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3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(1): 110-125, 2020 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease associated with a variety of mutations affecting the CFTR gene. A deletion of phenylalanine 508 (F508) affects more than 70% of patients and results in unfolded proteins accumulation, originating a proteinopathy responsible for inflammation, impaired trafficking, altered metabolism, cholesterol and lipids accumulation, impaired autophagy at the cellular level. Lung inflammation has been extensively related to the accumulation of the lipotoxin ceramide. We recently proved that inhibition of ceramide synthesis by Myriocin reduces inflammation and ameliorates the defence response against pathogens infection, which is downregulated in CF. Here, we aim at demonstrating the mechanisms of Myriocin therapeutic effects in Cystic Fibrosis broncho-epithelial cells. METHODS: The effect of Myriocin treatment, on F508-CFTR bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 cells, was studied by evaluating the expression of key proteins and genes involved in autophagy and lipid metabolism, by western blotting and real time PCR. Moreover, the amount of glycerol-phospholipids, triglycerides, and cholesterols, sphingomyelins and ceramides were measured in treated and untreated cells by LC-MS. Finally, Sptlc1 was transiently silenced and the effect on ceramide content, autophagy and transcriptional activities was evaluated as above mentioned. RESULTS: We demonstrate that Myriocin tightly regulates metabolic function and cell resilience to stress. Myriocin moves a transcriptional program that activates TFEB, major lipid metabolism and autophagy regulator, and FOXOs, central lipid metabolism and anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant regulators. The activity of these transcriptional factors is associated with the induction of PPARs nuclear receptors activity, whose targets are genes involved in lipid transport compartmentalization and oxidation. Transient silencing of SPTCL1 recapitulates the effects induced by Myriocin. CONCLUSION: Cystic Fibrosis bronchial epithelia accumulate lipids, exacerbating inflammation. Myriocin administration: i) activates the transcriptions of genes involved in enhancing autophagy-mediated stress clearance; ii) reduces the content of several lipid species and, at the same time, iii) enhances mitochondrial lipid oxidation. Silencing the expression of Sptlc1 reproduces Myriocin induced autophagy and transcriptional activities, demonstrating that the inhibition of sphingolipid synthesis drives a transcriptional program aimed at addressing cell metabolism towards lipid oxidation and at exploiting autophagy mediated clearance of stress. We speculate that regulating sphingolipid de novo synthesis can relieve from chronic inflammation, improving energy supply and anti-oxidant responses, indicating an innovative therapeutic strategy for CF.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Colesterol/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Serina C-Palmitoiltransferase/metabolismo , Esfingolipídeos/análise , Esfingomielinas/análise
4.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46931

RESUMO

Tosse que não passa, suor mais salgado que o normal, pneumonia de repetição, diarreia e dificuldade para ganhar peso e estatura. Se esses sintomas aparecerem com frequência, pode indicar fibrose cística.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Genética
5.
Pol J Microbiol ; 68(3): 377-382, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880883

