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1.
J Anim Sci ; 99(2)2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33532861

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different defatted rice bran (DFRB) sources and processing technologies on nutrient digestibility in different intestinal segments of pigs. Nine barrows with T-cannula in the distal ileum were randomly allotted to nine different sources in which oil was pressed extracted for seven sources and was solvent extracted for two sources. The experiment contained 6 periods of 12 d, including 8 d for diet adaptation, 2 d for fecal collection, and 2 d for digesta collection. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of dry matter (DM), ash, total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and hemicellulose in different sources of DFRB was quite variable. There were no differences in the AID of dietary gross energy (GE), organic matter (OM), ether extract (EE), crude protein (CP), and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) between different sources of DFRB. There were no differences in the AID of dietary EE, TDF, IDF, and hemicellulose between different processing technologies. Pressed DFRBs have greater (P < 0.05) average AID of dietary GE, DM, ash, OM, CP, SDF, and NDF and lower (P < 0.01) ADF compared with solvent-extracted DFRBs. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of most of the dietary nutrients, except for the ATTD of dietary EE, SDF, and hemicellulose, significantly varied in different sources of DFRB (P < 0.05). In addition, pressed DFRB had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD of dietary SDF, NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose compared with solvent-extracted DFRB. The apparent hindgut digestibility (AHD) of dietary DM, SDF, NDF, and ADF significantly varied (P <0.05) in different sources of DFRB. Exception with DM, there are no differences in the AHD of nutrients digestibility between pressed DFRB and solvent-extracted DFRB. In conclusion, DFRB in different sources and processing technologies with different physicochemical properties had different effects on nutrient digestibility in the foregut and hindgut of pigs.


Assuntos
Digestão , Oryza , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Soja , Suínos , Zea mays
2.
J Anim Sci ; 99(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523183

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of processing index (PI) of barley grain and dietary undigested neutral detergent fiber (uNDF) concentration on dry matter (DM) intake, chewing activity, ruminal pH and fermentation characteristics, total tract digestibility, gastrointestinal barrier function, and blood metabolites of finishing beef heifers. The PI was measured as the density after processing expressed as a percentage of the density before processing, and a smaller PI equates to a more extensively processed. Six ruminally cannulated heifers (average body weight, 715 ± 29 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with three PI (65%, 75%, and 85%) × 2 uNDF concentration (low and high; 4.6% vs. 5.6% of DM) factorial arrangement. The heifers were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of 10% barley silage (low uNDF), or 5% silage and 5% straw (high uNDF), 87% dry-rolled barley grain, and 3% mineral and vitamin supplements. Interactions (P < 0.01) of PI × uNDF were observed for DM intake, ruminating and total chewing time, and DM digestibility in the total digestive tract. Intake of DM, organic matter (OM), starch, and crude protein (CP) did not differ (P > 0.14) between low and high uNDF diets, but intakes of NDF and acid detergent fiber were greater (P = 0.01) for high uNDF diets regardless of barley PI. Heifers fed high uNDF diets had longer (P = 0.05) eating times (min/d or min/kg DM) and tended (P = 0.10) to have longer total chewing times (min/kg DM) than those fed low uNDF diets. Additionally, heifers sorted (P = 0.01) against long particles (>19 mm) for high uNDF diets but not for low uNDF diets. Altering PI of barley grain did not affect (P > 0.12) total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar percentages of individual VFA, or duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6. Total VFA concentration was less (P = 0.01), acetate percentage was greater (P = 0.01), and duration of ruminal pH < 5.8 and <5.6 was less (P = 0.05) for high compared with low uNDF diets. Digestibility of DM, OM, and CP was greater (P = 0.02) for low vs. high uNDF diets with PI of 65% and 75%, with no difference between low and high uNDF diets at PI of 85%. Blood metabolites and gastrointestinal tract barrier function were not affected (P ≥ 0.10) by the treatments. These results suggest that increasing dietary uNDF concentration is an effective strategy to improve ruminal pH status in finishing cattle, regardless of the extent of grain processing, whereas manipulating the extent of barley processing did not reduce the risk of ruminal acidosis.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Hordeum , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Mastigação , Nutrientes , Rúmen/química , Rúmen/metabolismo
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 459, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469030

