Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.317
Filtrar
1.
Nutrients ; 14(10)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35631287

RESUMO

Dietary fibers exhibit well-known beneficial effects on human health, but their anti-infectious properties against enteric pathogens have been poorly investigated. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major food-borne pathogen that causes acute traveler's diarrhea. Its virulence traits mainly rely on adhesion to an epithelial surface, mucus degradation, and the secretion of two enterotoxins associated with intestinal inflammation. With the increasing burden of antibiotic resistance worldwide, there is an imperious need to develop novel alternative strategies to control ETEC infections. This study aimed to investigate, using complementary in vitro approaches, the inhibitory potential of two dietary-fiber-containing products (a lentil extract and yeast cell walls) against the human ETEC reference strain H10407. We showed that the lentil extract decreased toxin production in a dose-dependent manner, reduced pro-inflammatory interleukin-8 production, and modulated mucus-related gene induction in ETEC-infected mucus-secreting intestinal cells. We also report that the yeast product reduced ETEC adhesion to mucin and Caco-2/HT29-MTX cells. Both fiber-containing products strengthened intestinal barrier function and modulated toxin-related gene expression. In a complex human gut microbial background, both products did not elicit a significant effect on ETEC colonization. These pioneering data demonstrate the promising role of dietary fibers in controlling different stages of the ETEC infection process.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica , Infecções por Escherichia coli , Lens (Planta) , Células CACO-2 , Diarreia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Viagem , Virulência
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 832897, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422766

RESUMO

Background: While osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal fragility due to increased bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD), subjects with abdominal obesity and type-2 diabetes have increased risk of bone fractures despite low bone turnover and increased BMD. Diets with increased protein content are reported to increase bone turnover in healthy adults and may be a point of interest in preserving bone strength in subjects with abdominal obesity and/or type-2 diabetes. Methods: We examined the effect of 12-weeks dietary intervention on bone turnover in 64 adults with abdominal obesity using data from the MERITS trial. The trial was a randomized, controlled, double blinded study in which participants were allocated to receive either 60 g/d of whey protein hydrolysate or maltodextrin in combination with either high (30 g/d) or low dietary fiber intake (10 g/d). Primarily, we assessed changes in plasma markers of bone turnover Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (p1NP), C-terminal telopeptide type-1 collagen (CTX), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) within the four intervention groups. In addition, we measured u-calcium and u-carbamide excretion, 25(OH)D, and BMD by whole body DXA scans. Finally, we compared changes in insulin resistance (Homeostasis-model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) with changes in bone turnover markers.The trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02931630. Results: Sixty-four subjects were included in the study. We did not find any effect of twelve weeks of high protein or high fiber intake on plasma levels of P1NP or CTX. There was a nonsignificant positive association between protein intake and PTH levels (p=0.06). U-calcium and u-carbamide increased in both protein groups. There was a positive association between change in HOMA-IR and PTH (p=0.042), while changes in P1NP and CTX did not associate to changes in HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of increased whey protein intake in subjects with abdominal obesity did not affect markers of bone turnover significantly, although tended to increase PTH levels. Dietary fiber intake did not affect bone turnover. We report a positive association between change in HOMA-IR and PTH supporting a hypothesis of insulin resistance as a potential key factor in the expanding field of bone fragility in T2D subjects.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Resistência à Insulina , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Remodelação Óssea , Cálcio/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Obesidade , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Hormônio Paratireóideo , Ureia/farmacologia , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/farmacologia
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6748, 2022 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468931

