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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(20): e2123411119, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533274

RESUMO

SignificanceDietary fibers contain complex mixtures of biomolecules, making it difficult to develop/test hypotheses about how different fiber-types impact different components of the human gut microbiome and how microbiome changes that they produce are linked to human physiology. Here, we analyze microbiome and plasma proteome responses to consumption of two fiber-enriched snacks in two human studies. We use a variety of computational methods to correlate their effects on gut microbiome genes encoding enzymes that degrade complex fiber-associated polysaccharides, the microbial products of polysaccharide degradation, and plasma proteins representing diverse physiological processes. This approach can be used to guide the design of fiber-containing snacks that more precisely manipulate microbiome features in ways that improve nutritional and health status.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteoma
2.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(5): 154, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35397071

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has a potential to modulate the gut microbiota in sows. We hypothesized that a maternal diet rich in either high- or low-fermentable fiber during gestation and lactation influences Clostridioides difficile gut colonization in suckling piglets. Twenty sows were fed gestation and lactation diets enriched with either high-fermentable sugar beet pulp (SBP) or low-fermentable lignocellulose (LNC) fibers. C. difficile, toxin B (TcdB), fecal score, microbial abundance (16S-rDNA sequencing) and metabolites were measured in the feces from the sows and their piglets. C. difficile concentration was higher in piglets from the sows fed LNC than SBP along the study (P ≤ 0.05). Higher prevalence of C. difficile was noted in three-week-old piglets from sows fed LNC vs. SBP (45% vs. 0%, P = 0.001). TcdB prevalence was higher in six-day-old piglets from the sows fed LNC vs. SBP (60% vs. 17%, P = 0.009). In sows, fecal microbial metabolites were higher in SBP than LNC, while C. difficile concentration showed no difference. Higher microbial diversity Shannon index was noted in sows from SBP vs. LNC one week before parturition and at the parturition (P ≤ 0.05). Piglets from SBP vs. LNC tended to have higher microbial diversity Shannon index at two and three weeks of age. Diets enriched with high-fermentable fiber compared to low-fermentable fiber in sows reduced C. difficile colonization in their piglets. Susceptibility to colonization by C. difficile in neonatal piglets can be modulated by the sows' diet, supporting the hypothesis of the early microbial programming in the offspring and the importance of the sow-piglet couple.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Lactação , Suínos , Verduras
3.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 321-322: 114029, 2022 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307413

RESUMO

Non-invasive endocrinology is an important tool for animal conservation, but its success depends on many factors (e.g. adequate hormonal extraction, diet, antibody used in the assay). Dietary fiber is one of the main sources that can lead to erroneous interpretation of the endocrine status provided by EIA analysis. This study aimed to evaluate the dietary fiber effect on the fecal androgen metabolites (FAM) detection, on the daily defecation rate and fecal production, as well as to analyze the gastrointestinal passage and retention time of the experimental diets. Eight brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) males were randomly assigned to two groups and submitted to both isocaloric and isoproteic experimental diets for 10 days, in a crossover system: low fiber percentage feed (LF, 7% fiber) and high fiber percentage feed (HF, 19% fiber). Such groups were alternated in the middle of this period, with an interval of 10 days between them. In addition, there was a five-day adaptation phase at the beginning of each diet. Fecal collection for FAM measurement was performed during 10 days of treatment, whereas,the defecation rate and fecal production were performed every two hours, for 6 days. The mean FAM level in the HF group was 5038.0 ± 1529.1 ng/g, while for LF, 2178.7 ± 824.9 ng/g (p < 0.05). The mean HF fecal production was 182.6 ± 36.2 g DM/day and 117.5 ± 12.6 g DM/day for LF (p < 0.05). There were no differences in terms of mean defecation rate, passage, and retention times between groups. The results suggest that dietary fiber affects the FAM detection, and this should be taken into consideration before conducting experiments using fecal samples as a source of reproductive hormones profiling.


