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1.
Int J Vitam Nutr Res ; 90(1-2): 23-32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843770

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by the inability to regulate blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance, resulting in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Research has shown that consuming soy and fiber may protect against type 2 diabetes mellitus. We performed a study to determine whether supplementing diet with soy extract (0.5% weight of diet) or fiber (as red wheat bran; 11.4% weight of diet) would decrease serum insulin and blood glucose levels in a pre-diabetic/metabolic syndrome animal model. In our study, female obese Zucker rats were fed either a control diet (n = 8) or control diet supplemented with either soy extract (n = 7) or red wheat bran (n = 8) for seven weeks. Compared to rats consuming control diet, rats fed treatment diets had significantly lower (p-value < 0.05) fasting serum insulin (control = 19.34±1.6; soy extract = 11.1±1.54; red wheat bran = 12.4±1.11) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values (control = 2.16±0.22; soy extract = 1.22±0.21; red wheat bran = 1.54±0.16). Non-fasted blood glucose was also significantly lower (p-value < 0.05) in rats fed treatment diets compared to rats consuming control diet at weeks four (control = 102.63±5.67; soy extract = 80.14±2.13; red wheat bran = 82.63±3.16), six (control = 129.5±10.83; soy extract = 89.14±2.48; red wheat bran = 98.13±3.54), and seven (control = 122.25±8.95; soy extract = 89.14±4.52; red wheat bran = 84.75±4.15). Daily intake of soy extract and red wheat bran may protect against type 2 diabetes mellitus by maintaining normal glucose homeostasis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulinas , Animais , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glucose/química , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861047

RESUMO

The combination of poor diet and exposure to secondhand smoke may increase hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, but few studies have explored this interaction. We explored an interaction among 574 never-smoking adults from the Singapore Chinese Health Study. At baseline (age 59 ± 8 years), intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E and fiber were estimated using a modified food frequency questionnaire. At follow-up (age 64 ± 9 years), HbA1c and cotinine were measured. A product term between cotinine (above or below the median value) and each nutrient (high or low intake) was included in separate linear regression models with HbA1c as the outcome. HbA1c among those with high cotinine and low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids intakes were higher than would be expected due to the individual effects alone (p-for-interaction = 0.05). Among those with lower intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, high cotinine levels were associated with 0.54% higher HbA1c levels (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02, 1.06). Conversely, among those with higher intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, HbA1c differ not differ by exposure (-0.09%; 95% CI: -0.45, 0.30). No evidence of interaction was observed for other nutrients. Diets high in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids may ameliorate secondhand smoke-induced increases in HbA1c.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cotinina/urina , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Singapura , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem
3.
Maturitas ; 130: 57-67, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706437

RESUMO

Dietary fibre and probiotics may play a role in the management of diverticular disease. This systematic review synthesises the evidence on the effects of dietary fibre modifications, with or without the use of probiotics, on the incidence in older adults of asymptomatic (AS) or symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), as well as on gastrointestinal function and symptoms. Five electronic databases were searched for studies through to December 2018. The body of evidence was appraised using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE. Nine studies were included, with mean sample ages ranging from 57 to 70 years, and three meta-analyses were performed. Only one study, with high risk of bias, measured the effect of dietary fibre on the incidence of diverticulitis. Dietary fibre supplementation improved stool weight (MD: 42 g/day, P < 0.00001; GRADE level of evidence: low), but had no significant effect on gastrointestinal symptoms (SMD: -0.13, P = 0.16; GRADE level of evidence: low) or stool transit time (MD: -3.70, P = 0.32 GRADE level of evidence: low). There was "very low" confidence for the body of evidence supporting symbiotics for AS or SUDD. A high dietary fibre intake, in line with dietary guidelines, may improve gastrointestinal function and is recommended in patients with AS or SUDD. Dietary fibre supplementation should be considered on an individualised basis to improve bowel function, while any recommendation on symbiotic supplements requires further well-designed research. Future studies should also measure the impact on the incidence of diverticulitis.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Doenças Diverticulares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças Diverticulares/epidemiologia , Doenças Diverticulares/fisiopatologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4519-4531, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634399

