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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0227724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264299

RESUMO

Flavonoids are a common component of the human diet with widely reported health-promoting properties. The gut microbiota transforms these compounds affecting the overall metabolic outcome of flavonoid consumption. Flavonoid-degrading bacteria are often studied in pure and mixed cultures but the multiple interactions between quercetin-degraders and the rest of the community have been overlooked. In this study, a comparative metataxonomic analysis of fecal communities supplemented with the flavonoid quercetin led us to identify a potential competitive exclusion interaction between two sequence variants related to the flavonoid-degrading species, Flavonifractor plautii, that belong to the same genus but different species. During incubation of fecal slurries with quercetin, the relative abundance of these two variants was inversely correlated; one variant, ASV_65f4, increased in relative abundance in half of the libraries and the other variant, ASV_a45d, in the other half. This pattern was also observed with 6 additional fecal samples that were transplanted into germ-free mice fed two different diets. Mouse's diet did not change the pattern of dominance of either variant, and initial relative abundances did not predict which one ended up dominating. Potential distinct metabolic capabilities of these two Flavonifractor-related species were evidenced, as only one variant, ASV_65f4, became consistently enriched in complex communities supplemented with acetate but without quercetin. Genomic comparison analysis of the close relatives of each variant revealed that ASV_65f4 may be an efficient utilizer of ethanolamine which is formed from the phospholipid phosphatidylethanolamine that is abundant in the gut and feces. Other discordant features between ASV_65f4- and ASV_a45d-related groups may be the presence of flagellar and galactose-utilization genes, respectively. Overall, we showed that the Flavonifractor genus harbors variants that present a pattern of negative co-occurrence and that may have different metabolic and morphological traits, whether these differences affect the dynamic of quercetin degradation warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Carbono/metabolismo , Clostridiales/genética , Clostridiales/isolamento & purificação , Clostridiales/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/farmacologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ribotipagem , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Acetato de Sódio/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081057

RESUMO

Different lines of evidence indicate that knowledge of low-glycemic index (GI) foods and the practice of eating them play important roles in blood glucose management and preventing T2DM in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). According to the theory of planned behavior (TPB), intention is a critical factor in complying with health-related behaviors. However, an instrument for assessing the intention to eat low-GI foods is lacking in China. We aimed to (1) adapt and validate a Chinese version of the intentions to eat low-GI foods questionnaire (CIELQ) and (2) apply the CIELQ among rural Chinese women to explore the associations between CIELQ scores and glycemic status. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 417 nondiabetic, nonpregnant participants with a history of GDM in Hunan, China. After cultural adaptation and validation, the CIELQ was applied in a target population. Glycemic status, anthropometric variables, dietary intake, and physical activity were measured; a self-developed, standard questionnaire was applied to collect relevant information. The CIELQ showed good internal consistency; model fitness was acceptable based on the confirmatory factor analysis results. Awareness of the glycemic index was low among the study population. TPB factors were found to be associated with each other; education level and parents' diabetes history were associated with specific factors. The score for instrumental attitude showed a positive association with the risk for a high level of the 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (odds ratio, OR = 1.330), while the score for perceived behavior control (PBC) showed a negative association with the risk for a high level (OR = 0.793). The CIELQ was determined to be a valid instrument for assessing the intention to eat a low-GI diet among the study population. The awareness of the GI was poor among the study population. The score for instrumental attitude showed a positive association with the risk of a high level on the 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the score for PBC showed a negative association with the risk for a high level on OGTT.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Diabetes Gestacional/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Índice Glicêmico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Gestacional/psicologia , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Gravidez , População Rural
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22266, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019401

