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1.
N Engl J Med ; 381(12): 1103-1113, 2019 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are limited data from randomized trials evaluating the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. METHODS: In a multicenter, open-label trial conducted in Japan, we randomly assigned 2236 patients with atrial fibrillation who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) more than 1 year earlier or who had angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease not requiring revascularization to receive monotherapy with rivaroxaban (a non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant) or combination therapy with rivaroxaban plus a single antiplatelet agent. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, unstable angina requiring revascularization, or death from any cause; this end point was analyzed for noninferiority with a noninferiority margin of 1.46. The primary safety end point was major bleeding, according to the criteria of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis; this end point was analyzed for superiority. RESULTS: The trial was stopped early because of increased mortality in the combination-therapy group. Rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy for the primary efficacy end point, with event rates of 4.14% and 5.75% per patient-year, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Rivaroxaban monotherapy was superior to combination therapy for the primary safety end point, with event rates of 1.62% and 2.76% per patient-year, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.89; P = 0.01 for superiority). CONCLUSIONS: As antithrombotic therapy, rivaroxaban monotherapy was noninferior to combination therapy for efficacy and superior for safety in patients with atrial fibrillation and stable coronary artery disease. (Funded by the Japan Cardiovascular Research Foundation; AFIRE UMIN Clinical Trials Registry number, UMIN000016612; and ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02642419.).


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos
2.
Med Clin North Am ; 103(5): 847-862, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378330

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulation significantly reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and the decision to initiate therapy is based on assessing the patient's yearly risk of stroke. Although warfarin remains the drug of choice in patients with AF and artificial mechanical valves, the novel anticoagulation agents are becoming the drug of choice for all other patients with AF, because of their efficacy, safety, and ease of use. This article summarizes the current evidence for stroke prevention in AF, including valvular AF, subclinical AF, AF in patients with renal insufficiency, as well as stroke prevention around AF cardioversion.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/efeitos adversos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 768-772, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438028

RESUMO

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of computerized guideline-oriented clinical decision support system (CDSS) on antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were queried. Four studies were included in this meta-analysis. The proportion of appropriate antithrombotic therapy in accordance with clinical guidelines was significantly higher in the CDSS group than in the control group (risk ratio (RR): 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 to 1.04, P = 0.004). Although the incidence of thromboembolic events was similar between the two groups (RR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.42, P = 0.357), the incidence of major bleeding tended to be lower in the CDSS group compared with the control group (RR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.61 to 1.01, P = 0.063). Computerized guideline-oriented CDSS may be effective for appropriate antithrombotic therapy as compared with control in patients with atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16194, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is increasingly prevalent in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in AF and CKD patients remains unknown. This systematic review and meta-analysis will mainly assess net clinical benefit (NCB) property of NOACs versus warfarin in patients with AF and CKD by a pooled-analysis. METHODS: We will search Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Clinical Trials.gov Website comprehensively for eligible randomized controlled trials that report the efficacy and safety outcomes according to renal function of NOACs. Relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals will be calculated using fixed- and random-effects models. Subgroup, sensitivity, and regression analyses will be performed to evaluate intertrial heterogeneity and bias of the results. NCB that balance stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleeding will be calculated using Singer's method. RESULTS: This systemic review and meta-analysis will evaluate the NCB of NOACs versus warfarin via SSE, major bleeding and all-cause death in patients with CKD. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide new evidence for clinical profile of NOACs on SSE, major bleeding, all-cause death, and NCB in CKD patients. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019116940.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Projetos de Pesquisa , Varfarina/efeitos adversos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(9): 2363-2375, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281110

