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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 587, 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no published cases of tonic-clonic seizures and posterior bilateral blindness during pregnancy and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus (COV) 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection. We do not just face new and unknown manifestations, but also how different patient groups are affected by SARS-COV-2 infection, such as pregnant women. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), preeclampsia, eclampsia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy share endothelium damage and similar pathophysiology. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old pregnant woman was admitted for tonic-clonic seizures and SARS-COV-2 infection. She had a normal pregnancy control and no other symptoms before tonic-clonic seizures development. After a Caesarean section (C-section) she developed high blood pressure, and we initiated antihypertensive treatment with labetalol, amlodipine and captopril. Few hours later she developed symptoms of cortical blindness that resolved in 72 h with normal brain computed tomography (CT) angiography. CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that SARS COV-2 infection could promote brain endothelial damage and facilitate neurological complications during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Cegueira Cortical , Cesárea/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Eclampsia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Convulsões , Adulto , Cegueira Cortical/diagnóstico , Cegueira Cortical/virologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eclampsia/diagnóstico , Eclampsia/terapia , Eclampsia/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exame Neurológico/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/etiologia , Convulsões/terapia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e21958, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899031

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wake up stroke starts in sleep and is a more common form of ischemic stroke. At present, it is still controversial whether wake up stroke can be treated with thrombolytic therapy. Therefore, this study will combine imaging techniques to assess the onset time of wake up stroke patients, and to analyze the imaging characteristics of wake up stroke patients and patients suitable for thrombolytic therapy within the time window. METHODS/DESIGN: This study will be a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel groups. It will be conducted at North China University of science and technology affiliated hospital. DISCUSSION: There is no consistent conclusion about the pathogenesis of wake up stroke. Wake up stroke is more likely to manifest as small vessel disease. The incidence of wake up stroke patients is relatively high, and the effectiveness and safety of intravenous thrombolysis under the guidance of multimode imaging therapy in wake up stroke need to be further explored by prospective, large-scale studies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, ChiCTR2000034402, Registered on 05 July 2020.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravenosa , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Método Simples-Cego , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos
3.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 73(9): 749-757, sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187648

RESUMO

La pandemia producida por la infección del nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, que da lugar a una enfermedad altamente contagiosa (COVID-19), ha producido un colapso de los sistemas sanitarios de todo el mundo. Se ha descrito que estos pacientes sufren un estado inflamatorio que condiciona un alto riesgo trombótico. Sin embargo, apenas hay información sobre cómo abordar el riesgo trombótico, la coagulopatía y el tratamiento anticoagulante de estos pacientes. Por otra parte, incluso los pacientes no infectados por COVID-19 sufren una tremenda influencia en su abordaje habitual por la situación sanitaria actual. El objetivo del presente documento, elaborado por el Grupo de Trabajo de Trombosis Cardiovascular de la Sociedad Española de Cardiología, es presentar la información disponible y dar unas pautas sencillas de tratamiento con fármacos antitrombóticos


The new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which gives rise to the highly contagious COVID-19 disease, has caused a pandemic that is overwhelming health care systems worldwide. Affected patients have been reported to have a heightened inflammatory state that increases their thrombotic risk. However, there is very scarce information on the management of thrombotic risk, coagulation disorders, and anticoagulant therapy. In addition, the situation has also greatly influenced usual care in patients not infected with COVID-19. This article by the Working Group on Cardiovascular Thrombosis of the Spanish Society of Cardiology aims to summarize the available information and to provide a practical approach to the management of antithrombotic therapy


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiopatologia , Interações Medicamentosas
4.
Rev. esp. anestesiol. reanim ; 67(7): 391-399, ago.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192472