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gestational hyperinsulinism is a metabolic disease which is widely concerned at home and abroad. It is a clinical consensus that the embryo implantation ability of patients with hyperinsulinemia is decreased and the abortion rate after implantation is high. The treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism with Multiple dietary fiber diets has been proven. However, due to the lack of evidence, there is no specific method or recommendation, it is necessary to carry out a systematic evaluation of Multiple dietary fiber diet, to provide effective evidence for further research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following databases will be searched from their inception to August 2020: Electronic database includes PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Nature, Science online, Chinese Biomedical Database WanFang, VIP medicine information, and CNKI. Primary outcomes: Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin. Additional outcomes: Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), total serum cholesterol (TC). Data will be extracted by 2 researchers independently, risk of bias of the meta-analysis will be evaluated based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews (SR) of Interventions. All data analysis will be conducted by data statistics software Review Manager V.5.3. and Stata V.12.0. RESULTS: The results of this study will systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Multiple dietary fiber diet interventions in the treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism. CONCLUSION: The SR of this study will summarize the current published evidence of Multiple dietary fiber for the treatment of gestational hyperinsulinism, which can further guide the promotion and application of it. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study is a SR, the outcomes are based on the published evidence, so examination and agreement by the ethics committee are not required in this study. We intend to publish the study results in a journal or conference presentations. OPEN SCIENCE FRA NETWORK (OSF) REGISTRATION NUMBER: August 19, 2020. osf.io/tbc7z. (https://osf.io/tbc7z).


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Complicações na Gravidez/dietoterapia , Glicemia/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Lancet ; 396(10263): 1675-1688, 2020 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049223

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms including abdominal pain associated with a change in stool form or frequency. The condition affects between 5% and 10% of otherwise healthy individuals at any one point in time and, in most people, runs a relapsing and remitting course. The best described risk factor is acute enteric infection, but irritable bowel syndrome is also more common in people with psychological comorbidity and in young adult women than in the rest of the general population. The pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome is incompletely understood, but it is well established that there is disordered communication between the gut and the brain, leading to motility disturbances, visceral hypersensitivity, and altered CNS processing. Other less reproducible mechanisms might include genetic associations, alterations in gastrointestinal microbiota, and disturbances in mucosal and immune function. In most people, diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical history with limited and judicious use of investigations, unless alarm symptoms such as weight loss or rectal bleeding are present, or there is a family history of inflammatory bowel disease or coeliac disease. Once the diagnosis is made, an empathetic approach is key and can improve quality of life and symptoms, and reduce health-care expenditure. The mainstays of treatment include patient education about the condition, dietary changes, soluble fibre, and antispasmodic drugs. Other treatments tend to be reserved for people with severe symptoms and include central neuromodulators, intestinal secretagogues, drugs acting on opioid or 5-HT receptors, or minimally absorbed antibiotics (all of which are selected according to predominant bowel habit), as well as psychological therapies. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome in the past 10 years has led to a healthy pipeline of novel drugs in development.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/administração & dosagem , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/terapia , Qualidade de Vida
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241619, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125443

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effectiveness of combined dietary and enrichment strategies to manage tail biting in pigs with intact tails in a conventional fully-slatted floor housing system. A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design was used. Pigs had either a high fibre (weaner 5.3% and finisher 11.6% of crude fibre) or standard fibre diet (weaner 3.7% and finisher 5.9% of crude fibre). In the weaner stage, pigs had either a spruce wooden post (supplied in a wall-mounted dispenser) or a rubber floor toy as a enrichment device, and in the finisher stage, they had either the same or alternate enrichment item. Six hundred and seventy-two pigs were assigned to 48 pens of 14 pigs and followed from weaning until slaughter. Individual tail lesion scores and pen level behaviours were directly recorded every 2 weeks. Twenty-six pens had tail biting outbreaks and 161 injured pigs needed removal for treatment. Pigs fed with the high fibre diet performed more tail biting (p < 0.05) and tended to have a worse tail damage scores than those fed the standard fibre diet (p = 0.08). Pigs which had the floor toy as weaners and wood as finishers tended to have fewer tail lesions in the finisher stage than their counterparts (p = 0.06). Pigs receiving the floor toy as enrichment interacted with the enrichment more frequently overall (p < 0.001) and performed fewer harmful behaviours in the weaner stage (p < 0.05). Overall, higher fibre in the diet in a relatively barren environment did not help reduce tail biting or tail lesions. Altering the fibre level in the pigs' diet and providing a single enrichment device to undocked pigs on fully slatted floors resulted in a high level of tail biting and a large proportion of pigs with partial tail amputation.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Suínos/fisiologia , Cauda/lesões , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Mordeduras e Picadas/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Masculino
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16439, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009438

