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1.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(3): 613-620, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718523

RESUMO

Cellulose nanofiber (CN) consumption with exercise could be a potential strategy to control obesity. Here, we studied the effects of CN supplementation and voluntary exercise on obesity and gut microbiota in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Consumption of CN increased voluntary wheel running activity. CN intake and exercise together suppressed the increase in body weight and fat mass, and improved glucose tolerance. The fecal gut microbiota was analyzed by sequencing 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Principal component analysis revealed a shift in the microbiota composition resulting from exercise, but not from CN supplementation. Erysipelotrichaceae and Rikenellaceae decreased with exercise. Exercise also increased Ruminococcaceae, whereas exercise and CN intake together increased Eubacteriaceae. These two families are butyrate producers. Exercise increased the amount of acetate in the cecum. These results suggest that CN consumption improves exercise performance and exerts anti-obesity effects by modulating the balance of the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Celulose/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Nanofibras , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Ceco/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(18)2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540305

RESUMO

To study the effects of maternal fiber supplementation during pregnancy on the testicular development of male offspring and its possible mechanisms, 36 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were allocated to either a control diet (n = 18) or a fiber diet (the control diet supplemented with 22.60 g/kg inulin and 181.60 g/kg cellulosic; n = 18) during pregnancy. The body and testes weight of the offspring, 7-day-old piglets, was recorded. Testes were collected for further analyses. Results showed that the testicular organ index and the number of spermatogonia in single seminiferous tubule were higher in piglets from the fiber group than from the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, a significant increase in the concentration of glucose, lactate, and lipids in the testes was found in the fiber group (p < 0.05). Proteomic analysis suggested that there were notable differences in glucolipid transport and metabolism, oxidation, and male reproduction-related proteins expression between the two groups (p < 0.05). Results revealed that the most enriched signaling pathways in the fiber group testes included starch and sucrose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, and the renin-angiotensin system. mRNA expression analyzes further confirmed the importance of some signaling pathways in maternal fiber nutrition regulating offspring testicular development. Our results shed new light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of maternal fiber nutrition on offspring testicular development and provided a valuable insight for future explorations of the effect of maternal fiber nutrition on man reproduction.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica/métodos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo
3.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 2996-3007, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418509

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the contribution of mango fiber (MF) and mango phenolic compounds (MP) to the hepatoprotective effect of freeze-dried mango pulp (FDM) cultivar (cv.) "Ataulfo" diets in high cholesterol/sodium cholate (HCC)-fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with a HCC diet for 12 weeks, either untreated, or supplemented with MF, MP, FDM, or a control diet (no HCC; n = 6/group). All mango treatments significantly decreased hepatic cholesterol deposition and altered its fatty acid profile, whereas MF and MP mitigated adipose tissue hypertrophy. MF caused a lower level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1α/ß, IFN-γ, TNF-α) whereas FDM increased the anti-inflammatory ones (IL-4, 6, 10). Mango treatments increased catalase (CAT) activity and its mRNA expression; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was normalized by MF and FDM, but its activity was unrelated to its hepatic mRNA expression. Changes in CAT and SOD mRNA expression were unrelated to altered Nrf2 mRNA expression. Higher hepatic PPARα and LXRα mRNA levels were found in MP and MF. We concluded that MF and MP are highly bioactive, according to the documented hepatoprotection in HCC-fed rats; their mechanism of action appears to be related to modulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism as well as to stimulating the endogenous antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Mangifera/química , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hipercolesterolemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercolesterolemia/prevenção & controle , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/induzido quimicamente , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Colato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Colato de Sódio/efeitos adversos
4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426593

