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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(8. Vyp. 2): 5-9, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The timely diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with cardiac embolism with implantable loop recorders (ILR). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-nine patients, hospitalized within 6 months after stroke (n=19) or transient ischemic attack (n=10), were included in the study. ILR were implanted in all cases. The mean time of follow-up was one year. RESULTS: Five hundred and thirteen transmissions were detected during the whole follow-up period. Symptomatic episodes were recorded in 165 cases. Such episodes as bradycardia, asystole, AF, atrial tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia were recorded in 98 cases out of 348 planned transmissions. All transmissions were analyzed by an operator. However, 70 cases were false-positive because of ILR over-sensing. In total, arrhythmias were detected in 5 patients, including sick sinus syndrome (1), supraventricular tachycardia (1), ventricular tachycardia (1) and atrial fibrillation (3). Anticoagulant therapy was started immediately after the diagnosis of AF. CONCLUSION: Loop recording monitoring is an effective strategy in patients with cardiac embolism for timely diagnosis and further treatment of arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
2.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1062-1066, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have overtaken warfarin as the preferred anticoagulants for stroke prevention with atrial fibrillation and for treatment of venous thromboembolism. Despite the increased prevalence of DOACs, literature studying their impact on trauma patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) remains limited. Most DOAC reversal agents have only been recently available, and concerns for worse outcomes with DOACs among this population remain. This study aims to assess the outcomes of patients with traumatic ICH taking DOACs compared with those taking warfarin. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with traumatic ICH over a 5-year period was conducted. Demographics, injury severity, medication, and outcome data were collected for each patient. Patients taking warfarin and DOACs were compared. RESULTS: 736 patients had traumatic ICH over the study period, 75 of which were on either DOACs (25 patients) or warfarin (50 patients). The median age of the anticoagulated patients was 78 years; 52% were female, and 91% presented secondary to a fall. DOACs were reversed at close to half the rate of warfarin (40% vs 77%; P = .032). Despite this, the 2 groups had similar rates of worsening examination, need for operative intervention, and in-hospital mortality. In the follow-up, fewer patients taking DOACs had died at 6-months postinjury compared with those taking warfarin (8% vs 30%; P = .041). DISCUSSION: Despite DOACs being reversed at nearly half the rate of warfarin, patients presenting with traumatic ICH on warfarin had higher 6-month mortality suggesting a potential survival advantage for DOACs over warfarin in this population.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/sangue , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/mortalidade , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 905-912, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921660

RESUMO

There is little data on management and outcomes of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) undergoing general surgery.We retrospectively assessed 98 surgeries in 85 nonvalvular AF patients aged 73 ± 8 (59 men) receiving DOACs. Cardiac, emergency, and minimally invasive surgeries were excluded.The CHA2DS2-VASc score ranged from 0 to 8. The DOACs being given were: dabigatran, 16; rivaroxaban, 25; apixaban, 28; and edoxaban, 16. While the DOACs were not suspended in 11 cases, they were interrupted for a median of 2.0 days before surgery and restarted at a median of 3.0 days after surgery. There were 9 complications (9.2%), 3 instances of thromboembolism and 6 bleeding. Thromboembolism occurred at a mean of 3.0 postoperative days, all of which occurred before resumption of DOACs, while bleeding events occurred at a mean of 4.0 postoperative days. Two of the 3 patients with thromboembolism went into cardiopulmonary arrest during the event, but were resuscitated. There were significantly more patients with congestive heart failure or combined antiplatelets in the patients with complications. The complication group had a significantly higher HAS-BLED score and lower preoperative hemoglobin level. There were no significant differences in the management of DOAC interruption between those with complications and without.The perioperative complication rate in nonvalvular AF patients undergoing elective surgery treating with DOACs was 9.2%. Patients with congestive heart failure, receiving combined therapy with antiplatelets, a higher HAS-BLED score, or lower preoperative hemoglobin level were at higher risk. Further studies evaluating the ideal perioperative DOAC protocol are warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/epidemiologia , Infarto Cerebral/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/estatística & dados numéricos , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Embolia/epidemiologia , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares
4.
Int Heart J ; 61(5): 944-950, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921677