RESUMO

Maternal diet can influence the developing immune system of the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal fibre and gluten intake during pregnancy were associated with the risk of celiac disease in the child. In the Norwegian Mother, Father and Child Cohort Study (MoBa, n = 85,898) higher maternal fibre intake (median 29.5 g/day) was associated with a lower risk of celiac disease in the offspring (adjusted relative risk 0.90, 95% CI 0.83 to 0.98 per 10 g/d increase). Gluten intake during pregnancy (median 13.0 g/d) was associated with a higher risk of childhood CD (adjusted relative risk = 1.21, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.43 per 10 g/d increase). These results were largely unaffected by adjustment for the child's gluten intake at 18 months. In an independent study of 149 mother/child dyads, maternal fibre intake did not predict concentrations of total or sub-types of short-chain fatty acids in repeated infant stool samples, or fecal microbiome diversity in the mother or child. Our results suggest that high fibre and low gluten intake during pregnancy could be protective factors for celiac disease, although the mechanism is unknown.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/etiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Adulto , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Noruega , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(12): 2180-2185, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907763

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease requiring intervention in Europe, the role that diet plays in development of the disease is largely unknown. The pathophysiology of aortic stenosis is however similar to other cardiovascular diseases that fiber intake has been associated with. The aim of this study was consequently to investigate the association between dietary fiber intake as well as the main food sources of fiber, i.e. fruit and vegetables and whole grains, and risk of incident aortic stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study is a Swedish prospective population-based cohort study with baseline data collection performed between year 1991-1996. Dietary habits were recorded through seven-day food diaries, 168-item diet questionnaires, and interviews, and data on incident aortic stenosis was collected through national registers. Among the 26,063 participants, 672 cases were ascertained during a mean follow-up period of 20 years. Cox regression was used to estimate the association between dietary intakes and incident aortic stenosis. No associations were found between incident aortic stenosis and intake of dietary fiber (HR for the highest vs lowest quintile: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.72-1.24), fruit and vegetables (HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.76-1.28), or whole grains (HR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.79-1.26) in the main model. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study do not indicate that consumption of dietary fiber or fiber rich foods are associated with incident aortic stenosis.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/epidemiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutas , Verduras , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Estudos Prospectivos , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 169: 108464, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971156

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate whether supplemental soluble fiber, oat ß-glucan, has any effect on glycemic control and variability of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This study was conducted in 30 adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and it consisted of three phases lasting one week. At Phase I, all subjects followed a standard diet program. For Phase II and Phase III, the subjects continued their standard diet program and added natural oat flakes containing 3 g/day and 6 g/day ß-glucan, respectively. Glucose levels were monitored by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). The maximal, minimal, mean and daytime and night blood glucose levels, percentages of glucose values in a target range and below and above a target values were calculated for each of the phases. Premeal, postmeal, peak blood glucose values and peak times of meals were evaluated for each of the phases. Glycemic variability was measured via SD, CV, MAGE, IQR, MODD, LBGI, HBGI, and CONGA parameters. RESULTS: The maximal, mean and daytime and night blood glucose levels were the lowest at Phase III (p < 0.05). Minimal blood glucose levels were the highest at Phase III (p < 0.05). Phase I, II, and III showed similar durations elapsed for Level 2 and Level 1 hypoglycemia, euglycemia, Level 1 and Level 2 hyperglycemia (p > 0.05). Premeal and postmeal blood glucose levels were lowest at Phase III for breakfast, lunch, and overall (p < 0.05). The lowest peak blood glucose levels were detected at Phase III for breakfast, lunch, dinner and overall (p < 0.05). Phase III also showed delayed peaks for all time-points (p < 0.05 for each) compared to other phases. Phase III had significantly lower levels of SD, CV, LBGI, and CONGA levels than those in either Phase I or Phase II (p < 0.05 for each). CONCLUSION: 6 g/day oat ß-glucan have favorable outcomes in glycemic control and variability in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Avena , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Glicemia/análise , Automonitorização da Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Refeições , Período Pós-Prandial
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10233-10244, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921469

