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1.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 5820-5830, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392330

RESUMO

The addition of fiber in chick feeds is known to dilute nutrients; as a result, this may reduce nutrient digestibility and performance. However, recent studies suggest that moderate inclusion of insoluble fibers (2 to 3%) may stimulate gizzard development, which could result in better nutrient utilization and chick growth. The previous fiber sources evaluated were subject to wide fluctuation in their nutritional and chemical composition due to variation in processing. Miscanthus giganteus is a C4 grass purposefully grown for its fiber content which has a consistent fiber composition compared to food process residues. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of dietary fiber source and particle size on day-old chick performance and nutrient digestibility. Day-old chicks (8 chicks per cage, 5 cages per treatment) were fed diets containing 3% of either sepiolite (SEP), cellulose (CEL), coarse beet pulp (BP), fine BP, coarse Miscanthus grass (MG), and fine MG. At the end of days 7, 14, and 21, chicks and experimental diets were weighed to compute average daily gain and feed intake. In addition, excreta from the previous 48 h of each data capture point was collected to determine nutrient digestibility. In general, chicks fed diets containing fiber consumed more feed, gained more weight, and had better feed conversion rate than birds fed the SEP diet. Particle size of the fiber had no effect on chick performance; however, nutrient utilization was higher (P < 0.05) for chicks fed coarse fiber particles compared to these fed fine fiber particles. Birds fed diets containing MG performed similar to chicks fed CEL (P > 0.05), but digestibility coefficients of birds fed BP diets were generally higher than chicks fed MG diets. In conclusion, chicks performed better with fiber in their diet and MG was comparable to CEL.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes/fisiologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Beta vulgaris/química , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Silicatos de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Silicatos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
2.
Nutr Res Rev ; 30(2): 149-190, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28676135

RESUMO

Research into the analysis, physical properties and health effects of dietary fibre has continued steadily over the last 40-50 years. From the knowledge gained, countries have developed guidelines for their populations on the optimal amount of fibre to be consumed each day. Food composition tables from many countries now contain values for the dietary fibre content of foods, and, from these, combined with dietary surveys, population intakes have been determined. The present review assessed the uniformity of the analytical methods used, health claims permitted, recommendations and intakes, particularly from national surveys across Europe and around the world. It also assessed current knowledge on health effects of dietary fibre and related the impact of different fibre types on health. The overall intent was to be able to provide more detailed guidance on the types of fibre which should be consumed for good health, rather than simply a total intake figure, the current situation. Analysis of data indicated a fair degree of uniformity in the definition of dietary fibre, the method used for analysis, the recommended amount to be consumed and a growing literature on effects on digestive health and disease risk. However, national dietary survey data showed that intakes do not reach recommendations and very few countries provide guidance on the types of fibre that are preferable to achieve recommended intakes. Research gaps were identified and ideas suggested to provide information for more detailed advice to the public about specific food sources that should be consumed to achieve health benefits.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Promoção da Saúde , Política Nutricional , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Digestão , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
3.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 67(2): 146-156, jun. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1022331

RESUMO

En los últimos diez años hubo importantes modificaciones en la definición de la fibra dietaria bajo la dirección de la Comisión del CODEX Alimentarius. El más importante fue la inclusión de los carbohidratos no digeribles de 3 a 9 unidades de grado de polimerización dentro de la definición química, la que fue adoptada algunos países y en otras están en proceso de evaluación tal como los Estados Unidos; lo que hace que no exista un consenso global. Donde sí hay un consenso es en la definición fisiológica de la fibra dietaria, considerada como grupo de carbohidratos resistentes a la digestión por las enzimas del intestino delgado y fermentado en forma parcial o total en el colon, con efectos favorables en la salud. La Association of Official Analytical Chemist (siglas en Inglés: AOAC), en armonía con la nueva definición del CODEX Alimentarius, establecieron los métodos AOAC 2009.01 y 2011.25, diseñado para cuantificar la fibra dietaria solubles, fibra dietaria insoluble y la fibra dietaria total. En este contexto, se vienen desarrollando investigaciones in vitro e in vivo (en animales y humanos) para demostrar los efectos fisicoquímicos, funcionales y fisiológicos que van orientados hacia la prevención y tratamiento de algunas enfermedades no transmisible (ENTs). La presente revisión, pretende informar de las nuevas definiciones y los métodos de análisis, las propiedades funcionales y fisiológicas de la fibra dietaria y sus efectos en la salud humana(AU)