RESUMO

Prebiotics and dietary fibers are nondigestible ingredients that may confer benefits to the host by selectively stimulating beneficial intestinal bacteria and microbial-derived metabolites that support gut and host health. This experiment evaluated the effects of a blend of prebiotics and dietary fibers on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and fecal metabolites related to gastrointestinal health in adult dogs. Four diets containing either 5% cellulose (control; CT), 5% dietary fiber and prebiotic blend (FP), 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (SE), or 5% fiber blend plus 0.02% saccharin and eugenol (FSE) were formulated to meet or exceed the AAFCO (2017) nutritional requirements for adult dogs. Eight adult female beagles (mean age 4.2 ± 1.1 yr; mean BW = 10.8 ± 1.4 kg; mean BCS = 5.8 ± 0.6) were randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 dietary treatments using a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period consisted of 14 d (10 d of diet adaptation and 4 d of total and fresh fecal and total urine collection). All animals remained healthy throughout the study, with serum metabolites being within reference ranges for adult dogs. All diets were well accepted by the dogs, resulting in similar (P > 0.05) daily food intakes among treatments. Likewise, fecal output and scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among dietary treatments, with the latter being within the ideal range (2.5-2.9) in a 5-point scale. All diets were highly digestible and had similar (P > 0.05) ATTD of dry matter (81.6%-84.4%), organic matter (86.4%-87.3%), and crude protein (86.6%-87.3%). However, total dietary fiber (TDF) digestibility was greater for dogs fed the FSE diet (P < 0.05) in contrast with dogs fed the CT and SE diets, whereas dogs fed FP diets had intermediate TDF digestibility, but not different from all other treatments. Fecal acetate and propionate concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) for dogs fed FP and FSE diets. Fecal concentrations of isobutyrate and isovalerate were greater for dogs fed CT (P < 0.05) compared with dogs fed the other three treatments. No shifts in fecal microbial richness and diversity were observed among dietary treatments. Overall, the data suggest that dietary supplementation of fiber and prebiotic blend was well tolerated by dogs, did not cause detrimental effects on fecal quality or nutrient digestibility, and resulted in beneficial shifts in fecal metabolites that may support gut health.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Eugenol/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sacarina/administração & dosagem
6.
Psychiatr Pol ; 53(3): 613-628, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the degree of satisfaction of the daily demand for energy and chosen nutrients in the diets of women with schizophrenia, depending on the nutritional state of the subjects, assessed on the basis of the chosen anthropometric and metabolic parameters. METHODS: The study covered 102 women aged 21-64 (50 women diagnosed with schizophrenia and 52 healthy volunteers) aged 21-64 years. A 24-hour diet recall was used in the quantitative nutritional assessment. The anthropometric and biochemical measurements and the body composition analysis were used in the assessment of the nutritional state. RESULTS: The food rations of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were characterized by a significantly higher intake of saturated fatty acids and a lower intake of vitamin C, B12, folates, and sodium as compared to healthy women. It was noted at the same time that the food rations of patients from both groups provided too low amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, folates, potassium, calcium, iron, and dietary fiber. Too high intake was observed in the case of vitamin A, B2, B6, sodium, and phosphorus in both groups. Total fat body mass of women with schizophrenia was significantly correlated with intake of saturated fatty acids, whereas the visceral adipose tissue content was significantly correlated with the carbohydrate intake, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue content - with the total fat and saturated fatty acids intake. CONCLUSIONS: The diet of women diagnosed with schizophrenia did not deviate from the diet of healthy persons, although the nutritional mistakes that were made by them suggest to choose the nutritional therapy individually for each patient, after carrying out a detailed nutritional interview.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Estado Nutricional , Esquizofrenia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540305