RESUMO

Some Bacteroidetes and other human colonic bacteria can degrade arabinoxylans, common polysaccharides found in dietary fiber. Previous work has identified gene clusters (polysaccharide-utilization loci, PULs) for degradation of simple arabinoxylans. However, the degradation of complex arabinoxylans (containing side chains such as ferulic acid, a phenolic compound) is poorly understood. Here, we identify a PUL that encodes multiple esterases for degradation of complex arabinoxylans in Bacteroides species. The PUL is specifically upregulated in the presence of complex arabinoxylans. We characterize some of the esterases biochemically and structurally, and show that they release ferulic acid from complex arabinoxylans. Growth of four different colonic Bacteroidetes members, including Bacteroides intestinalis, on complex arabinoxylans results in accumulation of ferulic acid, a compound known to have antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Bacteroides/enzimologia , Esterases/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/ultraestrutura , Bacteroides/genética , Colo/microbiologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Esterases/genética , Esterases/isolamento & purificação , Esterases/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Família Multigênica/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Xilanos/química
4.
Food Chem ; 336: 127711, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777656

RESUMO

Wrinkled and round peas (two varieties each type) cultivated in two locations were milled to obtain fine and coarse wrinkled (WPF) and round pea flour (RPF). WPF exhibited markedly increased pasting viscosities at 120 and 140 °C compared with 95 °C. Overall, the pasting properties of WPF were considerably lower than those of RPF. Resistant starch (RS) contents of cooked WPF (17.2-22.2%, dsb) were significantly larger than those of RPF (7.9-11.4%), resulting from higher starch gelatinization temperatures, greater amylose contents, and presence of more protein and fiber in WPF. The two particle sizes affected the water-holding capacity (WHC) of WPF, gelatinization enthalpy changes (ΔH) of WPF and RPF, and pasting properties and starch digestibility of RPF. Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA) were conducted to reveal the relationships among the techno-functional parameters of pea flours. Wrinkled pea showed promise to generate new pea flours with distinct functionality and enhanced nutritional value.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ervilhas/química , Amilose/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Farinha/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Tamanho da Partícula , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Amido/química , Amido/farmacocinética , Temperatura , Viscosidade
5.
J Chromatogr A ; 1636: 461772, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33340748

RESUMO

Ferulic acid stereoisomers are the most abundant phenolic acids in cereal bran. However, it is challenging to separate them because of the similar structures and properties. In this study, a preparative separation method of ferulic acid stereoisomers from the crude extract of wheat bran was successfully developed. The method contained a two-step separation, the traditional counter-current chromatography (CCC, hexane: ethyl acetate: methanol: water = 2:5:2:4) was followed with a pH-zone-refining CCC (hexane: ethyl acetate: acetonitrile: water = 2:5:2:2, 10 mmol L-1 trifluoroacetic acid in organic stationary phase and 10 mmol L-1 ammonia in aqueous mobile phase). Trans-ferulic acid and cis-ferulic acid with HPLC high purity over than 99% and 98% can be yielded in large-scale separation. Moreover, it is found that different proton affinity, deprotonation ability and interaction site of hydrogen bond result in distinct partition behavior of stereoisomers, which is illustrated by quantitative analysis of molecular surface. This contributes to our in-depth understanding of the separation mechanism toward pH-zone refining CCC. The developed method can be applied in the exploitation of ferulic acids and related phenolic acids from other resources.


Assuntos
Distribuição Contracorrente/métodos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácidos Cumáricos/análise , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/isolamento & purificação , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Isomerismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Solventes/química
6.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658254