RESUMO

In the present study, we elucidated the effect of grain-based (GB) diet containing both soluble and insoluble fibers and purified ingredients-based (PIB) diet containing only insoluble fiber, namely cellulose on mice gut microbiome using whole shotgun based metagenomic sequencing. Although the fiber content in both diet types is the same (5%) the presence of soluble fiber only in the GB diet differentiates it from the PIB diet. The taxonomic analysis of sequenced reads reveals a significantly higher enrichment of probiotic Lactobacilli in the GB group as compared to the PIB group. Further, the enhancement of energy expensive cellular processes namely, cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning, and transcription is observed in the GB group which could be due to the metabolization of the soluble fiber for faster energy production. In contrast, a higher abundance of cellulolytic bacterial community namely, the members of family Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae and the metabolism functions are found in the PIB group. The PIB group shows a significant increase in host-derived oligosaccharide metabolism functions indicating that they might first target the host-derived oligosaccharides and self-stored glycogen in addition to utilising the available cellulose. In addition to the beneficial microbial community variations, both the groups also exhibited an increased abundance of opportunistic pathobionts which could be due to an overall low amount of fiber in the diet. Furthermore, backtracing analysis identified probiotic members of Lactobacillus, viz., L. crispatus ST1, L. fermentum CECT 5716, L. gasseri ATCC 33323, L. johnsonii NCC 533 and L. reuteri 100-23 in the GB group, while Bilophila wadsworthia 3_1_6, Desulfovibrio piger ATCC 29098, Clostridium symbiosum WAL-14163, and Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 in the PIB group. These data suggest that Lactobacilli, a probiotic community of microorganisms, are the predominant functional contributors in the gut of GB diet-fed mice, whereas pathobionts too coexisted with commensals in the gut microbiome of the PIB group. Thus at 5% fiber, GB modifies the gut microbial ecology more effectively than PIB and the inclusion of soluble fiber in the GB diet may be one of the primary factors responsible for this impact.


Assuntos
Metagenoma , Prebióticos , Animais , Celulose/farmacologia , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Lactobacillus/genética , Metagenômica , Camundongos
4.
J Nutr Biochem ; 105: 108999, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35346831

RESUMO

Inulin, a soluble dietary fiber, is thought to exert multiple beneficiary effects through promoting growth of bacteria that metabolize the fiber to short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs); however, the effect and efficacy of inulin in aging subjects is unknown. This study aims to systematically evaluate the capacity of SCFAs production and host response in mice of different ages. Male C57BL/6J mice across young (5 months), middle (11 months) and old (26 months) age were subjected to a control diet for 2 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of inulin-containing diet. Inulin-induced increase in fecal butyric acid levels was most prominent in middle-age group compared to other age groups. In addition, inulin-induced increase in fecal propionic acids showed age-dependent decline. Interestingly, the SCFA-producing Roseburia was most abundantly and persistently increased in the middle-age group. Furthermore, inulin intake significantly reduced Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, and several dysbiotic bacteria associated with pro-inflammatory state. Concomitantly, circulating levels of CXCL1, a chemoattractant for neutrophils, was reduced by inulin intake. Inulin decreased fat mass in all age groups, with middle-aged mice being most responsive to fat-reducing effects of inulin. Moreover, inulin significantly increased energy expenditure and voluntary wheel running in middle-aged mice, but not in old mice. Overall, our data suggest that the efficacy of inulin in altering the microbiome and SCFA production, and the subsequent metabolic response was diminished in old mice, and highlight the importance of including age as a variable in studies determining host-microbe response to diets.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Inulina , Adiposidade , Envelhecimento , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Humanos , Inulina/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/metabolismo
5.
Nutrients ; 14(5)2022 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267913

RESUMO

The health benefits of bean consumption are widely recognized and are largely attributed to the dietary fiber content. This study investigated and compared the effects of whole brown beans and an isolated bean dietary fiber fraction on the plasma lipid profile, atherosclerotic plaque amount, gut microbiota, and microbiota-dependent metabolites (cecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and plasma methylamines) in Apoe-/- mice fed high fat diets for 10.5 weeks. The results showed that both whole bean and the isolated fiber fraction had a tendency to lower atherosclerotic plaque amount, but not plasma lipid concentration. The whole bean diet led to a significantly higher diversity of gut microbiota compared with the high fat diet. Both bean diets resulted in a lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, higher relative abundance of unclassified S24-7, Prevotella, Bifidobacterium, and unclassified Clostridiales, and lower abundance of Lactobacillus. Both bean diets resulted in higher formation of all cecal SCFAs (higher proportion of propionic acid and lower proportion of acetic acid) and higher plasma trimethylamine N-oxide concentrations compared with the high fat diet. Whole beans and the isolated fiber fraction exerted similar positive effects on atherosclerotic plaque amount, gut microbiota, and cecal SCFAs in Apoe-/- mice compared with the control diets.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Phaseolus , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Camundongos
6.
FASEB J ; 36(5): e22269, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344215

