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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 204: 111070, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763567

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used as antimicrobial agents and resulted in their accumulation in environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying AgNP-induced lung cellular senescence which has been proposed as a pathogenic driver of chronic lung disease. Herein, we demonstrate that exposure to AgNPs elevates multiple senescence biomarkers in lung cells, with cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, and potently activates genes of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) in human fetal lung fibroblast cell line MRC5. Fluorescence-based assay also reveals that apoptosis induced by AgNPs is associated with senescence. Furthermore, we show that AgNPs cause premature senescence through an increase in transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) expression and over-production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lung cells. Inhibition of COX2 reduces AgNPs-induced senescence to a normal level. Moreover, AgNPs also induce upregulation of COX2 and accelerate lung cellular senescence in vivo and cause mild fibrosis in the lung tissue of mice. Taken together, our studies support a critical role of AgNPs in the induction of lung cellular senescence via the upregulation of the COX2/PGE2 intracrine pathway, and suggest the adverse effects to the human respiratory system.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764823

RESUMO

As type-I-allergies show an increasing prevalence in the general populace, orthodontic patients may also be affected by histamine release during treatment. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are regulators of orthodontic tooth movement. However, the impact of histamine on PDLF in this regard is unknown. Therefore PDLF were incubated without or with an orthodontic compressive force of 2g/cm2 with and without additional histamine. To assess the role of histamine-1-receptor (H1R) H1R-antagonist cetirizine was used. Expression of histamine receptors and important mediators of orthodontic tooth movement were investigated. PDLF expressed histamine receptors H1R, H2R and H4R, but not H3R. Histamine increased the expression of H1R, H2R and H4R as well as of interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, and prostaglandin-E2 secretion even without pressure application and induced receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) protein expression with unchanged osteoprotegerin secretion. These effects were not observed in presence of H1R antagonist cetirizine. By expressing histamine receptors, PDLF seem to be able to respond to fluctuating histamine levels in the periodontal tissue. Increased histamine concentration was associated with enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators and RANKL, suggesting an inductive effect of histamine on PDLF-mediated osteoclastogenesis and orthodontic tooth movement. Since cetirizine inhibited these effects, they seem to be mainly mediated via histamine receptor H1R.


Assuntos
Histamina/farmacologia , Ligamento Periodontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Células Cultivadas , Cetirizina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Histamina/fisiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H1/farmacologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/fisiologia , Osteoprotegerina/genética , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Ligante RANK/genética , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptores Histamínicos H1/fisiologia , Estresse Mecânico
3.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4943-4956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764927

RESUMO

Background: Hydroxyapatite (HA) [Ca5(PO4)3(OH)] is a naturally occurring calcium phosphate which makes up 60-70% of the dry weight of human bones. Nano-scale HA particles are increasingly being used as carriers for controlled and targeted delivery of bioactive agents like drugs, proteins, and nucleic acids due to their high porosity, negative charge, and biodegradability. Purpose: Although much effort has been devoted to understanding the delivery kinetics and effects of the payloads in such carriers, a thorough understanding of the influence of the carriers themselves is lacking. Methods: HA particles (300 µg/mL) were administered to primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The uptake and intracellular localization of the particles were determined by flow cytometry, confocal imaging, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Immunological assays and PCR were performed to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and collagens in cell lysates and media supernatant. Results: The current study explores the effects of poly-dispersed HA particles on primary HDFs as a model system. The majority of the particles were determined to range between 150 and 200 nm in diameter. Upon exposure to HA suspensions, primary HDFs internalized the particles by endocytosis within 6 hours of exposure, showing maximum uptake at 72 hours following which the particles were exocytosed by 168 hours. This correlated to reduced secretion of various pro-inflammatory and pro-collagenic cytokines. Biochemical analysis further revealed a reduction in Type I collagen expression and secretion. Conclusion: HA particles have an immune-modulatory effect on dermal fibroblasts and reduce collagen production, which may impact the integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This study demonstrates the need to consider the secondary effects of particulate carriers like HA, beyond basic cytotoxicity, in the specific tissue environment where the intended function is to be realized.


