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2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(1): 105428, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161349

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 virus causing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with almost 30 million confirmed worldwide cases. Prothrombotic complications arising from those affected with severe symptoms have been reported in various medical journals. Currently, clinical trials are underway to address the questions regarding anticoagulation dosing strategies to prevent thrombosis for these critically ill patients. However, given the increasing use of therapeutic anticoagulation in patients admitted with COVID-19 to curtail this prothrombotic state, our institution has witnessed six cases of devastating intracranial hemorrhage as well as thrombosis leading to five fatalities and we examine their hospital course and anticoagulation used.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hospitalização , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Idoso , /diagnóstico , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Trombose/diagnóstico , Trombose/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(49): e23379, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33285721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has become the major reason of causing death around the world. As a newer generation fibrinolytic agent, the potential of tenecteplase in treating AIS has been determined in clinical studies and meta-analysis. However, various doses have been prescribed for tenecteplase in clinical practice, and the optimal dose is not yet clear. METHODS: We will perform a systematic search to capture all potential randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of persons with confirmed AIS who were instructed to administer tenecteplase that report at least one outcome in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers will independently check the titles, abstracts, and full-texts, extracting data, assessing the risk of bias and evaluating the certainty of evidence. We will use a random-effect model based on the Bayesian framework to completely direct and network meta-analyses. We will also test the robustness of all pooled results through conducting subgroup analyses according to the following criteria: DISCUSSION:: Our systematic review and network meta-analysis will generate several valuable findings and have several strengths including:We therefore believe that findings from this network meta-analysis will benefit future study design and improve evidence-based treatment of AIS. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We will disseminate the results from the present study through submitting it to conferences or peer-reviewed journal. PROTOCOL REGISTRY: The protocol of our systematic review and network meta-analysis was registered in International Plateform of Registered Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (INPLASY) platform with an approval number of INPLASY2020100086 (https://inplasy.com/inplasy-2020-10-0086/). Moreover, this protocol was funded through a protocol registry.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Tenecteplase/uso terapêutico , Doença Aguda , Teorema de Bayes , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tenecteplase/administração & dosagem , Tenecteplase/efeitos adversos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23620, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the priority drug for treating acute ischemic stroke (AIS), alteplase is a thrombolytic drug with strong fibrin specificity. It can obviously treat AIS with high safety. However, the validity of its time window is controversial. This study focus on the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase for treating AIS at different time windows. METHODS: Retrieval of English database (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library) and Chinese database was conducted (China National Knowledge Infrastructure, WAN FANG, VIP, China Biology Medicine disc) by computers. From the establishment of the database to October 2020, a retrospective study and case-control study on intravenous thrombolysis at different time windows for treating AIS were conducted. Two researchers independently conducted data extraction and quality evaluation of literature on the included studies, and RevMan5.3 was used for Meta-analysis on the included literature. RESULTS: This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase at different time windows for treating AIS by National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, modified Rankin Scale rating scale, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage incidence rate, All-cause mortality, and so on. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide an evidence-based basis for the clinical efficacy of alteplase for treating AIS by thrombolytic therapy at different time windows. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Private information from individuals will not be published. This systematic review also does not involve endangering participant rights. Ethical approval was not required. The results may be published in a peer-reviewed journal or disseminated at relevant conferences. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605 / OSF.IO / K7PHB.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto/métodos , Terapia Trombolítica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
J Can Dent Assoc ; 86: k17, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326372