RESUMO

La infección por el coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, causante de la enfermedad denominada COVID-19, provoca alteraciones fundamentalmente en el sistema respiratorio. En los pacientes graves, con frecuencia la enfermedad evoluciona a un síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo que puede predisponer a los pacientes a un estado de hipercoagulabilidad, con trombosis tanto a nivel venoso como arterial. Esta predisposición presenta una fisiopatología multifactorial, relacionada tanto con la hipoxia como con el grave proceso inflamatorio ligado a esta patología, además de los factores trombóticos adicionales presentes en muchos de los pacientes.Ante la necesidad de optimizar el manejo de la hipercoagulabilidad, los grupos de trabajo de las sociedades científicas de Anestesiología-Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor (SEDAR) y de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y de Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC) han desarrollado un consenso para establecer unas pautas de actuación frente a las alteraciones de la hemostasia observadas en los pacientes graves COVID-19. Estas recomendaciones incluyen la profilaxis de la enfermedad tromboembólica venosa en pacientes graves y en el periparto, el manejo de los pacientes en tratamiento crónico con fármacos antiagregantes o anticoagulantes, de las complicaciones hemorrágicas en la evolución de la enfermedad y de la interpretación de las alteraciones generales de la hemostasia


The infection by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease called COVID-19, mainly causes alterations in the respiratory system. In severely ill patients, the disease often evolves into an acute respiratory distress syndrome that can predispose patients to a state of hypercoagulability, with thrombosis at both venous and arterial levels. This predisposition presents a multifactorial physiopathology, related to hypoxia as well as to the severe inflammatory process linked to this pathology, including the additional thrombotic factors present in many of the patients. In view of the need to optimise the management of hypercoagulability, the working groups of the Scientific Societies of Anaesthesiology-Resuscitation and Pain Therapy (SEDAR) and of Intensive, Critical Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC) have developed a consensus to establish guidelines for actions to be taken against alterations in haemostasis observed in severely ill patients with COVID-19. These recommendations include prophylaxis of venous thromboembolic disease in these patients, and in the peripartum, management of patients on long-term antiplatelet or anticoagulant treatment, bleeding complications in the course of the disease, and the interpretation of general alterations in haemostasis


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Transtornos Hemostáticos/terapia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Trombofilia/terapia , Doença Catastrófica/terapia , Pandemias , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e21366, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791743

RESUMO

The utility of endovascular thrombectomy for acute occlusion of the distal intracranial artery (A2/A3/M2/M3/P2/P3) is unclear, and aspiration and stent thrombectomy are associated with risk of bleeding. We analyzed patients with acute occlusion of the distal intracranial artery to assess the safety and efficacy of microcatheter-based tirofiban infusion.We retrospectively reviewed data of the endovascular thrombectomy registry of our center between January 2018 and June 2019. Patients with distal intracranial artery occlusion who underwent endovascular thrombectomy with microcatheter-based infusion of tirofiban were recruited.Of 13 patients included, 1 presented with anterior cerebral artery occlusion, 2 with posterior cerebral artery occlusion, 2 with posterior inferior cerebellar artery occlusion, and 7 with middle cerebral artery M2 occlusion. The mean National Institute of Health Stroke scale score was 10.1 (3-19). Three patients (23.1%) underwent bridging treatment of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant plasminogen activator and endovascular thrombectomy. The arithmetic mean onset-to-recanalization time was 696.3 minutes (140-1440) and average operating time was 47.1 minutes (30-80). After treatment, 10 patients (76.9%) underwent revascularization. No operative complications were observed in any case. All patients underwent angiography and were reviewed 7 to 14 days after surgery. Imaging revealed significant improvements in recanalization compared with the immediate postoperative period, with no reoccurrence of occlusion. The mean modified Rankin scale score at the 3-month follow-up was 0.54 (0-2).Microcatheter-based infusion of bolus-dose tirofiban can result in safe and effective recanalization of acute occlusion of the distal artery in the case of a relatively light thrombotic load.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Tirofibana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/complicações , Doenças Arteriais Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
6.
JAMA ; 324(3): 279-290, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692391