Assuntos
Colágeno/metabolismo , Durapatita/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/citologia , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Durapatita/química , Matriz Extracelular/efeitos dos fármacos , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Humanos
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237015, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760098

RESUMO

Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is characterised in early stages by orbital fibroblast inflammation, which can be aggravated by oxidative stress and often leads to fibrosis. Protein tyrosine protein 1B (PTP1B) is a regulator of inflammation and a therapeutic target in diabetes. We investigated the role of PTP1B in the GO mechanism using orbital fibroblasts from GO and healthy non-GO subjects. After 24 hours of transfection with PTPN1 siRNA, the fibroblasts were exposed to interleukin (IL)-1ß, cigarette smoke extract (CSE), H2O2, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß stimulations. Inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis-related proteins were analysed using western blotting and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) release was detected using an oxidant-sensitive fluorescent probe. IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, bovine thyroid stimulating hormone (bTSH), high-affinity human stimulatory monoclonal antibody of TSH receptor (M22), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) significantly increased PTP1B protein production in GO and non-GO fibroblasts. PTPN1 silencing significantly blocked IL-1ß-induced inflammatory cytokine production, CSE- and H2O2-induced ROS synthesis, and TGF-ß-induced expression of collagen Iα, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and fibronectin in GO fibroblasts. Silencing PTPN1 also decreased phosphorylation levels of Akt, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress response proteins in GO cells. PTP1B may be a potential therapeutic target of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic treatment of GO.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatia de Graves/enzimologia , Oftalmopatia de Graves/terapia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular , Citocinas/biossíntese , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Inativação Gênica , Oftalmopatia de Graves/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Oxidativo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4061, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792541

RESUMO

Adhesions are fibrotic scars that form between abdominal organs following surgery or infection, and may cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or infertility. Our understanding of adhesion biology is limited, which explains the paucity of anti-adhesion treatments. Here we present a systematic analysis of mouse and human adhesion tissues. First, we show that adhesions derive primarily from the visceral peritoneum, consistent with our clinical experience that adhesions form primarily following laparotomy rather than laparoscopy. Second, adhesions are formed by poly-clonal proliferating tissue-resident fibroblasts. Third, using single cell RNA-sequencing, we identify heterogeneity among adhesion fibroblasts, which is more pronounced at early timepoints. Fourth, JUN promotes adhesion formation and results in upregulation of PDGFRA expression. With JUN suppression, adhesion formation is diminished. Our findings support JUN as a therapeutic target to prevent adhesions. An anti-JUN therapy that could be applied intra-operatively to prevent adhesion formation could dramatically improve the lives of surgical patients.


Assuntos
Aderências Teciduais/metabolismo , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Animais , Benzofenonas/farmacologia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Células Cultivadas , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Imunofluorescência , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Lipossomos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Parabiose , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia
6.
Anticancer Res ; 40(7): 3743-3749, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The antiproliferative effects of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) make it a promising application option in oncology. The aim of the present study was to examine whether short-term CAP treatment leads to an initial partial elimination of the treated cells or to long-term impairement and inhibition of cell growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells were treated with CAP and biostatistical modelling was used to estimate growth rates over the incubation time. Four cell lines (U2-OS and MNNG osteosarcoma cells, 3T3 fibroblasts, HaCaT keratinocytes) and three CAP sources (MiniJet-R, kINPen MED, Maxium) were used. RESULTS: The antiproliferative efficacy of CAP was due to a significant reduction in cell count during treatment and the long-lasting inhibition of growth rate in the remaining cells, detectable in all cell lines and after treatment using all three CAP devices. CONCLUSION: Induction of cell death and inhibition of cell growth are part of a general mechanism of biological CAP efficacy. However, data contradict the hypothesis that cancer cells respond more sensitively to CAP treatment compared to non-malignant cells.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmócitos/patologia , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Cinética , Osteossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Osteossarcoma/patologia , Plasmócitos/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Life Sci ; 257: 118062, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652138