RESUMO

For more than half a century, oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy has been used to decrease the risk of thromboembolism, prolonging the lives of countless patients. Patients taking antithrombotic agents may be at risk of excessive hemorrhage. Dentists commonly see such patients, and this can pose a challenge, as adequate hemostasis is crucial for the success of invasive dental treatment. Many dentists refer these patients, as they lack understanding or fear uncontrollable bleeding during and after surgery. In this clinical review, we discuss the mechanisms of hemostasis, drugs that can interfere with these pathways and how to safely and effectively manage patients who are taking antithrombotic agents. We include which procedures are considered safe, which are riskier in terms of bleeding, what laboratory tests must be reviewed before treatment, drug interactions with commonly prescribed dental drugs, as well as agents that can aid in hemostasis. Although antithrombotics cause an increase in bleeding, there is general consensus that treatment regimens should not be altered before routine dental procedures when the risk of bleeding is moderate to low. Procedures that require drug alterations include extractions of more than 3 teeth, crown lengthening, open-flap surgery, surgical extractions and periodontal surgery.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Assistência Odontológica , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos
6.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(11): 681-686, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low-dose alteplase (LrtPA) has been shown not to be inferior to the standard-dose (SrtPA) with respect to death/disability. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the percentage of patients treated with LrtPA at our center after the ENCHANTED trial and the factors associated with the use of this dosage. METHODS: Prospective study in consecutive patients with an acute stroke admitted between June 2016 and November 2018. RESULTS: 160 patients were treated with intravenous thrombolysis, 50% female; mean age 65.4±18.5 years. Of these, 48 patients (30%) received LrtPA. In univariate analysis, LrtPA was associated with patient's age (p=0.000), previous modified Rankin scale scores (mRS) (p<0.000), hypertension (p=0.076), diabetes mellitus (p=0.021), hypercholesterolemia (p=0.19), smoking (p=0.06), atrial fibrillation (p=0.10), history of coronary artery disease (p=0.06), previous treatment with antiplatelet agents (p<0.000), admission International Normalized Ratio-INR (p=0.18), platelet count (p=0.045), leukoaraiosis on neuroimaging (p<0.003), contraindications for thrombolytic treatment (p=0.000) and endovascular treatment (p=0.027). Previous relevant bleedings were determinants for treatment with LrtPA. Final diagnosis on discharge of stroke mimic was significant (p=0.02) for treatment with SrtPA. In multivariate analysis, mRS (OR: 2.21; 95%CI 1.37‒14.19), previous antiplatelet therapy (OR: 11.41; 95%CI 3.98‒32.70), contraindications for thrombolysis (OR: 56.10; 95%CI 8.81‒357.80), leukoaraiosis (OR: 4.41; 95%CI 1.37‒14.10) and diagnosis of SM (OR: 0.22; 95%CI 0.10‒0.40) remained independently associated. CONCLUSIONS: Following the ENCHANTED trial, LrtPA was restricted to 30% of our patients. The criteria that clinicians apply are based mostly on clinical variables that may increase the risk of brain or systemic hemorrhage or exclude the patient from treatment with lytic drugs.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Ter Arkh ; 92(9): 30-38, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33346428

