Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.863
Filtrar
1.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(11): 965-969, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107240

RESUMO

In cryptogenic stroke patients, early detection of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) and recurrent stroke is required to prevent poor clinical outcomes. Therefore, we investigated the predictors of new-onset AF and recurrent stroke in cryptogenic stroke patients without previously diagnosed AF. In total, 390 patients who were diagnosed with stroke and non-sustained atrial tachycardia (NSAT) on 24-hour Holter monitoring were followed up to assess new-onset AF and recurrent stroke. The 5-year event-free survival as well as the predictors of recurrent stroke or new-onset AF were investigated. Based on receiver operating characteristic analysis, frequent premature atrial contractions (PACs) were defined as PACs >44 beats/day. The median follow-up period was 35 months. The composite event rate was 11.5%. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the 5-year cumulative incidence of composite events was higher in cryptogenic stroke patients with frequent PACs than in those without frequent PACs. Multivariate analysis revealed that current smoking, increased left atrial volume index, and frequent PACs were poor prognostic predictors of composite event, and frequent PACs were an independent poor prognostic factor of new-onset AF in cryptogenic stroke patients. Therefore, frequent PACs might be associated with poor clinical outcomes (new-onset AF and recurrent stroke) in cryptogenic stroke patients with concomitant NSAT.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Complexos Atriais Prematuros/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taquicardia
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105186, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Stroke-related visual impairment and atrial fibrillation are both common following stroke. This study explores whether presence of visual impairment following stroke is associated with presence of atrial fibrillation (AF). SUBJECTS/METHODS: The Impact of Visual Impairment after Stroke (IVIS) study is a multi-centre, acute stroke unit, prospective epidemiology study. Standardised visual assessments included visual acuity, reading, visual fields, eye movements and visual perception. AF and blood pressure (BP) were measured on admission. Further data capture included stroke type, age, gender, stroke severity. Analysis included descriptive statistics, independent samples analysis and multivariate analysis for comparison of AF and visual impairment against covariates. RESULTS: 1500 stroke admissions were recruited of which 1204 stroke survivors had visual assessment. New onset stroke-related visual impairment (n = 703) was significantly associated with older age and stoke severity. AF and BP data were available for 889 stroke survivors. AF was present on admission for 258 stroke survivors and significantly associated with older age, stroke severity and discharge destination. A significant association was found for presence of AF and presence of visual impairment. However, stroke severity was a contributing factor for this association. High systolic BP (>140 mmHg) was present in 62% and high diastolic BP (>90 mmHg) in 29%, but not associated with presence of visual impairment. CONCLUSIONS: AF and visual impairment, independently, occur commonly in stroke. Although our results show an association between AF and visual impairment, this appears to be independently influenced by stroke severity. AF was not associated with type of visual impairment or extent of visual recovery. It remains unknown if AF causes more severe visual impairment.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Visão Ocular , Acuidade Visual
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872667

RESUMO

AIM: In this study we have investigated the problem of cost effective wireless heart health monitoring from a service design perspective. SUBJECT AND METHODS: There is a great medical and economic need to support the diagnosis of a wide range of debilitating and indeed fatal non-communicable diseases, like Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), Atrial Fibrillation (AF), diabetes, and sleep disorders. To address this need, we put forward the idea that the combination of Heart Rate (HR) measurements, Internet of Things (IoT), and advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI), forms a Heart Health Monitoring Service Platform (HHMSP). This service platform can be used for multi-disease monitoring, where a distinct service meets the needs of patients having a specific disease. The service functionality is realized by combining common and distinct modules. This forms the technological basis which facilitates a hybrid diagnosis process where machines and practitioners work cooperatively to improve outcomes for patients. RESULTS: Human checks and balances on independent machine decisions maintain safety and reliability of the diagnosis. Cost efficiency comes from efficient signal processing and replacing manual analysis with AI based machine classification. To show the practicality of the proposed service platform, we have implemented an AF monitoring service. CONCLUSION: Having common modules allows us to harvest the economies of scale. That is an advantage, because the fixed cost for the infrastructure is shared among a large group of customers. Distinct modules define which AI models are used and how the communication with practitioners, caregivers and patients is handled. That makes the proposed HHMSP agile enough to address safety, reliability and functionality needs from healthcare providers.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Frequência Cardíaca , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Monitorização Fisiológica/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Eficiência Organizacional/economia , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Monitorização Ambulatorial/economia , Monitorização Ambulatorial/métodos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
4.
Circ J ; 84(10): 1679-1685, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908073

