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1.
Food Chem ; 332: 127444, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653769

RESUMO

By-products of Belgian endive represent an interesting yet underutilised source of dietary fibre (DF). Dietary fibre concentrates (DFC) that are low in sugar and neutral in taste are sought by the food industry to increase DF content and improve texture in food products. The aim was to set up a biorefinery process to produce DFC from forced roots of Belgian endive (DFC-BE) and characterise the resulting product. As a control, non-treated forced roots powder (FRP-BE) was tested. Water extraction significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the content of sugars, phenolic acids (PA) and sesquiterpene lactones (SL) in DFC-BE. In contrast, total dietary fibre concentration (TDF) was higher in DFC-BE (81.82 g/100 g DW) in comparison to FRP-BE (49.04 g/100 g DW). DFC-BE offers an excellent water holding capacity (WHC) of 14.71 g water/g DW and a swelling capacity (SWC) of 23.46 mL water/g DW, suggesting possible use as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Bélgica , Alimento Funcional/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Pós/química , Verduras/química
2.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 595-602, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat bran, nopal, and psyllium are examples of particulate, viscous and particulate, and viscous fibers, respectively, with laxative properties yet contrasting fermentability. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the fermentability of these fibers in vitro and their effects on intestinal function relevant to laxation in vivo using MRI. METHODS: Each fiber was predigested prior to measuring gas production in vitro during 48-h anaerobic incubation with healthy fecal samples. We performed a randomized, 3-way crossover trial in 14 healthy volunteers who ingested 7.5 g fiber twice on the day prior to study initiation and once with the study test meal. Serial MRI scans obtained after fasting and hourly for 4 h following meal ingestion were used to assess small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes, and T1 of the ascending colon (T1AC) as measures of colonic water. Breath samples for hydrogen analysis were obtained while patients were in the fasted state and every 30 min for 4 h following meal ingestion. RESULTS: In vitro, the onset of gas production was significantly delayed with psyllium (mean ± SD: 14 ± 5 h) compared with wheat bran (6 ± 2 h, P = 0.003) and was associated with a smaller total gas volume (P = 0.01). Prefeeding all 3 fibers for 24 h was associated with an increased fasting T1AC (>75% of values >90th centile of the normal range). There was a further rise during the 4 h after psyllium (0.3 ± 0.3 s P = 0.009), a fall with wheat bran (-0.2 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.02), but no change with nopal (0.0 ± 0.1 s, P = 0.2). SBWC increased for all fibers; nopal stimulated more water than wheat bran [AUC mean (95% CI) difference: 7.1 (0.6, 13.8) L/min, P = 0.03].Breath hydrogen rose significantly after wheat bran and nopal but not after psyllium (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both viscous and particulate fibers are equally effective at increasing colonic T1 over a period of 24 h. Mechanisms include water trapping in the small bowel by viscous fibers and delivery of substrates to the colonic microbiota by more fermentable particulate fiber. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03263065.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Psyllium/química , Água , Adulto Jovem
3.
Food Chem ; 331: 127292, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559599

RESUMO

Food supplementation with vitamin A is an efficient strategy to combat vitamin A deficiency. The stability of vitamin A during cooking and storage is, however, low. We here show that cereal bran protects retinyl palmitate (RP) during simmering and storage. Native wheat bran stabilized RP the most during simmering. About 75% RP was recovered after 120 min of cooking, while all RP was lost after 80 min in the absence of bran. Heat-treated rice bran protected RP the best during forced storage, with a 35% recovery after 8 weeks. RP was degraded entirely in the absence of bran in less than one week. Results suggested that the physical entrapment of oil within the large wheat bran particles protects RP from the action of water and pro-oxidants during simmering. During storage, the high amount and diversity of lipid components present in rice bran are presumably responsible for its protective effect.