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding is a common complication of antiplatelet therapy. Data from real clinical practice that characterize the range of risk factors for UGI bleeding, prophylactic proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) therapy, bleeding frequency and their long-term effects in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are limited. AIM: To identify predictors of UGI bleeding in patients with stable CAD, to assess the role of PPI in the prevention of bleeding and the long-term prognosis of patients after bleeding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 934 patients with stable CAD (median age 61 [5368] years, 78.6% men) were included in the single institution prospective REGistry of Long-term AnTithrombotic TherApy (REGATTA). Atherosclerosis of peripheral arteries (APA) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening was performed by doctor decision, as well as esophagogastroduodenoscopy. 76% of patients received dual antiplatelet therapy for 612 months after elective PCI. PPIs were prescribed in 28.3% of cases. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 2.5 [1.15.1] years. The frequency of overt UGI bleeding was 1.9 per 100 patients per year. Anamnesis of peptic ulcer disease (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.911.8;p=0.001), erosion of the upper gastrointestinal tract (OR 6.7; 2.716.6;p=0.00004 ), as well as concomitant diseases associated with a decrease in blood supply to the mucosa, such as heart failure HF (OR 6.1; 2.316.0;p=0.0002), AAA (OR 9.3; 2.534.2;p=0.0008) and APA (OR 2.3; 0.985.5;p=0.05) turned out to be independent predictors of UGI bleeding. The frequency of AAA among those who underwent UGI bleeding was 19.6% (in patients without bleeding 1.4%;p0.001). 90.2% of patients with UGI bleeding received PPI; the frequency of UGI bleeding in patients receiving pantoprazole and omeprazole did not differ significantly. After UGI bleeding, rebleeding rate was 7.8%, thrombotic events (TE) rate 31.4%, mortality rate 17.7% for 30 days, 19.4% for 1 year and 35.3% for the entire observation period. The predictors of deaths were AAA (OR 92.5; 7.7107.9;p0.0001), APA (OR 4.2; 1.0317.2;p=0.045) and HF (OR 34.5; 8.5140.6;p0.0001). The worst prognosis was expected for patients who underwent UGI bleeding and thrombotic events: 2/3 of these patients died. CONCLUSION: In a prospective analysis of patients with stable CAD, we identified UGI bleeding was a significant risk factor for late thromboembolism and death, compared with patients without bleeding. Predictors of UGI bleeding and poor prognosis are factors that indicate atherothrombotic burden abdominal aortic aneurysm, peripheral atherosclerosis and HF. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT04347200.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
8.
J Vasc Interv Radiol ; 31(12): 2052-2059, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare effectiveness and safety of large-bore aspiration thrombectomy (LBAT) with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) for treatment of acute massive and submassive pulmonary embolism (PE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective review included patients with acute PE treated with LBAT or CDT using tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) between December 2009 and May 2020. A propensity score based on Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index class and PE severity (massive vs submassive) was calculated, and 26 LBAT cases (age 60.2 y ± 17.1, 14/26 women) were matched with 26 CDT cases (age 59.7 y ± 14.2, 14/26 women). RESULTS: The CDT group had 22.1 mg ± 8.1 tPA infused over 21.2 h ± 6.6. Both groups demonstrated similar initial and final systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) (LBAT: 54.5 mm Hg ± 12.9 vs CDT: 54.5 mm Hg ± 16.3, P = .8, and LBAT: 42.5 mm Hg ± 14.1 vs CDT: 42.6 mm Hg ± 12.1, P = .8, respectively) and similar reductions in heart rate (LBAT: -5.4 beats/min ± 19.2 vs CDT: -9.6 beats/min ± 15.8, P = .4). CDT demonstrated a higher reduction in Miller score (-10.1 ± 3.9 vs -7.5 ± 3.8, P = .02). LBAT resulted in 1 minor hemorrhagic complication and 2 procedure-related mortalities, and CDT resulted in 1 minor and 1 major hemorrhagic complication. CONCLUSIONS: LBAT and CDT resulted in similar reductions of PAP and heart rate when used to treat acute PE. CDT reduced thrombus burden to a greater degree. Although hemorrhagic complications rates were not significantly different, the LBAT group demonstrated a higher rate of procedure-related mortality. Larger studies are needed to compare the safety of these techniques.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Embolia Pulmonar/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Pulmonar/mortalidade , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sucção , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Trombectomia/mortalidade , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 127(11): 625-633, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33252604

RESUMO

A 64-year-old man has deep caries in tooth 37 without acute pain; extraction is indicated, however. According to his list of medications, he takes the antithrombotics apixaban and clopidogrel. Or: a 78-year-old woman has upper and lower dentures that don't function well, and she experiences retention problems. Implant-bearing upper and lower dentures on 4 and 2 implants, respectively, are indicated. The patient takes acenocoumarol and reports that the clotting time value of her blood (INR) sometimes fluctuates. The clinical guidelines 'Dental procedures in patients using antithrombotic medication', which recently appeared, offer oral healthcare providers recommendations for reducing the risk of bleeding while observing the risk of thrombosis. These guidelines by the Dutch Institute of Expertise for Oral Healthcare replace the previous guidelines from 2012. The recommendations are up to date with current practice in the Netherlands and take into account all antithrombotics patients may currently use in an outpatient setting. Furthermore, the responsibilities of the oral healthcare providers and the agreements with thrombosis services are formalised in these guidelines.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos , Pessoal de Saúde , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos
10.
Pol Merkur Lekarski ; 48(287): 361-364, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130800

RESUMO

stroke or other thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). On the other hand, dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus P2Y12 inhibitor) represents a cornerstone in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome. Atrial fibrillation is relatively common in patients with coronary artery disease and patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with stent implantation. They should be on triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT): preferably direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) plus aspirin plus clopidogrel as it prevents ischemic as well as thromboembolic events. Before introducing OAT in patients with AF we must assess the risk of future bleeding episodes as OAT can lead to some life-threatening bleeding events. The most common risk score used for that purpose is HASBLED score. HAS-BLED score is valuable, proven tool in assessing future bleeding events in patients with AF. Nevertheless, it does not make the difference between dual and triple antithrombotic therapy which can be of great importance in preventing bleeding events.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos
11.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 53-63, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155941