RESUMO

The health crisis due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked the world, with more than 1 million infections and casualties. COVID-19 can present from mild illness to multi-organ involvement, but especially acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cardiac injury and arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF), are not uncommon in COVID-19. COVID-19 is highly contagious, and therapy against the virus remains premature and largely unknown, which makes the management of AF patients during the pandemic particularly challenging. We describe a possible pathophysiological link between COVID-19 and AF, and therapeutic considerations for AF patients during this pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Risco
5.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 944-950, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921677

RESUMO

Clinical experience with landiolol use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a severely depressed left ventricular (LV) function is limited. We compared the efficacy and safety of landiolol with that of digoxin as an intravenous drug in controlling the heart rate (HR) during AF associated with a very low LV ejection fraction (LVEF).We retrospectively analyzed 53 patients treated with landiolol (n = 34) or digoxin (n = 19) for AF tachycardias with an LVEF ≤ 25. The landiolol dose was adjusted between 0.5 and 10 µg/kg/minute according to the patient's condition. The response to treatment was defined as a decrease in the HR of ≤ 110/minute, and that decreased by ≥ 20% from baseline.There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the clinical characteristics. The responder rate to landiolol at 24 hours was significantly higher than that to digoxin (71.0% versus 41.2%; odds ratio: 4.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.47-31.0, P = 0.048). The percent decrease in the HR from baseline at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours was greater in the landiolol group than in the digoxin group (P < 0.01, P = 0.071, P = 0.036, and P = 0.016, respectively). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline within 24 hours after administering landiolol was significantly reduced, whereas digoxin did not decrease the SBP over time. Hypotension (< 80 mmHg) occurred in two patients in the landiolol group and 0 in the digoxin group (P = 0.53).Landiolol could be more effective in controlling the AF HR than digoxin even in patients with severely depressed LV function. However, careful hemodynamic monitoring is necessary when administering landiolol.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia/etiologia , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21097, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871980

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substantial advances in cardiac pacing technology have been developed in the past decades. However, efforts to improve pacing technology to achieve physiological electrical activity, such as with cardiac resynchronization therapy, are underway. Permanent His bundle pacing, which directly stimulates the His-Purkinje network and electrically activates both ventricles, simulates physiological electric activity in the heart, and has been considered an ideal pacing strategy to treat arrhythmias. For patients with atrial fibrillation complicated by third-degree atrioventricular block (AVB), permanent His bundle pacing is a better option than conventional right ventricular apical or septal pacing, the latter of which may be associated with risks, such as heart failure. However, His bundle pacing exhibits some shortcomings, including elevated pacing threshold, dislocation, and abnormal sensing. CASE PRESENTATION: A 69-year-old female patient who had atrial fibrillation (AF) complicated by third-degree AVB and who was treated with permanent His bundle pacing combined with left bundle branch pacing. DIAGNOSIS: AF complicated by third-degree AVB. INTERVENTIONS: We used the left bundle branch as a backup pacing site to overcome any shortcomings related to permanent His bundle pacing. OUTCOMES: The patient recovered well without any events. CONCLUSION: We selected His bundle pacing as the primary pacing, but also used left bundle branch pacing as a backup approach. If His bundle pacing results in an increased sensing threshold, pacing threshold changes, or dislocations, left bundle branch pacing can compensate for dysfunction of permanent deficiencies in His bundle pacing, preserving physiological pacing.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/complicações , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Fascículo Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos
7.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008086, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966275

