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1.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066494

RESUMO

Mango is rich in polyphenols including gallotannins and gallic acid, among others. The bioavailability of mango polyphenols, especially polymeric gallotannins, is largely dependent on the intestinal microbiota, where the generation of absorbable metabolites depends on microbial enzymes. Mango polyphenols can favorably modulate bacteria associated with the production of bioactive gallotannin metabolites including Lactobacillus plantarum, resulting in intestinal health benefits. In several studies, the prebiotic effects of mango polyphenols and dietary fiber, their potential contribution to lower intestinal inflammation and promotion of intestinal integrity have been demonstrated. Additionally, polyphenols occurring in mango have some potential to interact with intestinal and less likely with hepatic enzymes or transporter systems. This review provides an overview of interactions of mango polyphenols with the intestinal microbiome, associated health benefits and underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Polifenóis/química , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácido Gálico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/metabolismo , Inflamação , Mangifera , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prebióticos , Ratos
2.
Food Res Int ; 145: 110398, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112401

RESUMO

Nowadays there is an increasing demand for vegetable protein sources as an alternative to that of animal origin, not only for its greater environmental sustainability but also for its relationship with lower risk of suffering cardiovascular diseases. Legumes, cereals and seeds are seen as a good proteinaceous source providing as well dietetic fiber and phytochemicals with antioxidant properties. However, their digestibility and bioavailability are limited by the presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) but susceptible of being improved by soaking, cooking or fermentation. The objective of this work is to review the solid-state and submerged fermentation effect on nutritional and functional properties of legumes, cereals and seeds. The microorganisms involved (bacteria, fungus and yeasts) are able to produce enzymes that degrade ANFs giving rise to more digestible flours with a more interesting nutritional, sensorial and technological profile. Solid-state fermentation is more commonly used for its higher efficiency, accepting agro-industrial residues as substrates and its lower volume of effluents. Fermented legumes had their technological properties enhanced while an increment in antioxidant properties was characteristic of cereals. The present review highlights fermentation of cereals and legumes mainly as a key process that at industrial scale could generate new products with enhanced nutritional and technological properties.


Assuntos
Fabaceae , Farinha , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Fermentação , Farinha/análise
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(26): 7446-7457, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951908

RESUMO

Soluble dietary fibers being fermented by gut microbiota constitute a pivotal prerequisite for soluble dietary fibers exhibiting physiological functions. However, the relationship between fiber type and gut microbiota metabolism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of fiber types on short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) biosynthesis in a simulated colon. Results showed that different soluble dietary fibers caused distinct metabolic profiles both in SCFAs and organic acids. Further analysis revealed that the SCFA biosynthesis pathway was related to the chain structure of fiber polysaccharides. Moreover, the microbial community structure showed substantial difference among experimental groups. Parabacteroides was substantially elevated in the resistant starch group, while Lactobacillus was the predominant genus in other groups. Correlation analysis further revealed that SCFA biosynthesis was correlated with microbial taxa at different taxonomic levels. Totally, the present study provided an insight into targeted intervention of gut microorganisms for dictating SCFA and organic acid production.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Colo/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação
4.
Food Chem ; 360: 130032, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022520

RESUMO

Five fettuccini formulations containing 5% (5MSP), 10% (10MSP), 15% (15MSP), 20% (20MSP), and 30% (30MSP) of moringa sprout powder (MSP) were produced aimed at improving the nutritional and bioactive profile of conventional pasta. A gradual increase of protein, lipids, fiber and mineral content was observed in fettuccine as the MSP amount increased, while carbohydrates were reduced. MSP-addition also increased the levels of thiamine, riboflavin, γ- aminobutyric acid, glucosinolates and the antioxidant activity in pasta. All pasta doughs showed similar rheological parameters. Textural properties decreased after MSP inclusion, but the values obtained were close to those of control. Incorporation of MSP up to 10% did not modify substantially the sensory attributes of fettuccine, but higher amounts had a negative impact. Thus, addition of MSP up to 10% is a promising technological approach to improve the nutritional and functional properties of pasta without compromising consumer acceptance.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Moringa/química , Valor Nutritivo , Pós , Antioxidantes , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Glucosinolatos/análise , Humanos , Reologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/análise
5.
J Food Sci ; 86(6): 2288-2299, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028008

RESUMO

In recent years, dietary fibers have attracted a lot of attention as they reduce calories and witness the glycemic index. In this study, wheat bran (WB) and mucilaginous seeds flour (Qodume Shirazi seeds [QSS], wild sage seeds [WSS]) as sources of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber were used for pasta enrichment (50% WB, 45% WB-5% seed flour, and 40% WB-10% seed flour). The cooking properties, microstructural, textural, glycemic index, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated. Fiber ingredients increased moisture content, cooking loss, and ash of pasta samples. In contrast, swelling indexing, optimum cooking time, and water absorption decreased. The samples containing high fiber had a darker appearance with a stiffer structure. Microstructure confirmed the presence of a developed protein matrix in the witness sample. But by substitution of the WB, a heterogeneous and dense network with small and large cells formed. The mucilaginous seed flours (WB-QSS and WB-WSS samples) improved the uniformity of pasta microstructure in comparison with WB sample. WB pasta samples reduced all sensory scores, but adding seed flours had a more noticeable influence on increasing the sensory properties. The presence of QSS and WSS resulted in more starchy and elastic texture. By using mucilaginous seeds flour in the production of high-fiber pasta, the glycemic index decreased more noticeably. This investigation indicates the positive impact of mucilaginous seeds, especially WSS, on pasta sensorial properties, in line with a strong influence on technological characteristics and decreasing the glycemic index. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study determined a practical approach to produce high-fiber pasta by applying mucilaginous seeds with the improvement of technological and sensory properties.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/química , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Salvia/química , Sementes/química , Farinha/análise , Índice Glicêmico , Amido/análise
6.
Food Chem ; 360: 130035, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029922

RESUMO

Instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) has been used as a pre-treatment to increase extractable polyphenols (EPP), mainly attributed to matrix structure expansion. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of DIC on non-extractable polyphenols (NEPP), EPP, and dietary fiber on grape pomace. At 0.2 MPa-60 s was observe an increase of total EPP and total anthocyanins. Despite the increment of EPP, was observe the lowest anthocyanins and non-extractable proanthocyanidins content at 0.4 MPa-120 s. This increase was due to a partial transformation of anthocyanins into phenolic acids and the depolymerization of proanthocyanidins. Also was observe partial solubilization of insoluble dietary fiber. Morphologically, the size of the pores generated by DIC was more significant at higher pressures. Thus, DIC modified the morphology and profile of the polyphenols of grape pomace, producing phenolic compounds of simpler structure and improving their antioxidant capacities.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Polifenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proantocianidinas/análise
7.
Food Res Int ; 144: 110355, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053548

RESUMO

The present study aimed to better understand the metabolite release and rheological characteristics of sponge cake after in vitro digestion and the effect of Eucheuma as a fibre-rich flour replacer. Overall, 22 compounds including amino acids, saccharides, fatty acids, and other metabolites were identified based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. Principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis showed that Eucheuma reduced the release of amino acids and fatty acids. The released glucose from the EP20 sample (20% replacement of flour with Eucheuma) decreased by 35.4% in intestinal phases compared with the control cake. Eucheuma's in vitro effects on sponge cake digestion mainly reflected altered flow behaviour index. All samples showed solid-like behaviour and a decrease in viscoelastic moduli after digestion. This study forms the basis for future optimisation of food properties to control their digestive characteristics.


Assuntos
Culinária , Farinha , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Reologia
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(17): 5026-5039, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902286

RESUMO

This study is aimed at exploring the release of bound polyphenols (BP) from insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and its mechanism by solid-state fermentation (SSF) via Trichoderma viride. The results indicated that BP released by SSF (5.55 mg GAE/g DW) was significantly higher than by alkaline hydrolysis. In addition, 39 polyphenols and catabolites were detected, and the related biotransformation pathways were speculated. Quantitative analysis showed that SSF released more ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and organic acids, which led to advances in antioxidant, α-amylase, and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Furthermore, structural characteristics (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermos gravimetric analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and dynamic changes of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes indicated that the destruction of hemicellulose and the secretion of xylanase were vital for releasing BP. Overall, this study demonstrated that SSF was beneficial to release BP from IDF, which could provide insight into utilizing agricultural byproducts in a more natural and economical way.