RESUMO

To study the effects of maternal fiber supplementation during pregnancy on the testicular development of male offspring and its possible mechanisms, 36 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated to either a control diet (n = 18) or a fiber diet (the control diet supplemented with 22.60 g/kg inulin and 181.60 g/kg cellulosic; n = 18) during pregnancy. The body and testes weight of the offspring, 7-day-old piglets, was recorded. Testes were collected for further analyses. Results showed that the testicular organ index and the number of spermatogonia in single seminiferous tubule were higher in piglets from the fiber group than from the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of glucose, lactate, and lipids in the testes was found in the fiber group (p < 0.05). Proteomic analysis suggested that there were notable differences in glucolipid transport and metabolism, oxidation, and male reproduction-related proteins expression between the two groups (p < 0.05). Results revealed that the most enriched signaling pathways in the fiber group testes included starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and the renin-angiotensin system. mRNA expression analyzes further confirmed the importance of some signaling pathways in maternal fiber nutrition regulating offspring testicular development. Our results shed new light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of maternal fiber nutrition on offspring testicular development and provided a valuable insight for future explorations of the effect of maternal fiber nutrition on man reproduction.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica/métodos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480462

RESUMO

Atractylodis Rhizoma (AR), a kind of well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has a long history of being used to treat spleen-deficiency syndrome (SDS). Stir frying with bran is a common method of processing AR, as recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and is thought to enhance the therapeutic effect in TCM. Our previous studies have confirmed that bran-fried AR is superior to raw AR in terms of the improvement of gastrointestinal tract function. However, the biological mechanism of action is not yet clear. Here, we report the difference between raw and bran-fried AR in terms of the modulatory effect of intestinal microbiota. We found that the composition of intestinal microbiota of SDS rats changed significantly compared with healthy rats and tended to recover to normal levels after treatment with raw and bran-fried AR. Nine bacteria closely related to SDS were identified at the genus level. Among them, the modulatory effect between the raw and bran-fried AR was different. The improved modulation on Bacteroides, Escherichia-Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Incertae-Sedis (Defluviitaleaceae Family) and Incertae-Sedis (Erysipelotrichaceae Family) could be the mechanism by which bran-fried AR enhanced the therapeutic effect. Correlation analysis revealed that the modulation on intestinal microbiota was closely related to the secretion and expression of cytokines and gastrointestinal hormones. These findings can help us to understand the role and significance of bran-fried AR against SDS.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Rizoma , Esplenopatias/terapia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fezes/microbiologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Esplenopatias/patologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509947

RESUMO

The intake of antioxidants in the diet is a useful parameter to estimate the potential of diet to prevent chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and ageing. The objective was to estimate the intake of nutrient and non-nutrient antioxidants associated with the dietary fiber matrix in a healthy and functionally independent population aged over 80, estimating the intake of antioxidant nutrients and including soluble low molecular weight and macromolecular polyphenols in the non-nutrient antioxidant group. Specific nutrients related to oxidative stress (copper, zinc, selenium, manganese, vitamins A, C and E) were ingested in optimal quantities according to reference values. Total intake of non-nutrient antioxidants was 2196 mg/person/day, and macromolecular polyphenols were found to be the main dietary antioxidants, contributing 71% to the total intake of phenolic compounds. The intake, metabolism and physiological effects of all nutrient and non-nutrient dietary antioxidants must therefore be taken into account when evaluating their health benefits.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Dieta Mediterrânea , Suplementos Nutricionais , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Espanha
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509971

RESUMO

Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) is a water-soluble dietary fiber and is used in solid and liquid food to regulate gut function. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of PHGG on bowel movements (stool form and frequency), plasma bile acids, quality of life, and gut microbiota of healthy volunteers with a tendency toward diarrhea, i.e., irritable bowel syndrome diarrhea (IBS-D)-like symptoms. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel trial was performed on 44 healthy volunteers (22 males, 22 females, 41.9 ± 6.3 years old (average ± SD)) with minimum 7 bowel movements every week, wherein above 50% of their stool was between the Bristol stool scale (BSS) value of 5 and 6. Intake of the PHGG for 3 months significantly improved stool form, evaluated using BSS, and had no effects on stool frequency. BSS was significantly normalized in the group consuming the PHGG compared with the placebo. Comprehensive fecal microbiome analysis by the 16S rRNA-sequence method detected significant changes in the ratio of some bacteria, such as an increase of Bifidobacterium (p < 0.05) in the PHGG group. Our results suggest that intake of PHGG improves human stool form via regulating intestinal microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Defecação , Diarreia/terapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Galactanos/administração & dosagem , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Gomas Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/sangue , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Galactanos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hidrólise , Masculino , Mananas/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gomas Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Tempo , Tóquio , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
12.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374861