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal status of cystic fibrosis (CF) adult patients and to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the bacterial population of the subgingival biofilm and the health status of the periodontal tissues in this group of adults. The study involved 22 cystic fibrosis adult patients. The periodontal condition was assessed using Plaque Index (PLI), Gingival Index (GI), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). The gingival sulcus samples were analyzed by the Real-Time PCR assay (RT-PCR). Majority of patients showed moderate or severe bacterial dental plaque accumulation, but none of them had clinical symptoms of periodontal diseases. RT-PCR showed the presence of periopathogens in 50% of patients. Red complex microorganisms were detected in 9.09%, orange complex in 27.27%, and green complex in 31.82% of the samples analyzed. In cystic fibrosis patients colonized by periopathogens, the periodontal markers were significantly higher in comparison to not colonized by periopathogens patients. Despite the widespread presence of bacterial dental deposits in the cystic fibrosis adult patients examined, none of them has clinical symptoms of periodontal disease; however, the presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival biofilm may represent a possible risk factor of this disease in the future. An unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene in any patient with cystic fibrosis indicates a need to focus on standards of dental care for such patients.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Feminino , Gengiva/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice Periodontal , Periodonto/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Lancet ; 394(10212): 1940-1948, 2019 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators correct the basic defect caused by CFTR mutations. Improvements in health outcomes have been achieved with the combination of a CFTR corrector and potentiator in people with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation. The addition of elexacaftor (VX-445), a next-generation CFTR corrector, to tezacaftor plus ivacaftor further improved F508del-CFTR function and clinical outcomes in a phase 2 study in people with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled trial of elexacaftor in combination with tezacaftor plus ivacaftor was done at 44 sites in four countries. Eligible participants were those with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation, aged 12 years or older with stable disease, and with a percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppFEV1) of 40-90%, inclusive. After a 4-week tezacaftor plus ivacaftor run-in period, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to 4 weeks of elexacaftor 200 mg orally once daily plus tezacaftor 100 mg orally once daily plus ivacaftor 150 mg orally every 12 h versus tezacaftor 100 mg orally once daily plus ivacaftor 150 mg orally every 12 h alone. The primary outcome was the absolute change from baseline (measured at the end of the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor run-in) in ppFEV1 at week 4. Key secondary outcomes were absolute change in sweat chloride and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain (CFQ-R RD) score. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03525548. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3 and Dec 28, 2018, 113 participants were enrolled. Following the run-in, 107 participants were randomly assigned (55 in the elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group and 52 in the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group) and completed the 4-week treatment period. The elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group had improvements in the primary outcome of ppFEV1 (least squares mean [LSM] treatment difference of 10·0 percentage points [95% CI 7·4 to 12·6], p<0·0001) and the key secondary outcomes of sweat chloride concentration (LSM treatment difference -45·1 mmol/L [95% CI -50·1 to -40·1], p<0·0001), and CFQ-R RD score (LSM treatment difference 17·4 points [95% CI 11·8 to 23·0], p<0·0001) compared with the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group. The triple combination regimen was well tolerated, with no discontinuations. Most adverse events were mild or moderate; serious adverse events occurred in two (4%) participants receiving elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor and in one (2%) receiving tezacaftor plus ivacaftor. INTERPRETATION: Elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor provided clinically robust benefit compared with tezacaftor plus ivacaftor alone, with a favourable safety profile, and shows the potential to lead to transformative improvements in the lives of people with cystic fibrosis who are homozygous for the F508del mutation. FUNDING: Vertex Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/administração & dosagem , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Aminofenóis/efeitos adversos , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Cística/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Suor/química
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(12): 1823-1828, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671047

RESUMO

Introduction. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important respiratory pathogen in cystic fibrosis (CF), which is associated with an accelerated decline in lung function, frequent pulmonary exacerbations and increased mortality. P. aeruginosa produces intercellular signalling molecules including 2-alkyl-4-quinolones (AQs), which regulate virulence-factor production and biofilm formation in the CF airways. Studies have shown that AQs are detectable in the sputum and plasma of adults with CF and chronic pulmonary P. aeruginosa.Aim. We tested the hypothesis that the presence of six AQs in plasma or sputum obtained from adults with CF was associated with long-term adverse clinical outcomes.Methodology. We analysed clinical data over an 8 year follow period for 90 people with CF who had previously provided samples for AQ analysis at clinical stability. The primary outcome was all cause mortality or lung transplantation. Secondary outcomes were the rate of lung-function decline and the number of intravenous (IV) antibiotic days for pulmonary exacerbations.Results. There was no statistical association between the presence of any of the six measured AQs and the primary outcomes or the secondary outcome of decline in lung function. One of the six AQs was associated with IV antibiotic usage. The presence of 2-nonyl-3-hydroxy-4(1 h)-quinolone (C9-PQS) in sputum was associated with an increase in the number of IV antibiotic days in the follow-up period (Mann-Whitney; P=0.011).Conclusion. Further investigation to confirm the hypothesis that C9-PQS may be associated with increased antibiotic usage for pulmonary exacerbations is warranted as AQ-dependent signalling is a potential future target for anti-virulence therapies.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Quinolonas , Percepção de Quorum/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(19): 1809-1819, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, and nearly 90% of patients have at least one copy of the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In a phase 2 trial involving patients who were heterozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation and a minimal-function mutation (Phe508del-minimal function genotype), the next-generation CFTR corrector elexacaftor, in combination with tezacaftor and ivacaftor, improved Phe508del CFTR function and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor in patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis with Phe508del-minimal function genotypes. Patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was absolute change from baseline in percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 4. RESULTS: A total of 403 patients underwent randomization and received at least one dose of active treatment or placebo. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor, relative to placebo, resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was 13.8 points higher at 4 weeks and 14.3 points higher through 24 weeks, a rate of pulmonary exacerbations that was 63% lower, a respiratory domain score on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a higher patient-reported quality of life with regard to respiratory symptoms; minimum clinically important difference, 4 points) that was 20.2 points higher, and a sweat chloride concentration that was 41.8 mmol per liter lower (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was generally safe and had an acceptable side-effect profile. Most patients had adverse events that were mild or moderate. Adverse events leading to discontinuation of the trial regimen occurred in 1% of the patients in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious in patients with cystic fibrosis with Phe508del-minimal function genotypes, in whom previous CFTR modulator regimens were ineffective. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX17-445-102 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03525444.).


