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1.
Food Chem ; 351: 129320, 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662906

RESUMO

In this study, mushroom stems were separated from the fruiting body of two edible mushrooms, white button mushroom (WB, Agaricus bisporus) and oyster mushroom (OY, Pleurotus ostreatus), and their functionalities were compared in wheat flour noodles at fortification levels of 5, 10, 15%. The inclusion of WB led to higher protein content than OY, which had more dietary fibre, especially insoluble dietary fibre. The fortification of mushrooms decreased the area under the curve (AUC) of reducing sugars released during in vitro digestion significantly (p < 0.05). WB fortified noodles yielded higher antioxidant capacities than OY fortification, whereas the digesta following digestion of WB and OY groups shared similar free accessible weighted average antioxidants. Mushrooms derived insoluble dietary fibre was negatively correlated with AUC and positively correlated with antioxidants (p < 0.05), suggesting the efficacy of mushroom stems over post-prandial glucose release of foods and providing the antioxidant environment to the intestine.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Carga Glicêmica/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
J Med Food ; 24(2): 124-134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512255

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia is a metabolic disorder characterized by high lipid levels, which may lead to cardiovascular diseases. Evidence suggests that improving the gut microbiota homeostasis is of great importance in lipid metabolism. Dietary fiber may positively regulate blood lipid and intestinal microbiota, therefore, we have investigated the effect of chickpea dietary fiber (CDF) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemia and gut bacterial dysbiosis. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats purchased for this study were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The control group was fed with normal diet (ND), while the other four groups were all fed with HFD for inducing hyperlipidemia. Then one of the four HFD groups continued to be fed with only HFD, and the other three groups were fed with CDF in different doses: high CDF (30 g CDF/kg of HFD), medium CDF (15 g CDF/kg of HFD), and low CDF (5 g CDF/kg of HFD). After CDF treatment, the lipid level in serum was determined through biochemical methods, and microbial content of the fecal sample was determined by 16S rDNA sequencing. We found that CDF could decrease the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increase the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol significantly. The diversity of gut microbiota in the ND group and CDF-treated groups were higher than HFD group. The ß-diversity analysis showed that there were significant differences in gut microbiota among HFD-, ND-, and CDF-treated groups. Rats in CDF groups tended to be similar and interactive. CDF can effectively increase the abundance of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus in rats and increase the level of propionic acid. These results indicated that CDF might affect serum lipid and gut bacterial ecosystem positively.


Assuntos
Cicer , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hiperlipidemias , Animais , Cicer/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperlipidemias/terapia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
3.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435475

RESUMO

Gum Arabic (GA) is a widely-used additive in food processing, but is also historically used in a number of traditional therapies. It has been shown to have a broad range of health benefits, particularly in improving important cardiovascular risk indicators. Metabolic syndrome and its associated cardiac outcomes are a significant burden on modern healthcare systems, and complementary interventions to aid in its management are required. We aimed to examine the effect of GA on those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome to identify an effect on improving important disease parameters related to cardiovascular outcomes. A single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to identify the effects of daily GA supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. A total of 80 participants were randomized to receive 20 g of GA daily (n = 40) or placebo (1 g pectin, n = 40) for 12 weeks. Key endpoints included body-anthropometric indices, diet and physical activity assessment, and blood chemistry (HbA1c, fasting glucose, and blood lipids). Of the 80 enrolled, 61 completed the study (intervention: 31, control: 30) with 19 dropping out due to poor treatment compliance. After 12 weeks, the participants receiving the GA showed significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fat-free body mass, energy and carbohydrate consumption, and fasting plasma glucose, as well as increased intake of dietary fiber. They also reported improvements in self-perceived bloating and quality of bowel movements, as well as a decreased appetite score following GA consumption. These results suggest that GA could be a safe and beneficial adjunct to other treatments for those with, or at risk of, metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Goma Arábica/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Acacia , Adolescente , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 252: 117186, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183633