RESUMO

The interplay of gut microbiota, host metabolism, and metabolic health has gained increased attention. Gut microbiota may play a regulatory role in gastrointestinal health, substrate metabolism, and peripheral tissues including adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver, and pancreas via its metabolites short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). Animal and human data demonstrated that, in particular, acetate beneficially affects host energy and substrate metabolism via secretion of the gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY, which, thereby, affects appetite, via a reduction in whole-body lipolysis, systemic pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and via an increase in energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Thus, potential therapies to increase gut microbial fermentation and acetate production have been under vigorous scientific scrutiny. In this review, the relevance of the colonically and systemically most abundant SCFA acetate and its effects on the previously mentioned tissues will be discussed in relation to body weight control and glucose homeostasis. We discuss in detail the differential effects of oral acetate administration (vinegar intake), colonic acetate infusions, acetogenic fiber, and acetogenic probiotic administrations as approaches to combat obesity and comorbidities. Notably, human data are scarce, which highlights the necessity for further human research to investigate acetate's role in host physiology, metabolic, and cardiovascular health.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Resistência à Insulina , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Animais , Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/microbiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Hormônios Gastrointestinais/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
5.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3535-3549, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260526

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of treatment of wheat straw using ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX) and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (Viscozyme) on fiber digestibility, rumen fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and microbial populations in an artificial rumen system [Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)]. Four treatments were assigned to 16 vessels (4 per treatment) in 2 RUSITEC apparatuses in a randomized block design. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial using untreated or AFEX-treated wheat straw with or without exogenous fibrolytic enzymes [0 or 500 µg of protein/g straw dry matter (DM)]. Fibrolytic enzymes were applied to straw, prior to sealing in nylon bags. The concentrate mixture was provided in a separate bag within each fermentation vessel. The RUSITECs were adapted for 8 d and disappearance of DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and crude protein (CP) was measured after 48 h of incubation. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) the disappearance of wheat straw DM (69.6 vs. 38.3%), NDF (65.6 vs. 36.8%), ADF (61.4 vs. 36.0%), and CP (68.3 vs. 24.0%). Total dietary DM, organic matter (OM), and NDF disappearance was also increased (P ≤ 0.05) by enzymes. Total microbial protein production was greater (P < 0.01) for AFEX-treated (72.9 mg/d) than untreated straw (63.1 mg/d). Total gas and methane (CH4) production (P < 0.01) were also greater for AFEX-treated wheat straw than untreated straw, with a tendency for total gas to increase (P = 0.06) with enzymes. Ammonia fiber expansion increased (P < 0.01) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and the molar proportion of propionate, while it decreased (P < 0.01) acetate and the acetate-to-propionate ratio. The AFEX-treated straw had lower relative quantities of fungi, methanogens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.01) and fewer protozoa (P < 0.01) compared to untreated straw. The pH of fermenters fed AFEX-treated straw was lower (P < 0.01) than those fed untreated straw. Both AFEX (P < 0.01) and enzymes (P = 0.02) decreased xylanase activity. There was an enzyme × straw interaction (P = 0.02) for endoglucanase activity. Enzymes increased endoglucanase activity of AFEX-treated wheat straw, but had no effect on untreated straw. The addition of enzymes lowered the relative abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, but increased F. succinogenes. These results indicate that AFEX increased the ruminal disappearance of wheat straw and improved fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in the RUSITEC.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Celulase/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem
6.
Food Chem ; 298: 124987, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260962

RESUMO

In this study, subcritical water extraction (SWE), SWE in aqueous citric acid (pH 5.0) (SWEC), and ultrasound-assisted SWEC (USWEC) were used to extract soluble dietary fiber (SDF) from wheat bran. Results showed that SWE-based methods significantly influenced the physicochemical, functional, and biological properties of the SDF. The fraction SDF-III attained via USWEC had higher SDF yield (46.30%) and carbohydrate content (82.91%), and lower weight-average molecular weight (65.2 kDa) and particle size (1.17 µm), and looser and more porous surface structure, compared with the SDF-I and SDF-II obtained by SWE and SWEC, respectively. USWEC increased the thermal stability and homogeneity of SDF-III but decreased its apparent viscosity and dynamic viscoelasticity. Moreover, the SDF-III exhibited more significant antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities in vitro than SDF-I and SDF-II. Therefore, the USWEC technique had a greater potential for the highly-efficient production of SDF from wheat bran.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Fibras na Dieta , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/química , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Viscosidade , Água/química , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336939