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Mutação , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminofenóis/efeitos adversos , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/efeitos adversos , Cloretos/análise , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Suor/química , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 869, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pandoraea species is a newly described genus, which is multidrug resistant and difficult to identify. Clinical isolates are mostly cultured from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF is a rare disease in China, which makes Pandoraea a total stranger to Chinese physicians. Pandoraea genus is reported as an emerging pathogen in CF patients in most cases. However, there are few pieces of evidence that confirm Pandoraea can be more virulent in non-CF patients. The pathogenicity of Pandoraea genus is poorly understood, as well as its treatment. The incidence of Pandoraea induced infection in non-CF patients may be underestimated and it's important to identify and understand these organisms. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 44-years-old man who suffered from pneumonia and died eventually. Before his condition deteriorated, a Gram-negative bacilli was cultured from his sputum and identified as Pandoraea Apista by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). CONCLUSION: Pandoraea spp. is an emerging opportunistic pathogen. The incidences of Pandoraea related infection in non-CF patients may be underestimated due to the difficulty of identification. All strains of Pandoraea show multi-drug resistance and highly variable susceptibility. To better treatment, species-level identification and antibiotic susceptibility test are necessary.


Assuntos
Burkholderiaceae/patogenicidade , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/complicações , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Adulto , Burkholderiaceae/isolamento & purificação , China , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/etiologia , Masculino , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Escarro/microbiologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 905, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is rising at disturbing rates and contributes to the deaths of millions of people yearly. Antibiotic resistant infections disproportionately affect those with immunocompromising conditions, chronic colonization, and frequent antibiotic use such as transplant patients or those with cystic fibrosis. However, clinicians lack the diagnostic tools to confidently diagnose and treat infections, leading to widespread use of empiric broad spectrum antimicrobials, often for prolonged duration. CASE PRESENTATION: A 22 year-old Caucasian female with cystic fibrosis received a bilateral orthotopic lung transplantation 5 months prior to the index hospitalization. She underwent routine surveillance bronchoscopy and was admitted for post-procedure fever. A clear cause of infection was not identified by routine methods. Imaging and bronchoscopic lung biopsy did not identify an infectious agent or rejection. She was treated with a prolonged course of antimicrobials targeting known colonizing organisms from prior bronchoalveolar lavage cultures (Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus). However, we identified Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in two independent whole blood samples using direct-pathogen sequencing, which was not identified by other methods. CONCLUSIONS: This case represents a common clinical conundrum: identification of infection in a high-risk, complex patient. Here, direct-pathogen sequencing identified a pathogen that would not otherwise have been identified by common techniques. Had results been clinically available, treatment could have been customized, avoiding a prolonged course of broad spectrum antimicrobials that would only exacerbate resistance. Direct-pathogen sequencing is poised to fill a diagnostic gap for pathogen identification, allowing early identification and customization of treatment in a culture-independent, pathogen-agnostic manner.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/efeitos adversos , Febre/etiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/etiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/genética , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fibrose Cística/cirurgia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Transplante de Pulmão , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 2991-2994, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611127

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Malignant diseases are well-known complications after lung transplantation (LT). Among these, inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm with a not well-known and often aggressive biological behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We hereby describe 2 cases of cystic fibrosis patients who underwent bilateral sequential LT (BSLT) complicated by IMT. RESULTS: A 26-year-old man presented a right endobronchial lesion 6 months after BSLT. Two consecutive fiber bronchoscopic biopsies showed granulation tissue. For the persistent lesion growth, the patient underwent a transthoracic biopsy showing histologic diagnosis of IMT. Therefore, he underwent to right pneumonectomy that was unfortunately complicated after 6 months with a late bronchopleural fistula and empyema with exitus 6 months later. A 31-year-old woman 1 year after BSLT presented with a left voluminous pleural-parenchymal lesion; the histologic examination after biopsy revealed an IMT. She underwent a removal of the lesion with a macroscopic R0 resection. Histologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic examinations showed a strong overexpression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase requiring biological adjuvant therapies; however, the patient refused it. Four years later, she presented a recurrence treated with debulking procedure and adjuvant radiotherapy. At last follow-up, the patient was alive with stable disease and optimal graft function. CONCLUSIONS: Although IMT is a rare complication after lung transplant, to obtain a careful diagnosis, an early and aggressive treatment is mandatory.