RESUMO

Pomelo fruitlets contain various active substances that are easily collected and processed. Here, the biological effects of pomelo fruitlet dietary fiber were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) values of pomelo fruitlets were 75.64 ± 3.65 %, 10.10 ± 1.39 %, and 62.48 ± 3.68 %, respectively. The main monosaccharides identified were rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. All fibers scavenged free 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals and reduced ferric cations. The water-holding, oil-holding, and swelling capacities of the fibers retarded glucose diffusion, inhibited α-amylase, and influenced cholesterol micelle formation. In a mouse model of alloxan-induced diabetes, SDF improved glucose tolerance, controlled blood glucose, and reduced serum insulin better than TDF or IDF. All fiber types decreased the total cholesterol content and the prevalence of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ruminococcaceae, but increased the abundance of Firmicutes, Lactobacillus, and Prevotellaceae in hyperglycemic mice.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta , Frutas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Monossacarídeos , Animais , Glicemia , Colesterol/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Monossacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos/farmacologia , Monossacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Solubilidade
5.
Food Chem ; 335: 127579, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738531

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to characterize the profile of bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of inodorus melon peels. Melon peels were divided into three fractions: a solid fraction with a higher content of carbohydrates (84.81%); a liquid fraction with a higher ash content (11.5%); and a pellet fraction with a higher protein content (34.90%). The structural carbohydrates study revealed a composition of cellulose (27.68%), hemicellulose (8.2%) and lignin (26.46%) in the solid fraction. The liquid fraction had the highest antioxidant activity based on results from DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays. Flavones, hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids were the main phenolic classes found in all fractions. In addition, ß-carotene, lutein, ß-cryptoxanthin and violaxanthin had also been quantified. Melon fractions were rich in nutrients and bioactive substances and could be useful in the development of novel functional products, considering the growing market demand for safe and healthy food products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cucurbitaceae/química , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia
6.
Food Chem ; 338: 127825, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810814

RESUMO

Four soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) were fortified with corn starch (CS) at different concentrations to match the same viscosity equivalents. The mixtures were subjected to a simulated digestion procedure to study the effects of SDFs on viscosity properties and digestion kinetics of CS. Results showed that SDFs increased the hydration property and decreased the water mobility of digesta. During digestion process, SDFs increased the apparent viscosity of digesta to some extent, and showed significant difference to delay the decay of digesta viscosity (kv). The amylolysis inhibitory ability was similar when each SDF was present at the same viscosity equivalent, however, significant differences were found on the digestion rate constant of k2. Linear correlations between kv and k2 were established for 1 and 2 equivalent groups. These results demonstrated that SDFs could delay the digestion process as chemistry differences, which related to their ability on delaying the change of digesta viscosity.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Animais , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Cinética , Mananas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Solubilidade , Viscosidade
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 170: 336-342, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373637

RESUMO

As an invisible organ of human body, the gut microbiota plays an important role in human life and has become a hot spot in the field of life science in recent years. Due to the increasing pressure of work and life, people are prone to depression. The in-depth mechanism studies indicated that the gut microbiota could improve the depression symptom through the gut-brain axis (GBA). As unique plant polysaccharides, dietary fiber can effectively modulate the intestinal flora disorders and its crucial role in orchestrating host-microbiota crosstalk has been confirmed. This review highlights the mechanisms that the gut microbiota affects the development of depression through GBA and focuses on dietary fiber intervention on the improvement of intestinal microbiota imbalance, which may provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Microbiota , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5773, 2020 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188211

RESUMO

Beneficial modulation of the gut microbiome has high-impact implications not only in humans, but also in livestock that sustain our current societal needs. In this context, we have tailored an acetylated galactoglucomannan (AcGGM) fibre to match unique enzymatic capabilities of Roseburia and Faecalibacterium species, both renowned butyrate-producing gut commensals. Here, we test the accuracy of AcGGM within the complex endogenous gut microbiome of pigs, wherein we resolve 355 metagenome-assembled genomes together with quantitative metaproteomes. In AcGGM-fed pigs, both target populations differentially express AcGGM-specific polysaccharide utilization loci, including novel, mannan-specific esterases that are critical to its deconstruction. However, AcGGM-inclusion also manifests a "butterfly effect", whereby numerous metabolic changes and interdependent cross-feeding pathways occur in neighboring non-mannanolytic populations that produce short-chain fatty acids. Our findings show how intricate structural features and acetylation patterns of dietary fibre can be customized to specific bacterial populations, with potential to create greater modulatory effects at large.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Acetilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma , Masculino , Mananas/farmacologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metagenômica , Análise de Componente Principal , Proteoma/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Madeira/química
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687554