RESUMO

Importance: Perioperative cardiovascular complications occur in 3% of hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery in the US. This review summarizes evidence regarding cardiovascular risk assessment prior to noncardiac surgery. Observations: Preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment requires a focused history and physical examination to identify signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and severe valvular disease. Risk calculators, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, identify individuals with low risk (<1%) and higher risk (≥1%) for perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events during the surgical hospital admission or within 30 days of surgery. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients at low risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be considered in patients at higher risk (determined by the inability to climb ≥2 flights of stairs, which is <4 metabolic equivalent tasks) if the results from the testing would change the perioperative medical, anesthesia, or surgical approaches. Routine coronary revascularization does not reduce perioperative risk and should not be performed without specific indications independent of planned surgery. Routine perioperative use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/d) does not decrease cardiovascular events but does increase surgical bleeding. Statins are associated with fewer postoperative cardiovascular complications and lower mortality (1.8% vs 2.3% without statin use; P < .001) in observational studies, and should be considered preoperatively in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease undergoing vascular surgery. High-dose ß-blockers (eg, 100 mg of metoprolol succinate) administered 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery are associated with a higher risk of stroke (1.0% vs 0.5% without ß-blocker use; P = .005) and mortality (3.1% vs 2.3% without ß-blocker use; P = .03) and should not be routinely used. There is a greater risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events in adults aged 75 years or older (9.5% vs 4.8% for younger adults; P < .001) and in patients with coronary stents (8.9% vs 1.5% for those without stents; P < .001) and these patients warrant careful preoperative consideration. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive history, physical examination, and assessment of functional capacity during daily life should be performed prior to noncardiac surgery to assess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients with a low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, but may be useful in patients with poor functional capacity (<4 metabolic equivalent tasks) undergoing high-risk surgery if test results would change therapy independent of the planned surgery. Perioperative medical therapy should be prescribed based on patient-specific risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 578-585, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665201

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous thrombus removal is used for the treatment of iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT), but the efficacy of different treatment modalities has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of patients treated with additional AngioJet pharmacomechanical thrombectomy (PCDT) vs. catheter directed lysis (CDT) alone. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients who received thrombolysis for the treatment of symptomatic acute iliofemoral DVT between 2011 and 2017 was carried out. Outcome measures included the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS), procedural outcomes (lytic exposure), the incidence of complications, and vessel patency. All patients were followed up for a minimum of one year. RESULTS: A total of 151 limbs were treated, 70 limbs with PCDT and 81 limbs with CDT alone. Demographic data and prevalence of risk factors were comparable. Incidence of PTS (Villalta score at one year) showed no significant difference (22.2% PCDT vs. 24.7% CDT alone, p = .74). Use of PCDT resulted in a non-statistically significant trend for fewer bleeds (n = 4/63 [6.3%] vs. 13/76 [17.1%]; relative risk 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-1.08; p = .07), a statistically significant reduction in lysis duration (40 h [95% CI 34-46] vs. 53 h [95% CI 49-58]; p < .001) and a reduction in lytic dose (49 mg [95% CI 42-55] vs. 57 mg [95% CI 52-61]; p = .011) compared with CDT. This reduction was accentuated in 24 cases primarily treated with AngioJet PowerPulse mode (27 h, 95% CI 20-34 [p < .001] and 42 mg, 95% CI 34-50 [p = .009]). Incidences of complications were comparable between groups, with one death due to an intracranial haemorrhage following CDT. Although the incidence of haemoglobinuria was increased following PCDT (12/63 [19.0%] vs. 3/76 [3.9%]; p = .006), no significant difference in acute kidney injury was observed (3/63 [4.8%] vs. 1/76 [1.3%]; p = .33). No significant difference in vessel patency over two years was observed (p = .73). CONCLUSION: The use of PCDT for the treatment of iliofemoral DVT was observed to provide comparable patient outcomes, comparable vessel patency, an acceptable safety profile, and reduced overall lytic dose.