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, starch, and total dietary fiber (TDF) in two varieties of hybrid rye and compare these values with values obtained for barley, wheat, corn, and sorghum. It was hypothesized that there are no differences in AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients among hybrid rye, barley, wheat, and sorghum. Twenty-four ileal cannulated barrows (initial body weight = 28.1 ± 3.0 kg) were randomly allotted to a two-period experimental design with six diets and four replicate pigs in each period for a total of eight replicate pigs per diet. Diets consisted of 97% of each grain, and each pig received a different diet in each period. The initial 5 d of each period were considered the adaptation period, whereas urine and fecal materials were collected from the feed provided from day 6 to 10, and ileal digesta were collected on days 12 and 13 of each period. Results indicated that the metabolizable energy (ME) on a dry matter (DM) basis was greatest (P < 0.05) in corn and wheat (3,732 and 3,641 kcal/kg DM), and least (P < 0.05) in barley (3,342 kcal/kg DM), whereas the two hybrid ryes contained 3,499 and 3,459 kcal/kg DM, respectively. The ME values in hybrid rye were not different from values determined for barley and sorghum (3,573 kcal/kg DM). In all grains, the AID of starch was greater than 90%, and the ATTD of starch was nearly 100%. Barley contained more TDF than the other cereal grains, and the two hybrid ryes had concentrations of soluble dietary fiber that were close to the concentration in barley but greater than in wheat, corn, and sorghum. The AID of TDF was less than 35% for all cereal grains, but the ATTD of TDF was greater (P < 0.05) in the two hybrid ryes (68% and 70%) than in the other ingredients (56% to 58%). In conclusion, feeding hybrid rye to pigs resulted in reduced pre-cecal absorption of energy compared with wheat, corn, and sorghum, but because hindgut fermentation of fiber was greater in hybrid rye than in other cereal grains, the content of ME in hybrid rye was not different from barley and sorghum but less than in corn and wheat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Digestão/fisiologia , Grão Comestível , Secale , Suínos/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(8): 7124-7140, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600762

RESUMO

Within the rumen, nitrate can serve as an alternative sink for aqueous hydrogen [H2(aq)] accumulating during fermentation, producing nitrite, which ideally is further reduced to ammonium but can accumulate under conditions not yet explained. Defaunation has also been associated with decreased methanogenesis in meta-analyses because protozoa contribute significantly to H2 production. In the present study, we applied a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to dual-flow continuous culture fermentors (n = 4). Treatments were control without nitrate (-NO3-) versus with nitrate (+NO3-; 1.5% of diet dry matter), factorialized with normal protozoa (faunated, FAUN) versus defaunation (DEF) by decreasing the temperature moderately and changing filters over the first 4 d of incubation. We detected no main effects of DEF or interaction of faunation status with +NO3-. The main effect of +NO3- increased H2(aq) by 11.0 µM (+117%) compared with -NO3-. The main effect of +NO3- also decreased daily CH4 production by 8.17 mmol CH4/d (31%) compared with -NO3-. Because there were no treatment effects on neutral detergent fiber digestibility, the main effect of +NO3- also decreased CH4 production by 1.43 mmol of CH4/g of neutral detergent fiber degraded compared with -NO3-. There were no effects of treatment on other nutrient digestibilities, N flow, or microbial N flow per gram of nutrient digested. The spike in H2(aq) after feeding NO3- provides evidence that methanogenesis is inhibited by substrate access rather than concentration, regardless of defaunation, or by direct inhibition of NO2-. Methanogens were not decreased by defaunation, suggesting a compensatory increase in non-protozoa-associated methanogens or an insignificant contribution of protozoa-associated methanogens. Despite adaptive reduction of NO3- to NH4+ and methane inhibition in continuous culture, practical considerations such as potential to depress dry matter intake and on-farm ration variability should be addressed before considering NO3- as an avenue for greater sustainability of greenhouse gas emissions in US dairy production.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Eucariotos/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Microbiota , Nitratos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogênio/análise , Nitritos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
8.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2236-2244, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609891

RESUMO

The objective of the present work was to evaluate and compare the effect of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours on lipid metabolism and antioxidant potential in vivo. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were induced to oxidative stress with paracetamol and fed a normal diet (AIN-93M) and diets containing toasted tannin sorghum flour and toasted white sorghum flour (without tannins), replacing 100% cellulose, during 29 days. Hepatotoxicity was assessed by biochemical tests and by quantifying oxidative stress markers. Groups that received toasted sorghum flour with and without tannins showed reduction of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentration and improvement of lipid profile, with increase of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) compared to paracetamol control, and did not differ statistically from the AIN-93M control. Moreover, toasted white sorghum flour presented similar efficacy in reducing oxidative stress in liver tissue compared to toasted tannin sorghum flour, although the former had lower total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, suggesting a greater effect of small phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, in the prevention of oxidative stress. Therefore, toasted white and tannin sorghum flours had similar efficacy to improve the lipid profile and oxidative stress in rats treated with paracetamol, constituting potential sources of antioxidants, which can be used as promising ready-to-eat foods and as ingredients for the development of sorghum-based products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The health benefits of sorghum coupled with the growing interest of the food industry in producing healthier food products have motivated the development of toasted sorghum flours as potential sources of antioxidants and dietary fiber. We have demonstrated that consumption of toasted white and tannin sorghum flours by rats treated with paracetamol had similar efficacy to improve oxidative stress and lipid profile. Thus, these toasted sorghum flours have great potential to be used by the food industry as ready-to-eat foods or as ingredients in the development of various food products.