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to explore the effects of different dietary neutral detergent fiber sources within diets of high-producing dairy cattle with low or high starch concentrations on milk yield and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), total-tract digestibility, nitrogen (N) partitioning, and rumen function and health. Holstein-Friesian cows in early- to mid-lactation (n = 12; 666 ± 67 kg of body weight at the start of the experiment) and dry cannulated Holstein-Frisian cows (n = 4; 878 ± 67 kg of body weight at the start of the experiment) were used in multiple 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment and were offered 4 different diets. The treatments were 50:50 forage-to-concentrate diets within a total mixed ration (TMR) consisting, on a dry matter (DM) basis, of 42.4% grass silage as the main forage, 7.6% chopped untreated wheat straw, or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) wheat straw pellets, known as nutritionally improved straw (NIS), and 50.0% of 1 of 2 different concentrates with low or high starch level (TMR starch level of 16.0 vs. 24.0% of DM, respectively). Four experimental periods were used, each consisting of a 21-d adaptation period and 7 d of sampling. Dry matter intake and milk yield were both affected by the type of straw included in the diet. A 1.6 kg/d higher DMI was seen when NIS was fed compared with untreated straw, resulting in a 1.7 kg/d higher milk yield. Milk protein concentration was affected by straw type and starch level, and it was 4 and 3% higher when NIS and high-starch diets were fed, respectively. Diets with NIS were more positively effective when fed with low levels of starch. These results illustrate that feeding NIS to high-producing lactating dairy cows fed low or high starch concentrations has a positive effect on performance.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Lactação/fisiologia , Valor Nutritivo/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Leite/química , Leite/metabolismo , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(5): 1252-1266, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher intakes of whole grains and dietary fiber have been associated with lower risk of insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and inflammation, which are known predisposing factors for cancer. OBJECTIVES: Because the evidence of association with bladder cancer (BC) is limited, we aimed to assess associations with BC risk for intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and dietary fiber. METHODS: We pooled individual data from 574,726 participants in 13 cohort studies, 3214 of whom developed incident BC. HRs, with corresponding 95% CIs, were estimated using Cox regression models stratified on cohort. Dose-response relations were examined using fractional polynomial regression models. RESULTS: We found that higher intake of total whole grain was associated with lower risk of BC (comparing highest with lowest intake tertile: HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; HR per 1-SD increment: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99; P for trend: 0.023). No association was observed for intake of total refined grain. Intake of total dietary fiber was also inversely associated with BC risk (comparing highest with lowest intake tertile: HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98; HR per 1-SD increment: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.82, 0.98; P for trend: 0.021). In addition, dose-response analyses gave estimated HRs of 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.99) for intake of total whole grain and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.94, 0.98) for intake of total dietary fiber per 5-g daily increment. When considered jointly, highest intake of whole grains with the highest intake of dietary fiber showed 28% reduced risk (95% CI: 0.54, 0.93; P for trend: 0.031) of BC compared with the lowest intakes, suggesting potential synergism. CONCLUSIONS: Higher intakes of total whole grain and total dietary fiber are associated with reduced risk of BC individually and jointly. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms for these findings.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/prevenção & controle , Grãos Integrais , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801176