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between dietary fibre intake and rectal cancer (RC) risk. In January 2019, a structured computer search on PubMed/Medline, Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE) and Scopus was performed for studies reporting the results of primary research evaluating dietary fibre intake in women and men as well as the risk of developing RC. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations were followed. Highest vs. lowest fibre concentrations was compared. The Egger test was used to estimate publication bias. Heterogeneity between studies was evaluated with I2 statistics. The search strategy identified 912 papers, 22 of which were included in our meta-analysis. Having evaluated a total of 2,876,136 subjects, the results suggest a protective effect of dietary fibre intake on RC prevention. The effect Size (ES) was [0.77 (95% CI = 0.66-0.89), p-value = 0.001)]. Moderate statistical heterogeneity (Chi2 = 51.36, df = 21, I2 = 59.11%, p-value = 0.000) was found. However, no publication bias was found, as confirmed by Egger's linear regression test (Intercept -0.21, t = -0.24, p = 0.816). The findings suggest that dietary fibre intake could be protective against RC, with a clinically relevant reduction of RC risk. Identifying preventive measures to avoid the development of RC, especially by following a healthy lifestyle including healthy diet, is pivotal.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Retais/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 5028-5035, 2019 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a new type of dietary fiber - high specific volume polysaccharide (HSVP) - on fecal properties, serum vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) concentration, intestinal flora count, and expression of the VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS Compound diphenoxylate was used in 48 healthy Wistar rats to establish a constipation model. Rats were divided into a normal control group, a constipation model group, an HSVP low-dose group, an HSVP medium-dose group, an HSVP high-dose group, and a fructose control group. We used colony count method, ELISA, WB, and RT-PCR to determine fecal moisture content, fecal hardness, fecal passage time, serum VIP concentration, number of intestinal bacteria, and VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signal pathway protein expression. RESULTS The constipation model was established successfully. HSVP (the medium dose was 10% and the high dose was 15%) improved fecal moisture content, reduced hardness, shortened fecal emptying time, increased intestinal bacteria, reduced serum VIP concentration, downregulated cAMP and PKAm RNA transcription, reduced protein expression, and reduced intestinal AQP3 expression. CONCLUSIONS HSVP improved constipation, increased the number of intestinal bacteria, and elevated expression of the VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway. The mechanism of HSVP in regulating intestinal water metabolism in constipated rats may occur through the VIP-cAMP-PKA-AQP3 signaling pathway, and be closely related to changes in intestinal bacteria. The important role of the brain-gut-microbiome axis in the pathogenesis of constipation has been confirmed in this study.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Água/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporina 3/genética , Aquaporina 3/metabolismo , Constipação Intestinal/sangue , Constipação Intestinal/genética , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fezes , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dureza , Umidade , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/sangue , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/genética
9.
Animal ; 13(11): 2745-2754, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223098

RESUMO

Grains rich in starch constitute the primary source of energy for both pigs and humans, but there is incomplete understanding of physiological mechanisms that determine the extent of digestion of grain starch in monogastric animals including pigs and humans. Slow digestion of starch to produce glucose in the small intestine (SI) leads to undigested starch escaping to the large intestine where it is fermented to produce short-chain fatty acids. Glucose generated from starch provides more energy than short-chain fatty acids for normal metabolism and growth in monogastrics. While incomplete digestion of starch leads to underutilised feed in pigs and economic losses, it is desirable in human nutrition to maintain consistent body weight in adults. Undigested nutrients reaching the ileum may trigger the ileal brake, and fermentation of undigested nutrients or fibre in the large intestine triggers the colonic brake. These intestinal brakes reduce the passage rate in an attempt to maximise nutrient utilisation, and lead to increased satiety that may reduce feed intake. The three physiological mechanisms that control grain digestion and feed intake are: (1) gastric emptying rate; (2) interplay of grain digestion and passage rate in the SI controlling the activation of the ileal brake; and (3) fermentation of undigested nutrients or fibre in the large intestine activating the colonic brake. Fibre plays an important role in influencing these mechanisms and the extent of their effects. In this review, an account of the physiological mechanisms controlling the passage rate, feed intake and enzymatic digestion of grains is presented: (1) to evaluate the merits of recently developed methods of grain/starch digestion for application purposes; and (2) to identify opportunities for future research to advance our understanding of how the combination of controlled grain digestion and fibre content can be manipulated to physiologically influence satiety and food intake.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Amido/metabolismo , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Colo/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Grão Comestível , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação , Íleo/metabolismo , Resposta de Saciedade
10.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3562-3577, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181141