RESUMO

Maternal diet during pregnancy plays a likely role in infant immune development through both direct nutrient specific immunomodulatory effects and by modulating the composition and metabolic activity of the maternal gut microbiome. Dietary fibers, as major substrates for microbial fermentation, are of interest in this context. This is the first study to examine maternal intakes of different fiber sub-types and subsequent infant allergic disease. In an observational study of 639 mother-infant pairs (all infants had a family history of allergic disease) we examined maternal intakes of total fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, resistant starch, and prebiotic fiber, by a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire at 36-40 weeks' gestation. Infants attended an allergy clinical assessment at 12 months of age, including skin prick testing to common allergens. Higher maternal dietary intakes of resistant starch were associated with reduced doctor diagnosed infant wheeze, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.68 (95% CI 0.49, 0.95, p = 0.02). However, in contrast, higher maternal intakes of resistant starch were associated with higher risk of parent reported eczema aOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.09, 1.49, p < 0.01) and doctor diagnosed eczema aOR 1.19 (95% CI 1.01, 1.41, p = 0.04). In conclusion, maternal resistant starch consumption was differentially associated with infant phenotypes, with reduced risk of infant wheeze, but increased risk of eczema.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/etiologia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Estado Nutricional , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Recomendações Nutricionais , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Proteção , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/etiologia , Sons Respiratórios , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 36(Spec No3): 44-48, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368341

RESUMO

Introduction: The importance of a correct diet and nutrition before pregnancy to the end of lactation seems to be without doubt with the scientific information and evidence that we have today. Despite this, recent studies have shown that the mother´s diet is not as adequate as it should be and deficiencies of certain critical nutrients have been detected at this stage. The importance of a correct nutrition of the mother at this stage has already been recognized for decades and today we can affirm that it will affect not only the development of the fetus but also the genetic organization of the future metabolic response of the child and later of the adult. Several recent publications seem to have made clear that they seem to relate maternal nutrition with a possible programming effect related to the appearance of various metabolic alterations in adult life giving rise to the possible appearance of various chronic diseases. For this reason, gestation is going to be a challenge for the mother at the nutritional level due to increase energy and nutrient needs and their relationship to maternal and child health. In the daily diet, milk and milk products are critical sources of nutrients for the correct development of the fetus and the early development of the child. The purpose of this text is to highlight them, to review the effects of conventional dairy products and dairy products fortified with various nutrients on nutritional status during pregnancy and lactation.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Leite , Necessidades Nutricionais , Adulto , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional/métodos , Gravidez
14.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(3): 467-475, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Swallowing difficulty and diabetes mellitus are common in the elderly. However, texture-modified foods suitable for blood sugar control are scarce. This study was aimed to identify texture, glycemic indices (GIs) and postprandial responses of original and high-fiber Riceberry rice puddings. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: International Dysphagia Diet Standard Initiative (IDDSI)'s methods were used to determine texture. In vitro digestion was performed for estimating glycemic indices. A randomized cross-over controlled trial was conducted in twelve healthy volunteers. Original pudding, high-fiber pudding and white bread containing 40 g carbohydrate each were assigned in random sequence with twelve-day wash-out intervals. Plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min after food intake. Individual GIs of puddings were calculated. RESULTS: Original and high-fiber puddings were classified as IDDSI level 3 (liquidized) and 4 (pureed), respectively. The in vitro estimated GIs were 51 for original and 48 for high-fiber puddings. Clinical trial showed rapid kinetics (peaked at 30 min) but lower postprandial responses of both puddings, compared to white bread (peaked at 60 min). The adjusted GIs for original and high-fiber puddings were not significantly different (at 41±7.60 and 36±6.40, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Addition of fiber to the original pudding changed physical properties but not significantly reduced the GI. Original and high-fiber Riceberry rice puddings could be low-GI dysphagia diets, which may be useful for step-wise swallowing practice from IDDSI level 3 to 4 for those who also required blood sugar control.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Oryza , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426505