RESUMO

Dietary fiber promotes a healthy gut microbiome and shows promise in attenuating the unfavorable microbial changes resulting from a high-fat/sucrose (HFS) diet. High-fiber diets consisting of oligofructose alone (HFS/O) or in combination with ß-glucan (HFS/OB), resistant starch (HFS/OR), or ß-glucan and resistant starch (HFS/OBR) were fed to diet-induced obese rats for 8 weeks to determine if these fibers could attenuate the obese phenotype. Only the HFS/O group displayed a decrease in body weight and body fat, but all fiber interventions improved insulin sensitivity and cognitive function. The HFS/O diet was the least effective at improving cognitive function and only the HFS/OB group showed improvements in glucose tolerance, thus highlighting the differential effects of fiber types. Hippocampal cytokines (IL-6, IL-10) were more pronounced in the HFS/OB group which coincided with the most time spend in the open arms of the elevated plus maze. All fiber groups showed an increase in beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus abundance while the HFS group showed higher abundance of Clostridium. Fecal microbiota transplant from fiber-treated rats into germ-free mice did not alter body composition in the mice but did result in a higher abundance of Bacteroides in the HFS/O and HFS/OB groups compared to HFS. The HFS/OB recipient mice also had higher insulin sensitivity compared to the other groups. This study highlights the influence of dietary fiber type on metabolic and cognitive outcomes suggesting that the type of supplementation (single or combined fibers) could be tailored to specific targeted outcomes.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Cognição , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Amido Resistente , Sacarose
7.
Food Chem ; 385: 132665, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35299023

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effects of sugarcane polyphenol and fiber (Phytolin + Fiber) on gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production and phenolic metabolites production using in vitro digestion and fermentation model. Microbial profiling by 16S rRNA sequencing was used to analyze the pig faecal microbiota profile. SCFAs were identified and quantified by GC-FID, and phenolic metabolites were characterized by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS. The results showed that Phytolin + Fiber exert synergistic effects on the pig gut microbiota by increasing the relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Catenibacterium, and decreasing the relative abundances of Mogibacterium, Dialister, and Escherichia-Shigella. Phytolin + Fiber also significantly increased the total SCFAs production, particularly the propionic and butyric acids. Production of phenolic metabolites related to major polyphenols in Phytolin were tentatively identified. These results suggest that Phytolin + Fiber could be beneficial to human colon health given the similarities between pig and human intestine in terms of physiology and microbiome.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Saccharum , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Saccharum/metabolismo , Suínos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(6): 4440-4451, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324068

RESUMO

AIMS: The purpose of the research is to study the effects of different fibre types and sources on the intestinal flora of geese. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 48 geese (males: 35 days old) were divided into four groups, each of which included three replicates of four geese. Groups 1-4 were fed a diet containing 5% corn stover Crude fibre (CF, the LJ group), 8% corn stover CF (the HJ group), 5% alfalfa CF (the LM group) or 8% alfalfa CF (the HM group), respectively. After 42 days of feeding, the intestinal flora of each group was determined by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. In the duodenum, the diet supplemented with corn stover meal increased the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota, and with alfalfa as fibre source increased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Tenericutes and Chloroflexi. In the jejunum, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Tenericutes and Spirochetes were significantly more abundant in the corn stover group. There were no significant differences among the results for the other two fibre sources, which were fibre level in their influence where in ileum. Firmicutes, Deferribacteres and Euryarchaeota with corn stover as fibre source in the cecum were higher than the alfalfa group. CONCLUSIONS: Different fibre sources have significant effects on goose gut microbiota. The same flora has the same trend of change in different intestinal segments. The relative fibre source in the ileum makes the gut microbiota more sensitive to differences in fibre levels. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study proved that the dietary fibre affects the intestinal flora. At the same time, different groups of dietary fibre may be used to provide the possibility to study functional roles of specific bacteria in host physiology.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias , Bacteroidetes , Ceco , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Firmicutes/genética , Gansos/microbiologia , Gansos/fisiologia , Masculino , Medicago sativa
9.
Cancer Sci ; 113(5): 1789-1800, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201655