RESUMO

Flint corn processing method [coarse ground corn (CGC; 3.2 mm average particle size) or steam-flaked corn (SFC; 0.360 kg/L flake density)] was evaluated in conjunction with 4 levels of NDF from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as roughage source (RNDF; 4%, 7%, 10%, and 13%; DM basis) to determine impact on growth performance, carcass characteristics, starch utilization, feeding behavior, and rumen morphometrics of Bos indicus beef cattle. Two hundred and forty Nellore bulls were blocked by initial BW (350 ± 37 kg), assigned to 32 feedlot pens and pens within weight block were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (2 corn processing and 4 levels of RNDF) to treatments. Effects of corn grain processing × RNDF level were not detected (P ≥ 0.14) for growth performance, dietary net energy concentration, carcass traits, rumen morphometrics, and feeding behavior, except for time spent ruminating and time spent resting (P ≤ 0.04), and a tendency for papillae width (P ≤ 0.09). Bulls fed SFC-based diets consumed 7% less (P = 0.001), had 10.6% greater carcass-adjusted ADG (P < 0.001) and 19% greater carcass-adjusted feed efficiency (P < 0.001) compared with bulls fed CGC-based diets. Observed net energy for maintenance and gain values were 14.9% and 19.4% greater (P < 0.001), respectively, for SFC than for CGC-based diets. Fecal starch concentration was less (P < 0.001) for bulls fed SFC compared with those fed CGC. No grain processing effects were detected (P = 0.51) for rumenitis score; however, cattle fed SFC presented smaller ruminal absorptive surface area (P = 0.03). Dry matter intake increased linearly (P = 0.02) and carcass-adjusted feed efficiency tended (P = 0.06) to decrease linearly as RNDF increased. Dietary RNDF concentration did not affect carcass characteristics (P ≥ 0.19), except for dressing percentage, which tended to decrease linearly (P = 0.06) as RNDF in finishing diets increased. Increasing RNDF in finishing diets had no effect (P = 0.26) on time spent eating, but time spent ruminating and resting increased linearly (min/d; P < 0.001) with increased dietary RNDF. Steam flaking markedly increased flint corn energy value, net energy of diets, and animal growth performance, and led to improvements on feed efficiency when compared with grinding, regardless of RNDF content of diets. Increasing dietary RNDF compromised feedlot cattle feed efficiency and carcass dressing.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Celulose/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Minerais/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/análise , Rúmen/anatomia & histologia , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays
11.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3451-3459, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190064