In the last ten years there have been important changes in the definition of dietary fiber under the leadership of the CODEX Alimentarius Commission. The most important was the inclusion of non-digestible carbohydrates of 3 to 9 units of degree of polymerization within the chemical definition, which was adopted in some countries and in others are in the process of evaluation such as the United States which indicates that does not exist a global consensus. Where there is a consensus is in the physiological definition of dietary fiber, considered as a group of carbohydrates resistant to the digestion by enzymes of the small intestine and fermented partially or totally in the colon, with favorable health effects. The Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), in line with the new definition of CODEX Alimentarius, established the AOAC 2009.01 and 2011.25 methods, designed to quantify soluble dietary fiber, insoluble dietary fiber and total dietary fiber. In this context, In Vitro and In Vivo research (in animals and humans) are being carried out to demonstrate the physicochemical, functional and physiological effects that are directed towards the prevention and treatment of some non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This review aims to inform the new definitions and methods of analysis, the functional and physiological properties of dietary fiber and their effects on human health(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Carboidratos/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Alimentos, Dieta e Nutrição , Doenças não Transmissíveis
4.
Anim Sci J ; 88(8): 1058-1065, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27925352

RESUMO

We studied the effect of dietary roughage species and their combinations on forage intake and growth rate of ewes during winter in a pastoral-farming area of northeast China. Twenty-five Northeast crossbred ewes (fine-wool sheep × Small-tailed Han sheep) were randomly selected and divided into five groups (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5). During a 30 day feeding trial, each group of ewes were offered the same basal diet (composed of 0.36 kg chopped maize stalk (10 mm), 0.14 kg corn meal, 0.05 kg soybean meal and 1.2 g NaCl) and one of the five supplementary roughage mixes, namely 100% Leymus chinensis hay (G1), 100% Vigna radiata stalk (G2), L. chinensis hay plus Suaeda glauca (G3), V. radiata stalk plus S. glauca (G4) and L. chinensis hay plus V. radiata stalk and S. glauca (G5). The results showed that roughage mixes had significant influences on daily roughage intake and daily weight gain of ewes. Ewes had greater daily roughage intake when supplemented with three species of roughage compared to the roughage with one species; however, there was no significant difference between G1 and G2, G3 and G4, or between G4 and G5. The average daily gain of ewes was also greater when they were supplemented with the roughage combination of L. chinensis, V. radiata stalk and S. glauca. No difference in average daily weight gain was observed between the G4 and G5 treatments (P > 0.05). The lowest average daily weight gain was observed when the ewes were supplemented with V. radiata stalk alone (G2) (P < 0.05). The results indicated that supplying ewes with various roughages simultaneously in winter could improve their forage intake and average daily weight gain compared to offering the ewes only one type of dietary roughage. Further, feeding roughage supplements containing a diverse mix of roughage species represents one method for increasing roughage utilization in livestock production during winter in the pastoral-farming areas of northeastern China.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/fisiologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , China , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Feminino
5.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 71(1): 1-12, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26847187

RESUMO

Dietary fibre has been consumed for centuries with known health benefits, but defining dietary fibre is a real challenge. From a functional perspective, dietary fibre is described as supporting laxation, attenuating blood glucose responses and assisting with cholesterol lowering. The problem is different types of dietary fibre have different effects, and new effects are increasingly observed, such as the influence on gut microbiota. Thus, a single definition may need to be described in more generic terms. Rather than being bound by a few functional definitions, we may need to embrace the possibilities of new horizons, and derive a working definition of dietary fibre based on a set of conceptual principles, rather than the limited definitions we have to date. To begin this process, a review of individual fibre types and their physiological effects would be helpful. Dietary fibre is a complex group of substances, and there is a growing interest in specific effects linked to fibre type. Different fractions of dietary fibre have different physiological properties, yet there is a paucity of literature covering the effects of all fibres. This paper describes a range of individual fibre types and identifies gaps in the literature which may expose new directions for a working definition of dietary fibre.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Saúde , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Humanos
6.
Annu Rev Food Sci Technol ; 7: 167-90, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26735801

RESUMO

This article reviews the current knowledge of the health effects of dietary fiber and prebiotics and establishes the position of prebiotics within the broader context of dietary fiber. Although the positive health effects of specific fibers on defecation, reduction of postprandial glycemic response, and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol levels are generally accepted, other presumed health benefits of dietary fibers are still debated. There is evidence that specific dietary fibers improve the integrity of the epithelial layer of the intestines, increase the resistance against pathogenic colonization, reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer, increase mineral absorption, and have a positive impact on the immune system, but these effects are neither generally acknowledged nor completely understood. Many of the latter effects are thought to be particularly elicited by prebiotics. Although the prebiotic concept evolved significantly during the past two decades, the line between prebiotics and nonprebiotic dietary fiber remains vague. Nevertheless, scientific evidence demonstrating the health-promoting potential of prebiotics continues to accumulate and suggests that prebiotic fibers have their rightful place in a healthy diet.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Prebióticos , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/fisiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Imunidade , Absorção Intestinal , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica , Minerais/metabolismo
7.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(6): 2372-83, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040341

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fiber definition includes all those carbohydrates which are not digested nor absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract allowing them to reach the colon with no previous processing. Traditionally fiber has been classified according to their solubility into soluble and insoluble and different physiological properties have been defined for each type. The physiologic role of the fiber intake has been studied in diabetes, dyslipidemia or obesity. Fiber intake has also demonstrated to be beneficial in the prevention of many neoplastic diseases like colorectal cancer. It´s also known that fiber plays an important role in the faecal excretion of nitrogen. AIM: To evaluate the current evidence that fiber intake plays in the management and prevention of several different diseases, being able to determine, if possible, the most recommended fiber type for each clinical condition. METHODS: A non-systematic review by searching the Medline and Pubmed was made and studies which met the inclusion criteria were identified and selected for analysis. RESULTS: Different fiber types can be useful for the treatment of several gastrointestinal diseases like constipation, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis remission or short bowel syndrome. Patients diagnosed with diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and other cardiometabolic diseases can get a clinical improvement with soluble fiber intake. Dietary fiber has demonstrated to play a role in the prevention of colorrectal cancer and other neoplastic diseases. Patients with hepatic encephalopathy or chronic kidney disease will also benefit from fermentable fiber intake. DISCUSSION: Fiber plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many clinical conditions. However further investigations are needed to establish specific fiber intake recommendations.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/dietoterapia
8.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 97(3): 515-21, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22463130

RESUMO

The aims of this study were to monitor electromyographic (EMG) activity of masseter muscle in healthy horses fed (i) different types of roughage and (ii) maize after different hay allocations. Four horses were offered the following three diets ad libitum: hay, haylage or straw/alfalfa chaff (SAC). In a second trial, four horses were fed cracked maize (CM) and hay in three different orders: (i) CM after a 12-h overnight fast; (ii) CM immediately after restricted hay intake (0.6 kg hay/100 kg BW); or 3) CM after hay intake ad libitum. The activity of the masseter muscle was determined by EMG (IED(®) ), and the following were measured: amplitude (muscle action potential = MAP, maximum voltage) and duration of MAP (s). The intake of hay or haylage was associated with intense masseter muscle activity (MAP: hay, 10 ± 1.7 V; haylage, 11 ± 3.3 V; and duration of MAP: hay, 0.31 ± 0.04 s; haylage, 0.30 ± 0.04 s). Similar intense chewing was measured for SAC (MAP 13 ± 3.8 V), although duration of the chewing cycle was relatively short (0.22 ± 0.03 s, diet p < 0.05), which is possibly related to the shorter fibre length. CM was consumed rapidly, with less intense masseter muscle activity (MAP 6.0 ± 1.5 V). Hay intake before CM did not affect chewing force of CM, but duration of chewing cycle was significantly prolonged by feeding hay ad libitum before CM was fed. The consumption of hay, haylage or SAC was associated with intensive masseter muscle activity that was likely to stimulate salivary flow rate. In contrast to roughage, concentrates like CM are consumed rapidly with less intensive masseter muscle activity. This situation is associated with a low salivary flow that may have an adverse effect on gastric function.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Eletromiografia/veterinária , Cavalos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Zea mays , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Estudos Cross-Over , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Mastigação/fisiologia
9.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 97(1): 146-54, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22074361

RESUMO

As wild felids are obligate carnivores, it is likely that poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissues determine hindgut fermentation, instead of plant fibre. Therefore, faecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA, including branched-chain fatty acids, BCFA), indole and phenol were evaluated in 14 captive cheetahs, fed two different diets differing in proportion of poorly enzymatically digestible animal tissue. Using a cross-over design, the cheetahs were fed exclusively whole rabbit or supplemented beef for 1 month each. Feeding whole rabbit decreased faecal propionic (p < 0.001) and butyric (p = 0.013) acid concentrations, yet total SCFA was unaltered (p = 0.146). Also, a remarkably higher acetic acid to propionic acid ratio (p = 0.013) was present when fed whole rabbit. Total BCFA (p = 0.011) and putrefactive indole (p = 0.004) and phenol (p = 0.002) were lower when fed whole rabbit. Additionally, serum indoxyl sulphate, a toxic metabolite of indole, was analysed and showed a quadratic decrease (p = 0.050) when fed whole rabbit. The divergent SCFA ratios and the decrease in putrefaction when fed whole rabbit could be caused by the presence of undigested tissue, such as skin, bone and cartilage, that might have fibre-like functions. The concept of animal fibre is an unexplored area of interest relevant to gastrointestinal health of captive cheetahs and likely other felids.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Carne/análise , Acinonyx/sangue , Acinonyx/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Feminino , Fermentação , Indicã/sangue , Masculino , Coelhos
10.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract ; 24(8): 476-87, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22845031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This review focuses on the health benefits of viscous versus nonviscous soluble fibers, why symptoms can occur with increased fiber consumption, and how to avoid symptoms to improve adherence with a high-fiber diet. DATA SOURCES: Review of scientific literature as well as evidence-based guidelines and resources. CONCLUSIONS: While it is generally known that "fiber is good for you," it is less well known that specific health benefits are associated with specific fiber characteristics. Many of the health benefits of fiber can be directly correlated with the viscosity of soluble fibers when hydrated (i.e., gel-forming). A reduction in viscosity of a given fiber will attenuate these health benefits, and a nonviscous fiber does not exhibit these health benefits. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Increasing the viscosity of chyme with a viscous soluble fiber has been shown clinically to lower cholesterol for cardiovascular health, improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes, normalize stool form in both constipation (softens hard stool) and diarrhea (firms loose/liquid stool), and improve the objective clinical measures of metabolic syndrome (glycemic control, lipoprotein profile, body mass index/weight loss, and blood pressure).


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Humanos , Benefícios do Seguro , Laxantes , Estado Nutricional , Psyllium , Viscosidade , Perda de Peso
11.
J Nutr ; 142(2): 258-63, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22223569

RESUMO

Starchy food products differ in the rate of starch digestion, which can affect their metabolic impact. In this study, we examined how the in vivo starch digestibility is reflected by the glycemic response, because this response is often used to predict starch digestibility. Ten healthy male volunteers [age 21 ± 0.5 y, BMI 23 ± 0.6 kg/m² (mean ± SEM)] participated in a cross-over study, receiving three different meals: pasta with normal wheat bran (PA) and bread with normal (CB) or purple wheat bran (PBB). Purple wheat bran was added in an attempt to decrease the rate of starch digestion. The meals were enriched in ¹³C and the dual isotope technique was applied to calculate the rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE). The ¹³C-isotopic enrichment of glucose in plasma was measured with GC/combustion/isotope ratio MS (IRMS) and liquid chromatography/IRMS. Both IRMS techniques gave similar results. Plasma glucose concentrations [2-h incremental AUC (iAUC)] did not differ between the test meals. The RaE was similar after consumption of CB and PBB, showing that purple wheat bran in bread does not affect in vivo starch digestibility. However, the iAUC of RaE after men consumed PA was less than after they consumed CB (P < 0.0001) despite the similar glucose response. To conclude, the glycemic response does not always reflect the in vivo starch digestibility. This could have implications for intervention studies in which the glycemic response is used to characterize test products.


Assuntos
Glicemia/fisiologia , Pão/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Amido/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Isótopos de Carbono , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Análise de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Obes Rev ; 12(9): 724-39, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21676152

RESUMO

Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, ß-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
15.
Brain Behav Immun ; 24(4): 631-40, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20138982

RESUMO

Peripheral activation of the immune system by infectious agents triggers the brain-cytokine system causing sickness behaviors which profoundly impact well-being. Dietary fiber is a beneficial foodstuff that, from a gastrointestinal tract perspective, exists in both insoluble and soluble forms. We show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects mice from endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 when compared to a diet containing only insoluble fiber. Mice fed soluble fiber became less sick and recovered faster from endotoxin-induced sickness behaviors than mice fed insoluble fiber. In response to intraperitoneal endotoxin, mice fed soluble fiber had up-regulated IL-1RA and reduced IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the brain as compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Importantly, mice fed soluble fiber had a basal increase in IL-4 in the ileum and spleen which was absent in MyD88 knockout mice. Con-A stimulated splenocytes from mice fed soluble fiber showed increased IL-4 and IL-5 and decreased IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-gamma when compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Likewise, endotoxin-stimulated macrophages from mice fed soluble fiber demonstrated decreased IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and nitrate and increased IL-1RA, arginase 1 and Ym1 when compared to mice fed insoluble fiber. Finally, the behavioral protection afforded by feeding mice soluble fiber was reduced in IL-4 knockout mice, as was the impact of soluble fiber on Con-A stimulated splenocytes and endotoxin activated macrophages. These data show that a diet rich in soluble fiber protects against endotoxin-induced sickness behavior by polarizing mice Th2 and promoting alternative activation of macrophages.


Assuntos
Citocinas/metabolismo , Dietoterapia/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Comportamento de Doença , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Células Th2/metabolismo , Animais , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Endotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Íleo/citologia , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/imunologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Proteína Antagonista do Receptor de Interleucina 1/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/genética , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/deficiência , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/deficiência , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Pectinas/farmacologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/inervação , Células Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
16.
Nutrients ; 2(12): 1266-89, 2010 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22254008

RESUMO

Dietary fiber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. As a result, research regarding their potential health benefits has received considerable attention in the last several decades. Epidemiological and clinical studies demonstrate that intake of dietary fiber and whole grain is inversely related to obesity, type two diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Defining dietary fiber is a divergent process and is dependent on both nutrition and analytical concepts. The most common and accepted definition is based on nutritional physiology. Generally speaking, dietary fiber is the edible parts of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Dietary fiber can be separated into many different fractions. Recent research has begun to isolate these components and determine if increasing their levels in a diet is beneficial to human health. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, ß-glucan and resistant starch. The study of these components may give us a better understanding of how and why dietary fiber may decrease the risk for certain diseases. The mechanisms behind the reported effects of dietary fiber on metabolic health are not well established. It is speculated to be a result of changes in intestinal viscosity, nutrient absorption, rate of passage, production of short chain fatty acids and production of gut hormones. Given the inconsistencies reported between studies this review will examine the most up to date data concerning dietary fiber and its effects on metabolic health.


Assuntos
Carboidratos da Dieta/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
17.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-834378

RESUMO

O diabetes melito (DM), cuja forma mais prevalente é o DM tipo 2, acomete mais de 5% da população mundial. Pacientes com DM podem apresentar complicações crônicas micro- e macrovasculares, sendo possível prevenir ou impedir a progressão destas complicações com medicamentos e mudanças de estilo de vida, que incluem prática de atividade física regular e adoção de uma dieta saudável. O objetivo deste manuscrito foi revisar os principais efeitos da ingestão de fibras sobre o controle glicêmico, perfil lipídico e pressão arterial em pacientes com DM tipo 2. Também foi revisada a definição das fibras. As fibras alimentares, em especial as fibras solúveis, têm comprovadamente um papel importante no manejo do DM tipo 2, apresentando efeitos benéficos sobre a homeostase glicêmica, perfil lipídico e hipertensão arterial. Adicionalmente, as fibras insolúveis contribuem para perda de peso, através de ação no mecanismo de saciedade, promovendo também melhora do controle metabólico nesses pacientes. Em conclusão, para atingir a recomendação diária de 14 g de fibras/1000 kcal, deve-se estimular o consumo de fibras em pacientes com DM tipo 2, tanto a partir da ingestão de alimentos fonte, como frutas, cereais integrais, verduras, legumes e leguminosas, como através de suplementos.


Diabetes mellitus (DM), whose most prevalent form is type 2 DM, affects more than 5% of the world population. Patients with DM may have chronic micro- and macrovascular complications. It is possible to prevent or halt the progression of these complications with medications and lifestyle changes that include regular physical activity and adopting of a healthy diet. The aim of this study was to review the main effects of fiber intake on glycemic control, lipid profile, and blood pressure in patients with type 2 DM. The definition of dietary fiber was also reviewed. Dietary fibers, particularly soluble fibers, have played an important role in the management of type 2 DM, with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis, lipid profile and hypertension. Additionally, insoluble fibers contribute to weight loss by their influence on satiety, as well as by improving metabolic control. In conclusion, in order for patients with type 2 DM to reach the recommendation of 14 g of fiber/1000 kcal /day, consumption of fibers should be stimulated, both from natural food sources like fruits, whole grains, vegetables and legumes, and also from supplements.


Assuntos
Humanos , /dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , /complicações , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Glicemia/análise , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Reguladores do Metabolismo de Lipídeos , Triglicerídeos/sangue
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 19(3): 226-9, 2009 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19282160

RESUMO

There is impressive evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that dietary fibre derived form vegetables, fruit and wholegrain cereals protects against and may be useful in the treatment of a wide range of diseases. However, while there is some evidence of benefit of extracted and synthetic fibres in terms of lowering levels of cardiovascular risk factors, improving measures of glycaemic control and gastrointestinal function, epidemiological confirmation of clinical benefit and long term safety are lacking. An appropriate definition of dietary fibre is essential, given that claiming a food is high in dietary fibre is in effect making a health claim, without formally doing so. The new Codex definition acknowledges the difference between naturally occurring carbohydrate polymers which are neither digested nor absorbed in the human small intestine and synthetic or extracted polymers. However the latter two groups may also be defined as dietary fibre provided "beneficial physiological effect has been demonstrated by generally accepted scientific evidence". Given the need for a definition of dietary fibre which can be used for food labelling, setting nutrient reference values and decisions relating to health claims it is important to achieve agreement as to what constitutes a meaningful physiological effect and the level of evidence required to be certain of such effect.


Assuntos
Dietoterapia/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Terminologia como Assunto , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Grão Comestível , Frutas , Humanos , Verduras
20.
J Anim Sci ; 87(1): 136-47, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18676728

RESUMO

The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have distinct physicochemical properties). The main carbohydrate component of the LF diet was starch and nonstarch polysaccharides (cellulose and noncellulosic polysaccharides) for the 2 high dietary fiber diets. Consumption of the LF diet resulted in increased and rapid glucose absorption at 0 to 4 h postfeeding. With the HF-I diet, the glucose absorption pattern was similar but at a decreased rate, whereas it was decreased and delayed with the HF-S diet (diet, P < 0.001; time, P < 0.001). These differences were also reflected in the insulin response. The quantitative absorption of SCFA at 0 to 10 h postfeeding was greater when feeding the HF-S diet compared with the LF diet (P < 0.001) and intermediate when feeding the HF-I diet (P < 0.001). The study showed that feeding the high dietary fiber diets resulted in a increased and more uniform uptake of SCFA than when feeding the LF control. Moreover, the HF-S diet reduced diurnal variation in glucose and insulin concentrations.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/fisiologia , Suínos/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/classificação , Feminino , Insulina/sangue , Suínos/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
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