Assuntos
Cervos , Androgênios/metabolismo , Animais , Cervos/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes , Masculino
4.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279717

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has become increasingly recognized as a key factor in maintaining gastrointestinal health. Dietary fiber sources are often comprised of several different fiber fractions, each with unique physicochemical properties. These properties can have varying physiological effects on the gastrointestinal tract that include modulation of microbiota, production of fermentation-derived metabolites, and laxation. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of a novel dietary fiber source, miscanthus grass fiber (MF), and prebiotic and fiber blends on gastrointestinal tolerance, apparent total tract digestibility, fecal metabolites, and fecal microbiota and 2) to evaluate the palatability of extruded diets containing MF in comparison to traditional dietary fiber sources. All animal procedures were approved by the University of Illinois Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Six dietary treatments were formulated to meet or exceed the AAFCO nutrient profile of 2018 and included either cellulose (CO), beet pulp (BP), MF, or a blend of MF and tomato pomace, MF and resistant starch, or MF and fructooligosaccharide. A total of 12 adult neutered female beagles (mean age 5.8 ± 1.1 yr; mean body weight 10.9 ± 1.0 kg; mean body condition score 5.7 ± 0.7) were randomly assigned to one of the six treatment diets in a replicated 6 × 6 Latin square design. Each dog was fed their assigned diet for a treatment period of 21 d with 17 d of diet adaptation followed by 4 d of total and fresh fecal collection. All diets were well accepted and digested by the dogs. Dogs fed BP had greater fecal total short-chain fatty acid concentration than the CO treatment (P < 0.05), while the dogs fed diets containing MF were intermediate. In a two-bowl palatability trial, no significant preference was observed between the extruded diets containing MF and CO (P > 0.05). However, a significant preference for the extruded diet containing BP over the diet containing only MF was observed (P < 0.05). The α-diversity of fecal microbial communities was not impacted by treatment (P > 0.05), but ß-diversity indicated that dogs fed the BP diet differed from the other treatment groups (P < 0.05). The data from this study suggest that miscanthus grass can be successfully utilized in fiber blends in extruded diets for adult dogs, with modulatory effects similar to the traditional dietary fiber source, cellulose.


There are many ingredients utilized in dog foods that provide a source of dietary fiber. However, new ingredient sources can help to add variety to diet formulas and may provide benefits to pet food processing and animal health. Miscanthus grass is a novel ingredient for dog food that provides an excellent source of dietary fiber. In a dog feeding trial and palatability test, diets containing miscanthus grass had similar results to diets containing cellulose, a traditionally used dietary fiber ingredient. The inclusion of this novel ingredient did not produce any observed negative effects on digestion, stool quality, diet palatability, or overall animal health. This indicates that miscanthus grass is a viable ingredient for use in commercial dog foods as a source of dietary fiber.


Assuntos
Beta vulgaris , Prebióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Cães , Fezes/química , Feminino , Poaceae/metabolismo
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(5): 4128-4143, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282921

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effects of unprotected choline chloride (Cho) on the ruminal microbiome at 2 dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations. We hypothesized that the effects of Cho on ruminal bacterial populations would depend on NDF. Eight dual-flow continuous-culture fermentors were arranged in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square as a 2 × 2 factorial with the following treatments: (1) 30% NDF-control (30% NDF diet, no supplemental choline); (2) 30% NDF-Cho (30% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of dry matter); (3) 40% NDF-control (40% NDF diet, no supplemental choline); and (4) 40% NDF-Cho (40% NDF diet plus 1.9 g of choline ion per kg of dry matter). We did 4 fermentation periods of 10 d each and used the last 3 d for collection of samples of solid and liquid digesta effluents for DNA extraction. Overall, 32 solid and 32 liquid samples were analyzed by amplification of the V4 variable region of bacterial 16S rRNA. Data were analyzed with R (R Project for Statistical Computing) and SAS (SAS Institute Inc.) to determine effects of Cho, NDF, and NDF × Cho on taxa relative abundance. The correlation of propionate molar proportion with taxa relative abundance was also analyzed. At the phylum level, relative abundance of Firmicutes in the liquid fraction tended to be greater when Cho was supplemented with a 30% NDF diet. At the order level, Cho increased Coriobacteriales in solid fraction and decreased Fibrobacterales in liquid fraction. Moreover, Cho decreased abundance of Clostridiales and increased Selenomonadales in the solid fraction, only with the 30% NDF diet. For genera, lower abundance of Pseudobutyrivibrio resulted from Cho in solid and liquid fractions. Greater abundance of Succinivibrio in solid and Selenomonas and Selenomonas 1 in liquid resulted from Cho with the 30% NDF diet. Propionate molar proportion was positively correlated with relative abundance of order Selenomonadales in solid and liquid fractions, and with genus Succinivibrio in solid and genera Selenomonas and Selenomonas 1 in liquid. Our results indicate that Cho primarily decreases abundance of bacteria involved in fiber degradation and increases abundance of bacteria mainly involved in nonstructural carbohydrate degradation and synthesis of propionate, particularly when a diet with 30% NDF is provided.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias , Colina/metabolismo , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Fermentação , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(5): 4144-4155, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35307174