RESUMO

Phytase is added to swine diets to improve the utilization of phytate-bound P in swine diets. This provides financial and environmental benefits to the pig industry. However, it is unclear if phytase works equally well in all dietary circumstances. The objective of this experiment was to determine if insoluble fiber affects the efficacy of the phytase enzyme in nursery pigs when fed diets limiting in P content. A total of 480 pigs (initial BW 5.48 ± 0.14 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned (10 pigs per pen) to treatment within the block. A common nutrient-adequate diet was fed from days -14 to -5, and two basal P deficient diets (either a corn-soy diet containing 0.16% standardized total tract digestible [STTD] P [low insoluble fiber [LF]], or a corn-soybean meal plus 20% corn bran containing 0.14% STTD P [high insoluble fiber [HF]]) were fed from days -5 to 0 to acclimate pigs to a P deficient diet. From days 0 to 21, pigs received eight dietary treatments (six pens per treatment: n = 6). Experimental diets consisted of LF supplemented with one of four levels of added phytase (0, 109, 218, and 327 phytase units [FTU]/kg; Quantum Blue 5 G, AB Vista, Wiltshire, United Kingdom) expected to provide 0.16, 0.21, 0.26, and 0.31% STTD P, respectively, or HF supplemented with one of the same four levels of added phytase expected to provide 0.14, 0.19, 0.24, and 0.29% STTD P. Titanium dioxide was added to the diet at 0.4% as an indigestible marker. On day 21, one pig representing the average BW for each pen was euthanized, and fibulae were collected and analyzed for bone ash. Fecal samples were collected from each pen on days 19-20. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS. There were no interactions between insoluble fiber and phytase for any of the variables evaluated. For days 0-21, adding phytase increased ADG (P < 0.001) with the response being linear (P < 0.001), whereas insoluble fiber decreased ADG (P = 0.033). There were no effects of phytase or insoluble fiber on ADFI (P = 0.381 and P = 0.632, respectively). Phytase improved G:F ratio (P < 0.001) with the response being linear (P < 0.001). Insoluble fiber tended to decrease G:F ratio (P = 0.097). Phytase increased bone ash (P = 0.005) with the response being linear (P = 0.001), but there was no effect of insoluble fiber (P = 0.949). Phytase did not affect the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, NDF, or ADF (P > 0.050), whereas insoluble fiber decreased the ATTD of DM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.001), and ADF (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the addition of insoluble fiber did not affect the ability of phytase to improve growth performance and bone mineralization in nursery pigs fed a P deficient diet.


Assuntos
6-Fitase/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fósforo/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Fezes/química , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Minerais , Fósforo/deficiência , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Soja , Suínos , Zea mays
12.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208043

RESUMO

Obesity is linked to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and risk factors associated to metabolic syndrome. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) that contains easily fermentable fiber may strengthen the intestinal barrier function, attenuate inflammation and modulate gut microbiota composition, thereby prevent obesity development. In the current study, liver lipid metabolism, fat depot, cecal and serum short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and gut microbiome were evaluated in rats fed bilberries in a high-fat (HFD + BB) or low-fat (LFD + BB) setting for 8 weeks and compared with diets containing equal amount of fiber resistant to fermentation (cellulose, HFD and LFD). HFD fed rats did not obtain an obese phenotype but underwent pre-obesity events including increased liver index, lipid accumulation and increased serum cholesterol levels. This was linked to shifts of cecal bacterial community and reduction of major SCFAs. Bilberry inclusion improved liver metabolism and serum lipid levels. Bilberry inclusion under either LFD or HFD, maintained microbiota homeostasis, stimulated interscapular-brown adipose tissue depot associated with increased mRNA expression of uncoupling protein-1; enhanced SCFAs in the cecum and circulation; and promoted butyric acid and butyrate-producing bacteria. These findings suggest that bilberry may serve as a preventative dietary measure to optimize microbiome and associated lipid metabolism during or prior to HFD.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Vaccinium myrtillus , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos
13.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130604

RESUMO

Flaxseed is a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid, the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside and fiber. These compounds provide bioactivity of value to the health of animals and humans through their anti-inflammatory action, anti-oxidative capacity and lipid modulating properties. The characteristics of ingesting flaxseed or its bioactive components are discussed in this article. The benefits of administering flaxseed or the individual bioactive components on health and disease are also discussed in this review. Specifically, the current evidence on the benefits or limitations of dietary flaxseed in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, gastro-intestinal health and brain development and function, as well as hormonal status in menopausal women, are comprehensive topics for discussion.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Linho/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Butileno Glicóis/farmacologia , Butileno Glicóis/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Alimento Funcional , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Lignanas/farmacologia , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/uso terapêutico
14.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130625