RESUMO

Clinical evidence suggests a link between fibrosis in the left atrium (LA) and atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common sustained arrhythmia. Image-derived fibrosis is increasingly used for patient stratification and therapy guidance. However, locations of re-entrant drivers (RDs) sustaining AF are unknown and therapy success rates remain suboptimal. This study used image-derived LA models to explore the dynamics of RD stabilization in fibrotic regions and generate maps of RD locations. LA models with patient-specific geometry and fibrosis distribution were derived from late gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of 6 AF patients. In each model, RDs were initiated at multiple locations, and their trajectories were tracked and overlaid on the LA fibrosis distributions to identify the most likely regions where the RDs stabilized. The simulations showed that the RD dynamics were strongly influenced by the amount and spatial distribution of fibrosis. In patients with fibrosis burden greater than 25%, RDs anchored to specific locations near large fibrotic patches. In patients with fibrosis burden below 25%, RDs either moved near small fibrotic patches or anchored to anatomical features. The patient-specific maps of RD locations showed that areas that harboured the RDs were much smaller than the entire fibrotic areas, indicating potential targets for ablation therapy. Ablating the predicted locations and connecting them to the existing pulmonary vein ablation lesions was the most effective in-silico ablation strategy.


Assuntos
Fibrose , Átrios do Coração/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Biológicos
8.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(4): H873-H881, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857593

RESUMO

Cardiac alternans, defined as beat-to-beat alternations in action potential duration, cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, and cardiac contraction is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and sudden cardiac death. At the cellular level, cardiac alternans is linked to abnormal intracellular calcium handling during excitation-contraction coupling. We investigated how pharmacological activation or inhibition of cytosolic Ca sequestration via mitochondrial Ca uptake and mitochondrial Ca retention affects the occurrence of pacing-induced CaT alternans in isolated rabbit atrial myocytes. Cytosolic CaTs were recorded using Fluo-4 fluorescence microscopy. Alternans was quantified as the alternans ratio (AR = 1 - CaTsmall/CaTlarge, where CaTsmall and CaTlarge are the amplitudes of the small and large CaTs of a pair of alternating CaTs). Inhibition of mitochondrial Ca sequestration via mitochondrial Ca uniporter complex (MCUC) with Ru360 enhanced the severity of CaT alternans (AR increase) and lowered the pacing frequency threshold for alternans. In contrast, stimulation of MCUC mediated mitochondrial Ca uptake with spermine-rescued alternans (AR decrease) and increased the alternans pacing threshold. Direct measurement of mitochondrial [Ca] in membrane permeabilized myocytes with Fluo-4 loaded mitochondria revealed that spermine enhanced and accelerated mitochondrial Ca uptake. Stimulation of mitochondrial Ca retention by preventing mitochondrial Ca efflux through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore with cyclosporin A also protected from alternans and increased the alternans pacing threshold. Pharmacological manipulation of MCUC activity did not affect sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca load. Our results suggest that activation of Ca sequestration by mitochondria protects from CaT alternans and could be a potential therapeutic target for cardiac alternans and AF prevention.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides conclusive evidence that mitochondrial Ca uptake and retention protects from Ca alternans, whereas uptake inhibition enhances Ca alternans. The data suggest pharmacological mitochondrial Ca cycling modulation as a potential therapeutic strategy for alternans-related cardiac arrhythmia prevention.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Canais de Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinalização do Cálcio/efeitos dos fármacos , Átrios do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermina/farmacologia , Potenciais de Ação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Átrios do Coração/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinética , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Coelhos
9.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(7): 416-420, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854515