Assuntos
Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Armazenamento de Medicamentos , Grão Comestível/química , Vitamina A/química , Diterpenos/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/química , Vitamina A/análogos & derivados , Água/química
4.
J Food Sci ; 85(6): 1725-1734, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484938

RESUMO

The proximate composition, total phenolics, antioxidant activity, minerals, and trace elements were determined in 42 barley landraces in order to highlight their nutritional potential and promote their cultivation. Two-row barley landraces had a higher average content of starch, protein, total phenolic compounds, and iron, when compared with six-row ones that presented higher mean ash and fiber concentrations. Additionally, the six-row barley landraces with strongly pigmented grains had lower zinc and manganese and higher protein mean concentrations than the whitish or lightly pigmented barley landraces. Factor analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to correctly differentiate samples according to type of barley (landrace or commercial) and number of rows. In general, all the parameters varied considerably among the barley landraces analyzed, but some barley landraces could be emphasized according to fiber, minerals, and phenolic antioxidants. There were important differences in the mean values in all the chemical parameters according to the island of origin of the barley grains. The application of linear discriminant analysis was also a useful tool to differentiate all the barley landraces with six rows according to the island of origin. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Barley is a versatile cereal that can be used for human and animal feed, brewing, and as biodiesel. From the nutritional point of view, barley is rich in starch, protein, dietary fiber and minerals, as well as antioxidant compounds and vitamins. The landraces analyzed in this study have remained intact for the last 900 years, which gives opportunity to genome of these barley landraces to evolve some very specific traits. The physicochemical characterization of these local landraces carried out by us could be very useful as a source of new quality in breeding programs.


Assuntos
Hordeum/química , Minerais/análise , Sementes/química , Cruzamento , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Hordeum/classificação , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espanha , Amido/análise
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92 Suppl 1: e20180757, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491136

RESUMO

Pereskia grandifolia Haworth (PGH) and Pereskia aculeata Miller (PAM) are recognized sources of proteins; dietary fiber; vitamins and minerals make this plant leaves, raw, cooked, and braised, an important ally against protein and micronutrient deficiencies. One of the main problems is the presence of antinutritional factors that may interfere in the digestibility and bioavailability of some nutrients. The objective was to evaluate the amino acid profile and the chemical score of the raw leaves and the effects of heating media and time on the total dietary fiber, minerals, trypsin inhibition, oxalic acid and tannins of leaves of PGH and PAM. The samples had similar amino acid profiles and total dietary fiber. With regard to antinutritional compounds, heating the leaves of PGH led to a decrease in trypsin inhibition, primarily after the first minutes of wet cooking. Oxalic acid and tannins predominated in both species. Considering the interaction with time, the variables related to iron and zinc minimized the tannin responses in PGH and PAM, respectively. Heating media and times interfered with the chemical components present in the leaves of Pereskia species and led to high antinutrient retention after heat treatment.


Assuntos
Cactaceae/química , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras/química , Aminoácidos/análise , Cactaceae/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Minerais/análise , Proteínas/análise , Taninos/análise , Verduras/classificação
6.
Food Chem ; 328: 127144, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474242

RESUMO

The combined effects of ultrasound (intensity of 15.6 W/cm2 and sonication for 5 min) with potassium alginate (PA) marination (UPA) on tenderizing old chicken breast meat, and possible mechanisms from tissue to protein, were investigated. UPA-treated meat exhibited the lowest moisture loss and shear force (optimized tenderness). The increased fiber space benefited PA invasion to form a heat-induced barrier for harder muscle contraction and avoid moisture withdrawal. Special scale-like structures of dried myofibrillar protein (MP) and the three-dimensional network induced by interactions between PA and MP increased the tenderness. UPA treatment induced stronger electrostatic repulsion between PA molecules and more ß-sheet structures of MP, accompanied by a smallest size. The more easily heat-denatured myosin and looser myofibrils accelerated the temperature rise. More immobilized water restricted to myofibrils and moisture captured in the gel network promoted water retention. UPA treatment could be a promising technology to tenderize old chicken breast meat.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Galinhas , Produtos Avícolas , Animais , Dicroísmo Circular , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Miofibrilas/química , Miofibrilas/ultraestrutura , Miosinas/química , Proteínas de Aves Domésticas/química , Ultrassom , Água/análise
7.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386223