RESUMO

Low glycemic index (GI) and/or low glycemic load (GL) are associated with decreased risks of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It is therefore relevant to consider GI and GL in the early phases of the development of packaged foods and beverages. This paper proposes a model that predicts GI and GL from macronutrient composition, by quantifying both the impact of glycemic carbohydrates and the GI-lowering effects of nutrients such as proteins, fats and fibers. The precision of the model is illustrated using data on 42 breakfast cereals. The predictions of GI (r = 0.90, median residual = 2.0) and GL (r = 0.96, median residual = 0.40 g) compete well with the precision of the underlying in-vivo data (Standard Error SE = 3.5 for GI). This model can guide product development towards lowering GI and GL, before final confirmation by in vivo testing.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Carboidratos da Dieta/sangue , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Modelos Biológicos , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Adulto , Bebidas , Desjejum , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Grão Comestível , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nutrientes/sangue , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216604, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095579

RESUMO

In this study, the prebiotic potential of soluble dietary fibre extracted from plantain inflorescence (PIF) was investigated. PIF demonstrated prebiotic potential by enhancing the growth of the probiotics under study and thereby hindered colon cancer development. The soluble dietary fibre from Musa paradisiaca inflorescence (PIF) was fermented using Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum. The fermentation supernatants (LS and BS) were enriched with short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and were able to initiate apoptotic signalling in HT29 colon cancer cells leading to cell death. Both BS and LS exhibited cytotoxic effect; induced DNA damage and enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species in HT29 cells leading to apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis was facilitated by the reduction of membrane potential of mitochondria and ATP synthesis; enhanced delivery of cytochrome c and interference with the expression of pro/antiapoptotic proteins. BS, which exhibited better activity, was further analysed for the identification of differentially regulated proteins by performing two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Results emphasized on the fact that, the exposure to BSalteredthe HT29 proteins expression, particularly the upregulation of apoptosis- inducing factor-AIFM1 leading to apoptosis of HT29 cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fermentação , Probióticos/farmacologia , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Musa
16.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013725

RESUMO

Obesity is a serious public health issue in developed countries, and is known to increase the risk of several diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular events and arteriosclerosis. These phenomena are closely correlated with oxidative damage. Recently, several lines of evidence have demonstrated that neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's are also related to oxidative damage. To clarify the relationship between obesity and oxidative brain injury, we investigated brain antioxidant networks in high-fat (HF) diet-treated mice in the presence or absence of tocotrienols (T3s) and bran. Co-treatment with T3s and bran significantly inhibited bodyweight gain in HF diet-treated mice. Serum and cortex T3 levels, and brain antioxidant enzyme activities and protein expressions did not differ among the groups except for SOD protein expression in the cerebellum. Brain p-mTOR and p-Akt protein expressions, which are related to autophagy, did not differ among the groups. These results indicate that treatment with T3s for eight weeks had showed an anti-obesity effect in HF diet-treated mice. However, significant alterations in T3 levels were not observed in the serum and brain of mice.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Tocotrienóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tocotrienóis/metabolismo , Tocotrienóis/farmacologia , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(7): 1133-1141, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004140

RESUMO

The consumption of fructose has gained increased attention as a potential cause of hyperuricaemia since fructose metabolism produces urate as a byproduct. In addition to sucrose and high fructose corn syrup, fresh fruits also contain fructose, suggesting that patients with hyperuricaemia or gout might also avoid fresh fruit. However, the effect of fruits is complex. Some studies reported that fruit intake was associated with gout flares while other studies showed that fruits rather lowered the risk for gout. Thus, fruits should not be simply viewed as a source of fructose. The complexity of fruits is accounted for by several nutrients existing in fruits. Vitamin C, epicatechin, flavonols, potassium and fibre are all nutrients in fruits, and these factors could modify fructose and urate effects. In this review, we discuss clinical studies evaluating the effect of fruit and fruit juice intake on hyperuricaemia and gout, and propose potential mechanisms for how fruit may influence urate levels.


