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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193965

RESUMO

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adulto , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cloroquina/efeitos adversos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Terapia Combinada , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/fisiopatologia , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Quadriplegia/etiologia , Respiração Artificial , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
3.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148560

RESUMO

A 60-year-old man recently admitted for bipedal oedema, endocarditis and a persistently positive COVID-19 swab with a history of anticoagulation on rivaroxaban for atrial fibrillation, transitional cell carcinoma, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, diabetes and hypertension presented with sudden onset diplopia and vertical gaze palsy. Vestibulo-ocular reflex was preserved. Simultaneously, he developed a scotoma and sudden visual loss, and was found to have a right branch retinal artery occlusion. MRI head demonstrated a unilateral midbrain infarct. This case demonstrates a rare unilateral cause of bilateral supranuclear palsy which spares the posterior commisure. The case also raises a question about the contribution of COVID-19 to the procoagulant status of the patient which already includes atrial fibrillation and endocarditis, and presents a complex treatment dilemma regarding anticoagulation.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial , Cegueira , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Diplopia , Endocardite Bacteriana , Oftalmoplegia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cegueira/diagnóstico , Cegueira/etiologia , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/diagnóstico por imagem , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/tratamento farmacológico , Infartos do Tronco Encefálico/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diplopia/diagnóstico , Diplopia/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/fisiopatologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmoplegia/diagnóstico , Oftalmoplegia/etiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/etiologia , Oclusão da Artéria Retiniana/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 124-129, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155968

RESUMO

This review analyzes results of a large prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 that compared efficacy and safety of warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, and edoxaban, an oral inhibitor of activated coagulation factor X. The review addresses important practical aspects of using edoxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Piridinas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazóis , Resultado do Tratamento , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
5.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 53-63, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155941

RESUMO

Aim To study efficacy and safety of a triple antithrombotic therapy with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation after acute coronary syndrome, for 12 months following discharge from the hospital.Materials and methods This single-site cohort, prospective, observational study performed at the Regional Vascular Center 2 of the N.A. Semashko Nizhniy Novgorod Regional Clinical Hospital included 402 patients. It was possible to maintain contacts with 206 patients for 12 months. These patients were divided into two groups, the DOAC treatment (n=105) and the warfarin treatment (n=101) as a part of triple antithrombotic therapy upon discharge. Clinical observation was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the discharge by structured telephone interview. Predetermined efficacy endpoints included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and ischemic stroke. Safety endpoints included bleeding defined as small, medium (clinically significant), and major in accordance with the TIMI classification.Results At 12 months of follow-up, 80 patients (76.19%) continued taking DOAC and 39 patients (38.61%, p<0.001) continued taking warfarin; in this process, only 25 patients (24.75%) monitored their INR on a regular basis. With a regular INR monitoring and TTR >70%, death rate did not differ in the warfarin and the DOAC treatment groups. However, there was a difference in reaching the composite efficacy endpoint (p=0.048): ischemic events occurred statistically significantly more frequently in the warfarin treatment group than in the DOAC treatment group.Conclusions In 12 months after discharge from the hospital, compliance with the DOAC treatment as a part of the antithrombotic therapy was significantly higher than compliance with the warfarin treatment. The triple antithrombotic therapy with DOAC was safer than the warfarin treatment by the number of hemorrhagic complications and more effective in prevention of ischemic events, primarily due to no need for monitoring of lab test values.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 108-114, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155949

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common concomitant diseases in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Meta-analyses of multiple studies have shown that the risk of AF is higher for diabetic patients with impaired glucose homeostasis than for patients without DM. Patients with AF and DM were younger, more frequently had arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease, and stroke and were characterized with a more severe course of AF. The article discusses possible mechanisms of the mutually aggravating effects of DM and AF, scales for evaluating the risk of bleeding (CHADS2, CHA2DS2­VASc, HAS-BLED), and the role of anticoagulants. A meta-analysis of 16 randomized clinical studies, including 9 874 patients, has demonstrated the efficacy of oral anticoagulants in prevention of stroke with an overall decrease in the relative risk by 62 % compared to placebo (95% confidence interval, from 48 to 72 ). For prevention of complications in patients with AF and DM, current antithrombotic therapies can be used, specifically the oral factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, which is the best studied in patients with AF and DM and represents a possible alternative to warfarin in such patients.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
7.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 33-45, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155957

