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1.
An Bras Dermatol ; 94(4): 462-469, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644623

RESUMO

Cutaneous mucinoses are a heterogeneous group of dermatoses in which excess deposition of mucin in the dermis gives the skin a waxy appearance, with papules and plaques that can vary from self-healing mucinosis to even disrupting the normal shape of a patient's face, conferring a leonine facies, or be part of life threatening diseases like scleromyxedema. This review will describe the most recent classification on lichen myxedematosus in the generalized (scleromyxedema) and the localized forms, as well as the different organ systems involved in scleromyxedema, diagnostic workup, current management, and prognosis.


Assuntos
Escleromixedema/diagnóstico , Escleromixedema/patologia , Dermatopatias/diagnóstico , Dermatopatias/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Mucinas , Escleromixedema/classificação , Escleromixedema/terapia , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/classificação , Dermatopatias/terapia
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 119-126, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539570

RESUMO

In vivo experiments are still widely used for the testing of lung toxicity but there is an ethical and legal obligation to replace, reduce and refine animal testing. Lung A549 cells could serve as an in vitro indicator for acute lung toxicity but little data about the correlation of the cytotoxicity in A549 cells and data leading to CLP classifications are available. We exposed A549 cells to 19 CLP-classified substances with doses of 25, 50, and 100 µg/cm2 either under submerged (SME) condition or with aerosols at the air-liquid interface (ALIF) and determined accuracy, precision, sensitivity and the F1 score with the CLP classifications H330, H332, or H335. When data from both exposure methods were combined, we found accuracies of 0.84 ±â€¯0.05, precisions of 0.74 ±â€¯0.1, sensitivities of 0.93 ±â€¯0.08 and F1 scores of 0.82 ±â€¯0.04. Separated from each other, ALIF exposure was more sensitive at any dose but, at higher doses, also less accurate and precise compared to SME. Considering the 19 substances tested, our data suggest that cytotoxicity in A549 cells could be a reliable in vitro indicator for in vivo toxicity. Thus, we discuss how A549 could be integrated into validation test guidelines.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais/métodos , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Células A549 , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula , Pós , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
3.
Life Sci ; 234: 116779, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430452

RESUMO

Emerging evidence has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in keloid pathogenesis. However, potential molecular mechanism of keloid formation remains unclear. In the present study, our findings showed that miR-152-3p mRNA expression level was notably up-regulated in keloid tissues and keloid fibroblasts compared with that of normal skin tissues and normal skin fibroblasts, respectively. Furthermore, miR-152-3p inhibition remarkably suppressed cell proliferation, which was increased by miR-152-3p overexpression. Cell invasion was also significantly decreased by miR-152-3p inhibition, whereas was increased by miR-152-3p overexpression. The mRNA and protein expression levels of extracellular matrix components including type I collagen, type III collagen and fibronectin were decreased by miR-152-3p inhibition, but were increased by miR-152-3p overexpression. In addition, results of dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that FOXF1 is a direct target of miR-152-3p. FOXF1 overexpression significantly inhibits cell proliferation, invasion, and extracellular matrix in keloid fibroblasts, and the suppressive effects of miR-152-3p mimic on these functions were notably partly reversed by FOXF1 overexpression. Taken together, these findings indicated that miR-152-3p regulates cell proliferation, invasion and extracellular matrix expression through targeting FOXF1 in keloid fibroblasts, suggesting that miR-152-3p is a novel and promising molecular target for keloid treatment.


Assuntos
Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Queloide/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Adolescente , Adulto , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Queloide/genética , Regulação para Cima , Adulto Jovem
4.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4061-4064, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may have an important role in metastasis. CTC clusters, which contain fibroblasts, indicate poor prognosis. In the present study, we used our malignant lymphoma metastatic mouse model to compare the effect of a choline-deficient-diet (CDD) and the control diet (CD) on fibroblasts in CTCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared the number and morphology of CTCs in CDD and CD mice using color-coded imaging with fluorescent proteins. Malignant lymphoma EL4 cells expressing RFP were injected in the spleen of transgenic C57B/6-GFP mice, which were fed a CDD or CD. Two weeks later, we harvested and observed the number of CTCs and fibroblast-like cells both in heart blood and portal blood. Imaging of CTC morphology was performed with smeared glass slides and in culture. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the number of CTCs between CDD and CD mice. The number of fibroblast-like cells in the CTC microenvironment in CD mouse portal blood was significantly larger than in CDD mouse portal blood. These differences may be caused by deficiency in choline that leads to less metastasis in choline-deficient-diet-induced fatty liver.


