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1.
Cancer Sci ; 111(10): 3468-3477, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044028

RESUMO

The effectiveness of current chemotherapies for cancer is gradually progressing; however achieving a complete cure through chemotherapy is still difficult and has been the main goal in treatment of advanced cancer. Drug resistance is an issue in cancer therapy, therefore increasing numbers of investigations into drug resistance have focused on the characteristics of the cancer cells themselves. The interaction between the tumor microenvironment (TME) and cancer cells is also intimately involved in the development of drug resistance. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a predominant component of the TME and affect tumor progression by secreting soluble factors. This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge of CAFs and drug resistance in cancer, with a focus on factors secreted from CAFs including proteins, cytokines, extracellular vesicles, and metabolites. A perspective on the potential role of anti-CAF therapies in overcoming CAF-induced drug resistance is also discussed.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Resistência a Medicamentos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5077, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033240

RESUMO

Although substantial progress has been made in cancer biology and treatment, clinical outcomes of bladder carcinoma (BC) patients are still not satisfactory. The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a potential target. Here, by single-cell RNA sequencing on 8 BC tumor samples and 3 para tumor samples, we identify 19 different cell types in the BC microenvironment, indicating high intra-tumoral heterogeneity. We find that tumor cells down regulated MHC-II molecules, suggesting that the downregulated immunogenicity of cancer cells may contribute to the formation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. We also find that monocytes undergo M2 polarization in the tumor region and differentiate. Furthermore, the LAMP3 + DC subgroup may be able to recruit regulatory T cells, potentially taking part in the formation of an immunosuppressive TME. Through correlation analysis using public datasets containing over 3000 BC samples, we identify a role for inflammatory cancer-associated fibroblasts (iCAFs) in tumor progression, which is significantly related to poor prognosis. Additionally, we characterize a regulatory network depending on iCAFs. These results could help elucidate the protumor mechanisms of iCAFs. Our results provide deep insight into cancer immunology and provide an essential resource for drug discovery in the future.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Análise de Célula Única , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Área Sob a Curva , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Polaridade Celular , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Ligantes , Glicoproteínas de Membrana Associadas ao Lisossomo/metabolismo , Monócitos/patologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral , Bexiga Urinária/imunologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5126, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046701

RESUMO

Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a key component of the tumor microenvironment. Genomic alterations in these cells remain a point of contention. We report that CAFs from skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) display chromosomal alterations, with heterogeneous NOTCH1 gene amplification and overexpression that also occur, to a lesser extent, in dermal fibroblasts of apparently unaffected skin. The fraction of the latter cells harboring NOTCH1 amplification is expanded by chronic UVA exposure, to which CAFs are resistant. The advantage conferred by NOTCH1 amplification and overexpression can be explained by NOTCH1 ability to block the DNA damage response (DDR) and ensuing growth arrest through suppression of ATM-FOXO3a association and downstream signaling cascade. In an orthotopic model of skin SCC, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH1 activity suppresses cancer/stromal cells expansion. Here we show that NOTCH1 gene amplification and increased expression in CAFs are an attractive target for stroma-focused anti-cancer intervention.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Amplificação de Genes , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Animais , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Receptor Notch1/genética , Pele/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559232

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comparison of human mRNA microarray results from tumor-associated and normal cervical fibroblasts revealed significant TFPI2 downregulation in tumor-associated fibroblasts isolated from cervical cancer, indicating that TFPI2 downregulation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In the present work, we investigated the mechanism of TFPI2 downregulation in tumor-associated fibroblasts and tumor cells. METHODS: In vitro models of monocultures and co-cultures were established with tumor cells and fibroblasts to explore the changes of TFPI-2 expression and epigenetic modifications of the TFPI2 gene. RESULTS: The TFPI2 gene was hypermethylated only in tumor cells. Reduction of TFPI-2 protein levels in tumor-associated fibroblasts, although the gene was not methylated, suggested alternative regulatory mechanisms of gene expression, such as inhibition by microRNAs. The expression pattern of miR-23a, a gene thought to inhibit TFPI2 translation, showed changes strongly correlated to detected TFPI-2 protein alterations. Transfections with miR-23a mimics resulted in a decrease of TFPI-2 protein expression whereas miR-23a inhibitors increased the TFPI-2 amount. Due to downregulation of miR-23a expression by HPV in cancer cells, TFPI2 was silenced by promoter methylation. In contrary, miR-23a was active in HPV-free fibroblasts and inactivated TFPI2. CONCLUSION: These results indicate dual epigenetic inhibition of TFPI2 on the transcription level by promoter methylation in cancer cells and on the translation level by miR-23a in tumor-associated fibroblasts. As a consequence, inactivation of the TFPI2 gene plays a strategic role in the progression of cervical cancer.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Glicoproteínas/genética , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/genética , Adulto , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
5.
Life Sci ; 256: 117955, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534038