RESUMO

Clinical experience with landiolol use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and a severely depressed left ventricular (LV) function is limited. We compared the efficacy and safety of landiolol with that of digoxin as an intravenous drug in controlling the heart rate (HR) during AF associated with a very low LV ejection fraction (LVEF).We retrospectively analyzed 53 patients treated with landiolol (n = 34) or digoxin (n = 19) for AF tachycardias with an LVEF ≤ 25. The landiolol dose was adjusted between 0.5 and 10 µg/kg/minute according to the patient's condition. The response to treatment was defined as a decrease in the HR of ≤ 110/minute, and that decreased by ≥ 20% from baseline.There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the clinical characteristics. The responder rate to landiolol at 24 hours was significantly higher than that to digoxin (71.0% versus 41.2%; odds ratio: 4.65, 95% confidence interval: 1.47-31.0, P = 0.048). The percent decrease in the HR from baseline at 1, 2, 12, and 24 hours was greater in the landiolol group than in the digoxin group (P < 0.01, P = 0.071, P = 0.036, and P = 0.016, respectively). The systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline within 24 hours after administering landiolol was significantly reduced, whereas digoxin did not decrease the SBP over time. Hypotension (< 80 mmHg) occurred in two patients in the landiolol group and 0 in the digoxin group (P = 0.53).Landiolol could be more effective in controlling the AF HR than digoxin even in patients with severely depressed LV function. However, careful hemodynamic monitoring is necessary when administering landiolol.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia/tratamento farmacológico , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Volume Sistólico , Taquicardia/etiologia , Taquicardia/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureia/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações
5.
Circ J ; 84(10): 1679-1685, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908073

RESUMO

The health crisis due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked the world, with more than 1 million infections and casualties. COVID-19 can present from mild illness to multi-organ involvement, but especially acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cardiac injury and arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF), are not uncommon in COVID-19. COVID-19 is highly contagious, and therapy against the virus remains premature and largely unknown, which makes the management of AF patients during the pandemic particularly challenging. We describe a possible pathophysiological link between COVID-19 and AF, and therapeutic considerations for AF patients during this pandemic.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Interações Medicamentosas , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Risco
6.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 42(4): 562-565, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895112

RESUMO

Oral anticoagulants play an important role in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases.Warfarin,a traditional oral anticoagulant,is limited in clinical use due to its limitations such as narrow therapeutic window and requirements on frequent monitoring and dose adjustment.Direct oral anticoagulants(DOACs)such as dabigatran,rivaroxaban,apixaban,and edoxaban are increasingly used to prevent and treat venous thrombosis or thrombus formation.However,recent studies have documented inter-individual variability in plasma drug levels of DOACs.This article summarizes the recent advances in the pharmacogenomics of DOACs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial , Farmacogenética , Administração Oral , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana , Rivaroxabana
7.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(9): 741-749, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882758

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are widely used in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) because of their effectiveness in preventing stroke and their better safety, compared with warfarin. However, there are concerns for an increased risk of bleeding associated with concomitant use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) with NOACs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the risk of bleeding events in individuals taking concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs with NOACs after being diagnosed with AF. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A nested case-control analysis to assess the safety of NSAIDs and SSRIs among NOAC users with AF was performed using data from Korean National Health Insurance Service from January 2012 to December 2017. Among patients who were newly prescribed NOACs, 1233 cases hospitalized for bleeding events were selected, and 24660 controls were determined. RESULTS: The risk of bleeding events was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.61] or SSRIs (aOR 1.92; 95% CI 1.52-2.42) with NOACs, compared to no use of either drug, respectively. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was higher in patients receiving concomitant NSAIDs or SSRIs without proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) (NSAIDs: aOR 2.47; 95% CI 1.26-4.83, SSRI: aOR 10.8; 95% CI 2.41-2.48) compared to no use. CONCLUSION: When NSAIDs or SSRIs are required for NOAC users with AF, physicians need to monitor bleeding events and consider the use of PPIs, especially for combined use of both drugs or when initiating NOACs treatment.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Varfarina/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/complicações , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
8.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(9): 728-734, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957754