Assuntos
Colina/metabolismo , Linfoma/sangue , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Deficiência de Colina/sangue , Deficiência de Colina/genética , Deficiência de Colina/patologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes/química , Linfoma/genética , Linfoma/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Metástase Neoplásica , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Células Estromais/patologia , Microambiente Tumoral/genética
5.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 119(4): 69-75, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365333

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Relaxin is a potent anti-fibrotic hormone that has been tested to ameliorate fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), but with controversial results. The aim of the study is to sequence relaxin receptor gene RXFP1 and to assess its mRNA expression and protein levels in the skin of SSc patients and healthy subjects. METHODS: Fibroblasts were isolated from unaffected/affected skin samples of (n=16) limited-cutaneous-SSc-(LcSSc) and from affected ones of (n=4) diffuse-cutaneous-SSc-(DcSSc) patients. Fibroblasts from healthy subjects were used as controls. Sequencing of exonic target regions of interest for RXFP1 gene was performed, coupled with mRNA transcript variant analysis. RXFP1 mRNA and protein levels were assessed by quantitative-real-time-PCR-(qRT-PCR) and by immunocytochemistry-(ICC). Alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-(α-SMA) synthesis induced by transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-(TGF-ß1) stimulation was investigated in all fibroblasts with and without pre-treatment with serelaxin (a recombinant form of human relaxin-2 targeting the receptor RXFP1). RESULTS: Sequencing of RXFP1 gene showed no relevant mutations in all fibroblast populations. The analysis of mRNA transcripts revealed the presence of 13 different mRNA isoforms of RXFP1 (7 coding and 6 non-coding) upregulated in LcSSc/DcSSc-affected samples and not in LcSSc-unaffected and in healthy ones. On the contrary, ICC demonstrated the absence of RXFP1 in LcSSc/DcSSc-affected fibroblasts and the presence in LcSSc-unaffected and in healthy ones. To prove these findings, serelaxin pre-incubation was unable to counteract TGF-ß1-driven upregulation of α-SMA in LcSSc/DcSSc-affected fibroblasts only, but not in LcSSc-unaffected and healthy ones. CONCLUSIONS: The absence/altered expression of relaxin receptor RXFP1 in the affected fibroblasts of SSc patients could explain the inefficacy of relaxin-based anti-fibrotic treatments in the disease.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Relaxina , Esclerodermia Difusa , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Idoso , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Receptores de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes , Relaxina/metabolismo , Esclerodermia Difusa/metabolismo , Esclerodermia Difusa/patologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/metabolismo , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
6.
Life Sci ; 233: 116714, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376370

RESUMO

Increased levels of particulate matter (PM) air pollutants in East Asia have resulted in detrimental health impacts increasing morbidity and mortality. Epidemiological studies suggest a possible relation between the cutaneous exposure of PM and increased oxidative stress and inflammation which lead to skin lesions. The present study utilizes an integrated cell culture model of keratinocytes and fibroblasts to mimic viable skin layers and investigate the possible effects of PM exposure after penetration through corneocytes. The skin perfection is upheld by homeostatic functionality of epidermal cells and the integrity of connective tissues. Exposure to xenobiotics could alter the skin cell homeostasis aggravating premature skin aging. Stimulation of HaCaT keratinocytes by PM collected from Beijing, China (CPM) increased the intracellular ROS levels triggering a cascade of events aggravating inflammatory responses and connective tissue degradation. In HDF fibroblasts, treatment with preconditioned keratinocyte culture media augmented inflammatory responses, cellular differentiation, and connective tissue degradation. Above events were marked by the increased intracellular ROS, inflammatory mediators, pro-inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-1 and -2 levels, collagenase, and elastase activity. Fucosterol treatment of keratinocytes dose-dependently attenuated the detrimental effects both in keratinocytes and fibroblasts restoring the conditions near to physiological levels. Further evaluations could be advanced on developing fucosterol, in forms such as rejuvenating cosmeceuticals which could attenuate detrimental responses of CPM exposure.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Dermatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Estigmasterol/análogos & derivados , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Queratinócitos/patologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Dermatopatias/etiologia , Dermatopatias/metabolismo , Dermatopatias/patologia , Estigmasterol/farmacologia
7.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(9): 905-914, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305135