RESUMO

Dairy cattle experience inflammation during the calving transition period, and butyrate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are expected to reduce the inflammation. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of dietary butyrate supplementation and oral NSAID administration on feed intake, serum inflammatory markers, plasma metabolites, and milk production of dairy cows during the calving transition period. Eighty-three Holstein cows were used in the experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. The cows were blocked by parity and calving date, and randomly assigned to a dietary butyrate or control supplement, and NSAID or a placebo oral administration. Experimental diets were iso-energetic containing calcium butyrate at 1.42% of diet dry matter (DM) or the control supplement (1.04% commercial fat supplement and 0.38% calcium carbonate of diet DM). The close-up diets contained 13.3% starch and 42.4% neutral detergent fiber on a DM basis, and were fed from 28 d before expected calving date until calving. The postpartum diets contained 22.1% starch and 34.1% neutral detergent fiber on a DM basis and were fed from calving to 24 d after calving. Oral NSAID (1 mg of meloxicam/kg of body weight) or placebo (food dye) was administered 12 to 24 h after calving. Dietary butyrate supplementation and oral NSAID administration did not affect milk yield or postpartum serum concentrations of amyloid A and haptoglobin. However, butyrate-fed cows increased plasma fatty acid concentration on d -4 relative to calving (501 vs. 340 µEq/L) and tended to increase serum haptoglobin concentration (0.23 vs. 0.10 mg/mL). There was a supplement by drug interaction effect on plasma glucose concentration on d 4; in cows administered the placebo drug, butyrate supplementation decreased plasma glucose concentration compared with control-fed cows (62.8 vs. 70.1 mg/dL). Butyrate-fed cows tended to have lower milk crude protein yield compared with cows fed the control diet (1.21 vs. 1.27 kg/d). Dietary butyrate supplementation and oral NSAID administration did not have overall positive effects on production performance of dairy cows during the calving transition period.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Lactação , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Glicemia/metabolismo , Butiratos/metabolismo , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/metabolismo , Detergentes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/veterinária , Leite/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/metabolismo , Gravidez , Amido/metabolismo
7.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0263762, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35271579

RESUMO

Numerous epidemiological studies have shown that a high dietary fiber intake is associated inversely with the incidence of asthma in the population. There have been many studies on the role of soluble dietary fiber, but the mechanism of action for insoluble dietary fiber, such as cellulose-the most widely existing dietary fiber, in asthma is still unclear. The current study investigated the outcomes of a high-cellulose diet in a mouse model of asthma and detected pathological manifestations within the lungs, changes in the intestinal microbiome, and changes in intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in mice. A high-cellulose diet can reduce lung inflammation and asthma symptoms in asthmatic mice. Furthermore, it dramatically changes the composition of the intestinal microbiome. At the family level, a new dominant fungus family Peptostreptococcaceae is produced, and at the genus level, the unique genus Romboutsla, [Ruminococcus]_torques_group was generated. These genera and families of bacteria are closely correlated with lipid metabolism in vivo. Many studies have proposed that the mechanism of dietary fiber regulating asthma may involve the intestinal microbiome producing SCFAs, but the current research shows that a high-cellulose diet cannot increase the content of SCFAs in the intestine. These data suggest that a high-cellulose diet decreases asthma symptoms by altering the composition of the intestinal microbiome, however, this mechanism is thought to be independent of SCFAs and may involve the regulation of lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Asma , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Celulose , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Inflamação , Camundongos
8.
Arch Anim Nutr ; 76(1): 61-73, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35343836

