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2.
Nature ; 579(7797): 123-129, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103176

RESUMO

A mosaic of cross-phylum chemical interactions occurs between all metazoans and their microbiomes. A number of molecular families that are known to be produced by the microbiome have a marked effect on the balance between health and disease1-9. Considering the diversity of the human microbiome (which numbers over 40,000 operational taxonomic units10), the effect of the microbiome on the chemistry of an entire animal remains underexplored. Here we use mass spectrometry informatics and data visualization approaches11-13 to provide an assessment of the effects of the microbiome on the chemistry of an entire mammal by comparing metabolomics data from germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice. We found that the microbiota affects the chemistry of all organs. This included the amino acid conjugations of host bile acids that were used to produce phenylalanocholic acid, tyrosocholic acid and leucocholic acid, which have not previously been characterized despite extensive research on bile-acid chemistry14. These bile-acid conjugates were also found in humans, and were enriched in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cystic fibrosis. These compounds agonized the farnesoid X receptor in vitro, and mice gavaged with the compounds showed reduced expression of bile-acid synthesis genes in vivo. Further studies are required to confirm whether these compounds have a physiological role in the host, and whether they contribute to gut diseases that are associated with microbiome dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares/biossíntese , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Metabolômica , Microbiota/fisiologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Ácido Cólico/biossíntese , Ácido Cólico/química , Ácido Cólico/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Camundongos , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/genética , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978131

RESUMO

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) ion channel. Mutations in CFTR cause impaired chloride ion transport in the epithelial tissues of patients leading to cardiopulmonary decline and pancreatic insufficiency in the most severely affected patients. CFTR is composed of twelve membrane-spanning domains, two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), and a regulatory domain. The most common mutation in CFTR is a deletion of phenylalanine at position 508 (ΔF508) in NBD1. Previous research has primarily concentrated on the structure and dynamics of the NBD1 domain; However numerous pathological mutations have also been found in the lesser-studied NBD2 domain. We have investigated the amino acid co-evolved network of interactions in NBD2, and the changes that occur in that network upon the introduction of CF and CF-related mutations (S1251N(T), S1235R, D1270N, N1303K(T)). Extensive coupling between the α- and ß-subdomains were identified with residues in, or near Walker A, Walker B, H-loop and C-loop motifs. Alterations in the predicted residue network varied from moderate for the S1251T perturbation to more severe for N1303T. The S1235R and D1270N networks varied greatly compared to the wildtype, but these CF mutations only affect ion transport preference and do not severely disrupt CFTR function, suggesting dynamic flexibility in the network of interactions in NBD2. Our results also suggest that inappropriate interactions between the ß-subdomain and Q-loop could be detrimental. We also identified mutations predicted to stabilize the NBD2 residue network upon introduction of the CF and CF-related mutations, and these predicted mutations are scored as benign by the MUTPRED2 algorithm. Our results suggest the level of disruption of the co-evolution predictions of the amino acid networks in NBD2 does not have a straightforward correlation with the severity of the CF phenotypes observed.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/química , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Mutação , Algoritmos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , Estabilidade Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Deleção de Sequência
6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function due to airway obstruction, infection, and inflammation. CF patients are particularly susceptible to respiratory infection by a variety of pathogens, and the inflammatory response in CF is dysregulated and prolonged. BPI fold containing family A, member 1 (BPIFA1) and BPIFB1 are proteins expressed in the upper airways that may have innate immune activity. We previously identified polymorphisms in the BPIFA1/BPIFB1 region associated with CF lung disease severity. METHODS: We evaluated whether the BPIFA1/BPIFB1 associations with lung disease severity replicated in individuals with CF participating in the International CF Gene Modifier Consortium (n = 6,365). Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms by which the BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 proteins may modify lung disease in CF. RESULTS: The association of the G allele of rs1078761 with reduced lung function was replicated in an independent cohort of CF patients (p = 0.001, n = 2,921) and in a meta-analysis of the full consortium (p = 2.39x10-5, n = 6,365). Furthermore, we found that rs1078761G which is associated with reduced lung function was also associated with reduced BPIFA1, but not BPIFB1, protein levels in saliva from CF patients. Functional assays indicated that BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 do not have an anti-bacterial role against P. aeruginosa but may have an immunomodulatory function in CF airway epithelial cells. Gene expression profiling using RNAseq identified Rho GTPase signaling pathways to be altered in CF airway epithelial cells in response to treatment with recombinant BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 proteins. CONCLUSIONS: BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 have immunomodulatory activity and genetic variation associated with low levels of these proteins may increase CF lung disease severity.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/genética , Genes Modificadores , Glicoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Autoantígenos/genética , Autoantígenos/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Mucosa Respiratória/imunologia
8.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1008251, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961914