RESUMO

Aim      Searching for clinical, angiographic, and biochemical predictors of cardiovascular complications (CVC) and hemorrhagic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving a multicomponent antithrombotic therapy (MAT) for an elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and AF who require MAT for PCI are at a high risk of thrombotic complications (stroke, systemic embolism, coronary events) and hemorrhage. This warrants searching for new risk factors determining prediction of the outcome.Materials and methods This study included 207 patients (146 males aged 70.1±8.3 years) with IHD and AF who received direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) as a part of their MAT therapy. Median duration of the follow-up was 12 [8.0; 12.0] months. The efficacy endpoint was a sum of CVCs combining cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolic complications, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and requirement for an unscheduled PCI. "Coronary events", including ACS and requirement for an unscheduled PCI were analyzed separately. The safety endpoint was BARC type 2-5 bleeding. Upon admission, biomarkers (growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), D-dimer, thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) were measured for all patients. Searching for prognostically significant indexes was performed with the Cox proportional hazards regression.Results Incidence of all CVCs was 16.4 %. Independent predictors of CVC included the DOAC treatment at a reduced dose (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 at 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-6.15; p=0.0454), GDF-15 >1191 pg /ml (OR 3.76 at 95 % CI, 1.26-11.18; p=0.0172), PAI-1 >13.2 U/ml (OR 2.67 at 95 % CI, 1.13-6,26; p=0.0245). Incidence of coronary complications was 9.2 %. Independent predictors of coronary complications included a SYNTAX index >26.5 (OR 4.5 at 95 % CI, 1.45-13.60; p=0.0090), PCI for chronic coronary occlusion (OR 3.21 at 95 % CI, 1.10-9.33; p=0.0326), a GDF-15 >1191 pg/ml (ОR 4.70 at 95 % CI, 1.32-16.81; p=0.0172). Incidence of BARC type 2-5 bleeding was 26.1 %. The only independent predictor for hemorrhage complications was the total PRECISE-DAPT score >30 (ОR 3.22; 95 % CI, 1.89-5.51; р<0.0001).Conclusion      Three independent predictors of CVC were identified for patients with IHD and AF treated with MAT following an elective PCI: treatment with a reduced dose of DOAC, GDF-15 >1191 pg /ml, and PAI-1>13.2 U/ml. Independent predictors of coronary complications included a SYNTAX index >26.5, PCI for chronic coronary occlusion, and GDF-15 >1191 pg/ml. The factor associated with a risk of bleeding was the total PRECISE-DAPT score >30.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 361-364, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130800

RESUMO

stroke or other thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). On the other hand, dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus P2Y12 inhibitor) represents a cornerstone in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. Atrial fibrillation is relatively common in patients with coronary artery disease and patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with stent implantation. They should be on triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT): preferably direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) plus aspirin plus clopidogrel as it prevents ischemic as well as thromboembolic events. Before introducing OAT in patients with AF we must assess the risk of future bleeding episodes as OAT can lead to some life-threatening bleeding events. The most common risk score used for that purpose is HASBLED score. HAS-BLED score is valuable, proven tool in assessing future bleeding events in patients with AF. Nevertheless, it does not make the difference between dual and triple antithrombotic therapy which can be of great importance in preventing bleeding events.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos
9.
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 102-109, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131481