RESUMO

Methods have been developed to measure the effectiveness of many roughages, but few evaluations have been conducted with tropical feeds. The objectives of this research were to determine the effectiveness of roughage sources based on bioassay and laboratory methods and identify the biological attributes of the diets that correlate with these methods. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (408 ± 12 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design within six diets: negative control diet (NC) with aNDF as 10% from corn silage (CS); positive control diet (PC) with aNDF as 20% from CS; and four diets containing 10% aNDF from CS and 10% aNDF from each of the following sources: sugarcane (SC), sugarcane bagasse (SCB), soybean hulls (SH), or low oil cottonseed hulls (LOCH). Physical effectiveness factor (pef, related to the physical characteristics of aNDF) and effectiveness factor (ef, related to the ruminal pH) were determined based on a linear model approach that uses a bioassay method in which CS aNDF was assumed to be the standard fiber source. Laboratory methods to estimate pef of roughage sources were based on the proportion of DM of roughage retained on a 1.18-mm sieve pef(>1.18 mm) or retained on the 8.0-mm Penn State Particle Separator screen pef(>8.0 mm). The pef calculated by the bioassay method (total chewing time and ruminal mat resistance) for CS, SCB, and SC were higher values (P < 0.05) compared with SH and LOCH. The pef(rumen mat) of SC and SCB were higher (P < 0.05) than that of CS, SH, and LOCH. The pef(rumen mat) of LOCH was 61% higher than SH. The ef(rumen pH) of SC and LOCH was higher (P < 0.05) than CS and SH. The pef(chewing, min/d), pef(chewing, min/kg of DM), pef(rumen mat), and ef(rumen pH) positively correlated with rumination time, total chewing time, and ruminal mat resistance (values from transit time in seconds). No correlation was observed (P > 0.05) between pef(>8.0 mm) and rumination time, chewing time, and ruminal pH. The pef calculated using the bioassay method as well as pef (>8.0 mm) were negatively correlated with rumen pH (P > 0.05). The values of the effectiveness of fiber sources obtained in this research can be used as a guideline for nutritionists aiming to replace roughage sources from tropical regions in beef cattle finishing diets. Under our conditions, the pef using the bioassay method or laboratory methods were not adequate in predicting ruminal pH.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Silagem/análise , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Celulose , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharum , Soja , Zea mays
8.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386225