RESUMO

The new Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommends whole grains foods as the primary choice of grain products in the daily diet. This study examined whether higher shares of whole-grain consumption, beyond the recommended levels (i.e., above half) of the daily grain intake, are linked with optimal diet quality and intakes of some key nutrients, for both children and adolescents and adults in Canada. To meet the objective of this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2015, which is a nationally representative data. We employed the propensity score matching (PSM) method in this study. PSM estimates the exposure effect when a set of individuals are exposed to a specific treatment (food group intake in this study) in a non-experimental setting. The results of our analyses implied that a high consumption of whole grains is associated with a good diet quality. However, after a certain level of whole-grain consumption, no significant differences can be observed in diet quality scores of children and adolescents and adults. Moreover, it was observed that the proportion of obese and overweight individuals was significantly lower among adults that had balanced intakes of whole and non-whole grains. The results of logistic regression analyses also showed the probability of being obese and overweight is significantly lower in the case of adults with balanced intakes of grains. However, no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of obesity and overweight across whole grains consumption patterns for children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade , Grãos Integrais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Criança , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Grão Comestível , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/etiologia , Sobrepeso , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405019

RESUMO

Dietary pulses, including lentils, are protein-rich plant foods that are enriched in intestinal health-promoting bioactives, such as non-digestible carbohydrates and phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets supplemented with cooked red lentils on the colonic microenvironment (microbiota composition and activity and epithelial barrier integrity and function). C57Bl/6 male mice were fed one of five diets: a control basal diet (BD), a BD-supplemented diet with 5, 10 or 20% cooked red lentils (by weight), or a BD-supplemented diet with 0.7% pectin (equivalent soluble fiber level as found in the 20% lentil diet). Red lentil supplementation resulted in increased: (1) fecal microbiota α-diversity; (2) abundance of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria (e.g., Prevotella, Roseburia and Dorea spp.); (3) concentrations of fecal SCFAs; (4) mRNA expression of SCFA receptors (G-protein-coupled receptors (GPR 41 and 43) and tight/adherens junction proteins (Zona Occulden-1 (ZO-1), Claudin-2, E-cadherin). Overall, 20% lentil had the greatest impact on colon health outcomes, which were in part explained by a change in the soluble and insoluble fiber profile of the diet. These results support recent public health recommendations to increase consumption of plant-based protein foods for improved health, in particular intestinal health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lens (Planta)/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mucinas/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Permeabilidade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/genética , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
17.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443231

RESUMO

Weight regain after a successful weight loss intervention is very common. Most studies show that, on average, the weight loss attained during a weight loss intervention period is not or is not fully maintained during follow-up. We review what is currently known about dietary strategies for weight loss maintenance, focusing on nutrient composition by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies and discuss other potential strategies that have not been studied so far. Twenty-one studies with 2875 participants who were overweight or obese are included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies investigate increased protein intake (12 studies), lower dietary glycemic index (four studies), green tea (three studies), conjugated linoleic acid (three studies), higher fibre intake (three studies), and other miscellaneous interventions (six studies). The meta-analysis shows a significant beneficial effect of higher protein intake on the prevention of weight regain (SMD (standardized mean difference) -0.17 (95% CI -0.29, -0.05), z = 2.80, p = 0.005), without evidence for heterogeneity among the included studies. No significant effect of the other strategies is detected. Diets that combine higher protein intake with different other potentially beneficial strategies, such as anti-inflammatory or anti-insulinemic diets, may have more robust effects, but these have not been tested in randomized clinical trials yet.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Ganho de Peso , Perda de Peso , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Índice Glicêmico , Humanos , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Linoleicos Conjugados/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450806