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to compare orange fibre, beet pulp and inulin as fibre sources for cats. A control diet (CON) was formulated without inclusion of a fibre source. Further experimental diets were also based on diet CON but were supplemented with 1% orange fibre (diet 1%OF); 3% orange fibre (diet 3%OF); 3% beet pulp (diet 3%BP) or 1% inulin (diet 1%IN). Forty cats were used in a randomised block design (4 blocks of 10 cats, 2 animals per food in each block, totalling 8 animals per treatment). Each block lasted 20 d, with 10 d of adaptation, 10 d of faecal collection for digestibility as well as evaluation of pH-value and fermentation products. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, starch and gross energy did not vary between diets. In diet 1%OF, dietary fibre revealed a greater digestibility than in diet CON (p < 0.05). Faecal production was higher in cats fed diets 3%OF and 3%BP than in those fed diet 1%IN (p < 0.05). Faecal concentrations of acetate and total short-chain fatty acids were higher for cats fed diet 3%BP than for those fed diets 1%IN and CON (p < 0.05), while diets 1%OF and 3%OF showed intermediate results. Faecal propionate concentration was higher for cats fed diet 3%BP, intermediate for diets 1%OF, 3%OF and 1%IN and lower for animals fed diet CON (p < 0.05). Compared with diets CON and 1%IN, the faecal concentration of tyramine was higher for cats fed diet 3%OF (p < 0.05). Orange fibre was fermentable; up to 3% inclusion it did not interfere with the digestibility of nutrients, faecal score and faecal moisture content, and promoted the formation of short-chain fatty acids and tyramine by the intestinal microbiota, with possible effects on intestinal function.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gatos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fezes , Fermentação , Nutrientes/metabolismo
9.
Poult Sci ; 101(4): 101742, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35245807

RESUMO

Dietary fiber (DF) improves gastrointestinal health and has important associations with the alleviation of intestinal diseases and metabolic syndrome. However, due to DFs complex characteristics, such as solubility, viscosity, and fermentability, the mechanism in these was not consistent. As an herbivore, the goose has a prominent digestive ability to DF. Therefore, we choose low, medium, and high viscosity DFs (respectively resistant starch-3 []RS], inulin [INU], and ß-glucan [GLU]) as Magang goose diet treatment for 4 wk, to investigate the effect and potential mechanism of different viscosities DFs on the growth and development process of goose. In summary, three degrees of viscous DFs could decrease the mechanismic lipid level of geese by promoting acid-producing bacteria and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production, therefore, activating AMPK pathway-related genes through the gut-liver axis. High viscous DF has a greater lipid-lowering effect on geese, while medium viscous DF has preferable intestinal mucosal protection.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Viscosidade
10.
J Anim Sci ; 100(5)2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255495

RESUMO

Research on the effects of different fiber types and levels on infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae on growth performance and nutrients digestibility in pigs is scarce. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of infection with B. hyodysenteriae when feeding diets varying in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF) on the expression of swine dysentery, growth performance, and digestibility of organic matter (OM) nutrients. A total of 96 growing pigs (26.9 ± 2.5 kg) were used for the experiment and divided into six blocks. The growing pigs were fed one of four diets for 12 wk: low fiber (LF), high fiber (HF), high soluble fiber (HS), and high insoluble fiber (HI). After 2 wk, half of the pigs were inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae. Half of the pigs in each group were euthanized at week 6 for the measurement of the apparent digestibility at the ileum, cecum, colon, and total tract. The remaining pigs were maintained to observe and analyze the clinical expression of fecal score and excretion of B. hyodysenteriae, growth performance, and total tract digestibility up to 12 wk. In the current study, the experimental diets did not influence the expression of infection in the pigs. The body weight and average daily gain (ADG) were in line with the results of clinical expression from week 4 to 6. However, the ADG of the infected pigs started to recover from week 6 (P < 0.05) and then recovered from week 8 to 12 (P < 0.05). The infection with B. hyodysenteriae did not impair apparent ileal digestibility (AID; P > 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of OM, total non-starch polysaccharide, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and cellulose in the cecum of the infected pigs was higher than non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). The apparent colonic digestibility of ash and nitrogen was higher in non-infected pigs than in infected pigs (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the LF diet had a higher digestibility in all segments of the intestinal tract, whereas the HS diet had the lowest AID but higher or similar to the LF diet in the cecum, colon, and the total tract (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the HF and HI diets, with a high proportion of insoluble fiber, had a lower digestibility in the hindgut than the other two diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the infection with B. hyodysenteriae negatively influenced clinical signs of swine dysentery and growth performance but did not impair AID, and neither soluble nor insoluble DF influenced the expression of the infection.