RESUMO

Caries development is associated with shifts in the oral biofilm microbiota and primarily linked to frequent simple carbohydrate consumption. Different nutritional ingredients can either promote or prevent caries development. To investigate the effects of selected ingredients on the oral biofilm microbiota in situ, 11 study participants underwent 3-month-long dietary phases with intake of a regular diet (PI), additional frequent sucrose (PII), milk and yoghurt (PIII), and a diet rich in dietary fiber (PIV) and then returned to their regular diet (PV). Oral biofilm was sampled and analyzed applying 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Additionally, the effect on the enamel was analyzed by measuring enamel surface roughness with laser scanning microscopy. The beta-diversity results showed that the microbiota in all the following phases differed significantly from PI and that the microbial community in PII was significantly different from all other phases. The abundance of the genus Streptococcus fluctuated over the course of the five phases, with a significant increase in PII (P = 0.01), decreasing in PIII and PIV (PIII and PIV versus PII: P < 0.00001) and increasing again toward PV. Other taxa showed various fluctuations of their abundances, with PV returning approximately to the levels of PI. In conclusion, while elevated sucrose consumption favored caries-promoting non-mutans streptococci, frequent milk and yoghurt intake caused a significant decrease in the abundance of these microbial taxa and in addition reduced enamel surface roughness. These results indicate that modulations of the oral biofilm microbiota can be attained even in adults through dietary changes and corresponding recommendations can be made for the prevention of caries development.IMPORTANCE Caries affects a large proportion of the population worldwide, resulting in high treatment costs. Its etiology can be ascribed to shifts of the microbiota in dental biofilms primarily driven by dietary factors. It is unclear how diet affects the microbial community of plaque biofilm in situ and whether it can be modulated to help prevent caries development. To address these issues, we analyzed changes of the in situ plaque microbiota following 3-month-long dietary changes involving elevated sucrose, dairy, and dietary fiber consumption over a period of 15 months. Applying high-throughput sequencing, we found non-mutans streptococci, a taxonomic group involved in the beginning stages toward microbial dysbiosis, in decreased abundance with elevated dairy and dietary fiber intake. Through analysis of the enamel surface roughness, these effects were confirmed. Therefore, correspondent dietary measures can be recommended for children as well as adults for caries prevention.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Microbiota , Boca/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Leite , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Iogurte
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760409

RESUMO

As the SARS-CoV-2 virus wreaks havoc on the populations, health care infrastructures and economies of nations around the world, finding ways to protect health care workers and bolster immune responses in the general population while we await an effective vaccine will be the difference between life and death for many people. Recent studies show that innate immune populations may possess a form of memory, termed Trained Immunity (TRIM), where innate immune cells undergo metabolic, mitochondrial, and epigenetic reprogramming following exposure to an initial stimulus that results in a memory phenotype of enhanced immune responses when exposed to a secondary, heterologous, stimulus. Throughout the literature, it has been shown that the induction of TRIM using such inducers as the BCG vaccine and ß-glucan can provide protection through altered immune responses against a range of viral infections. Here we hypothesize a potential role for ß-glucan in decreasing worldwide morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, and posit several ideas as to how TRIM may actually shape the observed epidemiological phenomena related to COVID-19. We also evaluate the potential effects of ß-glucan in relation to the immune dysregulation and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Ultimately, we hypothesize that the use of oral ß-glucan in a prophylactic setting could be an effective way to boost immune responses and abrogate symptoms in COVID-19, though clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment and to further examine differential effects of ß-glucan's from various sources.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8864-8879, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747108