Assuntos
Farinha/análise , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Sorghum/metabolismo , Taninos/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Culinária , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas HDL/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Sorghum/química
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(3): 595-602, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheat bran, nopal, and psyllium are examples of particulate, viscous and particulate, and viscous fibers, respectively, with laxative properties yet contrasting fermentability. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the fermentability of these fibers in vitro and their effects on intestinal function relevant to laxation in vivo using MRI. METHODS: Each fiber was predigested prior to measuring gas production in vitro during 48-h anaerobic incubation with healthy fecal samples. We performed a randomized, 3-way crossover trial in 14 healthy volunteers who ingested 7.5 g fiber twice on the day prior to study initiation and once with the study test meal. Serial MRI scans obtained after fasting and hourly for 4 h following meal ingestion were used to assess small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes, and T1 of the ascending colon (T1AC) as measures of colonic water. Breath samples for hydrogen analysis were obtained while patients were in the fasted state and every 30 min for 4 h following meal ingestion. RESULTS: In vitro, the onset of gas production was significantly delayed with psyllium (mean ± SD: 14 ± 5 h) compared with wheat bran (6 ± 2 h, P = 0.003) and was associated with a smaller total gas volume (P = 0.01). Prefeeding all 3 fibers for 24 h was associated with an increased fasting T1AC (>75% of values >90th centile of the normal range). There was a further rise during the 4 h after psyllium (0.3 ± 0.3 s P = 0.009), a fall with wheat bran (-0.2 ± 0.2 s; P = 0.02), but no change with nopal (0.0 ± 0.1 s, P = 0.2). SBWC increased for all fibers; nopal stimulated more water than wheat bran [AUC mean (95% CI) difference: 7.1 (0.6, 13.8) L/min, P = 0.03].Breath hydrogen rose significantly after wheat bran and nopal but not after psyllium (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Both viscous and particulate fibers are equally effective at increasing colonic T1 over a period of 24 h. Mechanisms include water trapping in the small bowel by viscous fibers and delivery of substrates to the colonic microbiota by more fermentable particulate fiber. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03263065.


Assuntos
Colo/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Fermentação , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Psyllium/química , Água , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619223

RESUMO

A randomized complete block design experiment with 32 yearling crossbred steers (average body weight [BW] = 442 ± 17.0 kg) fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet was used to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn (KemTRACE Zn propionate 27; Kemin Industries, Inc., Des Moines, IA) supplementation on live growth performance, skeletal muscle fiber, and beta-adrenergic receptor (ß-AR) characteristics during the finishing phase. Steers were blocked by BW (n = 4 blocks; 8 steers/block), assigned to pens (n = 4 steers/pen), and randomly assigned to the following treatments: control (CON; 0.0 g/[head (hd) · d] of additional Zn) or additional dietary Zn (ZnP; 1.0 g/[hd · d] additional Zn). The basal diet contained Zn (60 ppm dry matter basis) from ZnSO4; additional Zn was top-dressed at feeding. Ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; Optaflexx: Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) was included at 300 mg/(hd · d) for the final 28 d of the 111-d feeding period. Longissimus muscle biopsy samples, BW, and blood were obtained on days 0, 42, 79, and 107. Final BW was collected prior to shipping on day 111. Biopsy samples were used for immunohistochemical (IHC), mRNA, and protein analysis. Serum urea nitrogen (SUN) and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were measured. Steers fed ZnP had a greater average daily gain (P = 0.02) and gain to feed ratio (G:F; P = 0.03) during the RH feeding period compared with CON. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in other growth performance variables, carcass traits, mRNA abundance, or relative protein concentration for fiber type and ß-AR. Fiber types I and IIA had no differences in the cross-sectional area; however, the IIX area was greater for CON (P < 0.04) compared with ZnP and increased (P < 0.02) over time. There were no differences between treatments for the ß1-AR density (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle tissue throughout the study. A treatment × day interaction was observed in ß2-AR density (P = 0.02) and ß3-AR density (P = 0.02) during the RH feeding period, where the abundance of the receptors increased with ZnP but did not change in CON. Compared with CON, ZnP had greater (P < 0.01) mean NEFA concentrations. Mean SUN concentrations did increase by day (P < 0.01). Additional dietary Zn, supplied as Zn propionate, upregulates ß2-AR and ß3-AR and improves growth performance in feedlot steers during the RH feeding period, likely through a shift of resource utilization from lipogenesis to muscle maintenance and hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Propionatos/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fenetilaminas/administração & dosagem , Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Propionatos/administração & dosagem
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13421, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671925