Swine dysentery is a severe disease that can cause increased mortality and poor feed efficiency with bloody diarrhea. This disease can be treated with antibiotics, but there is a limitation of using antibiotics due to governmental policy, thereby the incidence of swine dysentery has been increased. We, therefore, try to find alternatives with diverse fiber sources and understand the mechanism of swine dysentery in growing pigs. In this study, infection of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae showed a negative influence on growth performance, but compensatory growth and recovery were observed in pigs after 6 wk of the infection. The apparent ileal digestibility was not affected by the infection, and the digestibility of non-starch polysaccharides in the cecum was rather increased than decreased probably because of interaction between B. hyodysenteriae and specific bacteria, which can stimulate fiber degradation in the cecum. However, fiber type and level did not influence the prevention and alleviation of the infection.


Assuntos
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae , Disenteria , Doenças dos Suínos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Brachyspira hyodysenteriae/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Disenteria/metabolismo , Disenteria/veterinária , Íleo/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Suínos
11.
Poult Sci ; 101(5): 101780, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35325834

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the effects of dietary protein and fiber levels on growth performance, gout occurrence, intestinal microbial communities, and immunoregulation in the gut-kidney axis of goslings. A completely randomized 2 × 3 factorial design was adopted with 2 CP levels (180 [18CP] and 220 [22CP] g/kg) and 3 crude fiber (CF) levels (30 [low CF], 50 [mid CF], and 70 [high CF] g/kg). The high CP or low CF diets predisposed the goslings to gout. The high protein diets worsened renal function; serum concentrations of UA and Cr as well as XOD activity in 9-day-old goslings fed 22% CP diets were significantly increased. Although CF levels from 3 to 7% did not directly affect kidney health, increasing CF levels might accelerate the increase of probiotics in the cecum of goslings and withhold maleficent bacteria, alleviating the gut dysbiosis caused by high protein diets. An analysis of the cecal microbiota via 16Sr RNA sequencing revealed that the abundance of Enterococcus in the 22CP group was higher than that in the 18CP group but decreased with increasing CF levels on d 9. The abundance of Lactobacillus increased with increasing CF levels. Additionally, higher serum LPS and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations and upregulated mRNA expression levels in the cecal, tonsil, and kidney tissues indicated that high-protein diets could activate the TLR4/MyD88/NFκB pathway and induce both intestinal and renal inflammation in young goslings. Serum LPS concentrations on d 9 were found to decrease with increasing CF, although altering dietary CF levels did not directly affect the serum immune indices of goslings. In conclusion, the high CP diet exerted a negative effect on gout occurrence, microbial communities, and immunoregulation in the gut-kidney axis of goslings, while appropriately increased dietary fiber levels helped maintain intestinal balance and reduced serum LPS concentration. We propose a diet of 18% CP paired with a 5% CF as the optimal combination for gosling feed.


Assuntos
Gota , Microbiota , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Gansos , Gota/veterinária , Rim/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270698

RESUMO

This randomized, single blind, cross-over study investigated the glycemic responses to three spaghetti No 7 types differing in dietary protein and soluble fiber content. Fourteen clinically and metabolically healthy, fasting individuals (25 ± 1 years; ten women; BMI 23 ± 1 kg/m2) received isoglucidic test meals (50 g available carbohydrate) and 50 g glucose reference, in random order. GI was calculated using the FAO/WHO method. Capillary blood glucose and salivary insulin samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min. Subjective appetite ratings (hunger, fullness, and desire to eat) were assessed by visual analogue scales (VAS, 100 mm) at baseline and 120 min. All three spaghetti types (regular, whole wheat, and high soluble fiber-low carbohydrates) provided low GI values (33, 38, and 41, respectively, on glucose scale) and lower peak glucose values compared to glucose or white bread. No differences were observed between spaghetti No 7 types for fasting glucose, fasting and post-test-meal insulin concentrations, blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), and subjective appetite. Conclusions: all spaghetti No 7 types, regardless of soluble fiber and/or protein content, attenuated postprandial glycemic response, which may offer advantages to glycemic control.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Triticum , Glicemia/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Insulina , Método Simples-Cego , Triticum/metabolismo
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270737