RESUMO

The effects of source of corn silage and trace mineral on rumen fermentation, turnover, and particle passage rates were evaluated with 8 ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging 83 (standard error = 5) days in milk in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 28-d periods. The diets consisted (dry basis) of 55% conventional (CON) or brown midrib-3 (BM3) corn silage, 2% chopped wheat straw, and 43% grain mix with either sulfate (STM) or hydroxy (HTM) source of Cu, Zn, and Mn trace minerals. The targeted supplemental amount of Cu, Zn, and Mn was 194, 1,657, and 687 mg/d, respectively. The dietary treatments were (1) CON-STM, (2) CON-HTM, (3) BM3-STM, and (4) BM3-HTM. Dietary nutrient composition of BM3 diets averaged 32.1% amylase neutral detergent fiber on an organic matter basis (aNDFom) and 6.9% undigested neutral detergent fiber at 240 h of in vitro fermentation (uNDF240om; % of dry matter), and CON diets averaged 36.2% aNDFom and 8.6% uNDF240om (% of dry matter). Data were summarized by period and analyzed as a replicated Latin square design with fixed model effects for corn silage, trace mineral, corn silage and trace mineral interaction, period within replicated square, and replicated square using the MIXED procedure of SAS (version 9.4, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Cow within replicate was a random effect. Daily mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum for rumen pH were unaffected by corn silage or trace mineral source. Cows fed the CON diets had greater rumen acetate percentage than cows fed the BM3 diets (65.7 vs. 64.7 molar %). In contrast, cows fed the BM3 diets had greater rumen propionate percentage than cows fed the CON diets (21.4 vs. 20.4 molar %). Total volatile fatty acid concentration was lower for cows fed STM versus HTM in BM3 diets, but not for the cows fed the CON diets. Cows fed the BM3 diets had faster turnover rate and shorter turnover time for uNDF240om than cows fed the CON diets (3.12 vs. 2.86%/h and 33.3 vs. 36.5 h, respectively). Cows fed the BM3 diets had a faster passage rate of small and medium corn silage neutral detergent fiber particles than cows fed the CON diets (5.73 vs. 5.37%/h and 4.74 vs. 4.31%/h, respectively). We observed a corn silage by source of trace mineral interaction on organic matter and uNDF240om rumen pool size and organic matter turnover. Overall, source of corn silage had a pronounced influence on rumen dynamics presumably related to greater in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility and lower uNDF240om content of BM3 corn silage that allowed for faster turnover of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and greater passage rate of corn silage particles. In contrast, the source of trace mineral had much less significant effects on rumen fermentation, turnover, and particle passage rates. Corn silage-based diets intended to enhance rumen fiber fermentation, turnover, and passage are more affected by source and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber than source of dietary trace minerals.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Silagem/análise , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Zea mays/química , Animais , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fermentação , Lactação , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Nutrientes , Rúmen/fisiologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8853-8863, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747113

RESUMO

Nutrition in fetal and postnatal life can influence the development of several biological systems, with permanent effects in adult life. The aim of this work was to investigate in dairy sheep whether diets rich in starch or fiber during intrauterine life (75 d before lambing) and postnatal life (from weaning to first pregnancy; growth phase) program glucose and insulin metabolism in the female offspring during their first pregnancy. Starting from intrauterine life, 20 nulliparous Sarda ewes were exposed to 4 dietary regimens (n = 5 per group) based on different dietary carbohydrates during their intrauterine life and their subsequent growth phase: (1) the fiber (FI) diet during both intrauterine and growth life, (2) the starch (ST) diet during both intrauterine and growth life, (3) the FI diet in intrauterine life followed by the ST diet in the growth phase, and (4) the ST diet in intrauterine life followed by the FI diet in the growth phase. After the end of the growth phase, all growing ewes were fed the same diet and naturally mated. When ewes were pregnant, on average at 124 ± 2 d of gestation they were challenged with an intravenous glucose tolerance test, and peripheral concentrations of glucose and insulin were determined. Basal insulin concentrations were higher in ewes exposed to the ST diet (0.97 µg/L) than in ewes exposed to the FI diet (0.52 µg/L) in intrauterine life. After glucose infusion, glucose and insulin concentrations were not affected by intrauterine diet. Insulin resistance, determined by the homeostasis model assessment, was affected by the intrauterine × growth phases interaction. Insulin sensitivity, assessed by the quantitative insulin check index, was lower in ewes exposed to the ST diet than in those exposed to the FI diet in intrauterine life (ST = 0.28; FI = 0.30). Diet in growth life had no effect on glucose and insulin metabolism. In conclusion, starchy diets offered during intrauterine life but not during postnatal life increased basal insulin level and lowered insulin sensitivity during the first pregnancy. Nutritional strategies of metabolic programming should consider that exposure to starchy diets in late fetal life might favor the programming of dietary nutrient partitioning toward organs with high requirements, such as the gravid uterus or the mammary gland.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Insulina/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/veterinária , Ovinos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/veterinária , Gravidez , Amido/administração & dosagem
15.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 14: 1753466620937170, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600125