RESUMO

Cancer cachexia and the associated skeletal muscle wasting are considered poor prognostic factors, although effective treatment has not yet been established. Recent studies have indicated that the pathogenesis of skeletal muscle loss may involve dysbiosis of the gut microbiota and the accompanying chronic inflammation or altered metabolism. In this study, we evaluated the possible effects of modifying the gut microenvironment with partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG), a soluble dietary fiber, on cancer-related muscle wasting and its mechanism using a colon-26 murine cachexia model. Compared with a fiber-free (FF) diet, PHGG contained fiber-rich (FR) diet-attenuated skeletal muscle loss in cachectic mice by suppressing the elevation of the major muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, as well as the autophagy markers LC3 and Bnip3. Although tight-junction markers were partially reduced in both FR and FF diet-fed cachectic mice, the abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, and unclassified S24-7 family increased by FR diet, contributing to the retention of the colonic mucus layer. The reinforcement of the gut barrier function resulted in the controlled entry of pathogens into the host system and reduced circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and IL-6, which in turn led to the suppression of proteolysis by downregulating the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy pathway. These results suggest that dietary fiber may have the potential to alleviate skeletal muscle loss in cancer cachexia, providing new insights for developing effective strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Caquexia , Neoplasias , Animais , Caquexia/etiologia , Caquexia/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Músculo Esquelético , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 100(3)2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35180312

RESUMO

A variety of functional ingredients, including fibers, prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics may be added to pet foods to support gastrointestinal and immune health. While many of these ingredients have been tested individually, commercial foods often include blends that also require testing. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing blends of fibers, "biotics," and/or spray-dried plasma on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), stool quality, fecal microbiota and metabolites, and immune health outcomes of adult dogs. A total of 12 healthy adult intact English pointer dogs (6 M, 6 F; age = 6.4 ± 2.0 yr; BW = 25.8 ± 2.6 kg) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to test diets formulated to: 1) contain a low concentration of fermentative substances (control diet, CT); 2) be enriched with a fiber-prebiotic-probiotic blend (FPPB); and 3) be enriched with a fiber-prebiotic-probiotic blend + immune-modulating ingredients (iFFPB). In each 28-d period, 22 d of diet adaptation was followed by a 5-d fecal collection phase and 1 d for blood sample collection. All data were analyzed using SAS 9.4, with significance being P < 0.05 and trends being P < 0.10. FPPB and iFPPB diets led to shifts in numerous outcome measures. Dry matter (DM), organic matter, fat, fiber, and energy ATTD were lower (P < 0.01), fecal scores were lower (P < 0.01; firmer stools), and fecal DM% was higher (P < 0.0001) in dogs fed FPPB or iFPPB than those fed CT. Serum triglycerides and cholesterol were lower (P < 0.01) in dogs fed FPPB or iFPPB than those fed CT. Fecal protein catabolites (isobutyrate, isovalerate, indole, and ammonia) and butyrate were lower (P < 0.05), while fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) was higher (P < 0.01) in dogs fed FPPB and iFPPB than those fed CT. Fecal microbiota populations were affected by diet, with alpha-diversity being lower (P < 0.05) in dogs fed iFPPB and the relative abundance of 20 bacterial genera being altered in dogs fed FPPB or iFPPB compared with CT. The circulating helper T cell:cytotoxic T cell ratio was higher (P < 0.05) in dogs fed iFPPB than those fed CT. Circulating B cells were lower (P < 0.05) in dogs fed FPPB than those fed iFPPB, and lower (P < 0.05) in dogs fed iFPPB than those fed CT. Our results demonstrate that feeding a fiber-prebiotic-probiotic blend may provide many benefits to canine health, including improved stool quality, beneficial shifts to fecal microbiota and metabolite profiles, reduced blood lipids, and increased fecal IgA.


A variety of functional ingredients­those that provide benefits beyond their nutritional value­may be added to pet foods to support gastrointestinal and immune health. While many of these ingredients have been tested individually, commercial foods often include blends that also require testing. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of diets containing blends of dietary fibers and other functional ingredients on nutrient digestibility and the stool characteristics and immune health outcomes of adult dogs consuming them. Treatments included a control diet containing low amounts of dietary fiber, a diet containing a fiber­prebiotic­probiotic blend, and a diet containing the fiber­prebiotic­probiotic blend as well as immune-modulating ingredients. The test diets were shown to shift many outcome measures. First, they were shown to reduce nutrient digestibility and decrease fecal scores (more firm stool). Second, test diets reduced blood lipids and beneficially altered fecal metabolite concentrations. Third, test diets increased fecal immunoglobulin A concentrations, suggesting enhanced gut immunity. Lastly, the test diets shifted fecal bacterial populations. Our results demonstrate that feeding a fiber­prebiotic­probiotic blend may provide many benefits to canine health, including improved stool quality, beneficial shifts to fecal bacteria and metabolite profiles, reduced blood lipids, and enhanced gut immunity.