Assuntos
Veia Femoral , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Veia Ilíaca , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose Venosa/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Veia Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Femoral/fisiopatologia , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Veia Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Veia Ilíaca/fisiopatologia , Londres , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome Pós-Trombótica/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 105004, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689579

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Various reactive oxygen radicals and inflammatory mediators emerge in ischemic stroke, and changes occur in the number of leukocytes and platelets. Variations in the counts and ratios of these cells may be related to the early and late course and prognosis of stroke. In this study, the relationship between changes in counts or ratios of neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet, and National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores was investigated in patients who presented with an ischemic stroke and treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) and/or thrombectomy. METHODS: Changes in neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet counts; neutrophil-to-leukocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-leukocyte ratio (PLR), and platelet-to- lymphocyte ratio between day of admission (day 0), and 1st, 3rd, and 7th days after application of treatment modalities in 296 patients presented with acute ischemic stroke who underwent rtPA within the first 4,5 hours and / or thrombectomy within 6 hours after stroke and the relationship between these changes and the NIHSS (National Health Institute Stroke Scale) scores were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: In our study, leukocyte and neutrophil counts were higher on the first day after acute ischemic stroke. Platelet counts decreased on the 1st and 3rd days relative to baseline values. Lymphocyte values decreased on day 1, 3 and 7 compared to day 0. There was a significant increase in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios at day 1 and 3 compared to day 0. On the 7th day, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios were significantly lower. There was an increase in platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios at day 1 compared to day 0. The increase in NLR values was more evident on day 1. The increase in PLR on the 7th day was also significant. The patients who underwent rtPA and/or thrombectomy had significantly lower NIHSS scores at the 72th hour of the stroke compared to the NIHSS values at hospital admissions. A positive correlation was found between NIHSS difference values and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte percent changes. CONCLUSIONS: There are dynamic changes in platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte counts and ratios in early period after treatment with rtPA and/or thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. Variations in the counts and ratios of these cells may be related to NIHSS, which determines the degree of neurological damage of stroke.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos , Neutrófilos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104991, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is a central protein of hemostasis and a major determinant of plasma viscosity and key factor for platelet activation. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between fibrinogen level and short-term outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving intravenous thrombolysis. METHODS: This retrospective study included 176 acute ischemic stroke patients who received intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and provided plasma fibrinogen level within 24 h after stroke onset. Patients were categorized by plasma fibrinogen level: Quartile 1 (≤ 1.74 g/L), Quartile 2 (1.75-2.08 g/L), Quartile 3 (2.09-2.69 g/L), and Quartile 4 (> 2.69 g/L). The medical record of each patient was reviewed, and demographic, clinical and laboratory information was abstracted. Functional outcome at 14 days was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale. RESULTS: Poor outcome was present in 75 (42.6%) of the 176 patients that were included in the study (mean age, 72 years; male, 53.4%). After adjustment for potential confounding variables, higher plasma fibrinogen level on admission was associated with poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio 10.45, 95% confidence interval 1.49-73.15 for Q4:Q1; P = 0.02). According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the best discriminating factor for poor outcome was a plasma fibrinogen level ≥ 2.585 g/L (area under the curve 0.672; sensitivity 50.7%; specificity 86.1%). CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels on admission are significantly associated with poor outcome after admission for acute ischemic stroke, suggesting the potential role of plasma fibrinogen level as a predictive marker for short-term poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients receiving thrombolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinogênio/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104997, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689627