RESUMO

AIMS: In this study, for the first time, the effect of quercetin (Q) on the characteristic properties, antimicrobial activity, and cell viability of polycaprolactone (PCL)/graphene oxide (GO) electrospun scaffold was investigated. MAIN METHODS: Quercetin loaded graphene oxide nanoparticles have been incorporated into the poly-caprolactone solution, and their mixture has been electrospun to be applied as a nanofibrous scaffold for wound dressing and tissue engineering applications. The properties of scaffolds, like their morphology, tensile strength, hydrophilicity, and in vitro biological performance, are investigated. KEY FINDINGS: The SEM micrographs reveal the uniform bead-free nanofibers with smooth structures have been successfully fabricated via the electrospinning procedure. The overall average of cell viability of NIH/3 T3 fibroblast cells on scaffolds is 95% that means the scaffolds have no toxicity, and FESEM shows cells attach and proliferate on scaffolds. Moreover, among all the fabricated scaffolds, the maximum release of quercetin belongs to PCL/GO/Q 0.5 with about 70% after 15 days, and this scaffold reduces bacterial growth by about 50% after 12 h shows the excellent effect of GO/Q on the antibacterial activity of PCL nanofibers. SIGNIFICANCE: The results confirm that more than 1% of GO has some cytotoxicity, which limits its concentration; therefore, a second antibacterial agent is essential to improve the antibacterial activity of PCL/GO scaffold, and quercetin shows that it is an excellent candidate for this purpose.


Assuntos
Grafite/farmacologia , Poliésteres/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Tecidos Suporte , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bandagens , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Grafite/administração & dosagem , Grafite/toxicidade , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Nanofibras , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Engenharia Tecidual
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110896, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622306

RESUMO

Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) comprising toxic compounds arising from air pollution is a major human health concern. It is linked to increased mortality and incidence of various lung diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of PM on lung fibroblasts have not been fully explored. We used targeted quantitative metabolomics and lipidomics analysis along with cytotoxicity studies to comprehensively characterize the alterations in the metabolite profiles of human lung fibroblasts (HEL 299) upon exposure to PM2.5 and PM10. This exposure at 50 µg/mL for 72 h induced an abnormally high apoptotic response via triggering intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction through an imbalance between pro- and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. The cytotoxic effects of PM2.5 were more severe than those of PM10. Metabolomics and lipidomics analyses revealed that PM exposure triggered substantial changes in the cellular metabolite profile, which involved reduced mitochondria-related metabolites such as tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates, amino acids, and free fatty acids as well as increased lysoglycerophospholipids (LPLs) containing polyunsaturated fatty acids. The decrease in mitochondria-related metabolites suggested that PM exposure led to reduced TCA cycle capacity and energy production. Apoptotic and inflammatory responses as well as mitochondrial dysfunction were likely to be accelerated because of excessive accumulation of LPLs, contributing to the disruption of membrane rafts and Ca2+ homeostasis and causing increased mitochondrial ROS formation. These results provide valuable insights regarding the toxic effects of PM exposure. Our study also provides a new direction for research on PM exposure-related health disorders using different cell lines.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Humanos , Lipidômica , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumopatias , Metabolômica , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16500-16508, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601199

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of multiple HER2-targeted therapies, patients with advanced HER2+ breast cancer ultimately develop drug resistance. Stromal fibroblasts represent an abundant cell type in the tumor microenvironment and have been linked to poor outcomes and drug resistance. Here, we show that fibroblasts counteract the cytotoxic effects of HER2 kinase-targeted therapy in a subset of HER2+ breast cancer cell lines and allow cancer cells to proliferate in the presence of the HER2 kinase inhibitor lapatinib. Fibroblasts from primary breast tumors, normal breast tissue, and lung tissue have similar protective effects on tumor cells via paracrine factors. This fibroblast-mediated reduction in drug sensitivity involves increased expression of antiapoptotic proteins and sustained activation of the PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway, despite inhibition of the HER2 and the RAS-ERK pathways in tumor cells. HER2 therapy sensitivity is restored in the fibroblast cocultures by combination treatment with inhibitors of MTOR or the antiapoptotic proteins BCL-XL and MCL-1. Expression of activated AKT in tumor cells recapitulates the effects of fibroblasts resulting in sustained MTOR signaling and poor lapatinib response. Lapatinib sensitivity was not altered by fibroblasts in tumor cells that exhibited sustained MTOR signaling due to a strong gain-of-function PI3KCA mutation. These findings indicate that in addition to tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms that cause constitutive PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway activation, secreted factors from fibroblasts can maintain this pathway in the context of HER2 inhibition. Our integrated proteomic-phenotypic approach presents a strategy for the discovery of protective mechanisms in fibroblast-rich tumors and the design of rational combination therapies to restore drug sensitivity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Humanos , Lapatinib/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
10.
Anticancer Res ; 40(8): 4681-4685, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The functions of macrophages change in response to environmental factors such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS derived from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSp) is involved in macrophage activation and tissue repair when administered dermally. LPSp-activated macrophages may be useful for restoring and maintaining homeostasis of the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phorbol myristate acetate-treated human monocytes (THP-1 cells) were activated with LPSp. The medium of LPSp-activated THP-1 cells was added to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF cells). After 24 h, the expression of hyaluronan (HA) synthase (HAS)2, hyaluronidase (HYAL)1, and tropoelastin in NHDF cells was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. RESULTS: The expression of HAS2 and tropoelastin was significantly increased, but that of HYAL1 was significantly decreased. It was demonstrated that the abilities of HA and elastin synthesis in NHDF cells increased through LPSp-activated THP-1 cells. CONCLUSION: LPSp-activated macrophages may be useful for enhancing the abilities of HA and elastin synthesis in fibroblasts, subsequently improving dysfunction and reducing various age-related disorders.