Assuntos
Digestão , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Imunidade , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Prebióticos
11.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 66(10): e2100772, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35225418

RESUMO

SCOPE: Obesity is becoming a major public health problem due to excess dietary fat intake. Dendrobium officinale (D. officinale) is a medicine food homology plant and exerts multiple health-promoting effects. However, its antiobesity effects and the potential mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice are administered D. officinale dietary fiber (DODF) daily by gavage for 11 weeks. The results show that treatment with DODF alleviates obesity, liver steatosis, inflammation, and oxidant stress in HFD-induced obese mice. Improved glucose homeostasis in obese mice after DODF treatment is achieved by enhancing insulin pathway and hepatic glycogen synthesis. DODF restructures the gut microbiota in obese mice by decreasing the relative abundance of Bilophila and increasing the relative abundances of Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Muribaculum. Also, DODF reshapes the metabolic phenotype of obese mice as indicated by up-regulating energy metabolism, increasing acetate and taurine, and reducing serum low density/very low density lipoproteins (LDL/VLDL). These beneficial effects are partly transferred by FMT, implying the gut microbiota as a target for the protective effect of DODF on obesity-related symptoms. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that DODF can be used as a novel prebiotics to maintain the gut microbial homeostasis and improve metabolic health, preventing obesity and related metabolic syndrome.


Assuntos
Dendrobium , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Glucose/farmacologia , Homeostase , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle
12.
Mar Drugs ; 20(2)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200621

RESUMO

Though the relationship between dietary fiber and physical health has been investigated widely, the use of dietary fiber from marine plants has been investigated relatively rarely. The Saccharina japonica byproducts after the production of algin contain a large amount of insoluble polysaccharide, which will cause a waste of resources if ignored. Soluble dietary fiber (SDF)prepared from waste byproducts of Saccharina japonica by alkaline hydrolysis method for the first time had a wrinkled microscopic surface and low crystallinity, which not only significantly reduced liver index, serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine amiotransferase (ALT), and liver fat accumulation damage to the livers of obese diabetic mice, but also activated the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to increase liver glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. By LC-MS/MS employing a Nexera UPLC tandem QE high-resolution mass spectrometer, the 6 potential biomarker metabolites were screened, namely glycerophosphocholine (GPC), phosphocholine (PCho), pantothenic acid, glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and betaine; several pathways of these metabolites were associated with lipid metabolism, glycogen metabolism, and amino acid metabolism in the liver were observed. This study further provided a detailed insight into the mechanisms of SDF from Saccharina japonica byproducts in regulating the livers of obese mice with type 2 diabetes and laid a reliable foundation for the further development and utilization of Saccharina japonica.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Laminaria/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Obesos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
13.
Food Funct ; 13(5): 2710-2728, 2022 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35170607

RESUMO

Dietary fiber intake is beneficial for the prevention of some chronic metabolic diseases. Considering the characteristic that dietary fiber from tea residues (TRDF) is rich in bound polyphenols, the study aimed to elucidate the interaction effect between dietary fiber components (TRDF-DF) and bound polyphenol components (TRDF-BP) on the anti-hyperglycemic activity of TRDF. A type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin injection was applied in this study. The results showed that bound polyphenol components rather than dietary fiber components were essential for the anti-hyperglycemic activity of TRDF, as evidenced by remarkable differences in fasting blood glucose (FBG), the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the levels of serum oxidative stress between the TRDF and TRDF-DF groups, as well as the up-regulation of the expression of insulin signaling pathway-related proteins in the liver after TRDF and TRDF-BP administration. In addition, the synergistic effect between TRDF-BP and TRDF-DF components modulated gut microbiota dysbiosis and increased the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) via enriching beneficial bacteria and inhibiting harmful bacteria. The role of TRDF-BP and TRDF-DF as well as their interaction effect on the anti-hyperglycemic activity of TRDF are elucidated, which can provide theoretical basis for TRDF as a dietary supplement to manage T2D.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Chá , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Masculino , Polifenóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
14.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 2068-2082, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107113