RESUMO

Aim To study efficacy and safety of a triple antithrombotic therapy with direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) versus warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation after acute coronary syndrome, for 12 months following discharge from the hospital.Materials and methods This single-site cohort, prospective, observational study performed at the Regional Vascular Center 2 of the N.A. Semashko Nizhniy Novgorod Regional Clinical Hospital included 402 patients. It was possible to maintain contacts with 206 patients for 12 months. These patients were divided into two groups, the DOAC treatment (n=105) and the warfarin treatment (n=101) as a part of triple antithrombotic therapy upon discharge. Clinical observation was performed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the discharge by structured telephone interview. Predetermined efficacy endpoints included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and ischemic stroke. Safety endpoints included bleeding defined as small, medium (clinically significant), and major in accordance with the TIMI classification.Results At 12 months of follow-up, 80 patients (76.19%) continued taking DOAC and 39 patients (38.61%, p<0.001) continued taking warfarin; in this process, only 25 patients (24.75%) monitored their INR on a regular basis. With a regular INR monitoring and TTR >70%, death rate did not differ in the warfarin and the DOAC treatment groups. However, there was a difference in reaching the composite efficacy endpoint (p=0.048): ischemic events occurred statistically significantly more frequently in the warfarin treatment group than in the DOAC treatment group.Conclusions In 12 months after discharge from the hospital, compliance with the DOAC treatment as a part of the antithrombotic therapy was significantly higher than compliance with the warfarin treatment. The triple antithrombotic therapy with DOAC was safer than the warfarin treatment by the number of hemorrhagic complications and more effective in prevention of ischemic events, primarily due to no need for monitoring of lab test values.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Fibrilação Atrial , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
12.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 86-90, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155945

RESUMO

Objective Thromboembolic events such as acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary artery embolism and renal artery embolism are a rare condition but a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study we discussed low-dose thrombolytic therapy, in patients with thromboembolic events in the intensive care unit.Methods The study was performed on 12 consecutive patients [8 female; 50.3±16.0 (35-95) years] with acute thromboembolism including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, acute pulmonary embolism and acute renal embolism who were treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. We evaluated mainly in-hospital safety and also effectiveness.Total treatment episodes was 1.66±0.88 (1-4) times.Results All thromboembolic events have been successfully treated with low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA. The success criteria were clinically improvement and radiologically lysis. None of the patients had ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, embolism (peripheral and recurrence of coronary artery embolism), bleeding requiring transfusion. The most frequent in-hospital complication was a gum bleeding without need for transfusion (two patients).Conclusions In our case series low-dose (25 mg) and slow infusion (6 hours) of t-PA have been performed successfully for thromboembolic events including acute coronary syndrome related prosthetic heart valve thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and renal embolism in patients with in the intensive care unit. Safety is promising and if efficacy will be proved; this method may be a valuable alternative to standard fibrinolytic regimen.


Assuntos
Embolia Pulmonar , Tromboembolia , Trombose , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Embolia Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia/etiologia , Terapia Trombolítica , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos
13.
Kardiologiia ; 60(7): 115-124, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155950

RESUMO

The review focuses on upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) receiving an antithrombotic therapy. Approaches to risk stratification for GI bleeding and correction of modifiable factors that determine the probability of such events are addressed in detail. Recommendations are provided for administration of stomach-protecting drugs. The interrelation of risk factors for thromboses and bleedings is stressed, and possible indications for a multicomponent antithrombotic therapy in patients with stable IHD are discussed.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Trombose , Anticoagulantes , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Kardiologiia ; 60(8): 33-45, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155957