RESUMO

The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac arrhythmia, increases with age, predisposing elderly patients to an increased risk of embolic stroke. With an increasingly aged population the number of people who experience a stroke every year, overall global burden of stroke, and numbers of stroke survivors and related deaths continue to increase. Anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) reduces the risk of ischemic stroke in patients with AF; however, increased bleeding risk is well documented, particularly in the elderly. Consequently, VKAs have been underused in the elderly. Alternative anticoagulants may offer a safer choice, particularly in patients who have experienced previous stroke. The aim of this narrative review is to examine available evidence for the effective treatment of patients with AF and previous cerebral vascular events with non-VKA oral anticoagulants, including the most appropriate time to start or reinitiate treatment after a stroke, systemic embolism, or clinically relevant bleed. For patients with AF treated with oral anticoagulants it is important to balance increased protection against future stroke/systemic embolism and reduced risk of major bleeding events. For patients with AF who have previously experienced a cerebrovascular event, the use of oral anticoagulants alone also appears more effective than low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) alone or LMWH followed by oral anticoagulants. Available data suggest that significant reduction in stroke, symptomatic cerebral bleeding, and major extracranial bleeding within 90 days from acute stroke can be achieved if oral anticoagulation is initiated at 4-14 days from stroke onset.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Esquema de Medicação , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (7): 52-57, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare incidence of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing elective surgery on different schemes of perioperative anticoagulant therapy (ACT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 86 patients (56 (65.1%) men and 30 (34.9%) women, mean age was 69 (64; 78) years) with non-valvular AF who underwent elective interventions. Forty (46.5%) patients underwent abdominal surgery, 34 (39.5%) - cardiovascular procedures, 12 (14.0%) patients underwent surgery for malignant diseases. We have analyzed incidence of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events and compliance of perioperative ACT modes with current international guidelines. RESULTS: Thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events developed in 14 (16.3%) patients. Thromboembolic complications were noted in 6 (7.0%) patients, hemorrhagic events - in 8 (9.3%) cases. Maximum complication rate was observed in case of bridge-therapy (n=12, 20.0%). Cancellation of ACT was followed by 2 (9.5%) complications, bridge-therapy - by 4 (6.7%) thromboembolic complications. Hemorrhagic events were 2 times more common in case of this therapy (n=8, 13.3%). It was found that ESC guidelines for perioperative ACT were applied in less than half of patients (41, 47.7% patients with AF undergoing elective surgery). Half of complications (8 out of 16) occurred if unapproved modes of ACT were used (including 7 cases of bridge-therapy was not necessary). The causes of these complications were inadequate assessment of perioperative risk of thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events; unreasonable administration of bridge therapy. CONCLUSION: An unambiguous clinical effect of bridge therapy has not been confirmed in patients with high risk of thromboembolic complications. Cancer patients have higher risk of complications compared with others. These events occur mainly due to non-compliance with clinical guidelines and insufficient prevention of thromboembolic events.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tromboembolia/etiologia
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2379-2389, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359667

RESUMO

To evaluate the efficiency and safety between Wenxin Granule and antiarrhythmic drugs in the treatment of atrial fibrillation(AF). A total of 8 major electronic databases(CNKI, WanFang, VIP, CBM, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed, EMbase) were retrieved since the establishment of the database to January 10, 2019. Two reviewers extracted data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. The Meta-analysis was made by RevMan 5.3 software. Finally, 42 studies involving 4 657 patients were included. The results of Meta-analysis showed that compared with antiarrhythmic drug, the combined administration with Wenxin Granule and antiarrhythmic drug had a better clinical efficiency(OR=3.37, 95%CI[2.69,4.22],I~2=0%,P<0.000 01)and efficacy on cardioversion(OR=2.32,95%CI[1.67,3.22],I~2=0%,P<0.000 01), with reduction in P_d(MD=-5.48,95%CI [-7.32,-3.64],I~2=0%,P<0.000 01)and P_(max)(MD=-9.91,95%CI[-12.86,-6.95],I~2=0%,P<0.000 01). The comparison between the combined application with Wenxin Granule and the single application of amiodarone showed a clinical efficiency(OR=2.89,95%CI[1.96,4.26],I~2=44%,P<0.000 01),and efficacy on sinus rhythm maintenance(OR=2.58,95%CI[1.82,3.66],I~2=3%,P<0.000 01). The comparison between the combined application with Wenxin Granule and the single application of amiodarone showed a clinical efficiency(OR=0.88,95%CI[0.53,1.46],I~2=0%,P=0.63). The combined treatment with Wenxin Granule has a better clinical efficiency in AF better than amiodarone, with no evidence for more benefits from the single administration with Wenxin Granules.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/farmacologia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Terapia Combinada , Cardioversão Elétrica , Humanos
11.
Kardiologiia ; 59(6): 60-69, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242842

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a powerful cardiovascular risk factor, its presence is accompanied by an increased risk of hospitalization for exacerbation of chronic heart failure (CHF), adverse outcomes in myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Among the adverse events, an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) should be noted. This article contains discussion of current approaches to the treatment of AF in patients with different stages of CKD, data on benefits of certain direct oral anticoagulants, as well as comparative characteristics of therapy with direct oral anticoagulants and warfarin. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of direct oral anticoagulants, which determine the features of therapy in CKD, are also considered.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana , Humanos , Piridonas
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15892, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169698