RESUMO

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of source and concentration of α-amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) from roughage on feed intake, ingestive behavior, and ruminal kinetics in beef cattle receiving high-concentrate diets. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (408 ± 12 kg of body weight) were randomly assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square design with six diets: 10% aNDF from corn silage (10CS); 20% aNDF from corn silage (20CS); or four diets containing 10% aNDF from corn silage and 10% aNDF from one of the following sources: sugarcane (SC), sugarcane bagasse (SCB), soybean hulls (SH), or low oil cottonseed hulls (LOCH). The parameters of passage and degradation kinetics were estimated based on a two-compartmental model with gamma- and exponential-distributed residence times. The nonlinear models were fitted by nonlinear least squares, and a linear mixed-effects model was fitted to all variables measured from the Latin square design that were related to intake, digestibility, digestion kinetic parameters, and residence times. Mean particle size (MPS) between roughage sources (CS, SCB, and SC) and coproducts (SH and LOCH) was affected (P < 0.05). Dry matter intake (DMI) was not affected (P > 0.05) by 20CS, SC, SH, or LOCH. Steers fed 20CS or LOCH diets had 16% and 20% greater DMI, respectively, (P < 0.05) than steers fed 10CS diet. Steers fed SCB consumed the least dry matter (DM). The SH and LOCH diets had lower MPS values (about 8.77 mm) in comparison to 20CS, SCB, and SC diets (about 13.08 mm) and, consequently, affected (P < 0.05) rumen content, ruminal in situ disappearance, nutrient digestibility, and solid fractional passage rate. Chewing time was affected (P < 0.05) by roughage sources and concentration. Lower values of distance travel inside the rumen (min/cm) were observed (P < 0.05) for the SCB and SC diets in comparison with any other diet. Except for SCB, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in rumen fill, among other treatments. Mean daily ruminal pH was not affected (P > 0.05) by 20CS, SCB, SC, and LOCH diets, and it ranged from 6.1 to 6.23. Total short-chain fatty acids concentration was affected (P < 0.05) by roughage source and concentration. Based on our results, we recommend that under Brazilian finishing diets, replacing roughage sources, except for SCB, based on aNDF concentration of the roughage in high-concentrate diets containing finely ground flint corn does not affect DMI.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Comportamento Alimentar , Silagem/análise , Animais , Celulose , Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Cinética , Masculino , Rúmen/metabolismo , Saccharum , Soja , Zea mays
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 195-207, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence, yet with varying levels of proof, suggests that dietary fibers (DFs) may exert a protective role against various chronic diseases, but this might depend on the DF type and source. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to assess the associations between the intake of DFs of different types [total (TDF), soluble (SF), insoluble (IF)] and from different sources (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, potatoes and tubers) and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), cancer, type 2 diabetes (T2D), and mortality in the large-scale NutriNet-Santé prospective cohort (2009-2019). METHODS: Overall, 107,377 participants were included. Usual DF intake was estimated from validated repeated 24-h dietary records over the first 2 y following inclusion in the cohort. Associations between sex-specific quintiles of DF intake and the risk of chronic diseases and mortality were assessed using multiadjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: T2D risk was inversely associated with TDFs [HR for quintile 5 compared with quintile 1: 0.59 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.82), P-trend <0.001], SFs [HR: 0.77 (0.56, 1.08); P-trend = 0.02], and IFs [HR: 0.69 (0.50, 0.96); P-trend = 0.004]. SFs were associated with a decreased risk of CVD [HR: 0.80 (0.66, 0.98); P-trend = 0.01] and colorectal cancer [HR: 0.41 (0.21, 0.79); P-trend = 0.01]. IFs were inversely associated with mortality from cancer or CVDs [HR: 0.65 (0.45, 0.94); P-trend = 0.02]. TDF intake was associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer [HR:: 0.79 (0.54, 1.13); P-trend = 0.04]. DF intake from fruit was associated with the risk of several chronic diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that DF intake, especially SFs and DFs from fruits, was inversely associated with the risk of several chronic diseases and with mortality. Further studies are needed, involving different types and sources of fiber. Meanwhile, more emphasis should be put on DFs in public health nutrition policies, as DF intake remains below the recommended levels in many countries. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03335644.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 328: 127111, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470777

RESUMO

Wheat millstreams and wheat-based foods (pasta, biscuits and bread) enriched or not in dietary fibre with fractions extracted from wheat grains, have been characterized either for their total dietary fibre content (TDF) and their arabinoxylan (AX) content. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.98) is observed between the AX and TDF contents indicating that AX can be used to estimate TDF content in wheat products. Moreover, by adding a previous step including enzymatic hydrolysis with a xylanase, a functional evaluation of DF is proposed based on the amount of AX released by the enzyme. Xylanase hydrolysable AX are likely also released by microbiota's enzymes in the gut and therefore an indicator for the proportion of fermentable DF in grain fractions and wheat-based foods (pasta, biscuits and bread). This assay opens the door for simple characterization of qualitative attribute of cereal DF.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Triticum/química , Xilanos/análise , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Sementes/química , Xilanos/metabolismo , Xilosidases/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 328: 127046, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470773

RESUMO

Wheat bran was solid state fermented by Fomitopsis pinicola. The results showed that the processing properties were increased by fermentation and the content of total phenol and alkylresorcinols was 5.91 and 1.55 times of the unfermented bran respectively by the 6th day. The total antioxidant capacity was 5.73 times of the unfermented sample by the 4th day. Electronic nose analysis showed that the fermented wheat bran had a special flavor. GC-MS analysis found that 4-ethyl-2-methoxy-phenol was the main flavor substance, which was sharply increased during the fermentation. Furthermore, the textural properties of the dough and bread containing fermented bran were significantly improved. The content of phytic acid in the bread was significantly decreased, while the protein, total phenol and alkylresorcinols contents were significantly increased. Results suggest that solid state fermentation by Fomitopsis pinicola is a promising way to improve wheat bran to a nutritious and flavorful cereal food ingredient.