RESUMO

Four Thai native bulls were used to evaluate the availability of mother liquor (ML), by-product of monosodium glutamate, as a replacement of soybean meal (SBM) consisting of 10% in concentrate. The SBM was replaced by the ML at 0% (C), 20% (T1), 40% (T2), and 60% (T3), and the experiment was a randomized block design experiment. The animals were fed concentrate and roughage (60:40, on a dry matter [DM] basis). There were no significant differences in the digestibility of DM, crude protein, ether extract, acid detergent fiber expressed exclusive of residual ash and non-fibrous carbohydrate, and energy and nitrogen balances among the treatments. However, the digestibility of the neutral detergent fiber in T2 was lower than the other treatments (p < .05). The valeric acid of T2 was lower than those of C and T1 and the iso-valeric acid of T3 was the lowest (p < .05), followed by those of T2, T1, and C at 4 hr post-feeding. No significant differences were observed in the ruminal total VFA concentrations, pH, and NH3 -N among the treatments. These results suggested that SBM could be replaced by the ML up to 60% without adverse effects on nitrogen and energy balance, rumen conditions, and blood metabolites in Thai native bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta , Digestão , Metabolismo Energético , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Glutamato de Sódio , Animais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Masculino , Ácidos Pentanoicos/metabolismo
12.
J Anim Sci ; 98(7)2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687554

RESUMO

The experimental objective was to investigate the impact of xylanase on the bioavailability of energy, oxidative status, and gut function of growing pigs fed a diet high in insoluble fiber and given a longer adaptation time than typically reported. Three replicates of 20 gilts with an initial body weight (BW) of 25.43 ± 0.88 kg were blocked by BW, individually housed, and randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments: a low-fiber control (LF) with 7.5% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), a 30% corn bran without solubles high-fiber control (HF; 21.9% NDF), HF + 100 mg/kg xylanase (HF + XY; Econase XT 25P), and HF + 50 mg/kg arabinoxylan-oligosaccharide (HF + AX). Gilts were fed ad libitum for 36 d across two dietary phases. Pigs and feeders were weighed on days 0, 14, 27, and 36. On day 36, pigs were housed in metabolism crates for a 10-d period, limit fed (80% of average ad libitum intake), and feces and urine were collected the last 72 h to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME). On day 46, serum and ileal and colonic tissue were collected. Data were analyzed as a linear mixed model with block and replication as random effects, and treatment, time, and treatment × time as fixed effects. There was a significant treatment × time interaction for BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed (G:F; P < 0.001). By design, BW at day 0 did not differ; at day 14, pigs fed LF were 3.5% heavier, and pigs fed HF + XY, when compared with HF, were 4% and 4.2% heavier at days 27 and 36, respectively (P < 0.001). From day 14 to 27 and day 27 to 36, when compared with HF, HF + XY improved ADG by 12.4% and 10.7% and G:F by 13.8% and 8.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with LF, HF decreased DE and ME by 0.51 and 0.42 Mcal/kg, respectively, but xylanase partially mitigated that effect by increasing DE and ME by 0.15 and 0.12 Mcal/kg, over HF, respectively (P < 0.05). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased total antioxidant capacity in the serum and ileum (P < 0.05) and tended to have less circulating malondialdehyde (P = 0.098). Pigs fed LF had increased ileal villus height, and HF + XY and HF + AX had shallower intestinal crypts (P < 0.001). Pigs fed HF + XY had increased ileal messenger ribonucleic acid abundance of claudin 4 and occludin (P < 0.05). Xylanase, but not AX, improved the growth performance of pigs fed insoluble corn-based fiber. This was likely a result of the observed increase in ME, improved antioxidant capacity, and enhanced gut barrier integrity, but it may require increased adaptation time to elicit this response.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/farmacologia , Suínos/fisiologia , Zea mays/química , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/administração & dosagem , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Fezes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Íleo/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234610, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645008