RESUMO

Our previous transcriptome study of cultured fibroblasts identified 178 genes that were differentially expressed by 8 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) fibroblasts compared with 4 controls. Here, we performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis to evaluate the relationship of CpG methylation to differential gene expression. Among 485,577 loci, 5850 loci on 2282 genes showed significant differences between the 2 groups (delta-beta >10.21 and p-value <0.05). Among these, beta values of 80 CpGs (30 hypermethylated and 50 hypomethylated) were significantly correlated with mRNA expression of 34 genes (19.1%) of the 178 differentially expressed genes between the 2 groups (13 downregulated and 21 upregulated). Gene ontology enrichment of these genes included cell adhesion, molecule binding, chemical homeostasis, surfactant homeostasis, and receptor binding. One-third of them are involved in the known process of fibrosis; the others are novel genes with respect to pulmonary fibrosis. We identified relationships between the altered DNA methylation levels and about one-fifth of the corresponding changes in gene expression by lung tissue fibroblasts. Findings from this study provide new information on novel genes responsible for the pathogenesis of IPF under the control of CpG methylation changes in IPF lungs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos
9.
Cell Biochem Funct ; 37(6): 432-442, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318458

RESUMO

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are naturally occurring molecules that start to accumulate from embryonic developmental stages and form as part of normal ageing. When reducing sugars interact with and modify proteins or lipids, AGE production occurs. AGE formation accelerates in chronic hyperglycemic conditions, and high AGE levels have been associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases. In addition, enhanced levels of AGEs have been linked to delayed wound healing as seen in patients with diabetes mellitus. Research has provided numerous ways in which a high AGE concentration results in impaired wound healing, including oxidative stress, structural and functional changes to proteins important in wound repair, an enhanced inflammatory response by activation of transcription factors, and possible exaggerated apoptosis of cells necessary to the wound repair process. Apoptosis is a naturally occurring cell death process that is significant for normal tissue functioning and plays an important role in wound repair by preventing a prolonged inflammatory response and excessive scar formation. Abnormal apoptosis affects wound healing, resulting in slow healing wounds. This review will summarize the role of AGEs in wound healing, focusing on the mechanisms by which AGEs lead to apoptosis in various cell types. The review provides the way forward for medical research and molecular studies as it focuses on the mechanisms by which AGEs induce apoptosis in various cell types, including fibroblasts, osteoblasts, neuronal cells, and endothelial cells. Reviewing the mechanisms of AGE-linked apoptosis is important in understanding the impact of high AGE levels in delayed wound healing in diabetic patients due to abnormal apoptosis of cells necessary to the wound healing process.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Cicatrização , Animais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Osteoblastos/metabolismo , Osteoblastos/patologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3027, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289275

RESUMO

Fibrosis accompanying wound healing can drive the failure of many different organs. Activated fibroblasts are the principal determinants of post-injury pathological fibrosis along with physiological repair, making them a difficult therapeutic target. Although activated fibroblasts are phenotypically heterogeneous, they are not recognized as distinct functional entities. Using mice that express GFP under the FSP1 or αSMA promoter, we characterized two non-overlapping fibroblast subtypes from mouse hearts after myocardial infarction. Here, we report the identification of FSP1-GFP+ cells as a non-pericyte, non-hematopoietic fibroblast subpopulation with a predominant pro-angiogenic role, characterized by in vitro phenotypic/cellular/ultrastructural studies and in vivo granulation tissue formation assays combined with transcriptomics and proteomics. This work identifies a fibroblast subtype that is functionally distinct from the pro-fibrotic αSMA-expressing myofibroblast subtype. Our study has the potential to shift our focus towards viewing fibroblasts as molecularly and functionally heterogeneous and provides a paradigm to approach treatment for organ fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica/fisiologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/patologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Miocárdio/citologia , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/genética , Proteína A4 de Ligação a Cálcio da Família S100/metabolismo , Quimeras de Transplante
11.
Int Heart J ; 60(4): 944-957, 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257341