RESUMO

Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have altered fecal microbiomes compared to those of healthy controls. The magnitude of this dysbiosis correlates with measures of CF gastrointestinal (GI) disease, including GI inflammation and nutrient malabsorption. However, whether this dysbiosis is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, the underlying defect in CF, or whether CF-associated dysbiosis augments GI disease was not clear. To test the relationships between CFTR dysfunction, microbes, and intestinal health, we established a germ-free (GF) CF mouse model and demonstrated that CFTR gene mutations are sufficient to alter the GI microbiome. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that colonized CF mice have increased mesenteric lymph node and spleen TH17+ cells compared with non-CF mice, suggesting that CFTR defects alter adaptive immune responses. Our findings demonstrate that CFTR mutations modulate both the host adaptive immune response and the intestinal microbiome.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose/genética , Disbiose/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(3): 1621-1627, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882447

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), require inheritance of 2 mutated genes. However, some studies indicate that CF carriers are at increased risk for some conditions associated with CF. These investigations focused on single conditions and included small numbers of subjects. Our goal was to determine whether CF carriers are at increased risk for a range of CF-related conditions. Using the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims database (2001-2017), we performed a population-based retrospective matched-cohort study. We identified 19,802 CF carriers and matched each carrier with 5 controls. The prevalence of 59 CF-related diagnostic conditions was evaluated in each cohort. Odds ratios for each condition were computed for CF carriers relative to controls. All 59 CF-related conditions were more prevalent among carriers compared with controls, with significantly increased risk (P < 0.05) for 57 conditions. Risk was increased for some conditions previously linked to CF carriers (e.g., pancreatitis, male infertility, bronchiectasis), as well as some conditions not previously reported (e.g., diabetes, constipation, cholelithiasis, short stature, failure to thrive). We compared our results with 23,557 subjects with CF, who were also matched with controls; as the relative odds of a given condition increased among subjects with CF, so did the corresponding relative odds for carriers (P < 0.001). Although individual-level risk remained low for most conditions, because there are more than 10 million carriers in the US, population-level morbidity attributable to the CF carrier state is likely substantial. Genetic testing may inform prevention, diagnosis, and treatment for a broad range of CF carrier-related conditions.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/genética , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Epidemiologia Molecular , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lancet ; 394(10212): 1940-1948, 2019 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators correct the basic defect caused by CFTR mutations. Improvements in health outcomes have been achieved with the combination of a CFTR corrector and potentiator in people with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation. The addition of elexacaftor (VX-445), a next-generation CFTR corrector, to tezacaftor plus ivacaftor further improved F508del-CFTR function and clinical outcomes in a phase 2 study in people with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, active-controlled trial of elexacaftor in combination with tezacaftor plus ivacaftor was done at 44 sites in four countries. Eligible participants were those with cystic fibrosis homozygous for the F508del mutation, aged 12 years or older with stable disease, and with a percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppFEV1) of 40-90%, inclusive. After a 4-week tezacaftor plus ivacaftor run-in period, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to 4 weeks of elexacaftor 200 mg orally once daily plus tezacaftor 100 mg orally once daily plus ivacaftor 150 mg orally every 12 h versus tezacaftor 100 mg orally once daily plus ivacaftor 150 mg orally every 12 h alone. The primary outcome was the absolute change from baseline (measured at the end of the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor run-in) in ppFEV1 at week 4. Key secondary outcomes were absolute change in sweat chloride and Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised respiratory domain (CFQ-R RD) score. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03525548. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3 and Dec 28, 2018, 113 participants were enrolled. Following the run-in, 107 participants were randomly assigned (55 in the elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group and 52 in the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group) and completed the 4-week treatment period. The elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group had improvements in the primary outcome of ppFEV1 (least squares mean [LSM] treatment difference of 10·0 percentage points [95% CI 7·4 to 12·6], p<0·0001) and the key secondary outcomes of sweat chloride concentration (LSM treatment difference -45·1 mmol/L [95% CI -50·1 to -40·1], p<0·0001), and CFQ-R RD score (LSM treatment difference 17·4 points [95% CI 11·8 to 23·0], p<0·0001) compared with the tezacaftor plus ivacaftor group. The triple combination regimen was well tolerated, with no discontinuations. Most adverse events were mild or moderate; serious adverse events occurred in two (4%) participants receiving elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor and in one (2%) receiving tezacaftor plus ivacaftor. INTERPRETATION: Elexacaftor plus tezacaftor plus ivacaftor provided clinically robust benefit compared with tezacaftor plus ivacaftor alone, with a favourable safety profile, and shows the potential to lead to transformative improvements in the lives of people with cystic fibrosis who are homozygous for the F508del mutation. FUNDING: Vertex Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/administração & dosagem , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Aminofenóis/efeitos adversos , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Cística/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Suor/química
12.
N Engl J Med ; 381(19): 1809-1819, 2019 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, and nearly 90% of patients have at least one copy of the Phe508del CFTR mutation. In a phase 2 trial involving patients who were heterozygous for the Phe508del CFTR mutation and a minimal-function mutation (Phe508del-minimal function genotype), the next-generation CFTR corrector elexacaftor, in combination with tezacaftor and ivacaftor, improved Phe508del CFTR function and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor in patients 12 years of age or older with cystic fibrosis with Phe508del-minimal function genotypes. Patients were randomly assigned to receive elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was absolute change from baseline in percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) at week 4. RESULTS: A total of 403 patients underwent randomization and received at least one dose of active treatment or placebo. Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor, relative to placebo, resulted in a percentage of predicted FEV1 that was 13.8 points higher at 4 weeks and 14.3 points higher through 24 weeks, a rate of pulmonary exacerbations that was 63% lower, a respiratory domain score on the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised (range, 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a higher patient-reported quality of life with regard to respiratory symptoms; minimum clinically important difference, 4 points) that was 20.2 points higher, and a sweat chloride concentration that was 41.8 mmol per liter lower (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was generally safe and had an acceptable side-effect profile. Most patients had adverse events that were mild or moderate. Adverse events leading to discontinuation of the trial regimen occurred in 1% of the patients in the elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor group. CONCLUSIONS: Elexacaftor-tezacaftor-ivacaftor was efficacious in patients with cystic fibrosis with Phe508del-minimal function genotypes, in whom previous CFTR modulator regimens were ineffective. (Funded by Vertex Pharmaceuticals; VX17-445-102 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03525444.).


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/administração & dosagem , Benzodioxóis/administração & dosagem , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/administração & dosagem , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Mutação , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Aminofenóis/efeitos adversos , Benzodioxóis/efeitos adversos , Criança , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/efeitos adversos , Cloretos/análise , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolonas/efeitos adversos , Suor/química , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3556, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391465

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The 3272-26A>G and 3849+10kbC>T CFTR mutations alter the correct splicing of the CFTR gene, generating new acceptor and donor splice sites respectively. Here we develop a genome editing approach to permanently correct these genetic defects, using a single crRNA and the Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6, AsCas12a. This genetic repair strategy is highly precise, showing very strong discrimination between the wild-type and mutant sequence and a complete absence of detectable off-targets. The efficacy of this gene correction strategy is verified in intestinal organoids and airway epithelial cells derived from CF patients carrying the 3272-26A>G or 3849+10kbC>T mutations, showing efficient repair and complete functional recovery of the CFTR channel. These results demonstrate that allele-specific genome editing with AsCas12a can correct aberrant CFTR splicing mutations, paving the way for a permanent splicing correction in genetic diseases.


Assuntos
Acidaminococcus/genética , Proteínas Associadas a CRISPR/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Edição de Genes/métodos , Alelos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biópsia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Linhagem Celular , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/patologia , Endonucleases/genética , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia , Organoides , Mutação Puntual , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética
14.
Med Arch ; 73(2): 118-120, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391700

RESUMO

Introduction: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic multisystem disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but other organs such as liver, pancreas and intestine also affected. CF is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and occurs in males and females equally. Cystic fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) mutations are classified into five classes. Class 1 (non-functional protein), class 2 (near-absence of mature CFTR protein at the apical cell membrane), class 3 (full-length CFTR protein incorporated into the cell membrane), class 4 (reduced conductance CFTR mutation), and class 5 (reduced amount of CFTR protein with normal function). Globally F508 mutation is the most common. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of CFTR gene mutation in Jordanian populations attending a major hospital (KHMC). Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study was conducted on 777 sera samples for patients clinically suspected to have cystic fibrosis over a six year period 1/1/2013-1/10/2018. The patient's age range between 1year and 33 years, of which 59.2% (460) were male and 40.8% (317) female. Blood samples were analyzed at Princess Iman Centre for Research and Laboratory Sciences at King Hussein Medical Centre. The samples were tested for 34 mutations of CFTR gene using CF Strip Assay VIENNA LAB Diagnostics GmbH, Austria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: A total of 777 patients samples were analyzed for cystic gene mutations. Twelve (12) mutations were identified. In 49 patients (6.3%) were heterozygous genotype mutant and 28 (3.6%) were homozygous. The most frequent mutation F508del was found in 32/77 (41.5%). 20 (25.9%) of them were heterozygous genotype mutant and 12 (15.6%) were homozygous genotype mutant. The second frequent mutation was N1303K with frequency rate 15.6% (12/77), 9 (11.7%) of them were heterozygous and 3 (3.9%) were homozygous. Regarding frequency of cystic fibrosis gene mutation depending on sex, 55.8% (43/77) of mutations were found in male, whereas 44.2% (34/77) in female. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that cystic fibrosis in Jordan is not a rare disease, and found that the most frequent CFTR gene mutation was F508del, which is in keeping with results from other Mediterranean countries.


Assuntos
Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 2180409, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396541