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 1 is a 2019 novel coronavirus, which only in the European area has led to more than 300,000 cases with at least 21,000 deaths. This manuscript aims to speculate that the manipulation of the microbial patterns through the use of probiotics and dietary fibers consumption may contribute to reduce inflammation and strengthen the immune system response in COVID-19 infection. The reviews of this paper are available via the supplemental material section.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Dieta , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/virologia , Inflamação/patologia , Inflamação/virologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 603-612, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whole grains and other foods containing fiber are thought to be inversely related to colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether these associations reflect fiber or fiber source remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated associations of whole grain and dietary fiber intake with CRC risk in the large NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. METHODS: We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs for whole grain and dietary fiber intake and risk of CRC among 478,994 US adults, aged 50-71 y. Diet was assessed using a self-administered FFQ at baseline in 1995-1996, and 10,200 incident CRC cases occurred over 16 y and 6,464,527 person-years of follow-up. We used 24-h dietary recall data, collected on a subset of participants, to evaluate the impact of measurement error on risk estimates. RESULTS: After multivariable adjustment for potential confounders, including folate, we observed an inverse association for intake of whole grains (HRQ5 vs.Q1 : 0.84; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.90; P-trend < 0.001), but not dietary fiber (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.88, 1.04; P-trend = 0.40), with CRC incidence. Intake of whole grains was inversely associated with all CRC cancer subsites, particularly rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.87; P-trend < 0.001). Fiber from grains, but not other sources, was associated with lower incidence of CRC (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.96; P-trend < 0.001), particularly distal colon (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96; P-trend = 0.005) and rectal cancer (HRQ5 vs. Q1: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66, 0.88; P-trend < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary guidance for CRC prevention should focus on intake of whole grains as a source of fiber.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grãos Integrais , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 143: 111558, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640331

RESUMO

Prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, arthritis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and various infectious diseases; lately most notably COVID-19 have been in the front line of research worldwide. Although targeting different organs, these pathologies have common biochemical impairments - redox disparity and, prominently, dysregulation of the inflammatory pathways. Research data have shown that diet components like polyphenols, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fibres as well as lifestyle (fasting, physical exercise) are important factors influencing signalling pathways with a significant potential to improve metabolic homeostasis and immune cells' functions. In the present manuscript we have reviewed scientific data from recent publications regarding the beneficial cellular and molecular effects induced by dietary plant products, mainly polyphenolic compounds and PUFAs, and summarize the clinical outcomes expected from these types of interventions, in a search for effective long-term approaches to improve the immune system response.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Carboidratos , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta Mediterrânea , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Inflamação/epidemiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8898-8909, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713701

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of feeding a palmitic acid-enriched supplement on production responses and nitrogen metabolism of mid-lactating Holstein and Jersey cows. Eighty mid-lactating dairy cows, 40 Holstein and 40 Jersey, were used in a randomized complete block design with a split-plot arrangement; the main plot was breed and the subplot was fatty acid treatment. Cows within each breed were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (1) control diet with no fat supplement or (2) control diet plus a palmitic acid-enriched supplement dosed at 1.5% of diet dry matter (PA treatment). The treatment period was 6 wk with the final 3 wk used for data and sample collection. There were no treatment × breed interactions for the variables analyzed. Compared with control, PA treatment increased milk fat yield (1.36 vs. 1.26 kg/d) and tended to increase 3.5% fat-corrected milk (35.6 vs. 34.0 kg/d) and energy-corrected milk (35.7 vs. 34.1 kg/d). There was no effect of PA treatment on dry matter intake, milk yield, milk protein yield, milk lactose yield, body condition score, body weight (BW) change, nitrogen intake, and variables related to nitrogen metabolism and excretion. Compared with Holstein cows, Jersey cows had greater dry matter intake as a percent of BW (4.90 vs. 3.37% of BW) and lower milk production (29.6 vs. 32.7 kg/d) and milk lactose yield (1.58 vs. 1.42 kg/d), but tended to have greater milk fat yield (1.36 vs. 1.26 kg/d). There was a breed effect on BW change; Holstein cows gained 0.385 kg/d during the experiment, and Jersey cows gained 0.145 kg/d. Jersey cows had lower nitrogen intake (636 vs. 694 g/d), blood urea nitrogen (12.6 vs. 13.8 mg/dL), urine total nitrogen (125 vs. 145 g/d), and urine total nitrogen as a percent of nitrogen intake (19.5 vs. 21.1%). Overall, feeding a palmitic acid-enriched supplement increased milk fat yield as well as dry matter and fiber digestibility in both Holstein and Jersey cows. The PA treatment did not have any major effects on nitrogen metabolism in both Holstein and Jersey cows. In addition, our results indicated that Jersey cows had lower urinary nitrogen excretion (g/d) than Holstein cows.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Palmítico/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Lactose/análise , Leite/química , Leite/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/urina , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(10): 8880-8897, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713706