RESUMO

Aim To compare efficacy and safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and reduced creatinine clearance.Material and methods Systematic search for literature and indirect comparison of DOACs were performed.Results The indirect comparison included five randomized clinical trials. The DOACs were comparable by the efficacy of preventing stroke and systemic embolism. The safety profiles had differences. Apixaban significantly decreased the relative risk of major bleeding compared to rivaroxaban by 27 % (relative risk (RR) 0.73; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.55-0.98). The apixaban advantage was even greater in the group of patients with a creatinine clearance <50 ml/min: RR was reduced by 48 % compared to rivaroxaban (RR=0.52; 95 % CI: 0.32-0.84), by 50 % compared to dabigatran 300 mg/day (RR=0.50; 95 % CI: 0.31-0.81), and by 48 % compared to dabigatran 220 mg/day (RR=0.52; 95 % CI: 0.32-0.85)Conclusion The indirect comparison of DOACs showed that their efficacy was comparable. With respect of safety, apixaban is the preferrable DOAC for patients with atrial fibrillation and creatinine clearance below 50 ml/min.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Kardiologiia ; 60(9): 22-29, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131471

RESUMO

Aim To study the relationship between the serum level of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) and clinical and functional characteristics and severity of left atrial (LA) fibrosis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF).Material and methods The study included 87 patients with nonvalvular AF (62 patients with paroxysmal AF and 25 patients with persistent AF) aged 27 to 72 years (mean age, 56.9±9.2 years, 32 women). 85 % of these patients had arterial hypertension (AH), 33 % had AH and ischemic heart disease, and 12.6 % had isolated AF and were hospitalized for primary catheter ablation. General clinical evaluation, echocardiography, laboratory tests including measurement of GDF-15 and NT-proBNP concentrations in blood were performed. As a surrogate substrate of LA fibrosis during the electroanatomical voltage mapping, the area of low-voltage (<0.5 mV) zones in LA was calculated, including the total LA fibrosis area (Sf, cm2) and a percentage of fibrosis of the total LA area (Sf%).Results Median concentration of GDF-15 was 767.5 [590.0; 951.0] pg /ml. The GDF-15 level positively correlated with age, presence and severity of AH and chronic heart failure, body mass index, and degree of obesity, CHA2DS2 VASc score, level of NT-proBNP, and LA fibrosis area (Sf and Sf%) and negatively correlated with the indexes of left ventricular diastolic function, e' septal and e' lateral. The area of fibrosis increased with increasing GDF-15 concentrations divided into quartiles; Sf% exceeded 20 % at GDF-15 levels higher than median. After a comparative analysis of patients with Sf% ≤20 % and >20 %, statistically significantly different variables were included into a stepwise logistic regression analysis. Two independent predictors of LA fibrosis >20% were identified: a concentration of GDF-15 higher than median (odd ratio (OR), 3.318, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.184-9.298) and LA volume index (OR, 1.079, 95 % CI: 1.014-1.147). According to results of the ROC analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.762 (p=0.000), the model specificity was 72.3 %, sensitivity was 72.4 %, and the prediction accuracy was 72.4 %.Conclusion Blood levels of GDF-15 were associated with the presence and severity of major risk factors for AF and the area of LA fibrosis. In this study, a level of GDF-15 above the median and the LA volume index were independent predictors of LA fibrosis > 20% of the LA area.


Assuntos
Apêndice Atrial , Fibrilação Atrial , Ablação por Cateter , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento , Adulto , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Fator 15 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/sangue , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1062-1066, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have overtaken warfarin as the preferred anticoagulants for stroke prevention with atrial fibrillation and for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Despite the increased prevalence of DOACs, literature studying their impact on trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains limited. Most DOAC reversal agents have only been recently available, and concerns for worse outcomes with DOACs among this population remain. This study aims to assess the outcomes of patients with traumatic ICH taking DOACs compared with those taking warfarin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with traumatic ICH over a 5-year period was conducted. Demographics, injury severity, medication, and outcome data were collected for each patient. Patients taking warfarin and DOACs were compared. RESULTS: 736 patients had traumatic ICH over the study period, 75 of which were on either DOACs (25 patients) or warfarin (50 patients). The median age of the anticoagulated patients was 78 years; 52% were female, and 91% presented secondary to a fall. DOACs were reversed at close to half the rate of warfarin (40% vs 77%; P = .032). Despite this, the 2 groups had similar rates of worsening examination, need for operative intervention, and in-hospital mortality. In the follow-up, fewer patients taking DOACs had died at 6-months postinjury compared with those taking warfarin (8% vs 30%; P = .041). DISCUSSION: Despite DOACs being reversed at nearly half the rate of warfarin, patients presenting with traumatic ICH on warfarin had higher 6-month mortality suggesting a potential survival advantage for DOACs over warfarin in this population.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/sangue , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 965-969, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107240