RESUMO

Chronic non-communicable diseases are the major cause of death globally. Whole grains are recommended in dietary guidelines worldwide due to increasing evidence that their consumption can improve health beyond just providing energy and nutrients. Epidemiological studies have suggested that the incorporation of whole grains, as part of a healthy diet, plays a key role in reducing one's risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer. Phenolic acids and dietary fibre are important components found in whole grains that are largely responsible for these health advantages. Both phenolic acids and dietary fibre, which are predominantly present in the bran layer, are abundant in whole-grain cereals and pseudo-cereals. Several studies indicate that whole grain dietary fibre and phenolic acids are linked to health regulation. The main focus of this study is two-fold. First, we provide an overview of phenolic acids and dietary fibres found in whole grains (wheat, barley, oats, rice and buckwheat). Second, we review existing literature on the linkages between the consumption of whole grains and the development of the following chronic non-communicable diseases: CVDs, obesity, T2D and cancer. Altogether, scientific evidence that the intake of whole grains reduces the risk of certain chronic non-communicable disease is encouraging but not convincing. Based on previous studies, the current review encourages further research to cover the gap between the emerging science of whole grains and human health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Neoplasias , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Humanos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Grãos Integrais
14.
Food Funct ; 13(7): 3894-3904, 2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35285840

RESUMO

Dietary fibres have been shown to aggregate and lose viscosity and water binding capacity in solution in the presence of phenolic compounds. This study aimed to verify this observation in a complex grain system containing ß-glucans. The viscosity of uncooked and cooked oat bran digested in vitro was measured in the presence of 1-30 mM phenolic acids or flavonoids, and digestograms were modelled to understand the effects of phenolic compounds on the drivers of viscosity. The final viscosity of the digesta, driven by ß-glucans, underwent a significant decrease of up to 31% upon the addition of phenolic compounds. To account for the inhibitory activity of phenolic compounds on digestive enzymes, modelling of the digestograms was adjusted with reference to that from previous work. The models suggest that phenolic compounds can simultaneously: (1) slow down the release of ß-glucans by slowing down digestion through enzyme inhibition, and (2) decrease the viscosity of solubilised ß-glucans, likely through colloidal aggregation as observed in solution before. These in vitro results suggest that the health benefits of oats linked to digestive viscosity of ß-glucans may be altered by co-formulation with or co-ingestion of phenolic compounds.


Assuntos
Avena , beta-Glucanas , Avena/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Viscosidade , beta-Glucanas/química
15.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 629, 2022 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35110564

RESUMO

The largest living rodent, capybara, can efficiently depolymerize and utilize lignocellulosic biomass through microbial symbiotic mechanisms yet elusive. Herein, we elucidate the microbial community composition, enzymatic systems and metabolic pathways involved in the conversion of dietary fibers into short-chain fatty acids, a main energy source for the host. In this microbiota, the unconventional enzymatic machinery from Fibrobacteres seems to drive cellulose degradation, whereas a diverse set of carbohydrate-active enzymes from Bacteroidetes, organized in polysaccharide utilization loci, are accounted to tackle complex hemicelluloses typically found in gramineous and aquatic plants. Exploring the genetic potential of this community, we discover a glycoside hydrolase family of ß-galactosidases (named as GH173), and a carbohydrate-binding module family (named as CBM89) involved in xylan binding that establishes an unprecedented three-dimensional fold among associated modules to carbohydrate-active enzymes. Together, these results demonstrate how the capybara gut microbiota orchestrates the depolymerization and utilization of plant fibers, representing an untapped reservoir of enzymatic mechanisms to overcome the lignocellulose recalcitrance, a central challenge toward a sustainable and bio-based economy.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Plantas/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/enzimologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/enzimologia , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Lignina , Filogenia , Simbiose , Xilanos/metabolismo
16.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 21(2): 811-842, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35150191