RESUMO

Aim      Searching for clinical, angiographic, and biochemical predictors of cardiovascular complications (CVC) and hemorrhagic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving a multicomponent antithrombotic therapy (MAT) for an elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and AF who require MAT for PCI are at a high risk of thrombotic complications (stroke, systemic embolism, coronary events) and hemorrhage. This warrants searching for new risk factors determining prediction of the outcome.Materials and methods This study included 207 patients (146 males aged 70.1±8.3 years) with IHD and AF who received direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) as a part of their MAT therapy. Median duration of the follow-up was 12 [8.0; 12.0] months. The efficacy endpoint was a sum of CVCs combining cardiovascular death, ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolic complications, acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and requirement for an unscheduled PCI. "Coronary events", including ACS and requirement for an unscheduled PCI were analyzed separately. The safety endpoint was BARC type 2-5 bleeding. Upon admission, biomarkers (growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), D-dimer, thrombin-activated fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)) were measured for all patients. Searching for prognostically significant indexes was performed with the Cox proportional hazards regression.Results Incidence of all CVCs was 16.4 %. Independent predictors of CVC included the DOAC treatment at a reduced dose (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 at 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-6.15; p=0.0454), GDF-15 >1191 pg /ml (OR 3.76 at 95 % CI, 1.26-11.18; p=0.0172), PAI-1 >13.2 U/ml (OR 2.67 at 95 % CI, 1.13-6,26; p=0.0245). Incidence of coronary complications was 9.2 %. Independent predictors of coronary complications included a SYNTAX index >26.5 (OR 4.5 at 95 % CI, 1.45-13.60; p=0.0090), PCI for chronic coronary occlusion (OR 3.21 at 95 % CI, 1.10-9.33; p=0.0326), a GDF-15 >1191 pg/ml (ОR 4.70 at 95 % CI, 1.32-16.81; p=0.0172). Incidence of BARC type 2-5 bleeding was 26.1 %. The only independent predictor for hemorrhage complications was the total PRECISE-DAPT score >30 (ОR 3.22; 95 % CI, 1.89-5.51; р<0.0001).Conclusion      Three independent predictors of CVC were identified for patients with IHD and AF treated with MAT following an elective PCI: treatment with a reduced dose of DOAC, GDF-15 >1191 pg /ml, and PAI-1>13.2 U/ml. Independent predictors of coronary complications included a SYNTAX index >26.5, PCI for chronic coronary occlusion, and GDF-15 >1191 pg/ml. The factor associated with a risk of bleeding was the total PRECISE-DAPT score >30.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Anticoagulantes , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Lancet ; 396(10262): 1574-1584, 2020 11 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset have been previously excluded from thrombolysis. We aimed to establish whether intravenous alteplase is safe and effective in such patients when salvageable tissue has been identified with imaging biomarkers. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data for trials published before Sept 21, 2020. Randomised trials of intravenous alteplase versus standard of care or placebo in adults with stroke with unknown time of onset with perfusion-diffusion MRI, perfusion CT, or MRI with diffusion weighted imaging-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch were eligible. The primary outcome was favourable functional outcome (score of 0-1 on the modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) at 90 days indicating no disability using an unconditional mixed-effect logistic-regression model fitted to estimate the treatment effect. Secondary outcomes were mRS shift towards a better functional outcome and independent outcome (mRS 0-2) at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death, severe disability or death (mRS score 4-6), and symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020166903. FINDINGS: Of 249 identified abstracts, four trials met our eligibility criteria for inclusion: WAKE-UP, EXTEND, THAWS, and ECASS-4. The four trials provided individual patient data for 843 individuals, of whom 429 (51%) were assigned to alteplase and 414 (49%) to placebo or standard care. A favourable outcome occurred in 199 (47%) of 420 patients with alteplase and in 160 (39%) of 409 patients among controls (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·49 [95% CI 1·10-2·03]; p=0·011), with low heterogeneity across studies (I2=27%). Alteplase was associated with a significant shift towards better functional outcome (adjusted common OR 1·38 [95% CI 1·05-1·80]; p=0·019), and a higher odds of independent outcome (adjusted OR 1·50 [1·06-2·12]; p=0·022). In the alteplase group, 90 (21%) patients were severely disabled or died (mRS score 4-6), compared with 102 (25%) patients in the control group (adjusted OR 0·76 [0·52-1·11]; p=0·15). 27 (6%) patients died in the alteplase group and 14 (3%) patients died among controls (adjusted OR 2·06 [1·03-4·09]; p=0·040). The prevalence of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage was higher in the alteplase group than among controls (11 [3%] vs two [<1%], adjusted OR 5·58 [1·22-25·50]; p=0·024). INTERPRETATION: In patients who have had a stroke with unknown time of onset with a DWI-FLAIR or perfusion mismatch, intravenous alteplase resulted in better functional outcome at 90 days than placebo or standard care. A net benefit was observed for all functional outcomes despite an increased risk of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. Although there were more deaths with alteplase than placebo, there were fewer cases of severe disability or death. FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , /tratamento farmacológico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(12): 1743-1751, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249908