RESUMO

AIMS: Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a crucial role in lung tumor development, but the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. MAIN METHODS: SCRIB expression in the CAFs of human lung cancer tissues was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A coculture of mouse Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC) and fibroblasts was used to investigate SCRIB expression in cocultured fibroblasts. Proliferation, scratch wound, and transwell assays were used to examine the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of SCRIB knockdown fibroblasts and their effects on LLC. A 3D-coculture system and co-injection xenograft model were used to examine LLC invasion. RNA sequencing and transwell experiments were used to explore the molecules that may participate in LLC invasion. KEY FINDINGS: Herein, we found that the low expression of SCRIB in CAFs is correlated with advanced tumor stages and poor survival for human lung squamous cell carcinoma. SCRIB expression in fibroblasts is drastically downregulated by LLC cells. SCRIB knockdown fibroblasts not only enhance invasion but also facilitate LLC invasion in a 3D-coculture system and in an in vivo subcutaneous transplantation model. The upregulation of asporin in SCRIB knockdown fibroblasts is involved in LLC invasion in vitro. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, the results indicate that fibroblasts with low SCRIB expression promote lung cancer cell invasion, which suggests that the downregulated expression of SCRIB may represent one of the important characteristics of tumor-promoting CAFs in lung squamous cell cancer.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Biológicos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
6.
Mol Carcinog ; 59(9): 1028-1040, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557854

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) constitute a major compartment of the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, we investigated the role for CAFs in breast cancer progression and underlying molecular mechanisms. Human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells treated with the CAF-conditioned media manifested a more proliferative phenotype, as evidenced by enhanced messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Cyclin D1, c-Myc, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas revealed that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) expression was well correlated with the presence of CAFs. We noticed that the mRNA level of FGF2 in CAFs was higher than that in normal fibroblasts. FGF2 exerts its biological effects through interaction with FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1). In the breast cancer tissue array, 42% estrogen receptor-negative patients coexpressed FGF2 and FGFR1, whereas only 19% estrogen receptor-positive patients exhibited coexpression. CAF-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasiveness were abolished when FGF2-neutralizing antibody was added to the conditioned media of CAFs. In a xenograft mouse model, coinjection of MDA-MB-231 cells with activated fibroblasts expressing FGF2 dramatically enhanced tumor growth, and this was abrogated by silencing of FGFR1 in cancer cells. In addition, treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with FGF2 enhanced expression of Cyclin D1, a key molecule involved in cell cycle progression. FGF2-induced cell migration and upregulation of Cyclin D1 were abolished by siRNA-mediated FGFR1 silencing. Taken together, the above findings suggest that CAFs promote growth, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells via the paracrine FGF2-FGFR1 loop in the breast tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Movimento Celular , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Comunicação Parácrina , Prognóstico , Receptor Tipo 1 de Fator de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555715

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are activated fibroblasts and are the major stromal component in various types of malignancies. CAFs often undergo metabolic reprogramming to create an appropriate microenvironment for cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether the metastatic properties of cancer cells affect aerobic glycolysis in stromal cells. Here, we show that gastric cancer (GC) cells with high metastatic potential strongly promote the metabolic switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis in fibroblasts. Transcriptome analysis showed that the expression of glycolysis-related genes, such as LDHA and ENO2, significantly changed in fibroblasts when they were cocultured with cancer cells with high metastatic potential compared to fibroblasts incubated with cancer cells with low metastatic potential. Glucose uptake, lactate production and oxygen consumption in fibroblasts were changed by coculture with GC cells with high metastatic potential. Thus, metabolic reprogramming in CAFs may reflect the metastatic properties of GC cells.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glicólise/genética , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
8.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 758-766, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483388