RESUMO

Sizeable scientific evidence indicates the health benefits related to phenolic compounds and dietary fiber. Various phenolic compounds-rich foods or ingredients are also rich in dietary fiber, and these two health components may interrelate via noncovalent (reversible) and covalent (mostly irreversible) interactions. Notwithstanding, these interactions are responsible for the carrier effect ascribed to fiber toward the digestive system and can modulate the bioaccessibility of phenolics, thus shaping health-promoting effects in vivo. On this basis, the present review focuses on the nature, occurrence, and implications of the interactions between phenolics and food components. Covalent and noncovalent interactions are presented, their occurrence discussed, and the effect of food processing introduced. Once reaching the large intestine, fiber-bound phenolics undergo an intense transformation by the microbial community therein, encompassing reactions such as deglycosylation, dehydroxylation, α- and ß-oxidation, dehydrogenation, demethylation, decarboxylation, C-ring fission, and cleavage to lower molecular weight phenolics. Comparatively less information is still available on the consequences on gut microbiota. So far, the very most of the information on the ability of bound phenolics to modulate gut microbiota relates to in vitro models and single strains in culture medium. Despite offering promising information, such models provide limited information about the effect on gut microbes, and future research is deemed in this field.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fenóis , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fenóis/análise
17.
Poult Sci ; 101(4): 101721, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196585

RESUMO

Excessive deposition of abdominal fat is a public concern in the yellow chicken industry related to human nutrition. The common practice of nutritionists is to increase the fiber content in feed to control abdominal fat deposition of chickens. Corncob meal (CCM) is the cheapest ingredient widely used in animal diets. The possible effects of CCM on chicken abdominal fat deposition and the possible mechanism involving cecal microbiota remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of CCM in modulating abdominal fat deposition and the role of the cecal microbiota and their metabolites. A total of 200 ninety-day-old Huxu female chickens were divided into 2 dietary treatments, each with 10 replicates of 10 birds, and were fed two finisher diets, from 90 to 135 d. The diets were a typical corn-soybean control diet (CON) and that diet with CCM partially replacing corn and corn gluten meal. Results showed that the CCM diet markedly decreased live weight and abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05); chickens fed the CCM diet exhibited lower (P < 0.01) expression in abdominal fat of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but higher (P < 0.05) expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1). The CCM increased the abundance of Akkermansia (P < 0.05) and markedly reduced the relative cecal abundance of Phascolarctobacterium (P < 0.01), Rikenellaceae (P < 0.05), and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.01). The metabolomic and biochemical analyses demonstrated that the CCM diet increased (P < 0.05) the concentrations of butyrate in cecal contents. The majority of the metabolites in cecal digesta with differences in abundance were organic acids. The CCM diet increased (P < 0.05) contents of (R)-5-diphosphomevalote, pantothenic acid, 2-epi-5-epi-valiolone 7-phosphate, D-ribose 5-diphosphate, arbutin 6-phosphate, D-ribitol 5-phosphate, undecanoic acid, nicotinic acid, 4-methyl-2-oxovaleric acid, while decreasing (P < 0.05) those of oleic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, suberic acid, and L-fuculose 1-phosphate. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that the dietary CCM treatment significantly decreased abdominal fat and altered the cecal microbiota and metabolite profiles of the yellow chickens.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Microbiota , Gordura Abdominal/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Fosfatos/metabolismo
18.
J Anim Sci ; 100(4)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35213701

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate whether increased inclusion of sugar beet pulp (SBP) alters retention of fat, protein, and energy when backfat (BF) is restored in early- and mid-gestation. In total, 46 sows were fed one of four treatments with increasing inclusion of SBP with dietary fiber (DF) levels of 119, 152, 185, and 217 g/kg; sows were assigned to one of three feeding strategies (FS; high, medium, and low) depending on BF thickness at mating and again at day 30 for the following month. On days 0, 30, 60, and 108, body weight (BW) and BF thickness were measured, and body pools of protein and fat were estimated using the deuterium technique. On days 30 and 60, urine, feces, and blood samples were collected to quantify metabolites, energy, and N balances. On days 15 and 45, heart rates were recorded to estimate the heat production. At farrowing, total born and weight of the litter were recorded. In early gestation, BW gain (P < 0.01) and body protein retention increased (P < 0.05) with increasing fiber inclusion, while body fat retention increased numerically by 59%. Increase in BF was the greatest for sows fed the high FS, intermediate when fed the medium strategy, and negligible for sows fed the lowest FS. N intake, N loss in feces, and N balance increased linearly, whereas N loss in urine tended to decrease with increasing inclusion of fibers in early gestation. Concomitantly, fecal energy output and energy lost as methane increased linearly (P < 0.001), while energy output in urine declined linearly, and total metabolizable energy intake, therefore, increased from 40.5 MJ ME/d in the low-fiber group to 43.5 mega joule (MJ) metabolizable energy (ME)/d in the high-fiber group (P < 0.001). Changing the metabolizable energy toward more ketogenic energy was expected to favor fat retention rather than protein retention. However, due to increased intake of metabolizable energy and increased N efficiency with increasing fiber inclusion, the sows gained more weight and protein with increasing fiber inclusion. In conclusion, increased feed intake improved both fat and protein retention, whereas increased DF concentration increased protein retention.