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia disease that can cause thromboembolic disease and/or heart failure, resulting in increased mortality. Propafenone, amiodarone, and flecainide are recommended for converting AF to sinus rhythm. Beta blockers, verapamil, diltiazem, and digoxin are recommended for controlling AF with fast ventricular rate (VR). In this case report, we found that verapamil successfully converted AF into sinus rhythm. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 92-year-old woman presented with fast VR AF with a history of coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. DIAGNOSES: Verapamil can successfully convert AF into sinus rhythm. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The patient was treated with amiodarone or propafenone, yet still had AF. After stopping amiodarone and propafenone, the patient was given verapamil to control the VR, and following 9 days of treatment the patient switched to sinus rhythm. When verapamil treatment was stopped, the patient experienced AF recurrence. Upon receiving verapamil again, the AF again converted into sinus rhythm. LESSONS: For the treatment of AF, nondihydropyridine calcium antagonists can be tried in the absence of antiarrhythmic drugs.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Verapamil/uso terapêutico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Propafenona/uso terapêutico
13.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 70(1)2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172970

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a commonly occurring arrhythmia which significantly reduces patients' quality of life and substantially shortens life expectancy. Although long chain fatty acids (LCFAs) are the basic energy substrates for myocardial metabolism, their excess can result in lipotoxicity, which increases the risk of arrhythmia. Intracellularly, LCFAs are bound by fatty acid biding proteins (FABPs) and this results in low level of free LCFAs in the cytoplasm. Based on this principle, FABPs are considered "safeguards" against overwhelming accumulation of esterified into different bioactive lipid fractions (e.g. ceramide, diacylglycerols) LCFAs. So far, several FABPs have been discovered in humans. Currently, in relation to cardiovascular diseases heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) play significant roles. Nowadays, A-FABP is of great interest for research related with obesity, diabetes and coexisting disorders including cardiovascular diseases. Concomitantly, H-FABP is already well-established marker in the early diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Moreover, FABPs were assigned as a potential biomarker of AF in patients with de novo diagnosed arrhythmia, chronic heart failure (CHF), and in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Another group of studies where the concentrations of plasma FABPs were analyzed are patients subjected to electrical cardioversion (ECV) and radio-catheter ablation therapy (RFA). It is worth mentioning that, in addition to traditional anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) or ECV, ablation techniques are used with good effects. Even though the treatment of arrhythmias is constantly developing, the maintenance of the sinus rhythm (SR) is still a serious problem. Therefore, it is worth looking for a biomarker which is suitable for the patient's treatment qualifications as well as assessing its effectiveness. Thus, the aim of this work is to present current data on the clinical significance of FABPs in terms of the development and treatment of AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ablação por Cateter , Cardioversão Elétrica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Humanos , Miocárdio/metabolismo
14.
Sr Care Pharm ; 34(3): 192-205, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) prescribed to elderly patients in an outpatient setting, specifically evaluating if Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -approved dosing recommendations are followed.
DESIGN: This study was a retrospective quality improvement project.
SETTING: This study was conducted at geriatric hospital-based primary care clinics at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), UPMC Senior Care Institute and UPMC Benedum Geriatric Center.
PATIENTS: Subjects included were 65 years of age or older; had an office visit at UPMC Senior Care Institute or UPMC Benedum Geriatric Center from September 1, 2015, to August 31, 2017; and had a DOAC on their home medications.
INTERVENTIONS: Data were obtained through retrospective chart review.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the appropriateness of dosing of DOACs based on FDA-labeled recommendations.
RESULTS: Of 232 patients included in analysis, 42.7% were found to have dosing inconsistent with FDAlabeled recommendations (47.3% apixaban, 35.8% rivaroxaban, and 31.6% dabigatran). No patients were prescribed edoxaban. The majority (72.7%) were dosed lower than FDA-recommended doses. Of all patients, the most frequent parameter (54.5%) for inappropriate dosing was patients meeting only 1 of 3 dose-reduction criteria when prescribed reduced-dose apixaban. Geriatrician and nongeriatrician prescribers had similar rates of prescribing DOACs with doses inconsistent with FDA-labeled recommendations (44.0% vs. 40.8%; P = 0.62).
CONCLUSION: Results suggest that DOACs used in outpatient geriatric patients are frequently dosed inconsistent with FDA-approved dosing recommendations. Further research is needed regarding clinical outcomes in older patients receiving DOACs and in those with dose adjustments inconsistent with FDA-labeled recommendations.
.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial , Administração Oral , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
15.
Kardiologiia ; 59(5): 68-79, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131771

RESUMO

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) - direct oral anticoagulants - are getting the ever-broadening use in clinical practice. However, many problems related to optimal use of NOACs in specific clinical situations remain unresolved. European Heart Rhythm Association in April 2018 issued the renovated recommendations on the use of NOACs in patients with atrial fibrillation. The authors of recommendations presented some specific clinical variants for which they formulated practical advices based on the evidence obtained in randomized clinical trials. They also outlined the indications for use of NOACs, formulated practical start-program and scheme of subsequent follow-up management of patients taking NOACs. Recommendations contain information on pharmacokinetics of NOACs and their interactions with other drugs, consideration of feasibility of NOACs use in patients with chronic renal insufficiency or advanced liver disease. Many other practical problems are covered as well.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
16.
Kardiologiia ; 59(5): 80-86, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131772