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Dieta/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Leite/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rúmen/metabolismo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234344, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502191

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) isotopic discrimination (i.e. the difference in natural 15N abundance between the animal proteins and the diet; Δ15N) is known to correlate with N use efficiency (NUE) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in ruminants. However, results from the literature are not always consistent across studies, likely due to isotopic discrimination pathways that may differ with the nature of diets. The objective of the present study was to assess at which level, from rumen to tissues, Δ15N originates and becomes related to NUE and FCE in fattening yearling bulls when they are fed two contrasted diets. Twenty-four Charolais yearling bulls were randomly divided into two groups and fed during 8 months, from weaning to slaughter, either 1) a high starch diet based on corn silage supplying a balanced N to energy ratio at the rumen level (starch) or 2) a high fiber diet based on grass silage supplying an excess of rumen degradable N (fiber). All animals were slaughtered and samples of different digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, ileal and fecal contents), animal tissues (duodenum, liver and muscle), blood and urine were collected for each animal. Ruminal content was further used to isolate liquid-associated bacteria (LAB), protozoa and free ammonia, while plasma proteins were obtained from blood. All samples along with feed were analyzed for their N isotopic composition. For both diets, the digestive contribution (i.e. the N isotopic discrimination occurring before absorption) to the Δ15N observed in animal tissues accounted for 65 ± 11%, leaving only one third to the contribution of post-absorptive metabolism. Concerning the Δ15N in digestive pools, the majority of these changes occurred in the rumen (av. Δ15N = 2.12 ± 0.66‰), with only minor 15N enrichments thereafter (av. Δ15N = 2.24 ± 0.41‰), highlighting the key role of the rumen on N isotopic discrimination. A strong, significant overall relationship (n = 24) between Δ15N and FCE or NUE was found when using any post-absorptive metabolic pool (duodenum, liver, or muscle tissues, or plasma proteins; 0.52 < r < 0.73; P ≤ 0.01), probably as these pools reflect both digestive and post-absorptive metabolic phenomena. Fiber diet compared to starch diet had a lower feed efficiency and promoted higher (P ≤ 0.05) Δ15N values across all post-absorptive metabolic pools and some digestive pools (ruminal, duodenal, and ileal contents). The within-diet relationship (n = 12) between Δ15N and feed efficiency was not as strong and consistent as the overall relationship, with contrasted responses between the two diets for specific pools (diet x pool interaction; P ≤ 0.01). Our results highlight the contrasted use of N at the rumen level between the two experimental diets and suggests the need for different equations to predict FCE or NUE from Δ15N according to the type of diet. In conclusion, rumen digestion and associated microbial activity can play an important role on N isotopic discrimination so rumen effect related to diet may interfere with the relationship between Δ15N and feed efficiency in fattening yearling bulls.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Masculino , Rúmen/microbiologia , Ruminantes/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498088

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted during the winter of two consecutive years to evaluate the effects of feeding green-chopped cool-season forages on digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and blood parameters in beef steers. Nine ruminally cannulated Angus crossbred steers (year 1: 359 ± 79 kg; year 2: 481 ± 105 kg) received ad libitum green-chopped forages from pastures planted with one of the following mixtures: 1) OAT = Horizon 201 oats (Avena sativa L.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 95 and 17 kg/ha, respectively; 2) RYE = FL401 cereal rye (Secale cereale L.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 78 and 17 kg/ha, respectively; or 3) TRIT = Trical 342 triticale (X Triticosecale spp.)/Prine annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) at 95 and 17 kg/ha, respectively. Intake was measured using the GrowSafe system and orts were discarded prior to subsequent feeding. After a 14-d adaptation, feed and fecal samples were collected twice daily for 4 d to determine apparent total tract nutrient digestibility using indigestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) as an internal marker. On day 19, blood and ruminal fluid samples were collected every 3 h during a 24-h period to analyze plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and glucose, ruminal pH, and concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Data were analyzed as a generalized randomized block design with repeated measures using the PROC MIX of SAS. No effect of treatment (P > 0.05) was observed for intake of dry matter, organic matter (OM), crude protein, NDF, or acid detergent fiber. Apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients was greater (P < 0.05) for OAT and TRIT when compared with RYE, with OM digestibility being 82.7%, 79.6%, and 69.5%, respectively. An effect of time (P < 0.01) was observed for ruminal pH. Plasma concentration of glucose was greater (P < 0.01) in steers consuming OAT, whereas steers fed RYE had greater (P < 0.05) concentrations of ruminal NH3-N and PUN, and the least concentration of total ruminal VFA (P < 0.05), despite having the greatest (P > 0.05) molar proportion of acetate, branched-chain VFA, and acetate:propionate. Increased nutrient digestibility and favorable ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites of OAT and TRIT are potentially conducive to enhanced growth performance when compared with RYE.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Animais , Avena , Bovinos/sangue , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530969