Assuntos
Frutas/efeitos adversos , Gota/etiologia , Hiperuricemia/etiologia , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Frutose/análise , Frutose/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Gota/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hiperuricemia/prevenção & controle , Prunus avium , Ácido Úrico/sangue
18.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 22(2): 67-72, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Medicinal herbs and aromatic plants could be used to manipulate rumen fermentation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of adding herbal and aromatic plants at 1, 3, 5, 7% of total ratio DM supplementation of the incubation media of an in vitro rumen model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: About 400±4 mg of feed sample (roughage and concentrate ratio of 45:55%) with each level, weighted into 125 mL glass bottles (6 bottles for each treatment), rumen fluid injected into these bottles and incubated at 39°C, after 24 h incubation digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), total gas production (TG) and metabolic energy (ME) were studied. RESULTS: The differences among plants, added at different levels, were significant. Significant differences were also observed between highest level added compared with control in ammonia (NH3) and volatile fatty acids (VFA), IVDMD and IVOMD compared with control. Total gas (TG) was significantly higher at level 7%, especially with added Melissa compared with other plants. Metabolic energy (ME), was significantly higher in all treatments compared with control. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that addition of different medicinal and aromatic herbal plants Caraway (Carum carvi), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and Melissa (Melissa officinali)), especially at highest levels tested has a great potential in manipulating rumen fermentation, which may be of benefit when applied in ruminant nutrition.


Assuntos
Amônia/metabolismo , Carum/química , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Foeniculum/química , Melissa/química , Rúmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Metano/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 10(3): 1671-1683, 2019 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839972

RESUMO

Dietary fiber intake plays an important role in the prevention of obesity. This study aimed at investigating the effect of cashew fiber without low molecular weight compounds (CABwc) on obesity prevention and metabolomics in a murine model of diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a chow diet (CD), a high-fat diet (HFD) or a high-fat diet supplemented with CABwc (10%) (HFD-CABwc) for 15 weeks. The body weight, abdominal fat, serum glucose levels, insulin and lipid profiles, satiety hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, digestive enzymes such as amylase and lipase, and inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α, IL-6, and adiponectin were measured, in addition to performing serum and hepatic tissue analyses. The metabolomic analysis was based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of serum and feces. The effects observed with ingestion of CABwc were appetite control and prevention of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypertriglyceridemia, as well as the prevention of the inflammatory process and reduction of liver injury caused by the HFD. In addition, NMR evidenced the presence of SCFAs in serum and feces of mice fed with HFD-CABwc. These findings suggest that CABwc promoted satiety in mice, improving the metabolism of glucose and lipids. Positive effects of obesity prevention may be associated with SCFA production.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fezes/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Camundongos , Obesidade/sangue
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 4058-4065, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868160

RESUMO

Inulin and wheat bran were added to broiler diets during the starter period or during the entire rearing period to investigate whether the effects of using these ingredients remained until slaughter age. Diets containing no inulin and no wheat bran (CON), 2% inulin (IN), 10% wheat bran (WB), or 2% inulin + 10% wheat bran (IN+WB) were provided until day 11. Thereafter, each dietary treatment was further divided into a continued diet with supplementation or a control diet, resulting in 7 groups (CON, IN/IN, IN/CON, WB/WB, WB/CON, IN+WB/IN+WB, or IN+WB/CON). On day 40, 12 chickens per group were euthanized. The IN/IN group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but had a lower relative abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05). Additionally, the cecal molar ratio of propionate was higher in the IN/CON group compared to the IN/IN group (P = 0.034). The WB/CON group had the best results on BW and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P < 0.05). Only the cecal molar ratio of iso-butyrate was higher in the WB/WB group (P = 0.013). Moreover, compared to the CON group, both WB/WB and WB/CON groups reduced the relative abundances of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia coli, and only the WB/WB group reduced the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). Both IN+WB/IN+WB and IN+WB/CON groups increased BW until day 21 and lowered the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium (P < 0.05). The IN+WB/IN+WB group increased the cecal molar ratio of butyrate but reduced the molar ratio of propionate with a higher relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the lack of positive effects induced by inulin might be explained by the dose being too high. The beneficial effects on BW, FCR, and microbiota induced by wheat bran during the starter period were lasting when supplementation was stopped, suggesting that wheat bran could be a favorable ingredient during the starter period.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Inulina/farmacologia , Prebióticos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bactérias , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Tempo
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