Assuntos
Elastina/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/metabolismo , Pantoea/metabolismo , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 4275-4288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606677

RESUMO

Purpose: Selenium nanoparticles (Se NPs) are promising antibacterial agents to tackle the growing problem of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to fabricate Se NPs with a net positive charge to enhance their antibacterial efficacy. Methods: Se NPs were coated with a positively charged protein - recombinant spider silk protein eADF4(κ16) - to give them a net positive surface charge. Their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity were investigated, with negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs as a control. Besides, these eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs were immobilized on the spider silk films, and the antibacterial activity of these films was investigated. Results: Compared to the negatively charged polyvinyl alcohol coated Se NPs, the positively charged eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs demonstrated a much higher bactericidal efficacy against the Gram-negative bacteria E. coli, with a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) approximately 50 times lower than that of negatively charged Se NPs. Cytotoxicity testing showed that the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are safe to both Balb/3T3 mouse embryo fibroblasts and HaCaT human skin keratinocytes up to 31 µg/mL, which is much higher than the MBC of these particles against E. coli (8 ± 1 µg/mL). In addition, antibacterial coatings were created by immobilising the eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs on positively charged spider silk films and these were shown to retain good bactericidal efficacy and overcome the issue of low particle stability in culture broth. It was found that these Se NPs needed to be released from the film surface in order to exert their antibacterial effects and this release can be regulated by the surface charge of the film, such as the change of the spider silk protein used. Conclusion: Overall, eADF4(κ16)-coated Se NPs are promising new antibacterial agents against life-threatening bacteria.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Selênio/farmacologia , Seda/farmacologia , Células 3T3 , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Queratinócitos/citologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 40(7): 942-948, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of periostin on hypoxia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and the molecular mechanism involved. METHODS: In vitro cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were placed in an anaerobic gas-producing bag for hypoxia treatment for 48 h followed by treatment with periostin at low (25 ng/mL), moderate (50 ng/mL) or high (100 ng/mL) doses. MTT assay was used to measure the cell viability, and the cell apoptosis rate was determined using flow cytometry. The contents of IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α in the cells were determined with ELISA, and ROS levels were measured using a fluorescent plate reader. The intracellular SOD activity was detected using ELISA. The expressions of HIF-1α, P21, cyclin D1, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2, P38MAPK and p-p38 MAPK proteins in the cells were detected with Western blotting. RESULTS: Hypoxia treatment significantly reduced the cell viability (P < 0.05), increased P21, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 protein levels (P < 0.05), promoted cell apoptosis (P < 0.05), and decreased cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 protein levels (P < 0.05) in the cells. Compared with the hypoxic group, the cells treated with periostin at different concentrations showed significantly increased cell viability (P < 0.05) with significantly lowered apoptotic rates (P < 0.05) and decreased expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.05) but significantly increased expression levels of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 (P < 0.05). Hypoxic exposure of the cells resulted in significantly increased expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK (P < 0.05) and increased levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS (P < 0.05) but decreased SOD activity (P < 0.05). Periostin treatment at different concentrations significantly lowered the expression levels of HIF-1α and p-p38 MAPK (P < 0.05) and the levels of IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α and ROS (P < 0.05) and significantly increased SOD activity in the hypoxic cells (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Periostin promotes the proliferation, inhibits apoptosis, enhances cellular antioxidant capacity, and reduces inflammatory damage in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to hypoxia possibly by inhibiting the activation of the p38 MAPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Moléculas de Adesão Celular , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/administração & dosagem , Hipóxia Celular , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligamento Periodontal/citologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
13.
Mol Immunol ; 124: 109-116, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554101