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) perform diverse roles and can modulate therapy responses1. The inflammatory environment within tumours also influences responses to many therapies, including the efficacy of oncolytic viruses2; however, the role of CAFs in this context remains unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the cell signalling triggered by heterotypic cancer cell-fibroblast contacts and about what activates fibroblasts to express inflammatory mediators1,3. Here, we show that direct contact between cancer cells and CAFs triggers the expression of a wide range of inflammatory modulators by fibroblasts. This is initiated following transcytosis of cytoplasm from cancer cells into fibroblasts, leading to the activation of STING and IRF3-mediated expression of interferon-ß1 and other cytokines. Interferon-ß1 then drives interferon-stimulated transcriptional programs in both cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts and ultimately undermines the efficacy of oncolytic viruses, both in vitro and in vivo. Further, targeting IRF3 solely in stromal fibroblasts restores oncolytic herpes simplex virus function.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Instabilidade Genômica , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Terapia Viral Oncolítica , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Células Estromais/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/terapia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Vírus Oncolíticos/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Prostate ; 80(9): 715-726, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32364250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor microenvironment or stroma has the potency to regulate the behavior of malignant cells. Fibroblast-like cells are abundant in tumor stroma and they are also responsible for the synthesis of many extracellular matrix components. Fibroblast-cancer cell interplay can modify the functions of both cell types. METHODS: We applied mass spectrometry and proteomics to unveil the matrisome in 3D spheroids formed by DU145 prostate cancer cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, or prostate-derived fibroblasts. Similarly, DU145/fibroblast and PC3/fibroblast coculture spheroids were also analyzed. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence were used to confirm the presence of specific proteins in spheroids. Cancer dissemination was studied by utilizing "out of spheroids" migration and invasion assays. RESULTS: In the spheroid model cancer cell-fibroblast interplay caused remarkable changes in the extracellular matrix and accelerated the invasion of DU145 cells. Fibroblasts produced structural matrix proteins, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteinases. In cancer cell/fibroblast cocultures basement membrane components, including laminins (α3, α5, ß2, and ß3), heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG2 gene product), and collagen XVIII accumulated in a prominent manner when compared with spheroids that contained fibroblasts or cancer cells only. Furthermore, collagen XVIII was intensively processed to different endostatin-containing isoforms by cancer cell-derived cathepsin L. CONCLUSIONS: Fibroblasts can promote carcinoma cell dissemination by several different mechanisms. Extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins provide attachment sites for cell locomotion promoting adhesion receptors. Growth factors and metalloproteinases are known to accelerate cell invasion. In addition, cancer cell-fibroblast interplay generates biologically active fragments of basement membrane proteins, such as endostatin.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Membrana Basal/metabolismo , Catepsina L/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Invasividade Neoplásica , Colágenos não Fibrilares/metabolismo , Células PC-3 , Proteômica/métodos , Esferoides Celulares
10.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2385-2399, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385953

RESUMO

The tumor microenvironment (TME) consists of various components including cancer cells, tumor vessels, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and inflammatory cells. These components interact with each other via various cytokines, which often induce tumor progression. Thus, a greater understanding of TME networks is crucial for the development of novel cancer therapies. Many cancer types express high levels of TGF-ß, which induces endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), leading to formation of CAFs. Although we previously reported that CAFs derived from EndMT promoted tumor formation, the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells secrete various cytokines, including TNF-α. However, the role of TNF-α in TGF-ß-induced EndMT has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study examined the effect of TNF-α on TGF-ß-induced EndMT in human endothelial cells (ECs). Various types of human ECs underwent EndMT in response to TGF-ß and TNF-α, which was accompanied by increased and decreased expression of mesenchymal cell and EC markers, respectively. In addition, treatment of ECs with TGF-ß and TNF-α exhibited sustained activation of Smad2/3 signals, which was presumably induced by elevated expression of TGF-ß type I receptor, TGF-ß2, activin A, and integrin αv, suggesting that TNF-α enhanced TGF-ß-induced EndMT by augmenting TGF-ß family signals. Furthermore, oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived cells underwent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to humoral factors produced by TGF-ß and TNF-α-cultured ECs. This EndMT-driven EMT was blocked by inhibiting the action of TGF-ßs. Collectively, our findings suggest that TNF-α enhances TGF-ß-dependent EndMT, which contributes to tumor progression.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Bucais/genética , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptor do Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta Tipo I , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/farmacologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384110