RESUMO

The primary purpose of pulmonary ventilation is to supply oxygen (O2) for sustained aerobic respiration in multicellular organisms. However, a plethora of abiotic insults and airborne pathogens present in the environment are occasionally introduced into the airspaces during inhalation, which could be detrimental to the structural integrity and functioning of the respiratory system. Multiple layers of host defense act in concert to eliminate unwanted constituents from the airspaces. In particular, the mucociliary escalator provides an effective mechanism for the continuous removal of inhaled insults including pathogens. Defects in the functioning of the mucociliary escalator compromise the mucociliary clearance (MCC) of inhaled pathogens, which favors microbial lung infection. Defective MCC is often associated with airway mucoobstruction, increased occurrence of respiratory infections, and progressive decrease in lung function in mucoobstructive lung diseases including cystic fibrosis (CF). In this disease, a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene results in dehydration of the airway surface liquid (ASL) layer. Several mice models of Cftr mutation have been developed; however, none of these models recapitulate human CF-like mucoobstructive lung disease. As an alternative, the Scnn1b transgenic (Scnn1b-Tg+) mouse model overexpressing a transgene encoding sodium channel nonvoltage-gated 1, beta subunit (Scnn1b) in airway club cells is available. The Scnn1b-Tg+ mouse model exhibits airway surface liquid (ASL) dehydration, impaired MCC, increased mucus production, and early spontaneous pulmonary bacterial infections. High morbidity and mortality among mucoobstructive disease patients, high economic and health burden, and lack of scientific understanding of the progression of mucoobstruction warrants in-depth investigation of the cause of mucoobstruction in mucoobstructive disease models. In this review, we will summarize published literature on the Scnn1b-Tg+ mouse and analyze various unanswered questions on the initiation and progression of mucobstruction and bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/imunologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Cística/imunologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio/genética , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/metabolismo , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/microbiologia , Animais , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Desidratação/metabolismo , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Canais Iônicos/deficiência , Canais Iônicos/genética , Leucócitos/imunologia , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Depuração Mucociliar/genética , Depuração Mucociliar/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia , Infecções Respiratórias/fisiopatologia
16.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 146, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical studies demonstrate that ivacaftor (IVA) improves health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients aged ≥6 years with cystic fibrosis (CF). The real-world impact of IVA and standard of care (SOC) in groups of patients with G551D and F508del mutations, respectively, was assessed using a survey comprising disease-specific and generic HRQoL measures. METHODS: Patients with CF aged ≥12 years, or aged 6-11 years with caregiver support, with either (1) a G551D mutation and receiving IVA (G551D/IVA) for ≥3 months, or (2) homozygous for F508del and receiving SOC before lumacaftor/IVA availability (F508del/SOC), were eligible to participate in a cross-sectional survey. Demographic and clinical characteristics, and HRQoL measures were compared between patient groups, and multiple regression analyses were conducted. RESULTS: After differences in patient demographic and clinical characteristics were controlled for, significantly better scores were observed in the G551D/IVA group than in the F508del/SOC group on multiple domains of the validated Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire-Revised and the EuroQol 5-dimensions 5-level questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: G551D/IVA patients reported better HRQoL than F508del/SOC patients on generic and disease-specific measures in a real-world setting.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Mutação , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Análise de Regressão , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Mol Pharmacol ; 96(4): 515-525, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31427400