Assuntos
Oryza , Trichoderma , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fermentação , Hypocreales , Polifenóis
9.
Food Chem ; 355: 129642, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799243

RESUMO

Wine and olive oil making by-products are rich sources of bioactive compounds suitable for new healthy recipes of staple foods. In this study, the profile of pasta (tagliatelle) fortified with 7% of grape pomace (GP) or olive pomace (pâté, OP) was studied, focusing on phenolic compounds after cooking. The enriched tagliatelle retained the same monoglycosylated and acetylated anthocyanins found in grape pomace. The fortified tagliatelle with a new milling by-product called pâté retained hydroxytyrosol after cooking (6.6 mg/100 g). In both the two types of enriched tagliatelle the fiber content increased of approx. 3%, while the added phenols retained after cooking by tagliatelle fortified with GP and OP were 6.21 mg/100 g and 9 mg/100 g, respectively. The fortified tagliatelle retained a good cooking resistance and a good texture after cooking, thus enhancing the nutritional profile of pasta, a staple food usually characterized by a negligible amount of phenolic compounds and fiber.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Olea/química , Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química
10.
J Food Biochem ; 45(6): e13746, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913169

RESUMO

To assess the physiological functions of bound phenols in insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from different Triticeae crops, bound phenols in IDF were extracted from wheat, triticale, barley and quinoa. In addition, model in vitro was established and used in evaluating the release of bound phenols and changes in their physiological functions after simulated digestion. Results showed that bound phenol content in IDF from Triticeae crops before digestion was higher than which during digestion, and its physiological functions were also better (p < .05). Moreover, barley extracted before digestion, its bound phenolic content in IDF was higher than those in other three Triticeae crops, besides,its bound phenol also showed better antioxidant ability. Before digestion, bound phenols in IDF from triticale showed the best hypoglycemic ability (the inhibition rate of α-glucosidase was 95%; the inhibition rate of α-amylase was 97%). In the simulated digestion model, the bound phenols were mainly released during the intestinal digestion stage, they showed better physiological functions than which released at the gastric digestion stage. The bound phenol content in triticale was higher and its physiological functions was better than those in the other crops. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The results of this experiment showed that the release of bound phenols measured by chemical extraction (i.e., before digestion) was higher than that by simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Compared with the chemical extraction method, in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion simulates the pH value and enzyme environment of food in the human body gastrointestinal digestion process more effectively. This study can provide reference for selecting Triticeae crops feeding in the future. To be more precise, bound phenol content in the insoluble dietary fiber of barley was the highest before digestion. The bound phenol in the insoluble dietary fiber of triticale had the best hypoglycemic ability. The bound phenolic compounds are mainly released during intestinal digestion, and their physiological functions are better than that in gastric digestion.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Hipoglicemiantes , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Fenóis/análise
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(5): 1979-1996, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822378

RESUMO

We report on production of novel quaternary nanocomposite films based on thermoplastic starch (TPS, 8% w/v) derived from cassava, cocoa butter, (CB, 30% wt.%), and lemongrass essential oil (LEO, 1:1) nanoemulsions reinforced with different concentrations of brewery spent grain (BSG, 5 or 10 wt.%) fibers, by continuous casting. The chemical composition, the morphological, thermal, mechanical properties, film barrier, biodegradability in the vegetable compound, in addition to the application in chocolates, have been widely studied. The addition of CB, LEO, and BSG caused relevant changes in the starch-based films, such as increased extensibility (from 2.4-BSG5 to 9.4%-BSG10) and improved barrier to moisture (2.9 and 2.4 g.mm.kPa-1 .h-1 .m-2 ). Contrastingly, the thermal stability of the starch film was slightly decreased. The biodegradability of the herein developed quaternary nanocomposite films was the same as that of TPS films, eliminating concerns on the supplementation with active ingredients that are expected to have some biocidal effect. Despite checking antimicrobial activity only by contact under the biocomposites, chocolates packed with the films were well accepted by consumers, especially the samples of white chocolate stored in the BSG5 biocomposite. Overall, this new approach towards quaternary active, biodegradable films produced in a pilot-scale lamination unit was successful in either improving or at least maintaining the essential properties of TPS-based films for food packaging applications, while providing them with unique features and functionalities. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This contribution relates to new approach toward quaternary films produced in a pilot-scale lamination unit. It relates to sustainability as it is both biodegradable and based on plant biomass, as well as produced via a clean, through high-yield process. The four components of the edible films we developed provide it with good in properties performance, as both a passive barrier (i.e. purely physical), and active, related to the sensory attributes of food, essential to be applied in food packaging. The valorization of a BSG also adds to the relevance of our contribution within the circular bioeconomy framework.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/química , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Manihot/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Amido/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos
12.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800312