Feeding sows sugar beet pulp (SBP) has many known benefits, for example, increased satiety, and it is a highly fermentable fiber source for sows. This study investigates how efficient sows utilize energy for fat and protein retention in response to increased SBP inclusion in the diet. After a demanding lactation, sows need to restore body fat and concomitantly avoid excessive protein retention, which increases energy demand for maintenance and risk of locomotory problems. The hypothesis in this study was that energy from fermented fibers is more efficient for fat retention than dietary starch. In the study, sows had numerically greater fat retention when fed high concentrations of fiber from SBP, but, concomitantly, sows unintendedly also increased their protein retention, which in turn increased substantially their live weight. Sows were fed one of three feeding strategies depending on the body condition score (lean, medium, or fat) in early gestation, and backfat was efficiently restored in most sows within a month. To conclude, gestating sows have a high capability to utilize energy from fermented fiber, but sows prefer to retain protein rather than fat, which needs to be addressed in the nutrition of modern genotype sows.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Beta vulgaris , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Lactação/fisiologia , Açúcares , Suínos , Verduras/metabolismo
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2933, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35190602

RESUMO

Although numerous studies exist relating ruminal volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations to diet composition and animal performance, minimal information is available describing how VFA dynamics respond to diets within the context of the whole rumen environment. The objective of this study was to characterize how protein and fiber sources affect dry matter intake, rumen pH, fluid dynamics, fermentation parameters, and epithelial gene expression. Four diet treatments (soybean meal or heat-treated soybean meal and beet pulp or timothy hay) were delivered to 10 wethers. The soybean meals served as crude protein (CP) sources while the beet pulp and timothy hay represented neutral detergent fiber (NDF) sources. Feed intake, rumen pH, fluid pool size, and fluid passage rate were unaffected by treatment. Butyrate synthesis and absorption were greater on the beet pulp treatment whereas synthesis and absorption of other VFA remained unchanged. Both CP and NDF treatment effects were associated with numerous VFA interconversions. Expression levels of rumen epithelial genes were not altered by diet treatment. These results indicate that rumen VFA dynamics are altered by changes in dietary sources of nutrients but that intake, rumen environmental parameters, and the rumen epithelium may be less responsive to such changes.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Epitélio/metabolismo , Fermentação/genética , Expressão Gênica , Rúmen/metabolismo , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Beta vulgaris , Butiratos/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Soja
20.
Food Funct ; 13(4): 2044-2056, 2022 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35107107

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the release mechanism of bound polyphenols (BP) from the insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) in carrots via mixed solid-state fermentation (MSF) using Trichoderma viride and Aspergillus niger. The results indicated that BP released by MSF (80.8759 mg GAE per 10 g DW) was significantly higher than that by alkaline hydrolysis. In addition, 17 polyphenols were detected and their biotransformation pathways were proposed. Quantitative analysis showed that MSF released numerous p-coumaric and organic acids, which led to both an enhancement in α-amylase inhibitory activity and elevated antioxidant enzyme activity in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Furthermore, the dynamic changes in the carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes and the structural characteristics indicated that the destruction of hemicellulose, the deposition of lignin and the secretion of xylanase were vital for the release of BP. Overall, this study demonstrated that MSF is beneficial for the release of BP from IDF, which could provide new insight into the utilization of agricultural byproducts in a more natural and economical way.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Daucus carota , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Hypocreales , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Agricultura , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Fermentação , Humanos , Polifenóis/farmacologia
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