RESUMO

ORKAMBI, a combination of the corrector, lumacaftor, and the potentiator, ivacaftor, partially rescues the defective processing and anion channel activity conferred by the major cystic fibrosis-causing mutation, F508del, in in vitro studies. Clinically, the improvement in lung function after ORKAMBI treatment is modest and variable, prompting the search for complementary interventions. As our previous work identified a positive effect of arginine-dependent nitric oxide signaling on residual F508del-Cftr function in murine intestinal epithelium, we were prompted to determine whether strategies aimed at increasing arginine would enhance F508del-cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel activity in patient-derived airway epithelia. Now, we show that the addition of arginine together with inhibition of intracellular arginase activity increased cytosolic nitric oxide and enhanced the rescue effect of ORKAMBI on F508del-CFTR-mediated chloride conductance at the cell surface of patient-derived bronchial and nasal epithelial cultures. Interestingly, arginine addition plus arginase inhibition also enhanced ORKAMBI-mediated increases in ciliary beat frequency and mucociliary movement, two in vitro CF phenotypes that are downstream of the channel defect. This work suggests that strategies to manipulate the arginine-nitric oxide pathway in combination with CFTR modulators may lead to improved clinical outcomes. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: These proof-of-concept studies highlight the potential to boost the response to cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) modulators, lumacaftor and ivacaftor, in patient-derived airway tissues expressing the major CF-causing mutant, F508del-CFTR, by enhancing other regulatory pathways. In this case, we observed enhancement of pharmacologically rescued F508del-CFTR by arginine-dependent, nitric oxide signaling through inhibition of endogenous arginase activity.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/farmacologia , Aminopiridinas/farmacologia , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginina/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Quinolonas/farmacologia , Animais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Citosol/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação , Nariz/citologia , Nariz/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm ; 25(9): 1021-1025, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lumacaftor/ivacaftor (LUM/IVA) is indicated for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) homozygous for the F508del mutation in the CFTR gene. In clinical trials, LUM/IVA decreased pulmonary exacerbation rates. To our knowledge, there is no published data evaluating real-world outcomes for Medicaid patients receiving LUM/IVA. OBJECTIVE: To compare CF pulmonary exacerbation rates before and after initiation of LUM/IVA in 1 state's Medicaid program. METHODS: This pre-post claims analysis screened fee-for-service and managed Medicaid members who had ≥ 1 pharmacy claim for LUM/IVA between July 2, 2015, and September 30, 2016. Members were included if they were aged ≥ 6 years with a CF diagnosis and homozygous for the F508del mutation, consistent with the indication at study initiation. Exclusion criteria included Medicaid as a secondary payer or any break in coverage during the study. The index date was defined as the first claim for LUM/IVA. Demographics and outcomes were derived from pharmacy and medical claims. Outcomes included overall rate of pulmonary exacerbations (reported as the total events for the study population 6 months before and after the index date and average annualized rate). Pulmonary exacerbation was defined as any combination of medical claims for an emergency room (ER) visit or inpatient hospitalization with a CF pulmonary exacerbation or respiratory infection (ICD-9/10-CM codes) or pharmacy claims for an oral or intravenous antibiotic (excluding macrolides). A gap of > 7 days was considered a new pulmonary exacerbation. Paired t-test was used to test significance. RESULTS: 21 patients met inclusion criteria with an average age at treatment initiation of 20.1 years. Average proportion of days covered (SD) was 0.62 (0.29). The number of pulmonary exacerbations increased from 45 to 48 during the 6 months before and after the index date, respectively, and the annualized rate increased from 4.37 to 4.66 (P = 0.69). While the number of pulmonary exacerbations associated with antibiotics alone increased (23 to 33; P = 0.08), those associated with at least 1 ER visit or inpatient hospitalization decreased (22 to 15; P = 0.08). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find a decrease in pulmonary exacerbation rate for Medicaid members receiving LUM/IVA; however, adherence was low. Further study of similar populations is needed to better understand the long-term effect of treatment. DISCLOSURES: No outside funding supported this study. The authors have nothing to disclose. A poster of this project was presented at the Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy Annual Meeting 2018 in Boston, MA, on April 23-26, 2018.


Assuntos
Aminofenóis/uso terapêutico , Aminopiridinas/uso terapêutico , Benzodioxóis/uso terapêutico , Agonistas dos Canais de Cloreto/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Cística/tratamento farmacológico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epidemiol Prev ; 43(4S1): 1-36, 2019.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370382