RESUMO

In cryptogenic stroke patients, early detection of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and recurrent stroke is required to prevent poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the predictors of new-onset AF and recurrent stroke in cryptogenic stroke patients without previously diagnosed AF. In total, 390 patients who were diagnosed with stroke and non-sustained atrial tachycardia (NSAT) on 24-hour Holter monitoring were followed up to assess new-onset AF and recurrent stroke. The 5-year event-free survival as well as the predictors of recurrent stroke or new-onset AF were investigated. Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) were defined as PACs >44 beats/day. The median follow-up period was 35 months. The composite event rate was 11.5%. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 5-year cumulative incidence of composite events was higher in cryptogenic stroke patients with frequent PACs than in those without frequent PACs. Multivariate analysis revealed that current smoking, increased left atrial volume index, and frequent PACs were poor prognostic predictors of composite event, and frequent PACs were an independent poor prognostic factor of new-onset AF in cryptogenic stroke patients. Therefore, frequent PACs might be associated with poor clinical outcomes (new-onset AF and recurrent stroke) in cryptogenic stroke patients with concomitant NSAT.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taquicardia
13.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 5-9, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The timely diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with cardiac embolism with implantable loop recorders (ILR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, hospitalized within 6 months after stroke (n=19) or transient ischemic attack (n=10), were included in the study. ILR were implanted in all cases. The mean time of follow-up was one year. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirteen transmissions were detected during the whole follow-up period. Symptomatic episodes were recorded in 165 cases. Such episodes as bradycardia, asystole, AF, atrial tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia were recorded in 98 cases out of 348 planned transmissions. All transmissions were analyzed by an operator. However, 70 cases were false-positive because of ILR over-sensing. In total, arrhythmias were detected in 5 patients, including sick sinus syndrome (1), supraventricular tachycardia (1), ventricular tachycardia (1) and atrial fibrillation (3). Anticoagulant therapy was started immediately after the diagnosis of AF. CONCLUSION: Loop recording monitoring is an effective strategy in patients with cardiac embolism for timely diagnosis and further treatment of arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) marker for cerebral small vessel disease. Existing CMBs and those that newly develop are associated with the risks of stroke incidence and recurrence. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association of oral anticoagulant (OAC) use and the development of new CMBs in cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We prospectively followed cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation who had been hospitalized in the stroke center of our hospital, had been prescribed anticoagulants at discharge, and underwent repeated brain MRI with an interval of at least one year from the baseline MRI. Assessing the presence, number and location of CMBs using T2*-weighted gradient-recalled echo MRI, we used logistic regression models to investigate the associations between OAC use and the incidence of new CMBs. We also examined associations of subsequent stroke with OACs and CMBs during the follow-up. RESULTS: A total of 81 patients, consisting of 45 patients receiving direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and 36 patients receiving warfarin (WF), were analyzed in the present study. Baseline CMBs were observed in 19/81 patients (23.5%) and new CMBs in 18/81 patients (22.2%) on follow-up MRI (median interval, 34 months). Of the 31 new CMBs, 25 (80.6%) developed in the lobar location and 6 (19.4%) in the deep or infratentorial location. New CMBs occurred in 4 patients (10.0%) taking DOACs alone, in 10 patients (35.7%) taking WF alone, in 3 patients (37.5%) taking WF plus antiplatelet agents and in 1 patient (20.0%) taking DOAC plus antiplatelet agent. Regarding location, the new CMBs were the lobar type in 7 of the 10 patients taking WF alone, as well as in 3 of the 4 patients taking DOACs alone. In multivariate analysis, the presence of CMBs at baseline and WF use (vs. DOAC use) were associated with new CMBs (CMB presence at baseline: OR 4.16, 95% CI 1.19-14.44; WF use: OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.02-11.42). The presence of ≥ 2 CMBs at baseline was related to a higher risk of subsequent stroke (OR 7.25, 95% CI 1.01-52.35, P = 0.048). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that DOAC compared with WF use at discharge is associated with a lower incidence of new CMBs in cardioembolic stroke patients with atrial fibrillation. Further prospective studies in the clinical setting are needed to confirm our exploratory data.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
15.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105169, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912570