RESUMO

Objective: We aimed to explore the impact of digoxin use on outcomes in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: We used the dataset from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry, a prospective, multicenter, hospital-based registry study. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 472 eligible patients enrolled from August 2011 to December 2016 were included in this ancillary study. The patients were classified into three groups according to the status of digoxin use at study enrollment, patients already receiving digoxin before registry were represented as continuous group, patients initiated on digoxin for the first time were represented as newly group, and patients without digoxin prescription at enrollment were represented as control group. Patients were followed by telephone or outpatient service every 6 months. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association of digoxin use with adverse outcomes (all-cause death, cardiovascular death and cardiovascular hospitalization). Results: In the overall study population, men accounted for 42.8%, and the average age was (66.9±11.8) years. There were 777(7.42%)patients in continuous group, 375 (3.58%) patients in newly group, and 9 320 (89.00%) patients in control group. Compared with the control group, the patients in the newly group and the continuous group were older, had faster heart rate, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate, higher proportion of persistent atrial fibrillation, heart failure, renal insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, vascular disease and bleeding history. At the same time, the patients in the newly group and the continuous group were treated more often with anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-receptor blockers while the proportion of antiarrhythmic drugs was lower as compared to control group (P<0.05). During a median follow-up of 36 months (interquartile range: 18-48 month), risk of all-cause mortality was significantly higher in newly group compared to control group (7.3% vs. 4.7%, P<0.05), the rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death and cardiovascular hospitalization were all higher in continuous group than in control group (8.0% vs. 4.7%; 4.7% vs. 3.0%; 16.7% vs. 11.8%; P all<0.05). After adjustment for age, male, body mass index, blood pressure, heart rate, renal function, AF type, history of stroke, heart failure, diabetes, coronary artery disease and other drugs treatment, the association between newly group and adverse outcomes was not significant, however, digoxin use was associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.26; 95%CI 1.04-1.56; P=0.019), cardiovascular death (HR 1.38; 95%CI 1.08-1.77, P =0.01), and cardiovascular hospitalization (HR 1.10; 95%CI 1.06-1.52, P=0.02) in continuous group. Conclusion: Continuous digoxin use is associated with a significant increase in adverse outcomes among Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Digoxina , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22367, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shen-Song-Yang-Xin Capsule (SSYX), a Chinese patent medicine, combined with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) in the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) has been widely applied in clinical practice, but the results are controversial. This study aims to conduct a network meta-analysis (NMA) based on data from the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SSYX combined with ADDs in the treatment of AF. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive systematic literature search will be conducted in Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang database for RCTs about SSYX combined with ADDs. The primary outcomes will be the frequency of AF attack and P-wave dispersion, and the secondary outcomes will be the symptom improvements, left atrial diameter, and adverse events. Statistical analyses will be conducted by using WinBUGS software (version 1.4.3), Stata software (version 14.0) and RevMan software (version 5.3). RESULTS: The results of this NMA will provide a high-quality evidence for the efficacy of SSYX combined with ADDs in the treatment of AF, and a ranking of the therapeutic classes will also be presented. CONCLUSION: The protocol will provide updated evidence for the application of SSYX for AF. INTERNATIONAL PLATFORM OF REGISTERED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS PROTOCOLS (INPLASY) REGISTRATION NUMBER:: The protocol of this systematic review and meta-analysis was registered on the INPLASY website (https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2020-8-0075/) and INPLASY registration number is INPLASY202080075.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22368, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high recurrence rate of atrial fibrillation (AF) after recovering sinus rhythm has always been a clinical problem. Despite the established and widespread use of antiarrhythmic drugs, which one is better for maintaining sinus rhythm is still controversial. This study aims to summarize the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of amiodarone combined with beta blockers to maintain sinus rhythm in AF, and to determine an effective and safe intervention for the prevention of AF recurrence through network meta-analysis (NMA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive search of the RCTs comparing amiodarone with different beta-blockers to maintain sinus rhythm of AF patients will be conducted from the inception to December 2019 in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (SinoMed), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang database. The primary outcomes will be the recurrence of AF and frequency of embolization complications. The secondary outcomes will be the symptom improvements and adverse events. Risk of bias assessment of the included RCTs will be conducted according to the Cochrane collaboration's risk of bias tool. Pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian network meta-analyses will be performed for all related outcome measures. GRADE will be used to evaluate the quality of evidence. RESULTS: The results of this NMA will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: This NMA may provide more recommendations for patients and researchers, such as which treatment is better for a particular case of AF, and what may be the hotspots for the future studies. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: The protocol for this NMA has been registered on PROSPERO under the number CRD42020164438.