Assuntos
Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transplante de Pulmão/efeitos adversos , Granuloma de Células Plasmáticas Pulmonar/imunologia , Adulto , Fibrose Cística/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(1): 20-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559717

RESUMO

Güney E, Emiralioglu N, Cinel G, Yalçin E, Dogru D, Kiper N, Özçelik HU. Nasal nitric oxide levels in primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis and healthy children. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 20-25. Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a rare, inherited disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections. The measurement of nasal nitric oxide (nNO) is an important test for the diagnosis of PCD. In this study, we aim to evaluate NIOX-MINOÒ, which is an easily applicable method for measuring nNO, in the diagnosis of patients with PCD and define diagnostic cut-off levels. Furthermore, determining the normal limits of nNO in healthy children and investigating nNO levels of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) are the other aims of this study. The children included in this study were 5 to 18.5 years old, 46 of them had PCD, 44 had CF and 200 were healthy children. To our knowledge, this work contains the widest population compared to previous studies. Subjects receiving steroids or antibiotics or those with any acute respiratory tract infection, asthma or allergic rhinitis were not included in the study. Mean nNO levels were found as 10.4, 22.8 and 21.0 ppb in PCD, CF and healthy children, respectively. The nNO levels for PCD patients were found significantly lower than children with CF and the control groups (p < 0.05). In this study, the diagnostic nNO cut-off level between PCD and the other two groups was determined to be < 11.5 ppb with %83.6 specificity and %67.4 sensitivity. The screening of nNO with NIOX-MINO method provides early diagnose before mucosal biopsy of patients who are suspected to have PCD and therefore, prevents co-morbidities and prolongs survival with early treatment.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Kartagener/diagnóstico , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Testes Respiratórios , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Kartagener/metabolismo , Masculino , Nariz , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Turk J Pediatr ; 61(1): 134-138, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559736

RESUMO

Sag E, Kamasak T, Kaya G, Çakir M. A rare clinical association: Barth syndrome and cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 134-138. Barth syndrome (BS) is a rare X-linked recessive metabolic disorder characterized by cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, neutropenia, growth retardation and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type II. Cystic fibrosis is a common autosomal recessive genetic disorder in Caucasians. Herein, we reported a rare clinical association in an infant diagnosed based on clinical and genetic analysis. A six-month old boy admitted with chronic steatorrhea. The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis was made after clinical and laboratory examinations. Fifteen days later, the patient was presented with restlessness and moaning. He had hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis. The patient died three hours after the admission. Pedigree analysis revealed similar sudden infant deaths in close relatives. Postmortem genetic analysis revealed the diagnosis of Barth syndrome. This is the first case of the association of Barth syndrome with cystic fibrosis. Our case reinforces the importance of pedigree analysis and postmortem examinations.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Barth/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Barth/genética , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Mutação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Acidose Láctica/etiologia , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/etiologia , Lactente , Masculino , Linhagem , Esteatorreia/etiologia
17.
Elife ; 82019 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532390

RESUMO

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, resulting in defective CFTR-mediated chloride and bicarbonate transport, with dysregulation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). These changes alter fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and result in an exaggerated proinflammatory response driven, in part, by infection. We tested the hypothesis that NLRP3 inflammasome activation and ENaC upregulation drives exaggerated innate-immune responses in this multisystem disease. We identify an enhanced proinflammatory signature, as evidenced by increased levels of IL-18, IL-1ß, caspase-1 activity and ASC-speck release in monocytes, epithelia and serum with CF-associated mutations; these differences were reversed by pretreatment with NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and notably, inhibition of amiloride-sensitive sodium (Na+) channels. Overexpression of ß-ENaC, in the absence of CFTR dysfunction, increased NLRP3-mediated inflammation, indicating that dysregulated, ENaC-dependent signalling may drive exaggerated inflammatory responses in CF. These data support a role for sodium in modulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/patologia , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Imunidade Inata
18.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1591-1595, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553303