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk of early recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation may be high. ASA/AHA guidelines provide imprecise recommendations on the timing and anticoagulant choice for this indication. We assessed current opinions of stroke neurologists. METHODS: Case scenarios describing patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) were presented to US board-certified stroke neurologists in an internet-based questionnaire. Questions assessed timing and choice of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention, factors prompting earlier anticoagulation, reasons for specific anticoagulant choice, and alternatives to anticoagulation in ineligible patients. Open-ended comments were also solicited. RESULTS: Responses were available from 238/1239 stroke neurologists surveyed. In patients with small AIS without hemorrhagic transformation (HT), 51% elected to start anticoagulation within 96 hours. With increased stroke severity and asymptomatic HT, only 29% and 26% respectively chose to anticoagulate within 7 days. Few requested stability imaging before starting anticoagulation. With symptomatic HT the majority (79%) waited >14 days. 93% would anticoagulate earlier if left atrium/left atrial appendage or acute left ventricular thrombi, or mechanical heart valve were present. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were the preferred anticoagulation strategy (64%), and the remaining 38% preferred Warfarin. Aspirin was preferred by 57% in anticoagulation ineligible. CONCLUSION: Apart from AIS with symptomatic HT, there is a remarkable lack of consensus among stroke neurologists regarding the timing of anticoagulation for secondary stroke prevention in patients with AIS due to PAF. DOACs are the preferred anticoagulation strategy. More studies are required to clarify anticoagulant management in this patient population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neurologistas/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Prevenção Secundária/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Uso de Medicamentos/tendências , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872667

RESUMO

AIM: In this study we have investigated the problem of cost effective wireless heart health monitoring from a service design perspective. SUBJECT AND METHODS: There is a great medical and economic need to support the diagnosis of a wide range of debilitating and indeed fatal non-communicable diseases, like Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Atrial Fibrillation (AF), diabetes, and sleep disorders. To address this need, we put forward the idea that the combination of Heart Rate (HR) measurements, Internet of Things (IoT), and advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI), forms a Heart Health Monitoring Service Platform (HHMSP). This service platform can be used for multi-disease monitoring, where a distinct service meets the needs of patients having a specific disease. The service functionality is realized by combining common and distinct modules. This forms the technological basis which facilitates a hybrid diagnosis process where machines and practitioners work cooperatively to improve outcomes for patients. RESULTS: Human checks and balances on independent machine decisions maintain safety and reliability of the diagnosis. Cost efficiency comes from efficient signal processing and replacing manual analysis with AI based machine classification. To show the practicality of the proposed service platform, we have implemented an AF monitoring service. CONCLUSION: Having common modules allows us to harvest the economies of scale. That is an advantage, because the fixed cost for the infrastructure is shared among a large group of customers. Distinct modules define which AI models are used and how the communication with practitioners, caregivers and patients is handled. That makes the proposed HHMSP agile enough to address safety, reliability and functionality needs from healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Monitorização Fisiológica/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
17.
N Engl J Med ; 383(18): 1735-1745, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of appropriate oral anticoagulant treatment for the prevention of stroke in very elderly patients with atrial fibrillation is challenging because of concerns regarding bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial to compare a once-daily 15-mg dose of edoxaban with placebo in elderly Japanese patients (≥80 years of age) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were not considered to be appropriate candidates for oral anticoagulant therapy at doses approved for stroke prevention. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, and the primary safety end point was major bleeding according to the definition of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. RESULTS: A total of 984 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a daily dose of 15 mg of edoxaban (492 patients) or placebo (492 patients). A total of 681 patients completed the trial, and 303 discontinued (158 withdrew, 135 died, and 10 had other reasons); the numbers of patients who discontinued the trial were similar in the two groups. The annualized rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 2.3% in the edoxaban group and 6.7% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.61; P<0.001), and the annualized rate of major bleeding was 3.3% in the edoxaban group and 1.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.90 to 3.89; P = 0.09). There were substantially more events of gastrointestinal bleeding in the edoxaban group than in the placebo group. There was no substantial between-group difference in death from any cause (9.9% in the edoxaban group and 10.2% in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.36). CONCLUSIONS: In very elderly Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were not appropriate candidates for standard doses of oral anticoagulants, a once-daily 15-mg dose of edoxaban was superior to placebo in preventing stroke or systemic embolism and did not result in a significantly higher incidence of major bleeding than placebo. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ELDERCARE-AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02801669.).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Embolia/etiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Tiazóis/efeitos adversos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21681, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872038