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study association between blood pressure (BP) and development of early neurological deterioration (END) in acute ischemic stroke patients with intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis and its possible mechanism. METHODS: We prospectively collected data of acute ischemic stroke patients with intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis from March 2015 to June 2019. The collected data include general, clinical data and laboratory test. Moreover, serum levels or activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), occludin(OCLN), ZO-1 and aquaporin 4(AQP-4) were determined. RESULTS: A total of 357 acute ischemic stroke patients received intravenous rt-PA thrombolysis and 16 cases were eventually excluded. Finally, 341 patients were eligible in this study and 65 patients (19.06%) experienced END. Mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 24 h, serum levels or activity of MDA, SOD, MMP-9, ZO-1, OCLN, AQP-4 at 24 h after thrombolysis were the independent predictors for END in the total and hypertension population using multivariate logistic regression analysis, and mean SBP within 24 h was the best predictor for END. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis found that cutoff mean SBP for END was 148.16 mmHg, and sensitivity was 85.6%. The best target SBP level is 140ཞ149 mmHg. Further, spearman correlation tests indicated that BP levels were directly proportional to serum levels or activity of MDA, MMP-9, ZO-1, OCLN, AQP-4 at 24 h after thrombolysis and neurological deterioration severity. CONCLUSIONS: END frequently occurs after thrombolysis, and the best predictor of END is SBP which may be mediated through oxidative stress induced blood-brain barrier disruption and AQP4 upregulation.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 4/sangue , Pressão Sanguínea , Barreira Hematoencefálica/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104894, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Mobile Stroke Units (MSUs) deliver acute stroke treatment on-scene in coordination with Emergency Medical Services (EMS). One criticism of the MSU approach is the limited range of a single MSU. The Houston MSU is evaluating MSU implementation, and we developed a rendezvous approach as an innovative solution to expand the range and number of patients treated. METHODS: In addition to direct 911 dispatch of our MSU to the scene within our 7-mile catchment area, we empowered more distant EMS units to activate the MSU. We also monitored EMS radio communications to identify possible patients. For these distant patients, the MSU met the EMS unit en route to the stroke center and treated the patient at that intermediate location. The distribution of the distance from MSU base station to site of stroke and time from 911 alert to tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) bolus were compared between patients treated on-scene and by rendezvous using Wilcoxon rank sum test. RESULTS: Over 4 years, 338 acute ischemic stroke patients were treated with tPA on our MSU. Of these, 169 (50%) were treated on-scene after MSU dispatch at a median of 6.4 miles (IQR 6.4 miles) from MSU base station. 169 (50%) were treated by 'rendezvous' pathway with assessment and treatment of stroke a median of 12.4 miles from base (IQR 5.5 miles) (p< 0.0001). Time (min) from MSU alert to tPA bolus did not differ: 36.0 ± 10.0 for on-scene vs 37.0 ± 10.0 with rendezvous (p=0.65). 13% of patients alerted via direct 911 dispatch were treated vs 44% of rendezvous patients. CONCLUSION: Adding a rendezvous approach to an MSU dispatch pathway doubles the range of operations and the number of patients treated by an MSU in an urban area, without incurring delay.


Assuntos
Área Programática de Saúde , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Despacho de Emergência Médica , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Transporte de Pacientes , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Texas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde
12.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(2): 0-0, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), low-dose acetylsalicylic acid is combined with a P2Y12 inhibitor. However, combining antithrombotic agents increases the risk of bleeding. Guidelines on DAPT recommend using this combination for a limited period of between three weeks and 30 months. This implies the risk of DAPT being erroneously continued after the intended stop date. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this study is to assess the proportion of hospitalized patients treated with DAPT whose treatment deviated erroneously and unintentionally from the guidelines. We also assessed risk factors and the effect of a pharmacist intervention. METHODS: All patients admitted to the Spaarne Gasthuis (Haarlem/ Hoofddorp, the Netherlands) who used DAPT between March 25th, 2019, and June 14th, 2019, were, in addition to receiving regular care, reviewed to assess whether their therapy was in line with the guidelines' recommendation and whether deviations were unintended and erroneous. In the event of an unintended deviation, the pharmacist intervened by contacting the prescriber by phone and giving advice to adjust the antithrombotic therapy in line with the guideline. RESULTS: We included 411 patients, of whom 21 patients (5.1%) had a treatment that deviated from the guidelines. For 11 patients (2.7%), the deviation was unintended and erroneous. The major risk factor for erroneous deviation was the use of DAPT before hospital admission (OR 18.7; 95%CI 4.79-72.7). In patients who used DAPT before admission, 18 out of 58 (31.0%) had a deviation from the guidelines of whom 8 (13.8%) were erroneous. For these eight patients, the pharmacist contacted the prescriber, and in these cases the therapy was adjusted in line with the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to the guidelines recommending DAPT was high within the hospital. However, patients who used DAPT before hospital admission had a higher risk of erroneous prescription of DAPT. Intervention by a pharmacist increased adherence to guidelines and may reduce the number of preventable bleeding cases