RESUMO

Fibroblasts as key components of tumor microenvironment show different features in the interaction with cancer cells. Although, Normal fibroblasts demonstrate anti-tumor effects, cancer associated fibroblasts are principal participant in tumor growth and invasion. The ambiguity of fibroblasts function can be regarded as two heads of its behavioral spectrum and can be subjected for mathematical modeling to identify their switching behavior. In this research, an agent-based model of mutual interactions between fibroblast and cancer cell was created. The proposed model is based on nonlinear differential equations which describes biochemical reactions of the main factors involved in fibroblasts and cancer cells communication. Also, most of the model parameters are estimated using hybrid unscented Kalman filter. The interactions between two cell types are illustrated by the dynamic modeling of TGFß and LIF pathways as well as their crosstalk. Using analytical and computational approaches, reciprocal effects of cancer cells and fibroblasts are constructed and the role of signaling molecules in tumor progression or prevention are determined. Finally, the model is validated using a set of experimental data. The proposed dynamic modeling might be useful for designing more efficient therapies in cancer metastasis treatment and prevention.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Células A549 , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Fator Inibidor de Leucemia/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Dinâmica não Linear , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Análise de Sistemas , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413029

RESUMO

Bone marrow stroma influences metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) progression, latency, and recurrence. At sites of PCa bone metastasis, cancer-associated fibroblasts and tumor-associated macrophages interact to establish a perlecan-rich desmoplastic stroma. As a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, perlecan (HSPG2) stores and stabilizes growth factors, including heparin-binding Wnt3A, a positive regulator of PCa cell growth. Because PCa cells alone do not induce CAF production of perlecan in the desmoplastic stroma, we sought to discover the sources of perlecan and its growth factor-releasing modifiers SULF1, SULF2, and heparanase in PCa cells and xenografts, bone marrow fibroblasts, and macrophages. SULF1, produced primarily by bone marrow fibroblasts, was the main glycosaminoglycanase present, a finding validated with primary tissue specimens of PCa metastases with desmoplastic bone stroma. Expression of both HSPG2 and SULF1 was concentrated in αSMA-rich stroma near PCa tumor nests, where infiltrating pro-tumor TAMs also were present. To decipher SULF1's role in the reactive bone stroma, we created a bone marrow biomimetic hydrogel incorporating perlecan, PCa cells, macrophages, and fibroblastic bone marrow stromal cells. Finding that M2-like macrophages increased levels of SULF1 and HSPG2 produced by fibroblasts, we examined SULF1 function in Wnt3A-mediated PCa tumoroid growth in tricultures. Comparing control or SULF1 knockout fibroblastic cells, we showed that SULF1 reduces Wnt3A-driven growth, cellularity, and cluster number of PCa cells in our 3D model. We conclude that SULF1 can suppress Wnt3A-driven growth signals in the desmoplastic stroma of PCa bone metastases, and SULF1 loss favors PCa progression, even in the presence of pro-tumorigenic TAMs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Sulfotransferases/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo
13.
Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(8): 487-505, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393771

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the Western world with limited therapeutic options and dismal long-term survival. The neoplastic epithelium exists within a dense stroma, which is recognized as a critical mediator of disease progression through direct effects on cancer cells and indirect effects on the tumour immune microenvironment. The three dominant entities in the PDAC stroma are extracellular matrix (ECM), vasculature and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The ECM can function as a barrier to effective drug delivery to PDAC cancer cells, and a multitude of strategies to target the ECM have been attempted in the past decade. The tumour vasculature is a complex system and, although multiple anti-angiogenesis agents have already failed late-stage clinical trials in PDAC, other vasculature-targeting approaches aimed at vessel normalization and tumour immunosensitization have shown promise in preclinical models. Lastly, PDAC CAFs participate in active cross-talk with cancer cells within the tumour microenvironment. The existence of intratumoural CAF heterogeneity represents a paradigm shift in PDAC CAF biology, with myofibroblastic and inflammatory CAF subtypes that likely make distinct contributions to PDAC progression. In this Review, we discuss our current understanding of the three principal constituents of PDAC stroma, their effect on the prevalent immune landscape and promising therapeutic targets within this compartment.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/análogos & derivados , 1-(5-Isoquinolinasulfonil)-2-Metilpiperazina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/irrigação sanguínea , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/imunologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Líquido Extracelular , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Pressão , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores
14.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 49, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most breast cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are active and important cancer-promoting cells, with significant impact on patient prognosis. Therefore, we investigated here the role of the protein kinase ATR in breast stromal fibroblasts in the prognosis of locally advanced breast cancer patients. METHODS: We have used immunohistochemistry to assess the level of ATR in breast cancer tissues and their adjacent normal tissues. Immunoblotting as well as quantitative RT-PCR were utilized to show the role of breast cancer cells and IL-6 as well as AUF-1 in downregulating ATR in breast stromal fibroblasts. Engineered human breast tissue model was also used to show that ATR-deficient breast stromal fibroblasts enhance the growth of breast cancer cells. RESULTS: We have shown that the protein kinase ATR is downregulated in cancer cells and their neighboring CAFs in breast cancer tissues as compared to their respective adjacent normal tissues. The implication of cancer cells in ATR knockdown in CAFs has been proven in vitro by showing that breast cancer cells downregulate ATR in breast fibroblasts in an IL-6/STAT3-dependent manner and via AUF-1. In another cohort of 103 tumors from locally advanced breast cancer patients, we have shown that absence or reduced ATR expression in tumoral cells and their adjacent stromal fibroblasts is correlated with poor overall survival as well as disease-free survival. Furthermore, ATR expression in CAFs was inversely correlated with tumor recurrence and progression. CONCLUSION: ATR downregulation in breast CAFs is frequent, procarcinogenic, and correlated with poor patient survival.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia
15.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C233-C243, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432930