RESUMO

Disordered collagen production by fibroblasts in response to tissue injury contributes to pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Therefore, elimination of collagen deposition has becoming a potential target in PF treatment which despite standard anti-fibrosis regiment still remains challenge. Curcumin and curcumol are regarded as the main active components extraction from the rhizomes of Curcuma zedoaria, which is widely used for inhibition the proliferation of multiple cells. However, the molecular basis for the function of curcumin and curcumol in limiting fibrogenesis still unknown. In this study, we have investigated the effects of curcumin and curcumol in the fibroblast overproliferation model human lung fibroblast (HLF) inducing by TGF-ß1. The growth-inhibitory effects of the components wasn't observed from 8 to 64 µg/ml. Administration of curcumin or curcumol significantly diminished the level of hydroxyproline hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), also the collagen Ⅰ (Col-Ⅰ) and collagen Ⅲ (Col-Ⅲ) deposition were reduced in the HLF. Furthermore, related to the collagen synthesis proteins including N-terminal pro-peptide for Type Ⅰ collagen (PⅠNP), N-terminal pro-peptide for Type Ⅲ collagen (PⅢNP) and prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD) were degraded gracefully at dose-dependent manner. Autophagy as the scavenger was crippled in TGF-ß1-fibroblast overproliferation HLF, conversely the increased autophagosomes have been spotted in cytoplasm under transmission electron microscope which is consistent with up-regulation of Beclin1 and ATG7 after treatment with curcumin or curcumol in this study. Additionally, blocking autophagy by inhibitor chloroquine (CQ) caused collagen deposition, providing further evidence regard to autophagy activation capacity of curcumin and curcumol. Our findings provide a detailed understanding that the function of curcumin and curcumol on decreasing collagen deposition mediating by autophagy mechanism, which may also inspire the further research on PF at different perspectives.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Curcuma , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia
14.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(3): e202000303, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490900

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo response of photobiomodulation therapy associated with norbixin-based poly(hydroxybutyrate) membrane (PHB) in tenotomized calcaneal tendon. METHODS: Thirty rats were randomly allocated to six groups (n=5 each): LED groups (L1, L2 and L3) and membrane + LED groups (ML1, ML2 and ML3). The right calcaneal tendons of all animals were sectioned transversely and were irradiated with LED daily, one hour after surgery every 24 hours, until the day of euthanasia. At the end of the experiments the tendons were removed for histological analysis. RESULTS: The histological analysis showed a significant reduction in inflammatory cells in the ML1, ML2 and ML3 groups (p=0.0056, p=0.0018 and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to those in the LED group. There was greater proliferation of fibroblasts in the ML1 (p<0.0001) and L3 (p<0.0001) groups. A higher concentration of type I collagen was also observed in the ML1 group (p=0.0043) replacing type III collagen. CONCLUSION: Photobiomodulation in association with norbixin-based PHB membrane led to control of the inflammatory process. However, it did not favor fibroblast proliferation and did not optimize type I collagen formation in the expected stage of the repair process.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/efeitos da radiação , Carotenoides/farmacologia , Hidroxibutiratos/farmacologia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Tendinopatia/radioterapia , Tenotomia/métodos , Tendão do Calcâneo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tendão do Calcâneo/cirurgia , Animais , Colágeno/farmacologia , Colágeno Tipo I/análise , Colágeno Tipo I/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo III/análise , Colágeno Tipo III/efeitos dos fármacos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fibroblastos/química , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos da radiação
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 3695-3716, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547023