Assuntos
Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
11.
JAMA ; 324(9): 871-878, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870297

RESUMO

Importance: Outcomes of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery are not well defined. Objective: To determine the association of new-onset postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery with risk of nonfatal and fatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, involving 550 patients who had their first-ever documented AF within 30 days after undergoing a noncardiac surgery (postoperative AF) between 2000 and 2013. Of these patients, 452 were matched 1:1 on age, sex, year of surgery, and type of surgery to patients with noncardiac surgery who were not diagnosed with AF within 30 days following the surgery (no AF). The last date of follow-up was December 31, 2018. Exposures: Postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Secondary outcomes included subsequent documented AF, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Results: The median age of the 452 matched patients was 75 years (IQR, 67-82 years) and 51.8% of patients were men. Patients with postoperative AF had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores than those in the no AF group (median, 4 [IQR, 2-5] vs 3 [IQR, 2-5]; P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.4 years (IQR, 1.4-9.2 years), there were 71 ischemic strokes or TIAs, 266 subsequent documented AF episodes, and 571 deaths, of which 172 were cardiovascular related. Patients with postoperative AF exhibited a statistically significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke or TIA (incidence rate, 18.9 vs 10.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute risk difference [RD] at 5 years, 4.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%-8.4%; HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.35-5.37) compared with those with no AF. Patients with postoperative AF had statistically significantly higher risks of subsequent documented AF (incidence rate 136.4 vs 21.6 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 39.3%; 95% CI, 33.6%-45.0%; HR, 7.94; 95% CI, 4.85-12.98), and all-cause death (incidence rate, 133.2 vs 86.8 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 9.4%; 95% CI, 4.9%-13.7%; HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.32-2.09). No significant difference in the risk of cardiovascular death was observed for patients with and without postoperative AF (incidence rate, 42.5 vs 25.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 6.2%; 95% CI, 2.2%-10.4%; HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, new-onset postoperative AF compared with no AF was associated with a significant increased risk of stroke or TIA. However, the implications of these findings for the management of postoperative AF, such as the need for anticoagulation therapy, require investigation in randomized trials.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22054, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant therapy is used for stroke prevention and proved to be effective and safe in the long term. The study aims to analyse the cost-effectiveness relationship of using of direct-acting oral anticoagulants vs vitamin K antagonists to prevent ischaemic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation, including all the active ingredients marketed in Spain, prescribed for 2 years in the Primary Care service of the Institut Català de la Salut. METHODS: Population-based cohort study, in which the cost of the 2 treatment groups will be evaluated. Direct costs (pharmacy, primary care, emergency and hospitalization) and indirect costs (lost productivity) will be included from a social perspective. Effectiveness (assessed as the occurrence of a health event, the 1 of primary interest being stroke) will be determined, with a 2-year time horizon and a 3% discount rate. The average cost of the 2 groups of drugs will be compared using a regression model to determine the factors with the greatest influence on determining costs. We will carry out a univariate ('one-way') deterministic sensitivity analysis. DISCUSSION: We hope to provide relevant information about direct and indirect costs of oral anticoagulants, which, together with aspects of effectiveness and safety, could help shape the consensual decision-making of evaluating bodies.


Assuntos
Acenocumarol/economia , Anticoagulantes/economia , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos Pragmáticos como Assunto/métodos , Varfarina/economia , Acenocumarol/administração & dosagem , Acenocumarol/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Segurança , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Varfarina/administração & dosagem , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
13.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 525-533, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) can be used to detect the presence of left atrial thrombus and left atrial spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (LASEC). AIM: To evaluate the prognostic value of TTE and TOE in predicting stroke and all-cause death at 5-year follow-up in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). METHODS: This study included patients hospitalised with electrocardiography-diagnosed NVAF in Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris, between July 1998 and December 2011, who underwent TTE and TOE evaluation within 24hours of admission. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to identify predictors of the composite outcome (stroke or all-cause death). RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, stroke/death occurred in 185/903 patients (20.5%). By multivariable analysis, independent predictors of stroke/death were CHA2DS2-VASc score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-1.47; P<0.001), left atrial area>20 cm2 (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.35; P=0.018), moderate LASEC (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62; P=0.012) and severe LASEC (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.16-3.58; P=0.013). Independent protective predictors were dyslipidaemia (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43-0.83; P=0.002) and discharge prescription of anti-arrhythmics (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.40-0.87; P=0.008). Adding LASEC to the CHA2DS2-VASc score modestly improved predictive accuracy and risk classification, with a C index of 0.71 vs. 0.69 (P=0.004). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective monocentric study, the presence of moderate/severe LASEC was an independent predictor of stroke/death at 5-year follow-up in patients with NVAF. The inclusion of LASEC in stroke risk scores could modestly improve risk stratification.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Átrios do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(9): 740-747, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957756