RESUMO

Cardiac fibrosis plays an important role in cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). The molecular mechanisms that promote cardiac fibrosis after MI are well studied; however, the mechanisms by which the progression of cardiac fibrosis becomes attenuated after MI remain poorly understood. Recent reports show the role of cellular senescence in limiting tissue fibrosis. In the present study, we tested whether cellular senescence of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) plays a role in attenuating the progression of cardiac fibrosis after MI. We found that the number of γH2AX-positive CFs increased up to day 7, whereas the number of proliferating CFs peaked at day 4 after MI. Senescent CFs were also observed at day 7, suggesting that attenuation of CF proliferation occurred simultaneously with the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) system and the appearance of senescent CFs. We next cultured senescent CFs with non-senescent CFs and showed that senescent CFs suppressed proliferation of the surrounding non-senescent CFs in a juxtacrine manner. We also found that the blockade of DDR by Atm gene deletion sustained the proliferation of CFs and exacerbated the cardiac fibrosis at the early stage after MI. Our results indicate the role of DDR activation and cellular senescence in limiting cardiac fibrosis after MI. Regulation of cellular senescence in CFs may become one of the therapeutic strategies for preventing cardiac remodeling after MI.


Assuntos
Senescência Celular/genética , Dano ao DNA/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , Remodelação Ventricular/genética , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia
12.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(1): 242-257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excessive exposure to UV radiation negatively affects the human skin, characterized by photo-damage (premature aging & carcinogenesis). UV-B radiation causes about 90% of non-melanoma skin cancers by damaging de-oxy ribonucleic acids (DNA). We have previously reported that UV-B radiation induces skin photodamage through oxidative & Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stresses and Glycyrrhizic acid (GA), a natural triterpene, protects skin cells against such stresses. UV-B radiation elicits signalling cascade by activation of proteins involved in sensing, signalling, and repair process of DNA damage. In this study, we explored the effects & mechanisms of Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) against UV-B -induced photodamage using a well established cellular model. METHODS: We used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a cellular model. The cells were cultured in the presence or absence of GA for 3,6, & 24 h. Effect of UV-B was assessed by examining cell viability, cell morphology, oxidative stress, ER stress, DNA damage & cellular autophagy levels through biochemical assays, microscopy & protein expression studies. RESULTS: In this study, we have determined the effect of GA on autophagy mediated DNA damage response system as the main mechanism in preventing photodamage due to UV-B -irradiation to primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). GA treatment to UV-B exposed HDFs, significantly inhibited cell death, oxidative & ER stress responses, prevented Cyclobutane Pyrimidine dimer (CPD) DNA adduct formation, and DNA fragmentation via modulation of UV-B induced autophagic flux. Present results showed that GA treatment quenched reactive oxygen species (ROS), relieved ER stress response, improved autophagy (6 hr's post-UV-B -irradiation) and prevented UV-B induced DNA damage. CONCLUSION: The present study links autophagy induction by GA as the main mechanism in the prevention of DNA damage and provides a mechanistic basis for the photoprotective effect of GA and suggests that GA can be potentially developed as a promising agent against UV-B induced skin photo-damage.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Derme/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos da radiação , Células Cultivadas , Derme/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2387, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160572