RESUMO

The global population is rapidly ageing. Adequate nutritional status can play a key role in preventing or delaying the progression of age-related diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the usual intake of energy, macronutrients, dietary fibre and salt in order to determine compliance with recommendations and to identify the sources of these nutrients in older adults (≥65 years) in Ireland. This study is based on data from the cohort of older adults aged ≥65 years (n = 226) in the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) (2008-2010) which estimated food and nutrient intakes in a representative sample of adults 18-90 years using a 4 day weighed food record. This study found that while intakes of macronutrients are generally sufficient in this population group, older adults in Ireland have high intakes of total fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt and low intakes of dietary fibre. Future strategies to address the nutritional issues identified in older adults could include the promotion of healthy food choices together with improvements of the food supply including reformulation (fat, sugar and salt) to support successful ageing of our population.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/análise , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta/normas , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política Nutricional , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Necessidades Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional
13.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924574

RESUMO

Date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is commonly consumed around the world and has recently become an economical crop in Eastern Thailand, especially the Barhi cultivar that can be consumed as fresh fruit. To maintain genetic qualities, date palm is populated through cell culture. This leads to high production costs, while access to this technique is limited. Increasing date palm population by simple seed planting is currently of interest as an alternative for local farmers. Nevertheless, information on nutritive values, bioactive compounds, and health-promoting bioactivities of seed originating from date palm fruit is unavailable. Effects of different planting origins (cell culture origin (CO) and seed origin (SO)) of date palm fruits at the Khalal stage of Barhi cultivar were investigated for nutritive values, bioactive compounds, and in vitro health-promoting properties via key enzyme inhibitions against obesity (lipase), diabetes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV), Alzheimer's disease (cholinesterases and ß-secretase), and hypertension (angiotensin-converting enzyme). Waste seeds as a by-product from date palm production were also examined regarding these properties to increase seed marketing opportunities for future food applications and other health-related products. CO and SO exhibited insignificant differences in energy, fat, and carbohydrate contents. SO had higher protein, dietary fiber, vitamin A, vitamin E, and calcium contents than CO, while CO contained higher contents of fructose, glucose and maltose. Higher phenolic contents in SO led to greater enzyme inhibitory activities than CO. Interestingly, seeds of date palm fruits mostly contained higher nutritive values than the flesh. No carotenoids were detected in seeds but higher phenolic contents resulted in greater enzyme inhibitory activities than recorded for fruit flesh. Results suggest that appropriate planting of date palm can support the development of novel date palm fruit products, leading to expansion of economic opportunities and investment in date palm fruit agriculture.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Frutas/química , Phoeniceae/química , Sementes/química , Cálcio/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina E/análise
14.
Molecules ; 26(8)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924590

RESUMO

A beneficial aspect of the use of fiber preparations in the meat industry is the improvement of some quality characteristics of meat products. However, the preparation added in the amount of 3 or 6% may affect their color. The effect of the addition of barley, wheat and oat fiber preparations with different fiber lengths, in quantities allowing the product to be indicated as "high in fiber" or "source of fiber", to pasteurized or sterilized medium-grounded canned meat products on their color, was determined. In the obtained canned meat products, the basic chemical composition and the L*, a* and b*, C* (Chroma) and h* (hue angle) color components were determined. The addition of the barley fiber preparation BG 300 to the model canned meat products caused a significant (p ≤ 0.05) darkening and an increase in the proportion of yellow color. In an industrial practice, this may result in poorer consumer acceptance of the meat product. Fiber length of wheat and barley fiber had no effect on the color components of products. The 6% addition of the wheat fiber preparations WF 200R and WF 600R or the oat fiber preparations HF 200 and HF 600 caused an apparent lightening of their color (ΔE > 2) compared to the control products.