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is among the most prevalent diseases in the world, affecting over 420 million people. The disease is marked by a poor metabolic effect of insulin leading to chronic hyperglycaemia, which can result in microvascular complications. It is widely known that postprandial glycaemia is reliant on the total carbohydrate content of a meal. However, the importance of the amount and the source of these carbohydrates remains controversial due to mechanisms other than insulin secretion. Oxidative stress, inflammation, pyruvate production and the quality of the intestinal microbiota, resulting in plasma lipopolysaccharides and short-chain fatty acids production, play an important role in blood sugar control and consequently in type 2 diabetes. Thus, we systematically reviewed the preclinical evidences on the impact of the amount and type of carbohydrate found in different diets and its influence on blood glucose levels in diabetic animals. We used a comprehensive and structured search in biomedical databases Medline (PubMed), Scopus and Web of Science, recovering and analyzing 27 original studies. Results showed that sucrose-rich diets deteriorated diabetic condition in animal models regardless of the total dietary carbohydrate content. On the other hand, fiber, particularly resistant starch, improved blood glucose parameters through direct and indirect mechanisms, such as delayed gastric emptying and improved gut microbiota. All studies used rodents as animal models and male animals were preferred over females. Improvements in T2DM parameters in animal models were more closely related to the type of dietary carbohydrate than to its content on a diet, i. e., resistant starch seems to be the most beneficial source for maintaining normoglycemia. Results show that current literature is at high risk of bias due to neglecting experimental methods.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Sacarose na Dieta/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Secreção de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/fisiologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Food Chem ; 330: 127156, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531631

RESUMO

Rice bran (RB) and wheat bran (WB) fermented with L. plantarum 423 had enhanced odor intensity, especially for sulfides and aromatics. The hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (73.28 ± 3.18%) and oxygen radical-scavenging activity (2.12 ± 0.08 mmol·TE/g) of RB fermentation broth were better than those of WB fermentation broth. Even at 2 µg/ml, the purified antioxidant fractions from the WB fermentation broth showed strong intracellular ROS-scavenging activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and the purified antioxidant fractions (200 µg/ml) from the RB fermentation broth had a good antiaging effect. The dominant antioxidant components in the RB and WB fermentation broths were acids (70.21%) and ketones (10.64%), these components jointly give the RB and WB fermentation broths a variety of antioxidant properties. These results are beneficial for developing RB and WB deep-processing technology and laid the foundation for the preparation of antioxidant fractions with L. plantarum 423.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fermentação , Aromatizantes/análise , Lactobacillus plantarum/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Triticum/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Nariz Eletrônico , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Oryza/química , Triticum/química
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127252, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585587

RESUMO

Mycoprotein is a food ingredient from filamentous fungi rich in protein and fibre. This study investigated the protein bioaccessibility from the fungal cells by colourimetric assays in different mycoprotein formulations, following extraction methods and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The methods effects were further analysed by static laser light scattering, SDS-PAGE and optical-fluorescence microscopy. The extraction methods released a comparable proportion of protein (30 wt%) independent of sample concentration (10 wt% and 25 wt%), whereas the simulated digestions endpoints released a higher proportion of protein from the less concentrated (46 wt%). Furthermore, mechanical/physical processing had only a minor impact. Intestinal proteases promoted the most efficient protein release but without causing any apparent damage to the cell walls when viewed by microscopy. This suggested that the enzymes can diffuse through the cell walls, due to its porosity/permeability, and are the main factors responsible for the hydrolysis and bioaccessibility of protein from mycoprotein.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo
19.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516372