Assuntos
Coriolaceae/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Pão/análise , Nariz Eletrônico , Aromatizantes/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Resorcinóis/química , Resorcinóis/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
12.
Food Chem ; 324: 126876, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361092

RESUMO

The effect and mechanism of wheat bran cellulose (WBC) on the gelling characteristics of soy protein isolate (SPI) were evaluated. It was found that the water holding capacity, gel strength, and viscoelasticity of SPI gel were improved with the increase of WBC concentration. The addition of WBC (0.5-2.0%, w/v) stabilized the moisture phase and induced the construction of the regular and homogenous three-dimensional gel network. The Raman spectroscopy revealed that WBC addition caused a significant reduction in α-helix percentage (28.92-63.08%) (p < 0.05) with a concomitant increase in ß-sheet (16.92-34.37%) (p < 0.05) and ß-turn (8.09-13.54%) (p > 0.05) percentages of the pure SPI gel. Additionally, hydrogen-bonding interaction between SPI and WBC and the enhanced thermal stability were proposed in the composite gels. Overall, WBC is effective in improving the gel properties of SPI, suggesting its potential application as novel gel modifier in the food industry.


Assuntos
Celulose/química , Géis/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Géis/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Reologia , Análise Espectral Raman , Termogravimetria , Viscosidade , Água/química
13.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 653, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to assess the relation between nutrient patterns and changes in adult anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors. METHODS: This study was conducted on 1637 adults participating in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2005-2008), who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer and had completed dietary data. They were followed to the next survey (2008-2011). Dietary intakes were collected and nutrient patterns were obtained. Three year changes in anthropometric and cardiometabolic factors were measured. RESULTS: Five nutrient patterns were extracted. The first pattern was characterized by "plant protein, thiamine, niacin, and minerals including phosphorus, zinc, copper, magnesium, manganese, and selenium". Animal protein, lactose, vitamin D, riboflavine, pantothenic acid, vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, and zinc" were loaded in the second pattern. The third and fourth patterns were characterized by "vitamin K, fiber, calcium, iron, manganese, and potassium", and "high correlation with starch, thiamine and folate, and negative correlation with mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E", respectively. The fifth pattern was high in Fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium. There was no association between nutrient patterns and 3-year changes in blood pressure and fasting blood glucose; whereas, per each quartile increment of the fifth pattern adjusted for potential confounders, triglyceride change was decreased [ß = - 3.66, 95% CI (- 6.57, - 0.57); P for trend = 0.014]. CONCLUSION: Present study indicates that nutrient patterns may have an association with cardiometabolic factors, particularly a pattern rich in fructose, vitamins A, C, pyridoxine, and potassium which decreases triglyceride level.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Nutrientes/análise , Adulto , Antropometria , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/análise , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Vitaminas/análise
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232689, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384105

RESUMO

Bacteria residing in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals are crucial for the digestion of dietary nutrients. Bacterial community composition is modified by age and diet in other species. Although horses are adapted to consuming fibre-based diets, high-energy, often high-starch containing feeds are increasingly used. The current study assessed the impact of age on the faecal bacteriome of ponies transitioning from a hay-based diet to a high-starch diet. Over two years, 23 Welsh Section A pony mares were evaluated (Controls, 5-15 years, n = 6/year, 12 in total; Aged, ≥19 years, n = 6 Year 1; n = 5 Year 2, 11 in total). Across the same 30-week (May to November) period in each year, animals were randomly assigned to a 5-week period of study and were individually fed the same hay to maintenance (2% body mass as daily dry matter intake) for 4-weeks. During the final week, 2g starch per kg body mass (micronized steam-flaked barley) was incorporated into the diet (3-day transition and 5 days at maximum). Faecal samples were collected for 11 days (final 3 days hay and 8 days hay + barley feeding). Bacterial communities were determined using Ion Torrent Sequencing of amplified V1-V2 hypervariable regions of 16S rRNA. Age had a minimal effect on the bacteriome response to diet. The dietary transition increased Candidatus Saccharibacteria and Firmicutes phyla abundance and reduced Fibrobactres abundance. At the genera level, Streptococcus abundance was increased but not consistently across individual animals. Bacterial diversity was reduced during dietary transition in Streptococcus 'responders'. Faecal pH and VFA concentrations were modified by diet but considerable inter-individual variation was present. The current study describes compositional changes in the faecal bacteriome associated with the transition from a fibre-based to a high-starch diet in ponies and emphasises the individual nature of dietary responses, which may reflect functional differences in the bacterial populations present in the hindgut.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cavalos/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Envelhecimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Amido/análise
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5118-5130, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32229121