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine effects of various forages and live yeast culture on intake, growth, nutrient digestibility, and ruminal fermentation of weaned dairy calves. Holstein calves (n = 45) were randomly assigned to 2 × 3 factorial treatments: live yeast culture or no yeast and alfalfa haylage (AH), corn silage (CS), or grass hay (GH). Calves were weaned at 6 wk of age, housed individually, and studied from 7 to 16 wk of age. Rations, consisting of an 18% crude protein texturized grower (yeast or no yeast) and assigned forage, were offered as separate components until 9 wk of age. After 9 wk, diets were offered as a total mixed ration (TMR). Concentrate intake was capped at 2.25 kg of dry matter (DM)/d, and forage was offered ad libitum. The TMR contained equal forage neutral detergent fiber (8 ± 0.5%) on a DM basis for each basal diet. Calves were fed TMR to limit concentrate intake, and additional forage was offered ad libitum after 8 h if the entire TMR allotment was consumed. Total fecal collection (12 calves) was conducted for 4 d at 11 and 15 wk of age. Feeds and feces were evaluated for DM, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and starch to calculate digestibility. On the last day of fecal collection, rumen samples were collected to evaluate pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Metabolizable energy and DM intake was least for calves consuming GH compared with other forages. Forage intake (% of DM intake) increased as calves aged (AH = 20 to 44.4%, CS = 24.5 to 37.6%, GH = 11.3 to 32.3% at 10 and 16 wk of age, respectively). Calves on CS had the greatest average daily gain and empty body weight gain, and calves on GH had the least. Calves on GH tended to have the lowest final body weight. There were no differences in structural growth. Digestibility of DM decreased with age. Fiber digestibility was least for calves on CS, and starch digestibility was least for calves on AH. Mean and minimum rumen pH increased with age. Forage offered changed VFA profile and there was an interaction between yeast and forage on VFA profile. These results indicated that recently weaned calves perform well on AH, CS, or GH and have minimal benefit from yeast supplementation. Feeding GH reduced weight gain, but all calves achieved a level of gain to meet growth goals for breeding and freshening. Furthermore, the ability to consume large portions of the ration as forage allows for more economical diets to be fed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/fisiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232972, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512581

RESUMO

Various dietary fibers are considered to prevent obesity by modulating the gut microbiota. Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide (CSP) is a soluble dietary fiber known to have protective effects against obesity and related diseases, but whether these effects induce any side effects remains unknown. The function and safety of CSP were tested in high-fat diet (HFD)-feding C57BL/6J mice. The results revealed that even though CSP supplementation could prevent an increase in body weight, it aggravated liver fibrosis and steatosis as evidenced by increased inflammation, lipid metabolism markers, insulin resistance (IR) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in HFD-induced obesity. 16S rDNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota composition, and the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria phylum, including the Olsenella genus, was significantly higher in CSP-treated mice than in HFD-fed mice. CSP supplementation may increase the proportion of Actinobacteria, which can degrade CSP. The high level of Actinobacteria aggravated the disorder of the intestinal flora and contributed to the progression from obesity to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and related diseases.


Assuntos
Cordyceps , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Peso Corporal , Cordyceps/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
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