RESUMO

AbstractThe importance of fiber particle size in ruminal health is well known, but there are fewer studies to assess the requirements of physically effective NDF (peNDF) in beef cattle than in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to establish the optimal peNDF proportion in high-concentrate diets fed to beef cattle, to reduce the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis. The experimental design was a replicated Latin Square 4 × 4, with four periods of 21 d. Treatments consisted of four diets with different peNDF proportions: 6.4%, 10.4%, 13.6%, and 15.4%, offered ad libitum as total mixed ration, and containing 15% barley straw and 85% concentrate. Diets, which differed in proportions of straw > 4 mm (considered peNDF) and straw < 4 mm, were manually mixed with concentrate. This concentrate was the same for all diets. A ruminal bolus was orally administered to each heifer for pH measurement. Intake, water consumption, intake by particle size, feed sorting, feeding behavior, behavioral activities, and rumen pH were recorded. Chemical composition and particle sizes of diets offered were assessed in the last week of each period. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Orthogonal contrasts determined the linear and quadratic effects of increasing peNDF proportion. T-test procedure determined whether heifers carried out sorting behavior. Particles >4 mm linearly increased (P = 0.001), and particles <4 mm linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Water consumption and feeding behavior were unaffected by treatment. As peNDF increased, intakes of DM and NDF linearly decreased (P = 0.001), whereas peNDF intake increased (P = 0.001). Intake of particles > 4 mm linearly increased, whereas intake of particles < 4 mm linearly decreased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Diet 6.4% performed sorting for particles > 4 mm (P < 0.01), and diets 13.6% and 15.4% against particles > 4 mm (P < 0.01). Diet 10.4% tended to sort against particles > 4 mm (P < 0.10). Time spent ruminating linearly increased (P = 0.001) as peNDF increased. Diets did not differ in mean and minimum rumen pH, but time under rumen pH thresholds (5.8, 5.7, 5.6, and 5.5) linearly decreased as peNDF increased (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the diet that best met the requirements of not compromising intake, limiting sorting behavior, and promoting time spent ruminating to reduce the number of hours under rumen pH thresholds, was the 10.4% diet.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Acidose/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Tamanho da Partícula , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413898

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of energy supplementation and pre-grazing sward height on grazing behavior, nutrient intake, digestion, and metabolism of cattle in tropical pastures managed as a rotational grazing system. Eight rumen-cannulated Nellore steers (24 mo of age; 300 ± 6.0 kg body weight [BW]) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments consisted of two levels of energy supplementation (0% [none] or 0.3% of BW of ground corn on an as-fed basis) and two pre-grazing sward heights (25 cm [defined by 95% light interception (LI)] or 35 cm [defined by ≥ 97.5% LI]) constituting four treatments. Steers grazed Marandu Palisadegrass [Brachiaria brizantha Stapf. cv. Marandu] and post-grazing sward height was 15 cm for all treatments. Forage dry matter intake (DMI) was increased (P = 0.01) when sward height was 25 cm (1.86% vs. 1.32% BW) and decreased (P = 0.04) when 0.3% BW supplement was fed (1.79% vs. 1.38% BW). Total and digestible DMI were not affected by energy supplementation (P = 0.57) but were increased when sward height was 25 cm (P = 0.01). Steers grazing the 25-cm sward height treatment spent less time grazing and more time resting, took fewer steps between feeding stations, and had a greater bite rate compared with 35-cm height treatment (P < 0.05). Energy supplementation reduced grazing time (P = 0.02) but did not affect any other grazing behavior parameter (P = 0.11). Energy supplementation increased (P < 0.01) diet dry matter digestibility but had no effect on crude protein and neutral detergent fiber digestibilities (P = 0.13). Compared with 35-cm pre-grazing sward height, steers at 25 cm presented lower rumen pH (6.39 vs. 6.52) and greater rumen ammonia nitrogen (11.22 vs. 9.77 mg/dL) and N retention (49.7% vs. 20.8%, P < 0.05). The pre-grazing sward height of 25 cm improved harvesting efficiency and energy intake by cattle, while feeding 0.3% of BW energy supplement did not increase the energy intake of cattle on tropical pasture under rotational grazing.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Masculino , Poaceae , Rúmen/metabolismo , Zea mays
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