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is a devastating disease with a poor survival rate. It is resistant to therapy in part due to its unique tumor microenvironment, characterized by a desmoplastic reaction resulting in a dense stroma that constitutes a large fraction of the tumor volume. A major contributor to the desmoplastic reaction are cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). CAFs actively interact with cancer cells and promote tumor progression by different mechanisms, including extracellular matrix deposition, remodeling, and secretion of tumor promoting factors, making CAFs an attractive target for PDA. However, emerging evidences indicate significant tumor-suppressive functions of CAFs, highlighting the complexity of CAF biology. CAFs were once considered as a uniform cell type within the cancer stroma. Recently, the existence of CAF heterogeneity in PDA has become appreciated. Due to advances in single cell technology, distinct subtypes of CAFs have been identified in PDA. Here we review recent updates in CAF biology in PDA, which may help develop effective CAF-targeted therapies in the future.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Adenocarcinoma/classificação , Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/classificação , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Proliferação de Células/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/classificação , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Análise de Célula Única , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
16.
Nat Cell Biol ; 22(7): 882-895, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451439

RESUMO

It is well accepted that cancers co-opt the microenvironment for their growth. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie cancer-microenvironment interactions are still poorly defined. Here, we show that Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) in the mammary tumour epithelium selectively actuates protein-kinase-R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), causing the recruitment and persistent education of tumour-promoting cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are part of the cancer microenvironment. An analysis of tumours from patients and mice reveals that cysteine-rich with EGF-like domains 2 (CRELD2) is the paracrine factor that underlies PERK-mediated CAF education downstream of ROCK. We find that CRELD2 is regulated by PERK-regulated ATF4, and depleting CRELD2 suppressed tumour progression, demonstrating that the paracrine ROCK-PERK-ATF4-CRELD2 axis promotes the progression of breast cancer, with implications for cancer therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Reprogramação Celular , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , eIF-2 Quinase/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/genética , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Comunicação Parácrina , eIF-2 Quinase/genética , Quinases Associadas a rho/genética
17.
Cell ; 181(2): 486-486.e1, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302576

RESUMO

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are an integral component of the tumor microenvironment and have both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive functions. This SnapShot summarizes the origins of CAFs, their diverse functions, and how this relates to heterogeneity within the population. The suitability of targeting CAFs therapeutically is also discussed.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/fisiologia , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia
18.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 115: 104442, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305340