RESUMO

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614877

RESUMO

METHODS: A cross-over study within a split-plot design was performed using healthy (n = 10) and CKD cats [IRIS Stage 1 and 2; n = 10]. Cats were fed dry Prescription Diet® k/d® Feline with chicken, during a pre-trial period and then randomly assigned to two fiber treatments for 4 weeks each. Treatment foods were formulated similar to pre-trial food, with the exception that they contained 0.500% betaine, 0.586% oat beta glucan, and either 0.407% short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) fiber or 3.44% apple pomace. Both foods had similar crude fiber percent (2.0 and 2.1% for scFOS and apple pomace, respectively) whereas soluble fiber was 0.8 and 1.6%, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma metabolites separated cats based on health status. At baseline, cats with CKD had significantly higher circulating concentrations of creatinine, urea, and some microbial and host tryptophan metabolites including several indole sulfates and kynurenate. Healthy cats had higher concentrations of the antioxidant α-tocopherol after consuming apple pomace; alternatively, they had higher concentrations of inflammatory sphingolipid metabolites after consuming scFOS, but not after consuming apple pomace. The CKD cats had higher concentrations of the more oxidized glutathione metabolites after consuming apple pomace compared with scFOS, as well as higher concentrations of inflammatory sphingolipid metabolites after consuming apple pomace, but not scFOS. After consuming scFOS, CKD cats had lower concentrations of the phenolic uremic toxins guaiacol sulfate and 4-vinylphenol sulfate compared with after consuming apple pomace. At baseline, there were five significant microbiota OTU differences in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Overall, the OTUs in CKD cats were more resistant to change after feeding either fiber source. Counts of an unclassified genus in the family S24-7 in the order Bacteroidales (OTU 100296), were lower in CKD cats compared with healthy cats at baseline (P = 0.001), but increased after consumption of food containing scFOS (P = 0.006). Linear regression analysis showed that this genus had significant negative correlations with several microbial uremic toxins. None of the baseline differences in OTUs between healthy and CKD cats changed after CKD cats consumed food containing apple pomace. CONCLUSIONS: Health status impacts the influence of dietary fermentable fibers on the feline plasma metabolome and fecal microbiome. A more readily fermented fiber such as scFOS is preferable to apple pomace as a fiber source for cats with CKD.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Cross-Over , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/microbiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127372, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615381