RESUMO

Purpose: Grape pomace (GP) is a winery by-product rich in polyphenols and dietary fibre. Some recent results suggest that GP-derived extracts could be promising additives in food, specially recommended for low-salt diets. The hypothesis tested in this paper is that the regular consumption of GP-derived seasonings could help in the control of hypertension and glycaemia. Methods: A randomized intervention study (6 weeks) was performed in high-risk cardiovascular subjects (n = 17) and in healthy subjects (n = 12) that were randomly allocated into intervention (2 g day-1 of GP seasoning) or control (no seasoning consumed) groups. Blood samples, faeces, urine and blood pressure (BP) were taken at the baseline and at the end of the intervention. Faecal samples were analysed for microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and microbial-derived metabolites (short chain fatty acids and phenolic metabolites). Results: Among the clinical parameters studied, BP and fasting blood glucose significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after the seasoning intervention, but not for the control group. Notably, application of a novel approach based on ASV (Amplicon Sequence Variant) co-occurrence networks allowed us to identify some bacterial communities whose relative abundances were related with metadata. Conclusion: Our primary findings suggest that GP-seasoning may help in the modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors, mainly in the early stages. Furthermore, it evidences modulation of gut microbiota and functional bacterial communities by grape pomace, which might mediate the cardiometabolic effects of this by-product.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Vitis , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Condimentos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Alimento Funcional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitoterapia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Pflugers Arch ; 474(3): 293-302, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997297

RESUMO

Dietary fibers have been shown to increase the intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+). However, the mechanisms that explain the enhanced electrolyte absorption remain unknown. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of 5% (w/w) sodium butyrate (Na-butyrate), an important end-metabolite of bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, on Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis in mice. Serum Ca2+ levels were only significantly increased in mice treated with Na-butyrate for 1 day. This was associated with a twofold increase in the mRNA expression levels of Trpv6 in the proximal and distal colon. Contrary, Na-butyrate did not affect serum Mg2+ concentrations at either of the intervention periods. However, we observed a reduction in urinary Mg2+ excretion, although not significantly, after 1 day of treatment. A significant reduction of 2.5-fold in urinary Mg2+ excretion was observed after 14 days of treatment. Indeed, 14-day Na-butyrate supplementation increased colonic Trpm7 expression by 1.2-fold compared to control mice. In conclusion, short-term Na-butyrate supplementation increases serum Ca2+ levels in mice. This was associated with increased mRNA expression levels of Trpv6 in the colon, suggesting that Na-butyrate regulates the expression of genes involved in active intestinal Ca2+ absorption.


Assuntos
Sódio na Dieta , Canais de Cátion TRPM , Animais , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Colo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta/metabolismo , Sódio na Dieta/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPM/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/genética , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo
16.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 1881-1889, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35084423

RESUMO

Various food-derived bioactive peptides have been found with potential anti-inflammatory effects. Millet bran peptide is a food-derived bioactive peptide extracted from millet bran, a by-product of millet processing. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of millet bran peptides was investigated. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cell and an animal experiment model were established to test the anti-inflammatory activity of millet bran peptides in vitro. As indicated by the results, millet bran peptides could significantly reduce the levels of inflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), in the LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell. As demonstrated by the animal experiment results, millet bran peptides could mitigate the inflammation of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). According to the western blotting results, millet bran peptides reduced the phosphorylation level of an extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), I Kappa B (IKB), p65, and p38 of LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. As indicated by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis results, millet bran peptides could modify the composition of intestinal microbes. In brief, millet bran peptides could have anti-inflammatory activities in vivo and in vitro and mitigate the inflammation of LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells by regulating the signaling pathways of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The above research has laid a theoretical basis for the application of plant-derived peptides in health food.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Milhetes/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR
17.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057509

RESUMO

Dietary intervention could modulate age-related neurological disorders via the gut-brain axis. The potential roles of a probiotic and the dietary fiber complex (DFC) on brain and gut function in aged mice were investigated in this study. Lactobacillus casei LTL1361 and DFC were orally administrated for 12 weeks, and the learning and memory ability, as well as the oxidative parameters, inflammatory markers, gut barrier function and microbial metabolite short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), were investigated. LTL1361 and DFC supplementation ameliorated cognitive ability, attenuated oxidative stress in brain and inflammation in serum and colon, ameliorated gut barrier function, and increased the SCFA concentrations and gene expression of SCFA receptors. The protective effect was more significantly enhanced in aged mice treated with the combination of LTL1361 and DFC than treated with LTL1361 or DFC alone. These results could be associated with the protected morphology of pyramidal nerve cells in hippocampus of mice brain and the downregulation of apoptosis marker caspase-3 in brain and upregulation of tight junction proteins in small intestine and colon. The results indicated that Lactobacillus casei LTL1361 and DFC alleviated age-related cognitive impairment, as well as protected brain and gut function. Lactobacillus casei LTL1361 and DFC might be used as novel and promising antiaging agents in human.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus casei/metabolismo , Animais , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Inflamação/dietoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
18.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057510