Assuntos
Cor , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Produtos da Carne/análise , Pasteurização , Esterilização , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos
15.
Food Chem ; 353: 129407, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743429

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of wheat bran micronization on its functionality including physicochemical and antioxidant properties, and dough properties. Coarse bran (D50 = 362.3 ± 20.5 µm) was superfine ground to medium (D50 = 60.4 ± 10.1 µm) and superfine (D50 = 11.3 ± 2.6 µm) bran, accompanied with increasing specific surface area and breakdown of aleurone layers. Bran micronization increased its soluble dietary fibre content, ferulic acid liberation, and antioxidant properties including total polyphenol content, ABTS•+ and DPPH• scavenging activities, while decreased its water retention capacity and insoluble dietary fibre content. Moreover, bran micronization impacted dough rheological properties. The dough with superfine bran had higher water absorption and gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity, final viscosity and setback value, lower stability time, resistance to extension, and extensibility than the dough with coarse bran. This dough furthermore exhibited more solid-like properties characterized by decreased loss moduli and frequency dependence (n').


Assuntos
Pão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Farinha , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifenóis/análise , Reologia , Viscosidade , Água/química
16.
Food Funct ; 12(6): 2660-2671, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650606

RESUMO

The high intake of sodium and low intake of dietary fiber are two major dietary risk factors for preventable deaths worldwide, highlighting the need and implementations for developing health foods with low-salt/high-dietary fibers. Bread as a staple food contributes about 25% to the daily intake of sodium in many countries, and salt reduction in bread still remains a great technical challenge. In this study, we developed a simple method to reformulate the white bread in terms of reducing salt contents via dietary fiber fortification, while maintaining the taste and texture qualities. Low molecular weight water-extractable arabinoxylans (LMW-WEAX) as a soluble dietary fiber was first hydrated in salt water before dough mixing, leading to an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of sodium in bread and accelerating the release of sodium ions from crumbs, allowing 20% salt reduction in bread without impacting the salt perception. Data from the moisture content, crumb structure, water distribution, dough rheology and bread texture properties suggest that the pre-hydrated incorporation of LMW-WEAX mitigates the detrimental effect of dietary fiber on the dough and bread quality. The modulation of Ca2+ on the permeability of Na+ through the mucus layer and implication in salt enhancement of the bread were investigated. Results show that the pre-hydrated incorporation of WEAX containing Na+ and Ca2+ (1.0%) makes it possible to reduce 30% salt content in breads, which have implications in the large-scale production of low-salt/high-dietary fiber bread.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Cálcio/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Dieta Saudável , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/análise
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(4): 1273-1282, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761135

RESUMO

This study was designed to investigate the effects of ultrafine grinding on the physicochemical properties of pea dietary fiber (PDF) and the hypoglycemic effect of ultrafine grinding dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus (DM). So, the PDF was treated by ultrafine grinding technology, and its microstructure and physicochemical properties were determined. Then, the DM model was established, and the 4-week ultrafine grinded pea dietary fiber (UGPDF) diet intervention was conducted by using gavage and feeding. During this period, the blood glucose and body weight of the mice were measured, and an oral glucose tolerance test was measured on the last day. The biochemical blood indexes of the mice were determined, and the pancreas was stained with HE after dissecting. The results showed that after ultrafine grinding, the structure fragmentation, specific surface area increased, and UGPDF showed higher swelling ability as well as water and oil holding capacities. Simultaneously, UGPDF had a significant effect on reducing blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in DM mice, improving the wasting state of mice and increasing the tolerance to glucose. Further, the results of the HE section showed that the pancreatic islet cells gradually returned to normal regular morphology. In biochemical blood indicators, UGPDF reduced TC and TG levels in the blood. This study provided a specific data basis for the following research on the hypoglycemic mechanism, and broadens the application field of PDF. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The physicochemical properties of pea dietary fiber were improved by ultrafine grinding technology. Because of this, the application of pea dietary fiber in the field of hypoglycemic had a better effect, laying a foundation for the next research on hypoglycemic mechanism.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Ervilhas/química , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Fenômenos Químicos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Masculino , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Food Res Int ; 140: 109816, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33648163