RESUMO

Purpose: External and internal stimuli easily affect the retina. Studies have shown that cells infected with Toxoplasma gondii are resistant to multiple inducers of apoptosis. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been widely used in biomedical fields; however, little is known about cytotoxicity caused by NPs in the retina and the modulators that inhibit nanotoxicity. Materials and Methods: ARPE-19 cells from human retinal pigment epithelium were treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) alone or in combination with T. gondii. Then, the cellular toxicity, apoptosis, cell cycle analysis, autophagy, ROS generation, NOX4 expression, and MAPK/mTOR signaling pathways were investigated. To confirm the AgNP-induced cytotoxicity in ARPE-19 cells and its modulatory effects caused by T. gondii infection, the major experiments carried out in ARPE-19 cells were performed again using human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from NOX4-/ - mice. Results: AgNPs dose-dependently induced cytotoxicity and cell death in ARPE-19 cells. Apoptosis, sub-G1 phase cell accumulation, autophagy, JNK phosphorylation, and mitochondrial apoptotic features, such as caspase-3 and PARP cleavages, mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization, and cytochrome c release into the cytosol were observed in AgNP-treated cells. AgNP treatment also increased the Bax, Bik, and Bim protein levels as well as NOX4-dependent ROS generation. However, T. gondii-infected ARPE-19 cells inhibited AgNP-induced apoptosis, JNK phosphorylation, sub-G1 phase cell accumulation, autophagy, NOX4-mediated ROS production, and mitochondrial apoptosis. Furthermore, mitochondrial apoptosis was found in AgNP-treated HFF cells and BMDMs, and AgNP-induced mitochondrial apoptosis inhibition via NOX4-dependent ROS suppression in T. gondii pre-infected HFF cells and BMDMs was also confirmed. Conclusion: AgNPs induced mitochondrial apoptosis in human RPE cells combined with cell cycle dysregulation and autophagy; however, these effects were significantly inhibited by T. gondii pre-infection by suppression of NOX4-mediated ROS production, suggesting that T. gondii is a strong inhibitory modulator of nanotoxicity in in vitro models.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , NADPH Oxidase 4/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/parasitologia , Prata/farmacologia , Toxoplasmose/patologia , Animais , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/parasitologia , Fase G1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 27-35, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585298

RESUMO

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the cell are rapidly detoxified by antioxidants such as glutathione. Depletion of glutathione will therefore increase levels of intracellular ROS, which can lead to oxidative DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis. The working hypothesis was that Ogg1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mOgg1-/- MEFs) would be more sensitive in response to GSH depletion due to their deficiency in the removal of the oxidative DNA modification, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Following GSH depletion, an increase in intracellular ROS and a subsequent induction of apoptosis was measured in mOgg1-/- MEFs; as expected. Unexpectedly, an elevated basal level of ROS was identified in mOgg1-/- MEFs compared to wild type MEFs; which we suggest is partly due to the differential expression of key anti-oxidant genes. The elevated basal ROS levels in mOgg1-/- MEFs were not accompanied by a deficiency in ATP production or a large increase in 8-oxoG levels. Although 8-oxoG levels did increase following GSH depletion in mOgg1-/- MEFs; this increase was significantly lower than observed following treatment with a non-toxic dose of hydrogen peroxide. Reconstitution of Ogg1 into mOgg1-/- MEFs resulted in an increased viability following glutathione depletion, however this rescue did not differ between a repair-proficient and a repair-impaired variant of Ogg1. The data indicates that induction of apoptosis in response to oxidative stress in mOgg1-/- MEFs is independent of DNA damage and OGG1-initiated DNA repair.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/biossíntese , Animais , Butionina Sulfoximina/farmacologia , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Reparo do DNA/genética , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxidantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586185

RESUMO

Static magnetic field (SMF) is widely used in industry, in consumer devices and diagnostic medical equipment, hence the widespread exposure to SMF in the natural environment and in people occupationally exposed to it. In environment and in some workplaces, there is a risk of exposure also to various chemicals. Environmental factors can affect the cellular processes which can be the cause of the development of various pathological conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMF on the expression of the apoptosis-related genes in human fibroblast cultures that had been co-treated with fluoride ions. The control and NaF-treated cells were subjected to the influence of SMF with a moderate induction. The flow-cytometric analysis showed that the fluoride ions reduced the number of viable cells and induced early apoptosis. However, exposure to the SMF reduced the number of dead cells that had been treated with fluoride ions. Moreover, specific genes that were involved in apoptosis exhibited a differential expression in the NaF-treated cells and exposure to the SMF yielded a modulation of their transcriptional activity. Our results suggest some beneficial properties of using a moderate-intensity static magnetic field to reduce the adverse effects of fluoride.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Campos Magnéticos , Fluoreto de Sódio/toxicidade , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/genética , Linhagem Celular , Fibroblastos/patologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559203