RESUMO

Laminaria japonica is a large marine brown alga that is annually highly productive. However, due to its underutilization, its potential value is substantially wasted. For example, a lot of Laminaria japonica cellulose remains unused during production of algin. The soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared from the byproducts of Laminaria japonica, and its physicochemical properties were explored. SDF exhibits good water-holding, oil-holding, water-absorbing swelling, glucose and cholesterol absorption capacity, and inhibitory activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In addition, the beneficial effects of SDF in diabetic mice include reduced body weight, lower blood glucose, and relieved insulin resistance. Finally, the intestinal flora and metabolomic products were analyzed from feces using 16S amplicon and LC-MS/MS, respectively. SDF not only significantly changed the composition and structure of intestinal flora and intestinal metabolites, but also significantly increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Akkermansia, Odoribacter and Bacteroides, decreased the abundance of harmful bacteria Staphylococcus, and increased the content of bioactive substances in intestinal tract, such as harmine, magnolol, arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E2, urimorelin and azelaic acid. Taken together, these findings suggest that dietary intake of SDF alleviates type 2 diabetes mellitus disease, and provides an important theoretical basis for SDF to be used as a functional food.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/dietoterapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Laminaria/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Fenômenos Químicos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 13(1): 213-226, 2022 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34881766

RESUMO

High-purity insoluble dietary fiber from okara (okara-HPIDF) is a raw material with a potentially positive effect on colon health. However, the mechanisms of the effect are far from clear. In this study, okara-HPIDF and low-purity dietary fiber from okara (okara-LPDF) were fed to C57BL/6 mice with acute ulcerative colitis induced by DSS. The levels of inflammatory factors, bacterial 16S rDNA sequencing, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bioinformatics were analyzed with the colonic tissue status. The results showed that the intake of HPIDF affected the proliferation of the key bacteria Shigella, Lactobacillus, and Peptostreptococcaceae in the PWY-2941 pathway and AEROBACTINSYN-PWY pathway, and then affected the synthesis of SCFAs, providing a positive role for colon health. However, the intake of HPIDF was unable to repair colonic injury caused by DSS-induced acute ulcerative colitis mainly owing to the abundance of Shigella in the colon. This study demonstrates that the recommended intake content of HPIDF can ameliorate colonic environment disturbance caused by acute ulcerative colitis, but not enough to relieve it.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/química , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Br J Pharmacol ; 179(2): 337-352, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dietary fibre comprises a complex group of polysaccharides that are indigestible but are fermented by gut microbiota, promoting beneficial effects to the intestinal mucosa indirectly through the production of short chain fatty acids. We found that a polysaccharide, rhamnogalacturonan (RGal), from the plant Acmella oleracea, has direct effects on intestinal epithelial barrier function. Our objective was to determine the mechanism whereby RGal enhances epithelial barrier function. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Monolayers of colonic epithelial cell lines (Caco-2, T84) and of human primary cells from organoids were mounted in Ussing chambers to assess barrier function. The cellular mechanism of RGal effects on barrier function was determined using inhibitors of TLR-4 and PKC isoforms. KEY RESULTS: Apically applied RGal (1000 µg ml-1 ) significantly enhanced barrier function as shown by increased transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and reduced fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran flux in Caco-2, T84 and human primary cell monolayers, and accelerated tight junction reassembly in Caco-2 cells in a calcium switch assay. RGal also reversed the barrier-damaging effects of inflammatory cytokines on FITC-dextran flux and preserved the tight junction distribution of occludin. RGal activated TLR4 in TLR4-expressing HEK reporter cells, an effect that was inhibited by the TLR4 inhibitor, C34. The effect of RGal was also dependent on PKC, specifically the isoforms PKCδ and PKCζ. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: RGal enhances intestinal epithelial barrier function through activation of TLR4 and PKC signalling pathways. Elucidation of RGal mechanisms of action could lead to new, dietary approaches to enhance mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel diseases.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal , Ramnogalacturonanos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Células CACO-2 , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Microbiota , Permeabilidade , Ramnogalacturonanos/farmacologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...