RESUMO

Every year, the Italian National Health Service (NHS) provides about 200,000 celiac people (based on 2017 data) living in Italy with financial support of about 250 million euro to cover the cost of their specific dietary constrains. The existence of gluten-free products of high quality and affordable price is very important for the quality of life of celiac people and the sustainability of public support. Over the last decade, the market for gluten-free products has experienced a dramatic surge, with an increasing shelf space dedicated to these products in supermarkets, and a large variety of products both in terms of kind of agricultural inputs and processing and packaging methods. This study aimed at assessing the offer of gluten-free (GF) pasta in Italian supermarkets, with respect to its ability to meet the needs of celiac people in terms of variety, prices and safety. A hedonic price analysis was performed. Results indicated that GF pasta is sold only in 44% of the 212 stores of the sample, with a price equal to more than twice that of conventional pasta. A premium price was found for the following attributes: small packages, brands specialized in GF products, content in fiber and the presence of quinoa as ingredient.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/dietoterapia , Doença Celíaca/economia , Comércio/economia , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Dieta Livre de Glúten/economia , Carboidratos da Dieta/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Doença Celíaca/diagnóstico , Chenopodium quinoa , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/economia , Embalagem de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Itália , Modelos Econômicos , Valor Nutritivo
19.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(4): 1131-1136, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1038599

RESUMO

Objetivou-se avaliar três períodos de adaptação, cinco, 10 e 15 dias, a dietas com baixa ou alta fibra sobre a digestibilidade e características fecais. Foram utilizadas duas dietas, uma contendo 0% de casca de soja (0%CS) e outra com 15% de casca de soja (15%CS), fornecidas a 12 cães adultos. Ao final de cada período, houve coleta total de fezes para avaliação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA), energia metabolizável (EM) e características fecais. Além disso, foi avaliada a palatabilidade das dietas. Como resultado, não houve efeito do período de adaptação sobre a digestibilidade das dietas (P>0,05). A dieta 15%CS apresentou menor CDA da matéria seca (MS) e EM, em relação à dieta 0%CS (P<0,05). A consistência fecal dos cães não diferiu entre as dietas e os períodos (P>0,05). Houve redução no pH e na amônia fecal dos cães alimentados com a dieta 15%CS (P<0,05), após 10 dias de alimentação. Não houve diferença na palatabilidade das dietas (P>0,05). Períodos de adaptação à dieta superiores a cinco dias não alteram a digestibilidade e a maioria das características fecais de cães, exceto a amônia fecal. A inclusão de 15%CS na dieta reduz a digestibilidade da MS e a EM, bem como o pH e a amônia fecal.(AU)


This study aimed to evaluate three periods of adaptation, 5, 10 and 15 days, to diets with low or high fiber on digestibility and fecal characteristics. Two diets were used, one containing 0% (0% SH) and one containing 15% soybean hulls (15% SH). Diets were provided to 12 adult dogs. At the end of each period there was total collection of feces to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), metabolizable energy (ME) and fecal characteristics. We also evaluated diet palatability. There was no effect of the adaptation period on digestibility of diets (P> 0.05). The 15% SH diet reduced ADC of dry matter (DM) and ME, compared to the 0% SH diet (P< 0.05). Fecal consistency of the dogs did not differ among diets and periods (P> 0.05). There was a decrease in fecal pH and ammonia in dogs fed the diet with 15% SH (P< 0.05) after 10 days of feeding (P< 0.05). There was no difference in diet palatability (P> 0.05). Diet adaptation longer than 5 days did not alter the digestibility and most fecal characteristics of dogs, except for fecal ammonia. The inclusion of 15% SH in diet reduces DM digestibility and fecal pH and ammonia in dogs.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Fezes , Ração Animal , Valor Nutritivo
20.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284433

RESUMO

Preschool meals may influence the formation of children's dietary habits and health. We assessed the contribution of preschool meals to the diet of Finnish children. We used food record data from the cross-sectional DAGIS survey and selected recording days which included all three meals (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack) at preschool. We analyzed the diet of three- to four-year-olds (n = 324) and five- to six-year-olds (n = 233). Preschool meals accounted for 54% of the weekday's energy intake in both age groups, and provided ≥60% of total fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins D and E. More than 60% of fish dishes but only one third of total daily fresh fruit were consumed at preschool. The mean (SD) percentages of energy from protein and fat at preschool were 17% (3%) and 30% (7%) in the younger and 17% (3%) and 31% (6%) in the older age group, respectively. The mean proportions of energy from added sugar at preschool were below 5% in both age groups. On average, salt intake exceeded recommendations and 60% of salt came from preschool food. Tackling high salt intake should be a future goal of guidance for early childhood education and care food services.


Assuntos
Cuidado da Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Serviços de Alimentação , Refeições , Estado Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem
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