RESUMO

Patient-derived isolates of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently resistant to antibiotics due to the presence of sequence variants in resistance-associated genes. However, the frequency of antibiotic resistance and of resistance-associated sequence variants in environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa has not been well studied. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, meropenem, tobramycin) of environmental (n=50) and cystic fibrosis (n=42) P. aeruginosa isolates was carried out. Following whole genome sequencing of all isolates, 25 resistance-associated genes were analysed for the presence of likely function-altering sequence variants. Environmental isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics with one exception, whereas patient-derived isolates had significant frequencies of resistance to each antibiotic and a greater number of likely resistance-associated genetic variants. These findings indicate that the natural environment does not act as a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant P. aeruginosa, supporting a model in which antibiotic susceptible environmental bacteria infect patients and develop resistance during infection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia Ambiental , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Genômica , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Tobramicina/farmacologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD001505, 2019 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive lung damage causes most deaths in cystic fibrosis. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as ibuprofen) may prevent progressive pulmonary deterioration and morbidity in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of treatment with oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, hand searches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We contacted manufacturers of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and searched online trials registries.Latest search of the Group's Trials Register: 21 November 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials comparing oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, at any dose for at least two months, to placebo in people with cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion the review and their potential risk of bias. Two authors independently rated the quality of the evidence for each outcome using the GRADE guidelines. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified 17 trials; four are included (287 participants aged five to 39 years; maximum follow-up of four years) and one is currently awaiting classification pending publication of the full trial report and two are ongoing. Three trials compared ibuprofen to placebo (two from the same center with some of the same participants); one trial assessed piroxicam versus placebo.The three ibuprofen trials were deemed to have good or adequate methodological quality, but used various outcomes and summary measures. Reviewers considered measures of lung function, nutritional status, radiological assessment of pulmonary involvement, intravenous antibiotic usage, hospital admissions, survival and adverse effects. Combined data from the two largest ibuprofen trials showed a lower annual rate of decline for lung function, % predicted forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), mean difference (MD) 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 2.42) (moderate-quality evidence); forced vital capacity (FVC), MD 1.27 (95% CI 0.26 to 2.28) (moderate-quality evidence); forced expiratory flow (FEF25%-75%), MD 1.80 (95% CI 0.15 to 3.45). The post hoc analysis of data from two trials split by age showed a slower rate of annual decline of FEV1 % predicted and FVC in the ibuprofen group in younger children, MD 1.41% (95% CI 0.03 to 2.80) (moderate-quality evidence) and MD 1.32% (95% CI 0.04 to 2.60) (moderate-quality evidence) respectively. Data from four trials demonstrated the proportion of participants with at least one hospitalization may be slightly lower in the ibuprofen group compared to placebo, Peto odds ratio 0.61 (95% CI 0.37 to 1.01) (moderate-quality evidence). In one trial, long-term use of high-dose ibuprofen was associated with reduced intravenous antibiotic usage, improved nutritional and radiological pulmonary status. No major adverse effects were reported, but the power of the trials to identify clinically important differences in the incidence of adverse effects was low.We did not have any concerns with regards to risk of bias for the trial comparing piroxicam to placebo. However, the trial did not report many data in a form that we could analyze in this review. No data were available for the review's primary outcome of lung function; available data for hospital admissions showed no difference between the groups. No analyzable data were available for any other review outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: High-dose ibuprofen can slow the progression of lung disease in people with cystic fibrosis, especially in children, which suggests that strategies to modulate lung inflammation can be beneficial for people with cystic fibrosis.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Ibuprofeno/administração & dosagem , Ibuprofeno/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Piroxicam/administração & dosagem , Piroxicam/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(4): 303-314, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487254

RESUMO

The chloride channels, sodium and bicarbonate channels, and aquaporin water channels are coordinated to maintain the airway surface liquid that is necessary for mucociliary clearance. The general mechanism for the transport of electrolytes and fluids depends mainly on the differential expression and distribution of ion transporters and pumps. Ions and water move through the paracellular or transcellular pathways. The transcellular route of electrolyte transport requires an active transport (dependent on ATP) or passive (following electrochemical gradients) of ions. The paracellular pathway is a passive process that is ultimately controlled by the predominant transepithelial electrochemical gradients. Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease that is produced by mutations in the gene that encode cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein (CFTR) that acts as a chloride channel and performs functions of hydration of periciliary fluid and maintenance of luminal pH. The dysfunction of the chlorine channel in the respiratory epithelium determines an alteration in the bronchial secretions, with an increase in its viscosity and alteration of the mucociliary clearance and that associated with infectious processes can lead to irreversible lung damage. CFTR dysfunction has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. There are drugs that exploit physiological mechanisms in the transport of ions with a therapeutic objective.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico Ativo/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Depuração Mucociliar/fisiologia , Canais de Cloreto/fisiologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/fisiologia , Humanos
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