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Prescrições de Medicamentos/normas , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
13.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(5): 266-272, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinolytic therapy is an important reperfusion strategy, especially when primary percutaneous coronary interventions cannot be offered to ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients. Given that failed reperfusion after fibrinolytic therapy is common, it is pragmatic that the predictors, outcomes, and angiographic profiles of patients with failed thrombolysis are carefully scrutinized. METHODS: We prospectively studied clinical variables and outcomes over 30 months in 243 ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients who received fibrinolytics as primary treatment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors of failed thrombolysis. RESULTS: Failed thrombolysis occurred in 38.68% of patients with a mean window period of 6.58 ± 1.42 h, and 55.32% of patients with failed thrombolysis had Killip class >I on presentation. Risk factors such as diabetes mellitus (55.32%), dyslipidemia (60.64%) and obesity (77.66%) were frequently associated with failed thrombolysis; 73.40% of patients with failed thrombolysis had Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow grade 0/1 in the infarct-related artery, and 58.51% of such patients needed a rescue percutaneous coronary intervention. The mean Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score was 5.46 ± 2.77 in failed thrombolysis patients, with mortality of 4.25% at the 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Non-resolution of presenting symptoms and ST changes on electrocardiography at 90 min served as the earliest indicators of failed thrombolysis, with a significant angiographic correlation. Clinical variables such as delayed presentation (>6 h), dyspnea, Killip class >I, cardiogenic shock, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction score, and conventional risk factors including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity represented cluster of predictors of failed thrombolysis.


Assuntos
Trombose Coronária/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Adulto , Idoso , Angiografia Coronária , Trombose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Falha de Tratamento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235048, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the benefits of antithrombotic drugs are indisputable to reduce thrombotic events, they carry a high risk of compromising patient safety. No previous studies investigated the implementation and (cost-) effectiveness of a hospital-based multidisciplinary antithrombotic team on bleeding and thrombotic outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to compare the proportion of patients with a composite end point consisting of one or more bleeding episodes or one or more thrombotic event from hospitalization until three months after hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective, multicenter before-after intervention study was conducted in two Dutch hospitals. Adult patients hospitalized between October 2015 and December 2017 treated with anticoagulant therapy were included. The primary aim was to estimate the proportion of patients with a composite end point consisting of one or more bleeding episodes or one or more thrombotic event from hospitalization until three months after hospitalization. The intervention was the implementation of a multidisciplinary antithrombotic team focusing on education, medication reviews by pharmacists, implementing of local anticoagulant therapy guidelines based on national guidelines, patient counselling and medication reconciliation at admission and discharge. The primary endpoint was analysed using segmented linear regression. We obtained data for 1,886 patients: 941 patients were included in the usual care period and 945 patients in the intervention period. The S-team study showed that implementation of a multidisciplinary antithrombotic team over time significantly reduced the composite end point consisting of one or more bleeding episodes or one or more thrombotic event from hospitalization until three months after hospitalization in patients using anticoagulant drugs (-1.83% (-2.58% to -1.08%) per 2 month period). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that implementation of a multidisciplinary antithrombotic team over time significantly reduces the composite end point consisting of one or more bleeding episodes or one or more thrombotic event from hospitalization until three months after hospitalization in patients using anticoagulant drugs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trialregister.nl NTR4887.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Hemorragia , Alta do Paciente , Trombose , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/epidemiologia
15.
JAMA ; 323(21): 2170-2184, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484532

RESUMO

Importance: Earlier administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in acute ischemic stroke is associated with reduced mortality by the time of hospital discharge and better functional outcomes at 3 months. However, it remains unclear whether shorter door-to-needle times translate into better long-term outcomes. Objective: To examine whether shorter door-to-needle times with intravenous tPA for acute ischemic stroke are associated with improved long-term outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years or older who were treated for acute ischemic stroke with intravenous tPA within 4.5 hours from the time they were last known to be well at Get With The Guidelines-Stroke participating hospitals between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2016, with 1-year follow-up through December 31, 2017. Exposures: Door-to-needle times for intravenous tPA. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were 1-year all-cause mortality, all-cause readmission, and the composite of all-cause mortality or readmission. Results: Among the 61 426 patients treated with tPA within 4.5 hours, the median age was 80 years and 43.5% were male. The median door-to-needle time was 65 minutes (interquartile range, 49-88 minutes). The 48 666 patients (79.2%) who were treated with tPA and had door-to-needle times of longer than 45 minutes, compared with those treated within 45 minutes, had significantly higher all-cause mortality (35.0% vs 30.8%, respectively; adjusted HR, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.09-1.18]), higher all-cause readmission (40.8% vs 38.4%; adjusted HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.12]), and higher all-cause mortality or readmission (56.0% vs 52.1%; adjusted HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 1.06-1.12]). The 34 367 patients (55.9%) who were treated with tPA and had door-to-needle times of longer than 60 minutes, compared with those treated within 60 minutes, had significantly higher all-cause mortality (35.8% vs 32.1%, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.11 [95% CI, 1.07-1.14]), higher all-cause readmission (41.3% vs 39.1%; adjusted HR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.10]), and higher all-cause mortality or readmission (56.8% vs 53.1%; adjusted HR, 1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.10]). Every 15-minute increase in door-to-needle times was significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HR, 1.04 [95% CI, 1.02-1.05]) within 90 minutes after hospital arrival, but not after 90 minutes (adjusted HR, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.99-1.03]), higher all-cause readmission (adjusted HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03), and higher all-cause mortality or readmission (adjusted HR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01-1.03]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients aged 65 years or older with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with tissue plasminogen activator, shorter door-to-needle times were associated with lower all-cause mortality and lower all-cause readmission at 1 year. These findings support efforts to shorten time to thrombolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Trombolítica
16.
Am Heart J ; 226: 140-146, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The STREAM study demonstrated that a pharmaco-invasive strategy was at least as effective as primary PCI (pPCI) in patients presenting early with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The current trial is a response to the finding that reduced intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients ≥75 years occurred after halving the dose of tenecteplase. Additionally, a subsequent analysis of full dose tenecteplase or alteplase in the Assessment of the Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT) trials demonstrated a steep increase in bleeding events beginning around the age of 60 years. METHODS: STREAM-2 will compare the efficacy and safety of a novel pharmaco-invasive strategy as compared to routine pPCI in STEMI patients ≥60 years presenting within 3 hours from symptom onset. In the pharmaco-invasive arm patients will receive half-dose tenecteplase, as soon as possible before transport to a PCI center. In the pPCI arm, patients will be treated according to optimal standard of care defined by local practice. The key criteria for efficacy will be the number of patients achieving ≥50% ST-segment resolution before and after PCI in lead with maximal ST elevation at baseline and the clinical endpoints of death, congestive heart failure, shock or re-infarction, rescue PCI and aborted myocardial infarction, both singularly and as a composite at 30 days. Key safety criteria are total stroke, ICH and major non-intracranial bleeds. Approximately 600 patients will be randomized (400 to pharmaco-invasive treatment and 200 to pPCI). An interim analysis is planned after 300 patients are enrolled to consider adapting the trial to include a larger sample size aimed at undertaking a formal confirmatory trial. DISCUSSION: The study will provide new insights aimed at establishing an effective and safer pharmaco-invasive treatment for the growing population of older STEMI patients who cannot undergo timely pPCI.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Tenecteplase/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Pharmacol Res ; 159: 104965, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474087

RESUMO

Little is still known about the clinical features associated with the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in hospitalized patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence of pre-admission antithrombotic therapies in patients with COVID-19 and to investigate the potential association between antithrombotic therapy and ARDS, as disease clinical presentation, or in-hospital mortality. We enrolled 192 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to emergency department of five Italian hospitals. The study population was divided in two groups according to the evidence of ARDS at chest computed tomography at admission. Propensity score weighting adjusted regression analysis was performed to assess the risk ARDS at admission, and death during hospitalization, in patients treated or not with antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents. ARDS was reported in 73 cases (38 %), who showed more likely hypertension compared to those without ARDS (57.8 % vs 49.6 %; P = 0.005). Thirty-five patients (18.5 %) died during the hospitalization. Not survived COVID-19 patients showed a statistically significant increased age (77 ± 8.31 vs 65.57 ± 8.31; P = 0.001), hypertension (77.1 % vs 53.5 %; P = 0.018) and coronary artery disease prevalence (28.6 % vs 10.2 %; P = 0.009). Both unadjusted and adjusted regression analyses showed no difference in the risk of ARDS at admission, or death during hospitalization, between patients treated or not with antiplatelets or anticoagulants. Pre-admission antithrombotic therapy, both antiplatelet and anticoagulant, does not seem to show a protective effect in severe forms of COVID-19 with ARDS at presentation and rapidly evolving toward death.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/mortalidade , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/prevenção & controle
18.
Neurology ; 95(2): e121-e130, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with the safety and efficacy of IV thrombolysis (IVT) among patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: A systematic review and pairwise meta-analysis of studies involving patients with CKD undergoing IVT for AIS were conducted to evaluate the following outcomes: symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), asymptomatic and any intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), in-hospital and 3-month mortality, 3-month favorable functional outcome (FFO; modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-1), and 3-month functional independence (FI, mRS score 0-2). CKD was defined with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ranging from mild (eGFR 60-89 mL/min) to moderate (eGFR 30-59 mL/min) to severe (eGFR 15-29 mL/min). RESULTS: We identified 20 studies comprising 60,486 patients with AIS treated with IVT. In unadjusted analyses, CKD was associated with sICH according to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) (7 studies; odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.19-1.67) and European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) II (9 studies; OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01-1.85) definitions, any ICH (8 studies; OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.18-1.70), 3-month mortality (9 studies; OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.72-2.81), 3-month FFO (8 studies; OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.47-0.72), and 3-month FI (8 studies; OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.46-0.71). In adjusted analyses, CKD was associated with sICH according to NINDS (4 studies; ORadj 1.34, 95% CI 1.01-1.79) and ECASS II (3 studies; ORadj 2.08, 95% CI 1.27-3.43) definitions, any ICH (6 studies; ORadj 1.41, 95% CI 1.01-1.97), in-hospital mortality (2 studies; ORadj 1.19, 95% CI 1.09-1.30), and 3-month FFO (6 studies; ORadj 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.92). CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for confounders in this pairwise meta-analysis, moderate to severe CKD is associated with increased risks of ICH and worse functional outcomes among patients with AIS treated with IVT.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(3): 448-452, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus patients demonstrate varying degrees of respiratory insufficiency; many will progress to respiratory failure with a severe version of acute respiratory distress syndrome refractory to traditional supportive strategies. Providers must consider alternative therapies to deter or prevent the cascade of decompensation to fulminant respiratory failure. METHODS: This is a case-series of five COVID-19 positive patients who demonstrated severe hypoxemia, declining respiratory performance, and escalating oxygen requirements. Patients met the following criteria: COVID-19 positivity, worsening respiratory performance, severe hypoxemia (PaO2 ≤ 80) despite traditional supportive measures, escalating supplemental oxygen requirements, and D-dimer greater than 1.5 µg/mL. All patients received protocol directed thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). RESULTS: All five patients improved without deleterious effects of thrombolytic therapy. Patient one was on maximum ventilator support, paralytics, and prone positioning without improvement. During tPA administration his PaO2/FIO2 ratio improved from 69 to 127. Ventilator support was weaned immediately on posttreatment day 1, and he was extubated on posttreatment day 12. Our second through fifth patients were not intubated at time of initiation of tPA therapy. These patients each required significant oxygen supplementation trending toward intubation. After tPA therapy, all patients demonstrated a noticeable increase in PaO2 values overtime. Three of these patients avoided intubation due to COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: Administration of thrombolytics was followed by overall improvement in patients' oxygen requirements, and in three cases, prevented progression to mechanical ventilation, without deleterious effects. Clinical trials of thrombolytic therapy would further serve to underscore the efficacy and utility of this therapy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Case series of therapeutic effect, Level V.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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