RESUMO

The aging of the population has resulted in atrial fibrillation (AF) becoming increasingly prevalent. Treatment focuses on the prevention of thromboembolism through the use of catheter ablation or drug therapy with anticoagulants, such as warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Dabigatran-induced exfoliative esophagitis has been reported as a rare side effect of DOACs. Although most cases are mild, some result in severe outcomes. However, the etiology of exfoliative esophagitis remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology of exfoliative esophagitis and identify its risk factors by observational study.The participants were 524 patients using anticoagulants who received catheter ablation for AF and subsequently underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at University of Tsukuba Hospital. Exfoliative esophagitis was noted in 21 (4.0%) patients. Potential risk factors for exfoliative esophagitis were examined retrospectively by comparing patients with and without this condition across the following parameters that were extracted retrospectively from the electronic medical records: physical characteristics, comorbidities, blood-based cardiac markers, echocardiographic and endoscopic findings, and current medications.Regarding physical characteristics, patients with exfoliative esophagitis had significantly higher body weight and BMI. No association was observed between exfoliative esophagitis and comorbidities. Associations were also not found for cardiac markers, echocardiographic findings, or endoscopic findings. In terms of current medications, patients receiving oral dabigatran showed the highest prevalence of exfoliative esophagitis at 8.8% (13/148). The adjusted odds ratio of dabigatran for exfoliative esophagitis was 10.3 by multivariable logistic regression analysis.Obesity and oral dabigatran were found to be significant risk factors for exfoliative esophagitis.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Esofagite/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21097, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantial advances in cardiac pacing technology have been developed in the past decades. However, efforts to improve pacing technology to achieve physiological electrical activity, such as with cardiac resynchronization therapy, are underway. Permanent His bundle pacing, which directly stimulates the His-Purkinje network and electrically activates both ventricles, simulates physiological electric activity in the heart, and has been considered an ideal pacing strategy to treat arrhythmias. For patients with atrial fibrillation complicated by third-degree atrioventricular block (AVB), permanent His bundle pacing is a better option than conventional right ventricular apical or septal pacing, the latter of which may be associated with risks, such as heart failure. However, His bundle pacing exhibits some shortcomings, including elevated pacing threshold, dislocation, and abnormal sensing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old female patient who had atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated by third-degree AVB and who was treated with permanent His bundle pacing combined with left bundle branch pacing. DIAGNOSIS: AF complicated by third-degree AVB. INTERVENTIONS: We used the left bundle branch as a backup pacing site to overcome any shortcomings related to permanent His bundle pacing. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well without any events. CONCLUSION: We selected His bundle pacing as the primary pacing, but also used left bundle branch pacing as a backup approach. If His bundle pacing results in an increased sensing threshold, pacing threshold changes, or dislocations, left bundle branch pacing can compensate for dysfunction of permanent deficiencies in His bundle pacing, preserving physiological pacing.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/complicações , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos
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