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the practice patterns and the related factors of oral antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) treatment in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), and to evaluate the compliance of AAD application to atrial fibrillation management guidelines. Methods: From August 2011 to August 2016, medical records from 18 014 patients with AF were analyzed based on data from the Chinese Atrial Fibrillation Registry trial. Patients were divided into AAD group (7 788 cases, 43.23%) and non-AAD group (10 226 cases, 56.77%) according to whether AAD was used at baseline or at the time of first use during follow-up. Amiodarone (4 129 cases, 53.02%) and propafenone (3 211 cases, 41.23%) were the mostly prescribed AAD and subgroup analysis was performed accordingly. Medical records were analyzed by random forest regression to evaluate the use of AAD and related factors in patients with AF, and the rationality of AAD was analyzed according to the guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. Result: A total of 18 014 patients were included in this study, of which 60.48% (10 895/18 014) were male patients, 22.65% (4 081/18 014) were elderly patients(≥75 years old), there were 7 788 patients (43.23%) in AAD group, and 10 226 patients(56.77%) in non-AAD group. Compared with the non-AAD group, the elderly patients (≥75 years old, 13.74%(1 070/7 788) vs. 29.44%(3 011/10 226)), persistent AF (28.95% (2 250/7 788) 45.80% (4 683/10 226)), heart failure(8.29% (646/7 788) vs. 21.95% (2 245/10 226)), stroke and (or) TIA(12.15% (946/7 788) vs. 19.95% (2 040/10 226)), renal dysfunction(16.36%(1 274/7 788) vs. 29.37% (3 003/10 226)), and high thromboembolism risk(60.17% (4 748/7 788) vs. 76.40% (7 813/10 226)) were less prevalent in the AAD subgroup (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that patients in tertiary hospitals (OR=3.72, 95%CI 3.17-4.37) were more likely to use AAD, elderly patients (≥75 years old, OR=0.47, 95%CI 0.39-0.55), persistent atrial fibrillation (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.60-0.72), and patients with heart failure (OR=0.54, 95%CI 0.47-0.63), stroke and (or) TIA (OR=0.77, 95%CI 0.68-0.87), renal dysfunction (OR=0.75, 95%CI 0.59-0.95) and high thromboembolism risk(OR=0.7, 95%CI 0.58-0.84) were more likely not to use AAD(P<0.05). In the AAD group, amiodarone and propafenone were the most commonly used AAD, accounting for 53.02% (4 129/7 788) and 41.23% (3 211/7 788), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (OR=4.57, 95%CI 3.94-5.29) and coronary heart disease (OR=4.14, 95%CI 3.03-5.64), heart failure (OR=2.07, 95%CI 1.48-2.89), non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (OR=4.84, 95%CI 2.41-9.73) were more likely to use amiodarone, and those with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (OR=0.31, 95%CI 0.15-0.65) and low thromboembolism risk (OR=0.78, 95%CI 0.63-0.97) were more likely to use propafenone (P<0.001). The overall incidence of AAD treatment, which was not indicated by the guidelines was 6.5% (480/7 340); 5.1% (212/4 129) in the amiodarone group and 8.3% (268/3 211) in the propafenone group, respectively. Compared with the rational AAD use group, the proportion of irrational drug use was higher in the elderly (≥75 years old) (20.4% (98/480) vs. 12.9% (887/6 860)), patients of high thromboembolism risk (77.1% (379/480) vs. 59.0% (4 047/6 860)), and in non-tertiary hospitals (7.1% (34/480) vs. 3.3% (299/6 860)), but lower in men(50.8% (244/480) vs. 64.5% (4 427/6 860)), P<0.001. Conclusions: The patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, who were treated with AAD, were mostly patients with fewer complications, and the patients who were treated with amiodarone were mostly patients with persistent atrial fibrillation, patients were more likely to complicate with organic heart disease. The incidence of AAD that do not comply with the guidelines was low, and it was more common in non-tertiary hospitals and the elder patients with high thromboembolism risk.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
15.
N Engl J Med ; 383(14): 1305-1316, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, patients with this condition remain at increased risk for cardiovascular complications. It is unclear whether early rhythm-control therapy can reduce this risk. METHODS: In this international, investigator-initiated, parallel-group, open, blinded-outcome-assessment trial, we randomly assigned patients who had early atrial fibrillation (diagnosed ≤1 year before enrollment) and cardiovascular conditions to receive either early rhythm control or usual care. Early rhythm control included treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs or atrial fibrillation ablation after randomization. Usual care limited rhythm control to the management of atrial fibrillation-related symptoms. The first primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, stroke, or hospitalization with worsening of heart failure or acute coronary syndrome; the second primary outcome was the number of nights spent in the hospital per year. The primary safety outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy. Secondary outcomes, including symptoms and left ventricular function, were also evaluated. RESULTS: In 135 centers, 2789 patients with early atrial fibrillation (median time since diagnosis, 36 days) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for efficacy at the third interim analysis after a median of 5.1 years of follow-up per patient. A first-primary-outcome event occurred in 249 of the patients assigned to early rhythm control (3.9 per 100 person-years) and in 316 patients assigned to usual care (5.0 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.79; 96% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.005). The mean (±SD) number of nights spent in the hospital did not differ significantly between the groups (5.8±21.9 and 5.1±15.5 days per year, respectively; P = 0.23). The percentage of patients with a primary safety outcome event did not differ significantly between the groups; serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy occurred in 4.9% of the patients assigned to early rhythm control and 1.4% of the patients assigned to usual care. Symptoms and left ventricular function at 2 years did not differ significantly between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Early rhythm-control therapy was associated with a lower risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes than usual care among patients with early atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular conditions. (Funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research and others; EAST-AFNET 4 ISRCTN number, ISRCTN04708680; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01288352; EudraCT number, 2010-021258-20.).