RESUMO

AIMS: Malignancy and surgery are risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We undertook a systematic review of the literature concerning the prophylactic management of VTE in orthopaedic oncology patients. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Ovid), Cochrane, and CINAHL databases were searched focusing on VTE, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), bleeding, or wound complication rates. RESULTS: In all, 17 studies published from 1998 to 2018 met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The mean incidence of all VTE events in orthopaedic oncology patients was 10.7% (1.1% to 27.7%). The rate of PE was 2.4% (0.1% to 10.6%) while the rate of lethal PE was 0.6% (0.0% to 4.3%). The overall rate of DVT was 8.8% (1.1% to 22.3%) and the rate of symptomatic DVT was 2.9% (0.0% to 6.2%). From the studies that screened all patients prior to hospital discharge, the rate of asymptomatic DVT was 10.9% (2.0% to 20.2%). The most common risk factors identified for VTE were endoprosthetic replacements, hip and pelvic resections, presence of metastases, surgical procedures taking longer than three hours, and patients having chemotherapy. Mean incidence of VTE with and without chemical prophylaxis was 7.9% (1.1% to 21.8%) and 8.7% (2.0% to 23.4%; p = 0.11), respectively. No difference in the incidence of bleeding or wound complications between prophylaxis groups was reported. CONCLUSION: Current evidence is limited to guide clinicians. It is our consensus opinion, based upon logic and deduction, that all patients be considered for both mechanical and chemical VTE prophylaxis, particularly in high-risk patients (pelvic or hip resections, prosthetic reconstruction, malignant diagnosis, presence of metastases, or surgical procedures longer than three hours). Additionally, the surgeon must determine, in each patient, if the risk of haemorrhage outweighs the risk of VTE. No individual pharmacological agent has been identified as being superior in the prevention of VTE events. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(12)1743:-1751.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/cirurgia , Fármacos Hematológicos/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/efeitos adversos , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ósseas/complicações , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Hematológicos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Meias de Compressão , Filtros de Veia Cava , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia
17.
Int Heart J ; 61(6): 1289-1293, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191357