RESUMO

Senescent cells accumulate in human tissues during ageing and contribute to age-related pathologies. The mechanisms responsible for their accumulation are unclear. Here we show that senescent dermal fibroblasts express the non-classical MHC molecule HLA-E, which interacts with the inhibitory receptor NKG2A expressed by NK and highly differentiated CD8+ T cells to inhibit immune responses against senescent cells. HLA-E expression is induced by senescence-associated secretary phenotype-related pro-inflammatory cytokines, and is regulated by p38 MAP kinase signalling in vitro. Consistently, HLA-E expression is increased on senescent cells in human skin sections from old individuals, when compared with those from young, and in human melanocytic nevi relative to normal skin. Lastly, blocking the interaction between HLA-E and NKG2A boosts immune responses against senescent cells in vitro. We thus propose that increased HLA-E expression contributes to persistence of senescent cells in tissues, thereby suggesting a new strategy for eliminating senescent cells during ageing.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Fibroblastos/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Subfamília C de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Nevo Pigmentado/congênito , Nevo Pigmentado/imunologia , Nevo Pigmentado/patologia , Fenótipo , RNA Interferente Pequeno , Transdução de Sinais , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Adulto Jovem , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia
14.
Yonsei Med J ; 60(6): 585-591, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the function of microRNA-27b (miR-27b) in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) stimulated by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). MATERIALS AND METHODS: mRNA expression of miR-27b in FLS cells (MH7A) treated with or without TNF-α was determined by q-PCR. MiR-27b mimics was transfected into MH7A cells to upregulate miR-27b expression. MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis were performed to investigate the effect of miR-27b on MH7A cell viability and apoptosis. The targets of miR-27b were predicted by TargetScan. The direct regulation of miR-27b on IL-1ß expression was verified by luciferase assay. The protein expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins, IL-1ß, and NF-κB signaling-related proteins were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: We discovered that miR-27b expression was decreased in MH7A cells stimulated by TNF-α. Upregulation of miR-27b by miR-27b mimics significantly inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of TNF-α-stimulated MH7A cells. Consistently, upregulation of miR-27 decreased the level of Bcl-2 and increased Bax and caspase-3 expression in MH7A cells stimulated by TNF-α. Luciferase assay revealed that IL-1ß was indeed a target of miR-27b. By quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, we found that the expression of IL-1ß is negatively regulated by miR-27b. Moreover, the NF-κB signaling pathway was significantly inhibited by miR-27b. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results illustrated that enhanced miR-27b expression results in the suppression of proliferation and the promotion of apoptosis in FLSs stimulated by TNF-α, partially by regulating IL-1ß expression and NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Fibroblastos/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Sinoviócitos/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 777-792.e14, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We studied the role of interleukin 11 (IL11) signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) using hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), hepatocytes, and mouse models of NASH. METHODS: We stimulated mouse and human fibroblasts, HSCs, or hepatocytes with IL11 and other cytokines and analyzed them by imaging, immunoblot, and functional assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Mice were given injections of IL11. Mice with disruption of the interleukin 11 receptor subunit alpha1 gene (Il11ra1-/-) mice and Il11ra1+/+ mice were fed a high-fat methionine- and choline-deficient diet (HFMCD) or a Western diet with liquid fructose (WDF) to induce steatohepatitis; control mice were fed normal chow. db/db mice were fed with methionine- and choline-deficient diet for 12 weeks and C57BL/6 NTac were fed with HFMCD for 10 weeks or WDF for 16 weeks. Some mice were given intraperitoneal injections of anti-IL11 (X203), anti-IL11RA (X209), or a control antibody at different timepoints on the diets. Livers and blood were collected; blood samples were analyzed by biochemistry and liver tissues were analyzed by histology, RNA sequencing, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, hydroxyproline, and mass cytometry time of flight assays. RESULTS: HSCs incubated with cytokines produced IL11, resulting in activation (phosphorylation) of ERK and expression of markers of fibrosis. Livers of mice given injections of IL11 became damaged, with increased markers of fibrosis, hepatocyte cell death and inflammation. Following the HFMCD or WDF, livers from Il11ra1-/- mice had reduced steatosis, fibrosis, expression of markers of inflammation and steatohepatitis, compared to and Il11ra1+/+ mice on the same diets. Depending on the time of administration of anti-IL11 or anti-IL11RA antibodies to wild-type mice on the HFMCD or WDF, or to db/db mice on the methionine and choline-deficient diet, the antibodies prevented, stopped, or reversed development of fibrosis and steatosis. Blood samples from Il11ra1+/+ mice fed the WDF and given injections of anti-IL11 or anti-IL11RA, as well as from Il11ra1-/- mice fed WDF, had lower serum levels of lipids and glucose than mice not injected with antibody or with disruption of Il11ra1. CONCLUSIONS: Neutralizing antibodies that block IL11 signaling reduce fibrosis, steatosis, hepatocyte death, inflammation and hyperglycemia in mice with diet-induced steatohepatitis. These antibodies also improve the cardiometabolic profile of mice and might be developed for the treatment of NASH.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/farmacologia , Hepatite/prevenção & controle , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/antagonistas & inibidores , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/patologia , Hepatite/genética , Hepatite/metabolismo , Hepatite/patologia , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/deficiência , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-11/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/genética , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1
16.
J Biochem ; 166(3): 259-270, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31086948