RESUMO

The review is devoted to the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD). We discuss data of international registries, meta-analyses assessing possibilities of the use of oral anticoagulants for secondary prevention of IHD. We present here results of randomized and observational clinical studies demonstrating advantages of prescription of monotherapy with oral anticoagulants (OAC) in combination of AF and chronic IHD. Modern evidence base of advantages of dual antithrombotic therapy with the use of direct OAC following percutaneous coronary intervention is also presented.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Isquemia Miocárdica , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Sistema de Registros
17.
Int J Lab Hematol ; 41 Suppl 1: 40-48, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069986

RESUMO

Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) cannot be administered without regular monitoring in order to assure their efficacy and safety. Indeed, if well managed, the VKAs appear to be no less efficacious or safe than the newer direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Although it is claimed that no regular monitoring of the DOACs is needed, their levels are increasingly being measured under a variety of circumstances, for example, prior to surgery, in suspected overdose, to confirm effective reversal, in patients with malabsorption and to assess patient compliance. Although no therapeutic range has been identified for the DOACs, it has been demonstrated for dabigatran and edoxaban that their antithrombotic effect increases gradually with increasing concentrations and that the risk of major bleeding also gradually increases. Furthermore, it has been determined that almost all dabigatran-related thrombotic events occur in patients with the lowest quartile concentration of the drug. This suggests that to assure an ideal effect of DOACs in all patients taking them, some form of regular monitoring and dose tailoring should be performed. For the vitamin K antagonists, the best outcome is obtained using formal algorithms and centralized management. Furthermore, data suggest that replacing the standard prothrombin time as a monitoring test may increase the stability of VKA anticoagulation with consequent reduction in thromboembolism without an increase in bleeding. Thus, it is likely that the outcome of all current oral anticoagulants can be improved in the coming years by improving monitoring and tailoring their effect.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fibrilação Atrial , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Hemorragia , Tromboembolia Venosa , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/sangue , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/sangue , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(6): 449-458, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120800

RESUMO

Introduction: The inclusion of pharmacogenetics alongside clinical information in anticoagulant therapy offers the opportunity for a tailored approach to treatment according to individual patient characteristics. Areas covered: Literature was searched using PubMed database, focusing on pharmacogenetics of oral anticoagulants. Original research articles and review articles in English language were included in the literature reviewed. This article includes all information available for the genetic cause of inter-individual variability in anticoagulation response to oral anticoagulant drugs. The pharmacogenetics of VKAs and NOACs are described in detail. Expert opinion: There have been numerous studies focusing on the pharmacogenetics of VKAs, particularly warfarin. Current evidence suggests that known genetic and clinical factors explain a large proportion of the inter-individual variability in response to warfarin. Pharmacogenetic-based algorithms have been validated to determine their clinical utility with equivocal results. To date, only a limited number of mostly small studies on the pharmacogenetics of NOACs exists. The latter have highlighted genetic polymorphisms in specific genes that may affect clinical outcomes. Further evaluations of these polymorphisms are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about the significance of pharmacogenetics on NOAC therapy.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacogenética , Administração Oral , Algoritmos , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/administração & dosagem
19.
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther ; 17(6): 427-434, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31100208

RESUMO

Introduction: This article aims to compare medication adherence and persistence between warfarin and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and identify reported adherence barriers. As with other chronic illness, medication nonadherence continues to be a problem and appropriate adherence to long-term anticoagulation therapy is needed to improve patient health outcomes and to reduce health expenditure associated with hospitalizations and emergency visits. Areas covered: Warfarin and DOACs such as apixaban, rivaroxaban, edoxaban, and dabigatran have demonstrated effectiveness in the management of atrial fibrillation (AF), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE). Adherence and long-term persistence to oral anticoagulants is highly associated with reduced adverse events. A systematic literature search from 2013 to 2018 examined the primary outcome of adherence and persistence. Expert opinion: Currently, warfarin is less preferred over DOACs due to associated complications like narrow therapeutic window, inconvenience, and increased risk of adverse events. At the same time, the lack of monitoring with DOACs in combination with cost issues may negatively impact medication adherence. Examining adherence barriers identified in the literature is the first step to designing effective interventions aimed at enhancing adherence in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Adesão à Medicação , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização , Humanos , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose Venosa/tratamento farmacológico
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