RESUMO

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative disorder that is characterized by the overproduction of platelets and a marked increase in the numbers of mature megakaryocytes present in the bone marrow. Thrombohemorrhagic disorders are major morbidities of ET, especially those with mutations in the gene encoding Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). In this study, we report the case of an 18-year-old patient with ET carrying JAK2 mutation who developed acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) 5 months after a commencement of anagrelide. Coronary endothelial dysfunction confirmed by positive acetylcholine provocation test lasted a year after the occurrence of STEMI. Furthermore, intracoronary imaging using optical coherence tomography demonstrated non-atheromatous intimal fibrosis possibly due to chronic endothelial damage. The coronary pathologies reflected chronic change potentially associated with properties of ET and JAK2 mutation in addition to hyperviscosity. These observations suggest that the side effect of anagrelide in our patient was considered causative, while underlying chronic endothelial dysfunction and adverse endothelial remodeling may be predisposing factors to his fatal cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Quinazolinas/efeitos adversos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitemia Essencial/tratamento farmacológico , Acetilcolina , Adolescente , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Endotélio Vascular/diagnóstico por imagem , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Fibrose , Testes de Função Cardíaca , Humanos , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Nitroglicerina , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Cintilografia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Trombectomia , Trombocitemia Essencial/sangue , Trombocitemia Essencial/genética , Trombocitemia Essencial/fisiopatologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Túnica Íntima/diagnóstico por imagem , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Túnica Íntima/fisiopatologia , Vasodilatadores
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105204, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An extended time window for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute stroke patients up to 9 hours from symptom onset has been established in recent trials, excluding patients who received mechanical thrombectomy (MT). We therefore investigated whether combined therapy with IVT and MT (IVT+MT) is safe in patients with ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusion (LVO) in an extended time window. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with anterior circulation ischemic stroke and LVO who were treated within 4.5 to 9 hours after symptom onset using MT with or without IVT. Primary endpoint was the occurrence of any intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: In total, 168 patients were included in the study, 44 (26%) were treated with IVT+ MT. 133 (79%) patients had a M1-/distal carotid artery occlusion. Median ASPECT-Score was 8 (IQR 7-10) and complete reperfusion (mTICI 2b-3) was achieved in 132 (79%) patients. 18 (41%) of the patients in the IVT+MT group developed any ICH vs. 45 (36%) patients in the direct MT group (p=0.587). Symptomatic ICH occurred in 5 (11%) patients with IVT+MT vs. 8 (6%) patients receiving direct MT (p=0.295). In multivariable analysis, IVT+MT was not an independent predictor of ICH (adjusted for NIHSS, degree of reperfusion, symptom-onset-to-treatment time and therapy with tirofiban; OR 0.95 [95% CI 0.43-2.08], p=0.896). CONCLUSION: Mechanical thrombectomy in stroke patients seems to be safe with combined intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 to 9 hours after onset as it did not significantly increase the risk for intracranial hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Trombectomia , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Terapia Combinada , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Card Surg ; 35(10): 2522-2528, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33043663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a rare but life-threatening complication of heart valve replacement. Based on the current guidelines, the treatment of a large number of these patients could be performed through the administration of thrombolytic agents. In the present study, we aim to assess the safety of thrombolytic therapy in patients with PVT who have high international normalized ratio (INR) levels. METHODS: In this study, we retrospectively analyzed outcomes of thrombolytic therapy in 65 PVT patients with different levels of INR at the time of fibrinolysis at a tertiary cardiac center. RESULTS: Mean age of patients was 51.6 ± 12.47 years. The tricuspid valve was the most common site of prosthetic valve thrombosis (64.6%). The Median (range) of INR was 2.1 (0.9-4.9). The majority of patients (50.8%) achieved a complete response following thrombolytic treatment. There were no cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Other major and minor bleedings occurred in 3 (4.6%) and 10 (15.4%) patients, respectively. No embolic stroke and systemic embolism were observed. We found no significant difference in the frequency of major (P-value = .809) and minor (P-value = .483) bleeding as well as response to thrombolytic therapy (P-value = .658) between patients with different levels of INR. Total administered dose of Streptokinase was also similar in PVT patients with or without major (P-value = .467) and minor (P-value = .221) bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that there was no significant difference between PVT patients presenting with subtherapeutic and high INR levels who received thrombolytic treatments regarding both minor and major bleeding complications as well as response to thrombolysis.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estreptoquinase/uso terapêutico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Trombose/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Coeficiente Internacional Normatizado/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Estreptoquinase/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105341, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of expansion of the time window (from 3 to 4.5 hours) in the labeled indication for recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in August 2012 on the use of rt-PA for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and the outcomes of patients treated with rt-PA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a Japanese nationwide inpatient claims database, we identified patients with AIS who admitted to hospitals that consecutively participated in the database from 2010 to 2014. We defined the pre-expansion period as before August 2012 and the post-expansion period as after August 2012. We conducted an interrupted time-series analysis using patient-level data to examine the association between the expansion and use of rt-PA. We also assessed the association of the expansion with outcomes in patients treated with rt-PA. RESULTS: Among 257,778 patients with AIS, 4.5% patients (5,796/129,326) were treated with rt-PA in the pre-expansion period and 5.8% patients (7,483/128,452) were treated with rt-PA in the post-expansion period. The expansion was associated with greater use of rt-PA (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.48). Among patients treated with rt-PA, the expansion was associated with functional independence (modified Rankin scale of ≤2) at discharge (aOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.03-1.54), but not with in-hospital mortality (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.68-1.24). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that expansion of the time window for rt-PA was associated with increased use of rt-PA in patients with AIS, while the functional outcome at discharge was improved after the expansion in patients treated with rt-PA.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Isquemia Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Terapia Trombolítica/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
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