RESUMO

Several companies have focused their attention on the development of technologies able to enrich/isolate the wheat aleuronic layer because it is a source of bioactive compounds. In this work two different wheat bran fractions enriched in aleurone (AF1, 55-70% aleurone and AF2, 75-90% aleurone) were obtained by a dry fractionation based on air classification. Free and bound phenolic compounds, and alkylresorcinols were determined in the two fractions by HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS and GC-MS, respectively. To our knowledge, feruloyl di-hexoside was described for the first time in wheat aleurone and flavonoids were quantified for the first time in this fraction. The results have shown that the most concentrated free phenolic compounds were flavonoids, and AF1 was the fraction that presented the highest flavonoid content; whereas trans ferulic acid was the most abundant bound phenolic acid, which highest content was obtained in AF2. Besides, total content of ferulic acid monomers in AF2 was 33.63% higher than in AF1, whereas total content of ferulic acid dimers/trimers in AF1 was 33.9% higher than in AF2. The highest content of alkylresorcinols was obtained in AF1 and it was 10.30% higher than the obtained in AF2. Therefore, it can be stated that this green technology could be used to produce enriched aleurone fractions as source of phenolic and alkylresorcinol compounds. These fractions could be of great interest for the formulation of enriched foods.


Assuntos
Fenóis , Proteínas de Plantas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fenóis/análise
19.
Carbohydr Polym ; 257: 117667, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541670

RESUMO

While gut bacteria have different abilities to utilize dietary fibers, the degree of fiber structural alignment to bacteria species is not well understood. Corn bran arabinoxylan (CAX) was used to investigate how minor polymer fine structural differences at the genotype × environment level influences the human gut microbiota. CAXs were extracted from 4 corn genotypes × 3 growing years and used in in vitro fecal fermentations. CAXs from different genotypes had varied contents of arabinose/xylose ratio (0.46-0.54), galactose (58-101 mg/g), glucuronic acid (18-32 mg/g). There was genotype- but not environment-specific differences in fine structures. After 24 h fermentation, CAX showed different acetate (71-86 mM), propionate (35-44 mM), butyrate (7-10 mM), and total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) (117-137 mM) production. SCFA profiles and gut microbiota both shifted in a genotype-specific way. In conclusion, the study reveals a very high specificity of fiber structure to gut bacteria use and SCFA production.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos/química , Zea mays/genética , Acetatos/química , Arabinose/química , Butiratos/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/química , Fezes , Fermentação , Galactose/química , Genótipo , Ácido Glucurônico/química , Humanos , Polímeros/química , Propionatos/química , Xilose/química
20.
J Food Sci ; 86(3): 915-922, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33527369

RESUMO

The impact of Eucheuma on water loss and status in sponge cakes was measured and analyzed in this study. Eucheuma was used to replace 0%, 10%, and 20% of wheat flour to make sponge cakes, coded as the control, EP10, and EP20, respectively. The initial water content of batters showed no significant differences (around 57.0%, dry basis), whereas the final EP10 and EP20 products had higher water content. Three stages were found during baking in control sample and these three stages were fitted by linear, linear, and exponential models with root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.016, 0.018, and 0.133, respectively. Eucheuma addition decreased the water loss rate and changed the water loss stages, which were fitted by linear, linear, and linear models in EP20 sample (RMSE = 0.027, 0.047, and 0.108, respectively). The crust formation and crumb structure analysis showed that the formation of cracks and the disappearance of pore structures hindered the water evaporation. The low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance and magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the water status in the final EP20 products was not as tightly as that in the control samples. A proposed schematic diagram was developed based on the qualitative analysis of the transfer mechanisms to explain the total effect of Eucheuma on the water loss rate and status. These results aid our understanding of the water loss process of sponge cakes and promote the potential application of Eucheuma in bakery products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Eucheuma as a flour replacement can improve the contents of dietary fiber and minerals like potassium of sponge cake. The impact of Eucheuma on water loss and status in sponge cake was measured and analyzed in this study. The results can promote the potential application of Eucheuma in bakery products and predict the quality attributes of baking products.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Farinha , Alga Marinha/química , Água/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Triticum/química
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