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ablação por Cateter , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Método Simples-Cego , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866192

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for bleeding in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients treated with anti-coagulants such as warfarin, apixaban, edoxaban, dabigatran, rivaroxaban using a large claims database. METHODS: A claims database for 8926 AF patients from 2004 to 2016 was obtained from JMDC. Inc. We performed a retrospective cohort study in 2796 Japanese AF patients with 4-month screening and 12-month observation periods. Polypharmacy was defined as prescription of over six drugs. Logistic regression analysis was conducted after stratification based on the presence and absence of cerebrovascular diseases to detect the predictive factors for bleeding. RESULTS: Polypharmacy was observed in 815 of 2796 (29.1%) patients. A total of 371 AF patients (13.3%) experienced bleeding in the 12-month observation period. Bleeding risk assessment using multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for the number of co-administered drugs in the elderly (age for ≥60, ≤74) was not significant in those without and with cerebrovascular diseases (1.05 [0.99-1.12], N.S. and 1.10 [0.96-1.27], N.S.). In contrast, in the young (age for <60), the number of co-administered drugs was a significant predictive factor in those without and with cerebrovascular diseases (1.09 [1.03-1.16], p = 0.0054 and 1.20 [1.05-1.36], p = 0.0059). Other observed predictors were"history of bleeding" in young and elderly, but "polypharmacy" and "start from warfarin" were observed in only young. CONCLUSION: We determined the bleeding risk in the clinical setting using a large claims database. Physicians and pharmacists need to monitor patients for the initial bleeding signs, particularly in those with these predictive risk factors.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Gerenciamento de Dados/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(33): e21681, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872038

RESUMO

The aging of the population has resulted in atrial fibrillation (AF) becoming increasingly prevalent. Treatment focuses on the prevention of thromboembolism through the use of catheter ablation or drug therapy with anticoagulants, such as warfarin or direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). Dabigatran-induced exfoliative esophagitis has been reported as a rare side effect of DOACs. Although most cases are mild, some result in severe outcomes. However, the etiology of exfoliative esophagitis remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the etiology of exfoliative esophagitis and identify its risk factors by observational study.The participants were 524 patients using anticoagulants who received catheter ablation for AF and subsequently underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at University of Tsukuba Hospital. Exfoliative esophagitis was noted in 21 (4.0%) patients. Potential risk factors for exfoliative esophagitis were examined retrospectively by comparing patients with and without this condition across the following parameters that were extracted retrospectively from the electronic medical records: physical characteristics, comorbidities, blood-based cardiac markers, echocardiographic and endoscopic findings, and current medications.Regarding physical characteristics, patients with exfoliative esophagitis had significantly higher body weight and BMI. No association was observed between exfoliative esophagitis and comorbidities. Associations were also not found for cardiac markers, echocardiographic findings, or endoscopic findings. In terms of current medications, patients receiving oral dabigatran showed the highest prevalence of exfoliative esophagitis at 8.8% (13/148). The adjusted odds ratio of dabigatran for exfoliative esophagitis was 10.3 by multivariable logistic regression analysis.Obesity and oral dabigatran were found to be significant risk factors for exfoliative esophagitis.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Esofagite/induzido quimicamente , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
An. sist. sanit. Navar ; 43(2): 251-254, mayo-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193479