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: On the 27th of October 2017 the National Center for Rare Diseases of the Italian National Health Institute (NHI), clinicians of the Italian National Referral and Support Centres for Cystic Fibrosis, Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù", Italian Cystic Fibrosis Society, and the Italian League for Cystic Fibrosis renewed the agreement about FC data flow for a 3 years period. The possibility to access data by third parties is among the most important new introduced within the agreement. OBJECTIVES: Aim of the present report is to improve the know-how on cystic fibrosis (CF) through a better characterization of Italian patients. Furthermore, the present Report aims at improving the care of CF patient. In particular, the Report should contribute to the following objectives: * to analize medium- and long-term clinical and epidemiological trends of the disesase; * to identify the main health care needs at regional and national level in order to contribute to the healthcare programmes and to the distribution of resources; * to compare Italian data with international ones. DESIGN: Analyses and results described in the present Report are referred to patients in charge to the Italian National Referral and Support Centers for Cystic Fibrosis in the period 2015-2016. Data were sent by Centres by means of a specific software (Camilla, Ibis Informatica). Data underwent to a double quality control (QC): the first by NHI and the second at a European level (before the inclusion of the italian data within the European Cystic Fibrosis Registry). These QCs assure the completeness and the accuracy of data as well as their consistency with European core data. Finally, in 2017, an additional CQ was performed to further reduce the number of missing data and consequently improve the precision and the consistency in the nomenclature adopted for genetic mutations. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 29 different CF Centres (referral, support, and Paediatric Hospital "Bambino Gesù") sent their data referred to 2015-2016 years to ICFR . Data regarding Sardinia (Southern Italy) are missing and those from Treviso (Veneto Region, Northern Italy) and Rovereto (Trentino-Alto Adige Region, Northern Italy) are sent through Verona CF Centre. RESULTS: The present Report has been organized into 10 sections. 1. Demography: estimated CF patients is 5,204 in 2015 and 5,362 in 2016; median age is 20.6 and 21.0, respectively. Prevalence is 8.6/100,000 residents in Italy in 2015 and 8.8 in 2016. Male percentage is 51.6% on average for 2015 and 2016; CF distribution showed higher frequency in patients aged from 7 to 35 years. The mean of patients aged more than 18 years is 56.5% on average in 2015 and 2016. 2. Diagnoses: most of the CF patients were diagnosed before 2 years of age (median value: 68%); a significant percentage of patients (median value: 13%) was diagnosed in adult age. 3. New diagnoses: new diagnoses were 169 in 2015 and 153 in 2016. Estimated incidence in 2015 was 1/4,176 living births in 2015 and 1/5,510 in 2016. 4. Genetics: 99.5% of patients underwent genetic analyses and in 96% of patients a mutation in Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR) gene was identified. [delta]508F was the most frequent mutation (44,7% in 2016). Furthermore, 16.0% and 3.4% of patients was characterized by the presence of at least one "residual function" mutation and gating, respectively. Finally, 21% of patients was a stop codons (class 1 mutation) carrier. 5. Lung function: FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in the first second) scores progressively decreased before adult age, in accordance with the natural history of the disease. FEV1% values in patients between 6 and 17 years of age is ≥70%; patients with a FEV1% value of 40% are less than 2% in the period 2015-2016. 6. Nutrition: most critical periods are during the first 6 months of life and during adolescence. Prevalence of malnourished male aged 12-17 years is constant in 2015-2016 and is always more than the prevalence observed in female. An increasing percentage of female patient with a suboptimal BMI value (35.5%) is observed among patients aged more than 18 years 7. COMPLICATIONS: it was estimated that, in 2016, hepatopathies without cirrhosis (17.7%) is the principal complications in patients aged less than 18 years; in patients aged more than 18 years the principal complication was due to hepatopathies without cirrhosis (29.5%) and diabetes (23.3%). 8. Transplantation: in 2015-2016, 74 patients were bipulmunary transplanted; age was comprised between 8 and 52 years, median age at transplantation was 29,6 years. Median waiting times for transplantation is estimated in 17 months (24 months in 2015 and 14 months in 2016). 9. Microbiology: analyses were referred to test performed in 2016. Percentage of adult patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection is 52.1% compared to 15.2% of paediatric patients; Staphylococcus aureus infection is present in 53.2% of adult patients and 52.8% of paediatric ones; Burkholderia Cepacia complex is present almost exclusively in adult patients (4.3%); Nontuberculous mycobacteria is present in 1.2% and 0.4% of adult and paediatric patients, respectively; Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is present in the 6.1% of adult patients and 4.9 of paediatric patients. 10. Mortality: 102 patients (49 males and 53 females; median age 36.9 years in 2015 and 36.5 in 2016) died in 2015-2016 (transplanted patients are not included). CONCLUSIONS: The present Report shows that Italian CF population is growing (median age) and paediatric mortality is decreasing. A very low percentage of paediatric population is characterized by complication of pulmonary function; adult patients are characterized by an increase of age at death (more than 36 years of age in 2016).


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Criança , Terapia Combinada , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Transplante de Pulmão , Masculino , Desnutrição/etiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Apoio Nutricional
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