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the regulatory role of toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) production and osteoclast differentiation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In confocal microscopy, the co-expression of TLR7, CD55 and RANKL was determined in RA synovial fibroblasts. After RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with imiquimod, the RANKL gene expression and protein production were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes which were cultured with imiquimod was assessed by determining the numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells. The signal pathways mediating the TLR7-induced RANKL expression and osteoclastogenesis were analysed after inhibition of intracellular signal molecules and their phosphorylation. Imiquimod stimulated the expression of TLR7 and RANKL and production of RANKL in RA synovial fibroblasts, increasing the phosphorylation of TRAF6, IRF7, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), c-Jun and NFATc1. When CD14+ monocytes were cultured with imiquimod or co-cultured with imiquimod-pre-treated RA synovial fibroblasts, they were differentiated into TRAP+ multinucleated osteoclasts in the absence of RANKL. TLR7 activation-induced osteoclastogenesis in RA through direct induction of osteoclast differentiation from its precursors and up-regulation of RANKL production in RA synovial fibroblasts. Thus, the blockage of TLR7 pathway could be a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing bone destruction in RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Osteogênese , Receptor 7 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Idoso , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Mol Med Rep ; 19(6): 4727-4734, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059065

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of integrin ß1 in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) by electrical stimulation, and the underlying mechanisms by which electrical stimulation regulates the collagen metabolism of female vaginal wall fibroblasts (FVWFs). FVWFs obtained from the vaginal wall tissue of patients with (Ingelman­Sundberg scale; grade II, n=8; grade III, n=10) or without (n=8) SUI during gynecological operations were isolated by enzymatic digestion and subsequently identified by immunocytochemistry. Following this, cultured FVWFs were treated with an inhibitor of integrin ß1, recombinant human integrin ß1 and electrical stimulation (100 mv/mm, 2 h, 20 Hz), followed by total mRNA and protein extraction. mRNA and protein expression levels of integrin ß1, transforming growth factor (TGF)­ß1 and collagen (COL) I and III in FVWFs were quantified by reverse transcription­quantitative PCR (RT­qPCR) and western blot analysis respectively. Integrin ß1, TGF­ß1 and COL I and III expression levels were decreased in patients with SUI compared with healthy controls, and the grade III group had lower levels than the grade II group. Following electrical stimulation treatment, the expression levels of TGF­ß1, COL I and III were enhanced in the grade II group, but not in the grade III group. Nevertheless, the inhibitor of integrin ß1 reduced the protective effect of electrical stimulation in the grade II group. In addition, electrical stimulation combined with recombinant human integrin ß1 could also protect cells from SUI in the grade III group. The present study provides evidence for the increased degradation of the extracellular matrix and integrin ß1 in the vaginal wall tissues of patients with SUI, and the protective effect of electrical stimulation against SUI via integrin ß1. These results provide a novel mechanism for the treatment of SUI using electrical stimulation.


Assuntos
Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Integrina beta1/farmacologia , Integrina beta1/uso terapêutico , Incontinência Urinária por Estresse/tratamento farmacológico , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1 , Incontinência Urinária , Vagina/metabolismo , Vagina/patologia
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067787