RESUMO

The physicochemical and physiological properties of soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from bamboo shoots were investigated in present study. IDF showed better adsorption capacity than the corresponding SDF from the same species. Microstructure observation results indicated that the surface of IDF was porous, whereas the SDF was relatively flat and compact. The cholesterol-adsorption capacities of IDF and SDF from Fargesia spathacea were relatively higher than the other species. Both SDF and IDF from F. spathacea showed potential prebiotic effects, although the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium promotion effects of SDF were relatively stronger than IDF. Compared with control, the concentration of total short chain fatty acids in IDF and SDF supplement groups were increased by 1.28 and 0.71 folds, respectively. These results suggested that F. spathacea dietary fibers with strong cholesterol-adsorption activity and prebiotic potential, could be used as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods production.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Caules de Planta/química , Poaceae/química , Prebióticos , Fenômenos Químicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional/análise
13.
J Nutr ; 150(7): 1859-1870, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The composition of diets consumed following weight loss (WL) can have a significant impact on satiety and metabolic health. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to test the effects of including a nondigestible carbohydrate to achieve weight maintenance (WM) following a period of WL. METHODS: Nineteen volunteers [11 females and 8 males, aged 20-62 y; BMI (kg/m2): 27-42] consumed a 3-d maintenance diet (15%:30%:55%), followed by a 21-d WL diet (WL; 30%:30%:40%), followed by 2 randomized 10-d WM diets (20%:30%:50% of energy from protein:fat:carbohydrate) containing either resistant starch type 3 (RS-WM; 22 or 26 g/d for females and males, respectively) or no RS (C-WM) in a within-subject crossover design without washout periods. The primary outcome, WM after WL, was analyzed by body weight. Secondary outcomes of fecal microbiota composition and microbial metabolite concentrations and gut hormones were analyzed in fecal samples and blood plasma, respectively. All outcomes were assessed at the end of each dietary period. RESULTS: Body weight was similar after the RS-WM and C-WM diets (90.7 and 90.8 kg, respectively), with no difference in subjectively rated appetite. During the WL diet period plasma ghrelin increased by 36% (P < 0.001), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) decreased by 33% (P < 0.001), and insulin decreased by 46% (P < 0.001), but no significant differences were observed during the RS-WM and C-WM diet periods. Fasting blood glucose was lower after the RS-WM diet (5.59 ± 0.31 mmol/L) than after the C-WM diet [5.75 ± 0.49 mmol/L; P = 0.015; standard error of the difference between the means (SED): 0.09]. Dietary treatments influenced the fecal microbiota composition (R2 = 0.054, P = 0.031) but not diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic benefits, for overweight adults, from WL were maintained through a subsequent WM diet with higher total carbohydrate intake. Inclusion of resistant starch in the WM diet altered gut microbiota composition positively and resulted in lower fasting glucose compared with the control, with no apparent change in appetite. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01724411.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Sobrepeso/dietoterapia , Perda de Peso , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Dieta Redutora , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
14.
Mol Immunol ; 121: 127-135, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200170

RESUMO

Consumption of fermentable dietary fibres, such as inulin, or administration of helminth products (e.g. Trichuris suis ova) have independently been shown to alleviate inflammation in vivo. We recently found that dietary inulin and T. suis infection in pigs co-operatively suppressed type-1 inflammatory responses in the gut, suggesting the potential of dietary components to augment anti-inflammatory responses induced by certain helminths. Here, we explored whether T. suis antigens and inulin could directly suppress inflammatory responses in vitro in a cooperative manner. T. suis soluble products (TsSP) strongly suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IL-6 and TNF-α secretion from murine macrophages and induced an anti-inflammatory phenotype as evidenced by transcriptomic and gene pathway analyses. Inulin regulated the expression of a small number of genes and transcriptional pathways in macrophages after exposure to LPS, but did not enhance the suppressive activity of TsSP, either directly or in co-culture experiments with intestinal epithelial cells. Culture of macrophages with short-chain fatty acids, the products of microbial fermentation of inulin, did however appear to enhance TsSP-mediated inhibition of TNF-α production. Our results confirm a direct role for helminth products in suppressing inflammatory responses in macrophages. In contrast, inulin had little capacity to directly modulate LPS-induced responses. Our results suggest distinct mode-of-actions of T. suis and inulin in regulating inflammatory responses, and that the role of inulin in modulating the response to helminth infection may be dependent on other factors such as production of metabolites by the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/farmacologia , Inflamação/terapia , Inulina/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichuris/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/uso terapêutico , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Br J Nutr ; 124(3): 296-305, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216845

RESUMO

Here, we explored the influences of dietary inulin (INU) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal health in a porcine model. Thirty-two male weaned pigs (with an average body weight of 7·10 (sd 0·20) kg) were randomly assigned to four treatments and fed with a basal diet (BD) or BD containing 2·5, 5·0 and 10·0 g/kg INU. After a 21-d trial, pigs were killed for collection of serum and intestinal tissues. We show that INU supplementation had no significant influence on the growth performance in weaned pigs. INU significantly elevated serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentration but decreased diamine oxidase concentration (P < 0·05). Interestingly, 2·5 and 5·0 g/kg INU supplementation significantly elevated the villus height in jejunum and ileum (P < 0·05). Moreover, 2·5 and 5·0 g/kg INU supplementation also elevated the villus height to crypt depth (V:C) in the duodenum and ileum and improved the distribution and abundance of tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 in duodenum and ileum epithelium. INU supplementation at 10·0 g/kg significantly elevated the sucrase activity in the ileum mucosa (P < 0·05). INU supplementation decreased the expression level of TNF-α but elevated the expression level of GLUT 2 and divalent metal transporter 1 in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0·05). Moreover, INU increased acetic and butyric acid concentrations in caecum (P < 0·05). Importantly, INU elevated the Lactobacillus population but decreased the Escherichia coli population in the caecum (P < 0·05). These results not only indicate a beneficial effect of INU on growth performance and intestinal barrier functions but also offer potential mechanisms behind the dietary fibre-regulated intestinal health.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inulina/farmacologia , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/sangue , Animais , Ácido Butírico/metabolismo , Ceco/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Suínos , Desmame
16.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170316

RESUMO

We hypothesized that the digestibility of a zinc polysaccharide complex is greater than zinc sulfate when sows consume high fiber diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Gilts and sows (n = 32) were blocked according to parity and assigned randomly to one of four dietary treatments (n = 8 sows per treatments). Dietary treatments consisted of: 1) Control (ConZnSO4)-corn-soybean meal-based diet + 100 ppm supplemental Zn from ZnSO4; 2) Control PSZn (ConPSZn)-corn-soybean meal-based diet + 100 ppm supplemental Zn from Zn polysaccharide complex; 3) DDGS/ZnSO4-corn-soybean meal-40% DDGS gestation diet and a 30% DDGS lactation diet, with each containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn from ZnSO4; 4) DDGS/PSZn-corn-soybean meal-40% DDGS gestation diet and a 30% DDGS lactation diet, with each containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn from Zn polysaccharide complex. A fifth dietary treatment was imposed using a subset of sows (n = 20) to determine basal Zn losses in gestating and lactating sows fed corn-soybean meal-based diets containing no supplemental Zn. Nutrient balance experiments were conducted in both gestation and lactation to evaluate the digestibility of Zn sources of the four dietary treatments and to determine basal Zn losses when no supplemental Zn was provided. The statistical model included fixed effects of diet, Zn source, and their interaction, and random effects of parity. Estimated endogenous losses of Zn were used to adjust apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) to true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of Zn in the four dietary treatment balance periods. There were no differences in Zn concentrations of urine, plasma, colostrum, or milk samples among treatments at any time of the experiment (P > 0.05). Gestating sows fed DDGS/PSZn had improved (P < 0.05) ATTD, TTTD, and overall retention of Zn compared with both Control treatments, with the DDGS/ZnSO4 treatment responses being intermediate. Lactating sows consuming diets without DDGS and supplemented with Zn polysaccharide complex had the greatest (P < 0.05) ATTD, TTTD, and retention of Zn, which were opposite to responses observed in gestation. Furthermore, ATTD, TTTD, and Zn retention for lactating sows consuming DDGS/PSZn were less (P < 0.05) than all other treatments. Overall, zinc digestibility of ZnSO4 and PSZn appears to be differentially influenced by the stage of the reproductive cycle and presence of dietary fiber from DDGS.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Sulfato de Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Gravidez , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Zinco/administração & dosagem
17.
mBio ; 11(1)2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071263

RESUMO

Dietary fibers can be utilized to shape the human gut microbiota. However, the outcomes from most dietary fibers currently used as prebiotics are a result of competition between microbes with overlapping abilities to utilize these fibers. Thus, divergent fiber responses are observed across individuals harboring distinct microbial communities. Here, we propose that dietary fibers can be classified hierarchically according to their specificity toward gut microbes. Highly specific fibers harbor chemical and physical characteristics that allow them to be utilized by only a narrow group of bacteria within the gut, reducing competition for that substrate. The use of such fibers as prebiotics targeted to specific microbes would result in predictable shifts independent of the background microbial composition.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Prebióticos , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2902, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076010

RESUMO

The experimental approach for the study of cardiometabolic disorders requires the use of animal models fed with commercial diets whose composition differs notably, even between diets used for control groups. While chow diets are usually made of agricultural by-products, purified low-fat diets (LF) contain a higher percentage of easy metabolizable carbohydrates, together with a reduced amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids, micronutrients and fiber, all associated with metabolic and vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that the LF diet, commonly used in control animals, could promote adverse vascular and metabolic outcomes. To address this issue, 5-week-old male C57BL6J mice were fed with a standard (Chow) or a LF diet for 6 weeks. Changes in body weight, adiposity, biochemical parameters, systemic and aortic insulin sensitivity and endothelial function were recorded. LF diet did not modify body weight but significantly impaired systemic glucose tolerance and increased triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Endothelial function and aortic insulin sensitivity were significantly impaired in the LF group, due to a reduction of NO availability. These findings highlight the importance of selecting the proper control diet in metabolic studies. It may also suggest that some cardiometabolic alterations obtained in experimental studies using LF as a control diet may be underestimated.


Assuntos
Aorta Torácica/fisiologia , Dieta , Glucose/metabolismo , Homeostase , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aorta Torácica/efeitos dos fármacos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenilefrina/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Gordura Subcutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023943

RESUMO

Understanding how dietary nutrients modulate the gut microbiome is of great interest for the development of food products and eating patterns for combatting the global burden of non-communicable diseases. In this narrative review we assess scientific studies published from 2005 to 2019 that evaluated the effect of micro- and macro-nutrients on the composition of the gut microbiome using in vitro and in vivo models, and human clinical trials. The clinical evidence for micronutrients is less clear and generally lacking. However, preclinical evidence suggests that red wine- and tea-derived polyphenols and vitamin D can modulate potentially beneficial bacteria. Current research shows consistent clinical evidence that dietary fibers, including arabinoxylans, galacto-oligosaccharides, inulin, and oligofructose, promote a range of beneficial bacteria and suppress potentially detrimental species. The preclinical evidence suggests that both the quantity and type of fat modulate both beneficial and potentially detrimental microbes, as well as the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio in the gut. Clinical and preclinical studies suggest that the type and amount of proteins in the diet has substantial and differential effects on the gut microbiota. Further clinical investigation of the effect of micronutrients and macronutrients on the microbiome and metabolome is warranted, along with understanding how this influences host health.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Micronutrientes/farmacologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos
20.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 834-845, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932826

RESUMO

A substantial fraction of ingested polyphenols accumulate in the large intestine (LI), attached to undigested plant cell walls (PCW) (dietary fibre). Yet, whether these PCW-bound polyphenols alter the structure and function of the resident microbiota remains unclear. This study characterised bacterial populations during the in vitro fermentation of three standard polyphenols: ferulic acid (FER), (±)-catechin (CAT), and cyanidin-3-glucoside (CYAN), adsorbed individually or in combination to apple cell walls (ACW). During fermentation with porcine faeces, samples were collected at regular time-points (up to 72 hours) for bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and fermentation end-product analyses (short-chain fatty acids and ammonium). The metabolic end-products differed to only a small extent between substrates, though significantly for propionate (P < 0.0001). Significant differences in microbial populations were noted between substrates tested (P < 0.0001). The presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside resulted in the most significant differences between bacterial communities during fermentation of the ACW substrate. Key microbes identified to be associated with the ACW with adsorbed polyphenols as well as individual polyphenols were: Phascolarctobacterium with ACW + FER and FER, the Lachnospiraceae family with ACW + CYAN, Parabacteroides with ACW + CYAN and CYAN, Collinsella and Coprococcus with ACW + CAT, and the Clostridiales order with ACW + CAT and CAT. This study has demonstrated the use of a simplified model to indicate any microbial effects of polyphenols associated with dietary fibre in whole fruits. This work has shown that individual polyphenols, or those adsorbed to PCW, have potentially very different effects on the gut bacteria. Future work could examine further polyphenols associated with a range of fresh fruits.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Células Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Suínos
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