RESUMO

Recent insights have implicated mesothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (MMT) as a mechanism by which mesothelial cells can transdifferentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in several cancers metastasizing to the peritoneum. However, this was not evaluated extensively in colorectal cancer. We examined the presumed mesothelial origin of CAFs in three types of colorectal carcinoma: conventional type adenocarcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma. We evaluated the expression of mesothelial, mesenchymal, angiogenesis and colorectal cancer-related markers in peritoneal samples of twelve colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis and four control patients by immunohistochemistry. We observed morphological and immunohistochemical changes in the vicinity of tumor implants in all studied colorectal cancer types. Mesothelial cells acquired a spindle-shaped myofibroblast-like morphology, lost expression of mesothelial markers, and gained expression of mesenchymal markers. Analysis of consecutive tissue sections and double staining for mesothelial and mesenchymal markers revealed overlap in expression of mesothelial and CAF markers. These findings are highly suggestive of a mesothelial origin of CAFs in peritoneal carcinomatosis in colorectal cancer. Interfering with the process of MMT might be a valuable approach in treating and preventing peritoneal carcinomatosis. Differences observed between colorectal cancer types suggest that one single strategy might not be applicable.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/secundário , Microambiente Tumoral , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Epitélio/patologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Células Estromais/patologia , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
19.
Cancer Res ; 80(12): 2628-2638, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312837

RESUMO

TGFß plays a crucial role in the tumor microenvironment by regulating cell-cell and cell-stroma interactions. We previously demonstrated that TGFß signaling on myeloid cells regulates expression of CD73, a key enzyme for production of adenosine, a protumorigenic metabolite implicated in regulation of tumor cell behaviors, immune response, and angiogenesis. Here, using an MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary tumor model, we discovered that deletion of TGFß signaling on myeloid cells (PyMT/TGFßRIILysM) affects extracellular matrix (ECM) formation in tumor tissue, specifically increasing collagen and decreasing fibronectin deposition. These changes were associated with mitigated tumor growth and reduced metastases. Reduced TGFß signaling on fibroblasts was associated with their proximity to CD73+ myeloid cells in tumor tissue. Consistent with these findings, adenosine significantly downregulated TGFß signaling on fibroblasts, an effect regulated by A2A and A2B adenosine receptors. METABRIC dataset analysis revealed that patients with triple-negative breast cancer and basal type harbored a similar signature of adenosine and ECM profiles; high expression of A2B adenosine receptors correlated with decreased expression of Col1 and was associated with poor outcome. Taken together, our studies reveal a new role for TGFß signaling on myeloid cells in tumorigenesis. This discovered cross-talk between TGFß/CD73 on myeloid cells and TGFß signaling on fibroblasts can contribute to ECM remodeling and protumorigenic actions of cancer-associated fibroblasts. SIGNIFICANCE: TGFß signaling on fibroblasts is decreased in breast cancer, correlates with poor prognosis, and appears to be driven by adenosine that accelerates tumor progression and metastasis via ECM remodeling.


Assuntos
Adenosina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , 5'-Nucleotidase/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Mama/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor A2B de Adenosina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8515-8523, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238563

RESUMO

Stromal-epithelial interactions dictate cancer progression and therapeutic response. Prostate cancer (PCa) cells were identified to secrete greater concentration of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) compared to noncancer epithelia. Based on the recognized coevolution of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) with tumor progression, we tested the role of cancer-derived mtDNA in a mechanism of paracrine signaling. We found that prostatic CAF expressed DEC205, which was not expressed by normal tissue-associated fibroblasts. DEC205 is a transmembrane protein that bound mtDNA and contributed to pattern recognition by Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Complement C3 was the dominant gene targeted by TLR9-induced NF-κB signaling in CAF. The subsequent maturation complement C3 maturation to anaphylatoxin C3a was dependent on PCa epithelial inhibition of catalase in CAF. In a syngeneic tissue recombination model of PCa and associated fibroblast, the antagonism of the C3a receptor and the fibroblastic knockout of TLR9 similarly resulted in immune suppression with a significant reduction in tumor progression, compared to saline-treated tumors associated with wild-type prostatic fibroblasts. Interestingly, docetaxel, a common therapy for advanced PCa, further promoted mtDNA secretion in cultured epithelia, mice, and PCa patients. The antiapoptotic signaling downstream of anaphylatoxin C3a signaling in tumor cells contributed to docetaxel resistance. The inhibition of C3a receptor sensitized PCa epithelia to docetaxel in a synergistic manner. Tumor models of human PCa epithelia with CAF expanded similarly in mice in the presence or absence of docetaxel. The combination therapy of docetaxel and C3 receptor antagonist disrupted the mtDNA/C3a paracrine loop and restored docetaxel sensitivity.


Assuntos
Anafilatoxinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Docetaxel/farmacologia , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Epitélio/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Epitélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Epitélio/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Comunicação Parácrina , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptor Toll-Like 9/metabolismo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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