RESUMO

The leading cause of death in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is right ventricular (RV) failure. The tumor suppressor p53 has been associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling but its role in RV hypertrophy (RVH) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether pharmacological activation of p53 by Quinacrine affects RV remodeling and function in the pulmonary artery banding (PAB) model of compensated RVH in mice. The effects of p53 activation on cellular functions were studied in isolated cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial cells (ECs). The expression of p53 was examined both on human RV tissues from patients with compensated and decompensated RVH and in mouse RV tissues early and late after the PAB. As compared to control human RVs, there was no change in p53 expression in compensated RVH, while a marked upregulation was found in decompensated RVH. Similarly, in comparison to SHAM-operated mice, unaltered RV p53 expression 7 days after PAB, was markedly induced 21 days after the PAB. Quinacrine induced p53 accumulation did not further deteriorate RV function at day 7 after PAB. Quinacrine administration did not increase EC death, neither diminished EC number and capillary density in RV tissues. No major impact on the expression of markers of sarcomere organization, fatty acid and mitochondrial metabolism and respiration was noted in Quinacrine-treated PAB mice. p53 accumulation modulated the expression of Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and Glucose Transporter (Glut1) in mouse RVs and in adult cardiomyocytes. We conclude that early p53 activation in PAB-induced RVH does not cause substantial detrimental effects on right ventricular remodeling and function.


Assuntos
Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Quinacrina/farmacologia , Sarcômeros/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
19.
Life Sci ; 256: 117893, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502539

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of melittin and tripartite motif (TRIM) family in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lentiviral RNA interference vector and lentiviral overexpression vector were constructed and packaged by transfecting 293T cells; the proliferation of HELF was examined using Cell Counting Kit 8; Western blot and qRT-PCR were performed to examine protein and mRNA expression; the interaction with protein phosphatase magnesium-dependent 1A (PPM1A) was examined by Co-immunoprecipitation. KEY FINDINGS: Compared with the control group, the mRNA expression of the TRIM6, TRIM8 and TRIM47 in the IPF group significantly increased. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression and protein expression levels of TRIM47, the HELF proliferation, the hydroxyproline levels, and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3; the interference of TRIM47 inhibited the protein expression of Vimentin, α-SMA, CTGF, the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and the synthesis of hydroxyproline; TRIM47 overexpression elevated the phosphorylation of Smad2/3, induced ubiquitination of PPM1A and decreased the expression level of PPM1A, while TRIM47 RNA interference reversed this result. SIGNIFICANCE: Melittin has anti-fibrotic effect in HELF by directly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 or indirectly reducing the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 by decreasing the expression levels of TRIM47 whose overexpression induces ubiquitination of PPM1A.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Pulmão/embriologia , Meliteno/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Actinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/sangue , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/genética , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/sangue , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Vimentina/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233880, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497112

RESUMO

The efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is low due to the strong resistance of somatic donor cells to epigenetic reprogramming. Many epigenetic drugs targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation have been used in attempts to improve the in vitro and in vivo development of SCNT embryos. H3K9me3 has been shown to be an important reprogramming barrier for generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and SCNT embryos in mice and humans. In this study, we examined the effects of selective siRNA and chemical inhibition of H3K9me3 in somatic donor cells on the in vitro development of bovine SCNT embryos. Chaetocin, an inhibitor of SUV39H1/H2, was supplemented during the culture of donor cells. In addition, the siRNA knockdown of SUV39H1/H2 was performed in the donor cells. The effects of chaetocin and siSUV39H1/H2 on H3K9me3 and H3K9ac were quantified using flow cytometry. Furthermore, we assessed chaetocin treatment and SUV39H1/H2 knockdown on the blastocyst formation rate. Both chaetocin and siSUV39H1/H2 significantly reduced and elevated the relative intensity level of H3K9me3 and H3K9ac in treated fibroblast cells, respectively. siSUV39H1/H2 transfection, but not chaetocin treatment, improved the in vitro development of SCNT embryos. Moreover, siSUV39H1/H2 altered the expression profile of the selected genes in the derived blastocysts, similar to those derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In conclusion, our results demonstrated H3K9me3 as an epigenetic barrier in the reprogramming process mediated by SCNT in bovine species, a finding which supports the role of H3K9me3 as a reprogramming barrier in mammalian species. Our findings provide a promising approach for improving the efficiency of mammalian cloning for agricultural and biomedical purposes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Técnicas de Transferência Nuclear , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Animais , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores
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