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation is a common clinical arrhythmia with high morbidity and a risk of stroke. The Cox-maze IV procedure that uses radiofrequency energy for ablation is established as an effective way to eliminate atrial fibrillation. Compared to the Cox-maze IV procedure, the video-assisted Wolf mini-maze procedure is associated with reduced surgical trauma, but still requires bilateral thoracotomies, and the ablation line connecting the right and left pulmonary vein isolations cannot be created with a bipolar ablation clamp. We have developed a novel video-assisted mini-maze technique that uses a unilateral (left chest) thoracoscopic approach (the Mei mini-maze procedure).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Veias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Veias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Cirurgia Torácica Vídeoassistida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105014, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) after stroke is essential to achieve timely initiation of appropriate prophylactic treatment. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of using prehospital continuous ECG (cECG) for AF detection after acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we included AF naïve ischemic stroke patients of 50 years or older. Medical records and corresponding digital prehospital cECGs were systematically reviewed. The proportion of AF detectable by prehospital cECG, in-hospital 12-lead ECG, telemetry and outpatient cECG was determined. McNemar's chi-squared test was used to compare probability of AF on prehospital cECG vs. in-hospital 12-lead ECG. RESULTS: In 500 included patients, a new onset AF was detectable by prehospital cECG in 27 patients (5.4% [95% CI 3.6-7.8]). In-hospital 12-lead ECG detected AF in 28 of 458 patients (6.1% [95% CI 4.1-8.7). Sixty-two (12.4% [95% CI 9.6-15.6]) were diagnosed with new onset AF by either prehospital cECG, in-hospital 12-lead ECG, in-hospital telemetry or outpatient cECG. Thus, 43.5% of all AF cases were detectable during prehospital transport. The probability of AF did not differ between prehospital cECG and in-hospital 12-lead ECG. Nevertheless, a lack in overlapping diagnoses meant number needed to screening with prehospital cECG was 16 for diagnosing one AF case not detected by in-hospital 12-lead ECG. CONCLUSION: Using prehospital cECG as an addition to very early AF evaluation after acute stroke had diagnostic value and could represent a low cost and easily accessible opportunity for very early AF detection. This may improve post-stroke care and save resources for further unnecessary AF screening. Conducting routine prehospital cECG after acute stroke and ensuring this is available to clinicians is encouraged.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Frequência Cardíaca , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Telemetria , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105032, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) has been suggested as a major cause of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Transient atrial mechanical dysfunction (stunning) frequently occurs after conversion of atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. The study aim was to determine if reversible atrial mechanical dysfunction in ESUS could help elucidate the mechanism of stroke. METHODS: Eighty-five consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled according to the following inclusion criteria: [1] ≥55 years old; [2] normal sinus rhythm upon admission; [3] no apparent embolic source; and [4] transthoracic echocardiographic evaluation had been performed in both the early phase (<72 h) and late phase (>7 days) after stroke onset. There were 27 patients in the lacunar or atherothrombotic infarction group (controls), 22 in the PAF group, and 36 in the ESUS group. To determine atrial stunning, transmitral flow velocity profiles (Doppler peak E- [early diastolic] and A- [atrial systolic] waves) were obtained. RESULTS: In the early phase, an E/A velocity ratio ≥ 1.0 was less common in the control group (1 patient, 3.7%) than in the PAF group (19 patients, 86.4%; p < 0.001) and ESUS group (10 patients, 27.8%; p < 0.05). In the late phase, the E/A ratio decreased to less than 1.0 in six patients (31.6%) who had PAF and in eight patients (80.0%) who had ESUS. CONCLUSION: Transient atrial mechanical dysfunction could be a helpful finding for elucidating the stroke mechanism in patients with ESUS, and early echocardiographic assessment could improve its detection.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Frequência Cardíaca , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105066, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The role of atrial fibrillation in cryptogenic stroke (CS) is well known. However, the usefulness of left atrial (LA) electrical and morphological abnormalities to identify more disabling strokes in sinus rhythm patients is less studied. We evaluated the association between electrocardiographic P-wave abnormalities and echocardiographic LA measures with neurological disability in patients with cryptogenic stroke. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort, we included all consecutive hospitalized patients with cryptogenic stroke. Patients were classified according to modified Rankin scale at hospital discharge and at 3 months. LA abnormalities were identified by electrocardiographic (ECG) P-wave, axis and LA enlargement criteria, and by bidimensional echocardiograph through left atrial diameter and volume index. RESULTS: Among the 143 patients with CS (63.4 ± 14.2 years, 53% women), 70 patients were classified as non-disabling stroke (Rankin score < 2) and 73 patients as disabling stroke (Rankin score ≥ 2) at hospital discharge. On echocardiogram, more patients with disabling stroke presented with enlarged LA volume index (48% vs. 25%; p = 0.01). This difference remained significant after adjustment for age, gender, CHA2DS2-VASc and NIHSS scores (p = 0.02) and even when the LA volume index was analyzed as a continuous variable (p = 0.055). Also, enlarged LA volume index was more prevalent (52% vs. 25%; p = 0.03) among those with disabling stroke at 3 months after hospital discharge. Among ECG criteria, only the LA enlargement assessed by downward deflection was more prevalent in disabling stroke. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated an association between left atrial enlargement, assessed by downward deflection from ECG and volume index from echocardiogram, and more disabling cryptogenic strokes. This information could help to identify patients with poorer prognosis, or a subgroup where atrial cardiopathy may play a role in cardioembolic pathway.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Função do Átrio Esquerdo , Remodelamento Atrial , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 104934, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Use of implantable cardiac monitors (ICMs) has increased diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) in cryptogenic stroke (CS) patients. Identifying AF predictors may enhance the yield of AF detection. Recurrent strokes after CS are not well described. We aimed to assess the predictors for AF detection and the characteristics of recurrent strokes in patients after CS. METHODS: We reviewed electronic medical records of CS patients who were admitted between February 2014 and September 2017 and underwent ICM placement with minimum one-year follow-up. Patient demographics, stroke characteristics, pre-defined risk factors as well as recurrent strokes were compared between patients with and without AF detection. RESULTS: 389 patients with median follow-up of 548 days were studied. AF was detected in 102 patients (26.2%). Age (per decade increase, OR 2.10, CI 1.64-2.68, with vs. without AF) and left atrium diameter (per 5 mm increase, OR 1.91, CI 1.33-2.74) were identified as AF predictors. Intracranial large vessel stenosis >50% irrelevant to the index strokes was associated with AF detection within 30 days (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.69, >30 vs. <30 days). Recurrent strokes occurred in 14% patients with median follow-up about 2.5 years. Topography of these strokes resembled embolic pattern and was comparable between patients with and without AF. Among recurrent strokes in patients with AF, the median time to AF detection was much shorter (90 vs. 251 days), and the median time to first stroke recurrence was much longer (422 vs. 76 days) in patients whose strokes recurred after AF detection than those before AF detection. CONCLUSIONS: Older age and enlarged left atrium are predictors for AF detection in CS patients. Intracranial atherosclerosis is more prevalent in patients with early AF detection within 30 days. Recurrent strokes follow the embolic pattern, and early AF detection could delay the stroke recurrence.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Embolia/diagnóstico , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto/instrumentação , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238002, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822402