RESUMO

: Neoplastic epithelial cells coexist in carcinomas with various non-neoplastic stromal cells, together creating the tumor microenvironment. There is a growing interest in the cross-talk between tumor cells and stromal fibroblasts referred to as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which are frequently present in human carcinomas. CAF populations extracted from different human carcinomas have been shown to possess the ability to influence the hallmarks of cancer. Indeed, several mechanisms underlying CAF-promoted tumorigenesis are elucidated. Activated fibroblasts in CAFs are characterized as alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts and actin-negative fibroblasts, both of which are competent to support tumor growth and progression. There are, however, heterogeneous CAF populations presumably due to the diverse sources of their progenitors in the tumor-associated stroma. Thus, molecular markers allowing identification of bona fide CAF populations with tumor-promoting traits remain under investigation. CAFs and myofibroblasts in wound healing and fibrosis share biological properties and support epithelial cell growth, not only by remodeling the extracellular matrix, but also by producing numerous growth factors and inflammatory cytokines. Notably, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that anti-fibrosis agents suppress tumor development and progression. In this review, we highlight important tumor-promoting roles of CAFs based on their analogies with wound-derived myofibroblasts and discuss the potential therapeutic strategy targeting CAFs.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma/patologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia
19.
Virchows Arch ; 475(3): 341-348, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076902

RESUMO

Desmoplastic reaction (DR) involves the growth of fibrous or connective tissues around a tumor and has recently attracted attention as an indicator of malignant potential. Previous studies have confirmed that histological categorization of DR in the primary tumor is an independent prognostic factor in patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM). However, it remains unclear whether the DR status of the metastatic liver lesion (DRliver) is a useful prognostic factor. This pathological review evaluated records from 204 patients who underwent hepatectomy for CRLM at the National Defense Medical College Hospital in Japan. Each case's DRliver was classified as mature, intermediate, or immature based on the presence of keloid-like collagen and myxoid stroma in the metastatic liver lesion. This resulted in 12 cases of mature DRliver, 101 cases of intermediate DRliver, and 91 cases of immature DRliver. There was a significant correlation between the DR statuses of the primary tumor and the metastatic liver lesion (Spearman's rho = 0.3, P = 0.0001). The 5-year relapse-free survival rates after hepatectomy were 33.8% for mature/intermediate DRliver and 16.7% for immature DRliver (P = 0.0021). The 5-year overall survival rate after hepatectomy was higher in the mature/intermediate DRliver group (64.8%) than in the immature DRliver group (35.0%; P = 0.0012). The multivariate analysis confirmed that DRliver categorization could independently predict relapse-free survival and overall survival. In conclusion, DRliver categorization may be valuable for predicting prognosis after hepatectomy among patients with CRLM.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/classificação , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Células Estromais/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(6): 2064-2071, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081880

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the roles and pathways of microRNAs 143 and 145 in transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1-induced human subconjunctival fibrosis. Methods: Human tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTFs) were obtained from a healthy eye. After treating cultured HTFs with TGF-ß1, the expression of microRNAs 143 and 145 was evaluated using polymerase chain reaction. To identify the pathways of TGF-ß1-induced microRNA 143/145 expression, HTFs were treated with specific inhibitors of p38MAPK, PI3K/Akt, JNK, ERK, and with siRNAs for SMAD2 and SMAD4. Mutagenesis studies were performed to evaluate the role of the CArG box and SMAD-binding element (SBE). To investigate the role of microRNA 143/145 in TGF-ß1-induced myofibroblast transdifferentiation, microRNA 143/145 mimics and microRNA 143/145 inhibitors were applied to the HTFs. Results: Array analysis revealed that TGF-ß1 induced the expression of microRNA 143/145 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. When inhibitors and siRNAs for p38MAPK, PI3K/Akt, ERK, and JNK were applied, the TGF-ß1-induced expression of microRNA 143/145 was inhibited; however, SMAD2 and SMAD4 inhibition did not affect the TGF-ß1-induced expression of these microRNAs. In the mutagenesis studies, both the CArG box and SBE were associated with TGF-ß1-induced expression of microRNA 143/145. Mimics of microRNA 143/145 induced increased myofibroblast formation, whereas their inhibitors had the opposite effect. Conclusions: TGF-ß1-induced human subconjunctival fibrosis was mediated by the expression of microRNA 143/145, mainly via SMAD-independent pathways. Inhibition of TGF-ß1-induced microRNA 143/145 expression in HTFs might represent a novel strategy to prevent subconjunctival fibrosis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/efeitos adversos , Western Blotting , Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
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