RESUMO

La infección por SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) se relaciona con un aumento del riesgo de enfermedad tromboembólica. Algunos autores recomiendan la anticoagulación en dosis terapéuticas de, al menos, los pacientes más graves, práctica no exenta de riesgos, por lo que otros consensos solo recomiendan la profilaxis tromboembólica. La recomendación generalizada en pacientes previamente anticoagulados es el cambio del anticoagulante oral por heparina de bajo peso molecular (HBPM). Presentamos dos pacientes ingresados por COVID-19 sin datos de gravedad, en los que se sustituyó la anticoagulación (acenocumarol en un caso y rivaroxabán en el otro) por HBPM a dosis terapéuticas, presentando ambos sangrados abdominales. Estos sangrados son una complicación infrecuente en pacientes anticoagulados, pero la concurrencia de dos casos en un breve espacio de tiempo en el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19 nos plantea que aún no se dispone de una evidencia clara sobre la anticoagulación terapéutica en la infección por SARS-CoV-2


Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic disease. Some authors recommend anticoagulation at therapeutic doses for, at least, the most severely ill patients; this practice is not free of risks, which is why only thromboembolic prophylaxis is recommended by other consensuses. In the case of previously anticoagulated patients, changing the oral anticoagulant for a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is generally recommended. We present the cases of two patients admitted due to COVID-19, without serious clinical data, in whom anticoagulation (acenocoumarol and rivaroxaban, respectively) was replaced by LMWH at therapeutic doses, both presenting abdominal bleeding. This type of bleeding is an infrequent complication in anticoagulated patients, but the concurrence of two cases in a short period of time in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic leads us to consider that there is not yet any clear evidence on therapeutic anticoagulation in SARS-CoV-2 infection


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acenocumarol/uso terapêutico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico
20.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(8): 689-696, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847326

RESUMO

Object We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases in patients with active cancer. Methods: To find randomized controlled trials (RCT) in which NOACs were compared VKAs in active cancer, we searched the electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Clinical Trials) up to May 2019 and and languages restricted to Chinese and English. According to the screening strategy, two researchers independently screened and extracted literature, evaluated the quality of literature, the suitability of collected cross study data for analysis, and tested the heterogeneity. The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of major bleeding, clinically related non-major bleeding, VTE, stroke and all-cause mortality in active cancer patients with VTE, active cancer patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) was calculated and the results were compared between NOAC with VKA. Results: A total of 9 RCTs were included, including 5 cancers with VTE (5/9) and 4 cancers with NVAF (4/9). A total of 5 867 patients were included. After excluding 1 818 (30.99%) patients with cancer history, 4 049 (68.86%) patients with active cancer were statistically analyzed. Among them, 2 278 (56.26%) received NOAC treatment, 1 771 patients (43.74%) received VKA treatment. The quality of the included documents was high (all scores were>5 points), and the data of each included document could be summarized and analyzed (P>0.05). The heterogeneity of main outcome events was very low (I2 = 0). In VTE patients with active cancer, NOACs were more effective in reducing recurrence of VTE (RR=0.55, 95%CI 0.36 -0.84; P = 0.005) and clinically related non-major bleeding (RR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60 -0.98; P = 0.03) than VKAs. In NVAF patients with active cancer, efficacy of NOACs and VKAs was similar in terms of reducing VTE, stroke, clinically related non-major bleeding, major bleeding and all-cause mortality events (P>0.05). Conclusions: For patients with active cancer accompanied by VTE, NOAC may has more advantages in efficacy and safety compared to VKA in the prevention and treatment of thrombotic diseases.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina K/uso terapêutico
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