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the basic imaging technique used to determine the odds of maintaining sinus rhythm (SR) following direct current cardioversion (DCCV) for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). However, most studies are focused on the echocardiographic parameters obtained during SR resulting from successful DCCV. The aim of this study was to assess the value of the echocardiographic parameters measured before DCCV for the prognosis of SR maintenance after DCCV. The study included 146 patients with persistent AF who underwent DCCV. Clinical and echocardiographic data were collected directly before DCCV and, for patients with SR, one month, six months, and 12 months after DCCV. We found that left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF) assessed during atrial fibrillation was significantly larger in the group with SR maintenance after 12 months than in the group with AF recurrence (30.8±8.3 vs. 24.6±10.4%; p<0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis with a model containing echocardiographic parameters, LAEF (OR 1.053; 95% CI 1.011-1.096; p = 0.013) and the E/e'mean ratio (OR 0.883; 95% CI 0.788-0.990; p = 0.033) were independent predictors of SR maintenance. Analyzing a model including clinical and echocardiographic variables, only LAEF (OR 1.046; 95% CI 1-1.095; p = 0.049) and beta-blockers used before DCCV (OR 14.694; 95% CI 1.622-133.139; p = 0.017) were independent predictors of SR maintenance after 12 months. Our results indicate that LAEF measured during AF is a significant predictor of SR maintenance in the 12 months following DCCV due to persistent AF. Our findings confirm the recently raised hypothesis about the superiority of echocardiographic parameters assessing mechanical remodeling over parameters assessing structural remodeling of left atrium in predicting sinus rhythm maintenance after electrical cardioversion.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Cardioversão Elétrica/métodos , Átrios do Coração/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Recidiva , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236413, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although a number of modifiable and non-modifiable causes were implicated in arterial stiffness, its pathogenesis remains elusive, and very little is known about aortic elasticity in supraventricular arrhythmias. The potential role of disturbed kynurenine metabolism in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease has been recently suggested. Thus, we studied the correlations of aortic stiffness and echocardiographic parameters with biochemical markers and serum level of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endothelial derivative of tryptophan, formed along the kynurenine pathway, among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Study cohort comprised 100 patients with persistent AF (43 females/57 males). Arterial stiffness index (ASI), structural and functional indices of left atrium (LA) and left ventricle (LV) were evaluated electrocardiographically. Biochemical analyses included the measurements of serum KYNA (HPLC) and of the selected markers of lipids and glucose metabolism, thyroid status, kidney function, inflammation and coagulation. RESULTS: KYNA (ß = 0.389, P = 0.029), homocysteine (ß = 0.256, P = 0.40), total cholesterol (ß = 0.814; P = 0.044), LDL (ß = 0.663; P = 0.44), TSH (ß = 0.262, P = 0.02), fT3 (ß = -0.333, P = 0.009), fT4 (ß = -0.275, P = 0.043) and creatinine (ß = 0.374, P = 0.043) were independently correlated with ASI. ASI was also independently associated with LV end-systolic diameter (LVEDd; ß = 1.751, P = 0.045), midwall fractional shortening (mFS; ß = -1.266, P = 0.007), ratio mFS/end-systolic stress (mFS/ESS; ß = -0.235, P = 0.026), LV shortening fraction (FS; ß = -0.254, P = 0.017), and LA volume index (LAVI; ß = 0.944, P = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AF, aortic stiffness correlated positively with KYNA, biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and with the indices of diastolic dysfunction of LV and LA. Revealed relationship between ASI and KYNA is an original observation, suggesting a potential role of disturbed kynurenine metabolism in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffening. KYNA, synthesis of which is influenced by homocysteine, emerges as a novel, non-classical factor associated with ASI in patients with AF.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácido Cinurênico/sangue , Adulto , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/patologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/metabolismo , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Cinurenina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia
16.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 551-563, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753124

