchers, policymakers, industry, and consumers towards a better understanding of carbohydrate food quality and overall healthier diets. The identification of higher quality carbohydrate foods could improve evidence-based public health policies and programming-such as the 2025-2030 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Dieta Saudável , Fibras na Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta , Índice Glicêmico , Micronutrientes , Minerais , Nutrientes , Política Nutricional , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Prebióticos , Vitaminas , Grãos Integrais
18.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444828

RESUMO

The objective was to examine trends in pulse (dry beans, dry peas, chickpeas and lentils) intake over a 10-year period and to compare nutrient intakes of pulse consumers and non-consumers to better understand the impact of pulse consumption on diet quality in the US population. NHANES 2003-2014 data for respondents (≥19 years) with 2 days of intake was used to evaluate trends in pulse intake. Pulse consumers were identified as those NHANES respondents who consumed pulses on one or both days. Differences in energy adjusted nutrient intakes between non-consumers and consumers were assessed. There were no significant trends in pulse intakes for the total population or for pulse consumers over the 10-year period. In 2013-2014, approximately 27% of adults consumed pulses with an intake of 70.9 ± 2.5 g/day over 2 days, just slightly <0.5 cup equivalents/day. At all levels of consumption, consumers had higher (p < 0.01) energy adjusted intakes of fiber, folate, magnesium. Higher energy adjusted intakes for potassium, zinc, iron and choline and lower intakes of fat were observed for consumers than for non-consumers at intakes ≥69.4 ± 1.01 g/day. These data suggest that pulse consumption in the US population may result in better diet quality with diets that are more nutrient dense than those without pulses.


Assuntos
Nutrientes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adulto , Idoso , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Fabaceae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444972

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial chronic metabolic disorder that affects approximately one billion people worldwide. Recent studies have evaluated whether targeting the gut microbiota can prevent MetS. This study aimed to assess the ability of dietary fiber to control MetS by modulating gut microbiota composition. Sodium alginate (SA) is a seaweed-derived dietary fiber that suppresses high-fat diet (HFD)-induced MetS via an effect on the gut microbiota. We observed that SA supplementation significantly decreased body weight gain, cholesterol levels, and fat weight, while improving glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. SA changed the gut microbiota composition and significantly increased the abundance of Bacteroides. Antibiotic treatment completely abolished the suppressive effects of SA on MetS. Mechanistically, SA decreased the number of colonic inflammatory monocytes, which promote MetS development, in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. The abundance of Bacteroides was negatively correlated with that of inflammatory monocytes and positively correlated with the levels of several gut metabolites. The present study revealed a novel food function of SA in preventing HFD-induced MetS through its action on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Alginatos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Alga Marinha , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 77: 105693, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343823

RESUMO

This paper presents a means to modify the attributes of okara fiber using ultrasonic and high-speed shearing treatment. The results of scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry reveal that the modified okara fiber demonstrates small particle size and high thermal stability. When the 500 W-15,000 rpm combination is used for okara-fiber treatment, the latter exhibits excellent swelling (SC) as well as water- and oil-holding capacities. When 6% of modified okara fiber is added to the dough, the resulting cookies demonstrate the best printing performance. Subsequently, the printing parameters can be optimized to obtain the best filling rate of 30%. The corresponding nozzle diameter and printing speed equal 0.8 mm and 50 mm/s, respectively. Finally, the 3D-printed cookies containing okara fiber are compared against those commonly available in the market via sensory evaluation. As observed, the 3D-printed cookies were more acceptable to people. Therefore, the addition of the okara dietary fiber to the cookie dough not only improves the okara utilization rate but also increases the dietary-fiber content in the cookie, thereby alleviating the occurrence of obesity in modern society.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Químicos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Impressão Tridimensional , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos
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