RESUMO

The study objective was to evaluate the lactational performance of early-lactation dairy cows fed a total mixed ration (TMR) based on corn silage produced from a standard starch hybrid compared with 2 floury starch hybrids. Twenty-one (6 primiparous and 21 multiparous) high-producing, early-lactation Holstein cows were blocked by calving date and parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental corn silages from wk 4 through wk 12 postpartum using a randomized complete block design with wk 3 as a covariate. The Dekalb blend (STA; Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO), Masters Choice 527 (LF1; Masters Choice, Anna, IL), and Masters Choice 5250 (LF2) treatments were planted and harvested as corn silage using a kernel processor silage harvester, inoculated, and ensiled in individual Ag-Bags (Ag-Bag, St. Nazianz, WI). The TMR were formulated to be isonitrogenous at 17.5% crude protein consisting of 15.9% alfalfa hay, 35.1% concentrate mix, and 48% of the respective experimental corn silage on a dry matter basis. Crude protein content of STA and LF2 was lower than LF1 corn silage. Starch content was higher for STA compared with LF1 and LF2 silage. The TMR digestible fiber (neutral detergent fiber) concentration was lower for STA than LF1 and LF2 (14.0, 15.5, and 17.9% dry matter for STA, LF1, and LF2, respectively). Growing crop year affected corn silage vomitoxin (0.60, 1.45, and 1.56 mg/kg) concentrations, which may have affected lactational performance as STA corn silage was from 2013, whereas LF1 and LF2 were from the 2012 crop year. Dry matter intake (22.9, 23.5, and 22.4 kg/d), milk yield (35.6, 34.8, and 36.1 kg/d), 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield (38.7, 36.5, and 37.6 kg/d), energy-corrected milk yield (38.2, 36.1, and 38.1 kg/d), feed efficiency (1.79, 1.61, and 1.67 kg/kg; 3.5% fat-corrected milk/dry matter intake), milk fat (4.17, 3.94, and 3.71%), milk protein (3.12, 3.09, and 3.03%), lactose (4.93, 4.92, and 4.92%), solids-not-fat (8.96, 8.92, and 8.85%), body weight change (-0.10, -0.06, and -0.08 kg/d), and body condition score change (-0.05, -0.04, and -0.05 score/d) were similar for early-lactation dairy cows fed all corn silage hybrids. Lower ruminal pH and acetate along with higher propionate molar percentages were reported for cows fed STA compared with cows fed LF1 and LF2. Early-lactation dairy cows fed a corn silage with lower starch and higher digestible fiber concentrations resulted in similar milk production compared with cows fed higher starch and lower digestible fiber concentrations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Farinha/análise , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Amido/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Digestão , Feminino , Glicolipídeos/análise , Glicoproteínas/análise , Lactose/análise , Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Paridade , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Zea mays
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1427-1437, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32339265

RESUMO

Wheat bran, an abundant and low-cost by-product from agricultural processing, can be used as an alternative food resource. Biochemical conversion of wheat bran to food ingredient involves pretreatments of bran to enhance its acceptability. In this work, the effects of the Maillard reaction and enzymolysis on flavor properties of wheat bran and sensory evaluation of steamed buns fortified with wheat bran were analyzed using GC-MS combined with sensory evaluation. The results showed that the Maillard reaction and enzymatic hydrolysis, as well as flavoring process, could effectively improve the flavor profiles of wheat bran. The flavor compounds in modified wheat bran products as well as its fuzzy sensory score increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with those in commercially available dry malt extract. Additionally, steamed buns fortified with wheat bran had enhanced flavor and overall acceptability. The study can be useful in valorization a plethora of grain bran (waste) into valuable resources.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Aromatizantes/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Grão Comestível/química , Preferências Alimentares , Humanos , Hidrólise , Reação de Maillard , Paladar
17.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1286-1296, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320024

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The low intake of dietary fiber compared to recommended amounts has been referred to as the dietary fiber gap. The addition of fiber to snack foods could favorably alter gut microbiota and help individuals meet intake recommendations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to examine the effect of low- and moderate-dose fiber-containing snack bars, comprising mainly chicory root inulin-type fructans (ITF), on gut microbiota in healthy adults with habitual low dietary fiber intake using 16S ribosomal RNA-based approaches. METHODS: In 2 separate 4-wk, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trials, 50 healthy adults with low dietary fiber intake were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric snack bars of either moderate-dose fiber (7 g/d) or control in Trial 1 (n = 25) or low-dose fiber (3 g/d) or control in Trial 2 (n = 25), with 4-wk washout periods. Fecal microbiota composition and inferred function, fecal SCFA concentration, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, dietary intake, and quality of life were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the moderate-dose group showed significant differences across multiple microbial taxa, most notably an increased relative abundance of the Bifidobacterium genus from (mean ± SEM) 5.3% ± 5.9% to 18.7% ± 15.0%. With low-dose ITF, significant increases in Bifidobacterium were no longer present after correction for multiple comparisons but targeted analysis with qPCR showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium. Predictive functional profiling identified changes in predicted function after intake of the moderate- but not the low-dose bar. Fecal SCFAs were affected by time but not treatment. There were no between-group differences in GI symptoms. Importantly, fiber intake increased significantly with the moderate- and low-dose bars. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy adults, adding 3 or 7 g ITF to snack bars increased Bifidobacterium, a beneficial member of the gut microbial community. The addition of ITF to food products could help reduce the dietary fiber gap prevalent in modern life.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03042494.


Assuntos
Chicória/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Chicória/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inulina/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Lanches , Adulto Jovem
18.
Food Chem ; 318: 126385, 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135417

RESUMO

Rice landraces of North-East India have wide bio-diversity but remained nutritionally uncharacterized. Nutritional profiling of 33 indigenous rice landraces from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India, and effect milling was evaluated. Total dietary fiber (5.22 g/100 g) was significantly higher than high yielding or hybrid cultivars. Principal nutrient variability of brown rice were: ash (13% c. v.) > insoluble dietary fibre, IDF (12% c. v.) > protein (11.% c.v.) fat (11% c. v.). Compositional diversity exists among rice landraces. Average iron was lesser but zinc content was higher than popular high yielding cultivars. Nutrient changes due to milling were most profound for thiamin (-69%), IDF (-66%) followed by phytate (-66%). Nutritionally Arunachal rice landraces are comparable to high yielding cultivars with added advantage of significantly higher total dietary fiber and lower phytate content. Thus, Arunachal rice landraces represents an agronomically and nutritionally important pool for rice improvement/breeding.


Assuntos
Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Índia , Ferro/análise , Oryza/química , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Fítico/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Espectrofotometria , Zinco/análise
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047927

RESUMO

Condensed tannins (CT) might improve animal and system-level efficiency due to enhanced protein efficiency and reduced CH4. This study evaluated the impact of quebracho tannin (QT) extract fed at 0%, 1.5%, 3%, and 4.5% of dry matter (DM), within a roughage-based diet on apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM), fibrous fractions, and N retention and energy partitioning of growing steers (236 ± 16 kg BW). A Latin rectangle design with eight animals and four periods was used to determine the whole-animal exchange of CO2, O2, and CH4 as well as the collection of total feces and urine over a 48-h period, using two open-circuit, indirect calorimetry respiration chambers. Following the removal of steers from respiration chambers, rumen inoculum was collected to determine ruminal parameter, including volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia. Animals were fed a 56.5% roughage diet at 1.7% BW (dry matter basis). Dry matter and gross energy intakes were influenced by the level of QT inclusion (P ≤ 0.036). Digestibility of DM, OM, and N was reduced with QT inclusion (P < 0.001), and fiber digestibility was slightly impacted (P > 0.123). QTs altered the N excretion route, average fecal N-to-total N ratio excreted increased 14%, and fecal N-to-urinary N ratio increased 38% (P < 0.001) without altering the retained N. Increased fecal energy with QT provision resulted in reduced dietary digestible energy (DE) concentration (Mcal/kg DM; P = 0.024). There were no differences in urinary energy (P = 0.491), but CH4 energy decreased drastically (P = 0.007) as QT inclusion increased. Total ruminal VFA concentration did not differ across treatments, but VFA concentration increased linearly with QT inclusion (P = 0.049). Metabolizable energy (ME) was not affected by the QT rate, and the conversion efficiency of DE-to-ME did not differ. Heat energy decreased (P = 0.013) with increased QT provision likely due to changes in the DE intake, but there was no difference in retained energy. There were no differences for retained energy or N per CO2 equivalent emission produced (P = 0.774 and 0.962, respectively), but improved efficiency for energy retention occurred for 3% QT. We concluded that QT provided up to 4.5% of dry matter intake (about 3.51% of CT, dry matter basis) does not affect N and energy retention within the current setting. Feeding QT reduced energy losses in the form of CH4 and heat, but the route of energy loss appears to be influenced by the rate of QT inclusion.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proantocianidinas/farmacologia , Amônia/análise , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Fezes/química , Feminino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Proantocianidinas/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(4): 3219-3233, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008784

RESUMO

Throughout central Wisconsin, many soils are poorly drained, and perennial cool-season grasses are often planted as monocultures or in mixed stands with alfalfa because of the poor persistence of alfalfa under these growing conditions. Our objectives were to compare the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of perennial cool-season grasses {meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), and endophyte-free tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub]} conserved as baled silages with or without particle-size reduction, and at 2 moisture concentrations. Twenty-four plots (0.23 ha) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 plots/block. Within each of the 4 field blocks, one of the 6 plots was assigned randomly to each of the (3 × 2) factorial combinations of forage type and bale cutting engagement (cut or uncut). The baler cutting mechanism consisted of 15 cutting knives, thereby creating a theoretical length of cut of about 8.1 cm. Generally, sufficient forage was available to produce 2 bales/plot; therefore, one bale was packaged at relatively high moisture (58.3%), whereas the other bale was made at an ideal moisture (44.9%) for this silage preservation method. Theoretically, bale cutting can increase bale weights and densities by reducing particle size, thereby allowing inclusion of additional forage within the same-sized bale. In this experiment, bale-cutting within 1.2 × 1.2 m silage bales (n = 47) increased initial wet and dry bale weights by 4.1 and 4.7%, respectively, but had no practical effect on measures of nutritive value, either on a pre- or postensiled basis. Cutter engagement tended to increase total volatile fatty acids in silages, thereby resulting in a pH reduction of 0.07 pH units (5.54 vs. 5.61). A unique nonflowering growth response by the first-cutting orchardgrass forage resulted in yields of dry matter for orchardgrass (2,977 kg of dry matter/ha) that were only 52 to 53% of those observed for meadow (5,580 kg of dry matter/ha) or tall fescue (5,763 kg of dry matter/ha), which did not differ. Despite the unique vegetative nature of orchardgrass, concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin determined before ensiling exhibited limited variability across forages (60.9 to 62.7%, 35.2 to 36.4%, and 2.75 to 2.99%, respectively). However, a 30-h in vitro incubation determined that orchardgrass exhibited greater neutral detergent fiber digestibility (56.2%) compared with meadow (44.9%) or tall fescue (40.8%), which were also statistically distinct.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos , Fermentação , Valor Nutritivo , Poaceae , Silagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dactylis , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Feminino , Festuca , Pradaria , Lignina , Lolium , Estações do Ano , Wisconsin
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