RESUMO

Obesity is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation. It also influences the natural history of the disease, leading to more persistent forms and poorer ablation outcomes. This article reviews atrial fibrillation ablation in the obese population, focusing on outcomes, complications and periprocedural management. Through an analysis of the possible pathophysiological mechanism linking obesity and atrial fibrillation, we identify potential strategies to improve post-ablation outcomes in this challenging population.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso
17.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 25(6): 564-569, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and is frequently present in patients with mitral regurgitation (MR). Currently, there is a lack of real-world evidence specifically addressing the clinical performance of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in patients with AF and concomitant MR. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety profile of DOACs therapy in patients with AF and MR. METHODS: Data for this study were sourced from the Atrial Fibrillation Research Database in the Department of Cardiology at Monaldi Hospital. The database was queried for AF patients with MR who were prescribed DOACs therapy. The primary safety outcome was defined as the annual incidence rate of major bleeding events and the primary effectiveness outcome as the annual incidence rate of all events classified as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attacks, and systemic embolisms. RESULTS: Consecutive AF patients with concomitant mild to severe MR who received DOACs therapy (n = 259) were included. Patients were dichotomized in 2 groups according to MR severity: a mild-to-moderate group (MR 1-2+; n = 151) and a moderate-to-severe group (MR 3-4+; n = 108). The incidence rate of major bleedings was significantly higher in MR 3-4+ group (3.92%) compared with the MR 1-2+ group (1.18%; hazard ratio [HR]: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4-7.3; P = .0059). The incidence rate of thromboembolic events between MR 3-4+ group (0.66%) and MR 1-2+ group (0.62%) was not significantly different (HR: 0.75; P = .823). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, there was no difference in the efficacy profile of DOACs between AF patients with mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe MR. Considering the increased bleeding risk, a close and careful follow-up should be warranted for patients with moderate-to-severe MR.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(10): 642-651, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32712202

RESUMO

Major thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation, secondary to thromboembolism from the left atrium or the left atrial appendage, are a major concern because of their burden of disabling stroke and mortality. To date, non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are considered the first-line strategy in most patients with atrial fibrillation receiving chronic anticoagulation, as they have major advantages compared with vitamin K antagonists, including minimization of intracranial bleeding risk. Although several studies and post-hoc analyses have provided initial data on the use of NOACs in patients with documented atrial and/or left atrial appendage thrombosis, the benefit of NOACs in these patients has not been fully elucidated. In this review, we reappraise current evidence supporting the use of NOACs in patients with established atrial and/or left atrial appendage thrombosis, discussing potential mechanisms favouring the use of a NOAC-based strategy in this special setting.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/fisiopatologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA