Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.944
Filtrar
1.
Rev Med Liege ; 76(3): 202-207, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682390

RESUMO

In cystic fibrosis, lung disease is early and insidious. It almost always conditions the prognosis. A pragmatic way of looking at prognostic factors is to distinguish those on which care management has little (environmental factors) or no grip (genetic factors) and those related to the quality of care, the latter being crucial. Recently, a triple-combination CFTR («Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator¼) modulator regimen has been shown a highly effective therapy. Ultimately, at least 90 % of Belgian patients with cystic fibrosis should benefit from this drug. However, its official price is extremely high (712 €/day), lacks transparency and illustrates problematic aspects of current orphan legislations. For the majority of citizens in Western Europe, a social ideal still prevails that healthcare should be accessible to all in an equitable fashion. Somewhere between this price and the necessity for national health systems based on solidarity to keep the costs of orphan drugs at a sustainable level, patients are looking like hostages.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Quinolonas , Aminofenóis , Aminopiridinas , Benzodioxóis , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Mutação , Prognóstico
2.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007923, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inhalation of the enzyme dornase alfa reduces sputum viscosity and improves clinical outcomes of people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the timing of dornase alfa inhalation (in relation to airway clearance techniques or morning versus evening inhalation) has an impact on objective and subjective measures of clinical efficacy in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: Relevant randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), clinical trial registries and international cystic fibrosis conference proceedings. Date of the most recent search: 12 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Any trial of dornase alfa in people with cystic fibrosis where timing of inhalation was the randomised element in the trial with either: inhalation before compared to after airway clearance techniques; or morning compared to evening inhalation.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and extracted data with disagreements resolved by discussion. Relevant data were extracted and, where possible, meta-analysed. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 115 trial reports representing 55 trials, of which five trials (providing data on 122 participants) met our inclusion criteria. All five trials used a cross-over design. Intervention periods ranged from two to eight weeks. Four trials (98 participants) compared dornase alfa inhalation before versus after airway clearance techniques. Inhalation after instead of before airway clearance did not significantly change forced expiratory volume at one second (very-low quality evidence). Similarly, forced vital capacity (low-quality evidence) and quality of life (very-low quality evidence) were not significantly affected; forced expiratory flow at 25% was significantly worse with dornase alfa inhalation after airway clearance, mean difference -0.17 litres (95% confidence interval -0.28 to -0.05), based on the pooled data from two small trials in children (7 to 19 years) with well-preserved lung function. All other secondary outcomes were statistically non-significant. In one trial (25 participants), morning versus evening inhalation had no impact on lung function or symptoms (low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence derived from a small number of participants does not indicate that inhalation of dornase alfa after airway clearance techniques is more or less effective than the traditional recommendation to inhale nebulised dornase alfa 30 minutes prior to airway clearance techniques, for most outcomes. For children with well-preserved lung function, inhalation before airway clearance may be more beneficial for small airway function than inhalation after. However, this result relied on a measure with high variability and trials with variable follow-up. In the absence of strong evidence to indicate that one timing regimen is better than another, the timing of dornase alfa inhalation can be largely based on pragmatic reasons or individual preference with respect to the time of airway clearance and time of day. Further research is warranted.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Desoxirribonuclease I/administração & dosagem , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Criança , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Esquema de Medicação , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525434

RESUMO

Living with cystic fibrosis (CF) exposes patients to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, with therapeutic compliance reduction, hospitalization increase, and quality of life and health outcomes deterioration. As pulmonary infections represent the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with CF, environmental contamination due to droplet dispersion and the potential transmission from environment to such patients should be prevented. Therefore, in-person contact, including group-based psychotherapy, are strongly discouraged. Nevertheless, group sharing of disease-related experiences represents a way to recover the inner resources essential for dealing with a chronic pathology. Keeping in mind the guidelines for infection control, the aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of the dissemination of microorganisms in a restricted environment where patients with CF attend group psychotherapy sessions. Five patients, selected according to their microbiological status, attended 32 group-based psychological/psychoanalytic meetings. Before each session, they were asked to observe the infection control recommendations. Microbiological environmental monitoring (MEM) has been performed to evaluate both air and surface contamination. As reported, a strict observation of standard precautions allows one to avoid environmental contamination by pathogens of the CF respiratory tract. Although infection control guidelines discourage group-based psychological/psychoanalytic interventions, our observations report the feasibility and safety of group psychotherapy when strict precautions are taken.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Psicoterapia , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S17-S35, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147358

RESUMO

La presente revisión de la "Guía de diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con fibrosis quística"publicada en el año 2014 tiene como objetivo actualizar el conocimiento acerca de varios aspectos relacionados con el manejo clínico de la enfermedad, según los avances científicos publicados y en desarrollo en los últimos años. Solo se tratarán aquí tópicos nuevos y aquellos que, a la luz de la investigación, requieren ser modificados, por lo que el contenido de la anterior guía permanece vigente en el resto de las cuestiones.Los aspectos actualizados se dan en el diagnóstico de la enfermedad por los cambios realizados en el test del sudor, la pesquisa neonatal y la biología molecular, la actualización de estudios de seguimiento, como el índice de aclaramiento pulmonar y la resonancia magnética nuclear, y modificaciones con respecto al área nutricional (diabetes secundaria a fibrosis quística) y el tratamiento kinésico y de rehabilitación pulmonar


The present revision of the Guide for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis published in 2014 aims to update the knowledge about various aspects related to the clinical management of the disease, according to the scientific advances published and in development in recent years. Only new topics will be discussed here and those that, in light of the research, require modification, so the content of the previous guide remains valid in the rest of the aspects.The updated aspects range over the diagnosis of the disease due to the changes made in the sweat test, the neonatal screening and molecular biology, the update of follow-up studies, such as the Lung Clearance Index and the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, and modifications regarding the nutritional area (diabetes secondary to cystic fibrosis) and the physiotherapy treatment and pulmonary rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Fibrose Cística/diagnóstico , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Infecções Respiratórias/terapia
6.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(2): 195-197, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349583

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic significantly impacted CF clinical research within the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics Development Network (CFF TDN). A Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) survey was developed and sent to network sites to monitor and understand the impact on research teams, ongoing and anticipated clinical research, and specific clinical and research procedures. Key findings indicated an early impact on participant enrollment, research team stability, and procedures such as spirometry and sputum induction. These trends steadily improved over the months as research activities began to recover across the TDN. While SARS-CoV-2 created a significant challenge it also highlights new opportunities to expand CF research with greater focus on data collection outside of research centers and increased access for remote participation.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Fibrose Cística/terapia , /prevenção & controle , Fundações , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Cyst Fibros ; 20(1): 25-30, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The presence of co-morbidities, including underlying respiratory problems, has been identified as a risk factor for severe COVID-19 disease. Information on the clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) is limited, yet vital to provide accurate advice for children with CF, their families, caregivers and clinical teams. METHODS: Cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with CF aged less than 18 years were collated by the CF Registry Global Harmonization Group across 13 countries between 1 February and 7 August 2020. RESULTS: Data on 105 children were collated and analysed. Median age of cases was ten years (interquartile range 6-15), 54% were male and median percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in one second was 94% (interquartile range 79-104). The majority (71%) of children were managed in the community during their COVID-19 illness. Out of 24 children admitted to hospital, six required supplementary oxygen and two non-invasive ventilation. Around half were prescribed antibiotics, five children received antiviral treatments, four azithromycin and one additional corticosteroids. Children that were hospitalised had lower lung function and reduced body mass index Z-scores. One child died six weeks after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 following a deterioration that was not attributed to COVID-19 disease. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children with CF is usually associated with a mild illness in those who do not have pre-existing severe lung disease.


Assuntos
/complicações , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Fibrose Cística/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
8.
Life Sci ; 268: 118959, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383045

RESUMO

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease which involves the mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF involves in the inflammatory processes and is considered as a multisystem disorder that is not confined to lungs, but it also affects other vital organs that leads to numerous co-morbidities. The respiratory disorder in the CF results in mortality and morbidity which is characterized by series of serious events involving mucus hypersecretion, microbial infections, airways obstruction, inflammation, destruction of epithelium, tissue remodeling and terminal lung diseases. Mucins are the high molecular weight glycoproteins important for the viscoelastic properties of the mucus, play a significant role in the disease mechanisms. Determining the functional association between the CFTR and mucins might help to identify the putative target for specific therapeutic approach. In fact, furin enzyme which helps in the entry of novel COVID-19 virus into the cell, is upregulated in CF and this can also serve as a potential target for CF treatment. Moreover, the use of nano-formulations for CF treatment is an area of research being widely studied as they have also demonstrated promising outcomes. The in-depth knowledge of non-coding RNAs like miRNAs and lncRNAs and their functional association with CFTR gene expression and mutation can provide a different range of opportunity to identify the promising therapeutic approaches for CF.


Assuntos
/virologia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fibrose Cística/genética , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Mucinas/metabolismo , Mutação , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , /patogenicidade
10.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(12): e00115720, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331552

RESUMO

The article proposes to discuss the many complexities involved in the incorporation of new health technologies for rare diseases, with a central focus on the case of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis was chosen because it is a autosomal recessive genetic disorder, considered the most common of the rare diseases. The disease has also benefited greatly from investments in research in the field of molecular biology, mainly in the United States, but also among European research groups, which resulted in the registration and marketing of four new drugs. These new drugs act for the first time on the basic defect in cystic fibrosis. From a perspective that views rare diseases as a field of research woven among many others, the article aims to problematize cystic fibrosis from a more person-centered approach, the duality of witnessing from afar the molecularization of life, the emergence of last-generation drugs that interrupt, at the molecular level, the cascade of errors and thus the symptoms and evolution of the disease. The article aims to bring various elements to the debate that traverse the complex local reality of Brazilian cystic fibrosis patients in a global context of technological innovation and with a break in the treatment paradigm. Based on the field of rare diseases, including the presentation of cystic fibrosis in the age of precision medicine, alongside discussions on biopolitics in a context of health innovation and high-cost drugs, the article aims to shed light on the current challenges and possibilities.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Brasil , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão , Doenças Raras/terapia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 12: CD006112, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive disease in white populations, and causes respiratory dysfunction in the majority of individuals. Numerous types of respiratory muscle training to improve respiratory function and health-related quality of life in people with cystic fibrosis have been reported in the literature. Hence a systematic review of the literature is needed to establish the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training (either inspiratory or expiratory muscle training) on clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training on clinical outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials register comprising of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of most recent search: 11 June 2020. A hand search of the Journal of Cystic Fibrosis and Pediatric Pulmonology was performed, along with an electronic search of online trial databases. Date of most recent search: 05 October 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled studies comparing respiratory muscle training with a control group in people with cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Review authors independently selected articles for inclusion, evaluated the methodological quality of the studies, and extracted data. Additional information was sought from trial authors where necessary. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. MAIN RESULTS: Authors identified 20 studies, of which 10 studies with 238 participants met the review's inclusion criteria. There was wide variation in the methodological and written quality of the included studies. Four of the 10 included studies were published as abstracts only and lacked concise details, thus limiting the information available. Eight studies were parallel studies and two of a cross-over design. Respiratory muscle training interventions varied dramatically, with frequency, intensity and duration ranging from thrice weekly to twice daily, 20% to 80% of maximal effort, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Participant numbers ranged from 11 to 39 participants in the included studies; five studies were in adults only, one in children only and four in a combination of children and adults. No differences between treatment and control were reported in the primary outcome of pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity) or postural stability (very low-quality evidence). Although no change was reported in exercise capacity as assessed by the maximum rate of oxygen use and distance completed in a six minute walk test, a 10% improvement in exercise duration was found when working at 60% of maximal effort in one study (n = 20) (very low-quality evidence). In a further study (n = 18), when working at 80% of maximal effort, health-related quality of life improved in the mastery and emotion domains (very low-quality evidence). With regards to the review's secondary outcomes, one study (n = 11) found a change in intramural pressure, functional residual capacity and maximal inspiratory pressure following training (very low-quality evidence). Another study (n=36) reported improvements in maximal inspiratory pressure following training (P < 0.001) (very low-quality evidence). A further study (n = 22) reported that respiratory muscle endurance was longer in the training group (P < 0.01). No studies reported significant differences on any other secondary outcomes. Meta-analyses could not be performed due to a lack of consistency and insufficient detail in reported outcome measures. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to suggest whether this intervention is beneficial or not. Healthcare practitioners should consider the use of respiratory muscle training on a case-by-case basis. Further research of reputable methodological quality is needed to determine the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training in people with cystic fibrosis. Researchers should consider the following clinical outcomes in future studies; respiratory muscle function, pulmonary function, exercise capacity, hospital admissions, and health-related quality of life. Sensory-perceptual changes, such as respiratory effort sensation (e.g. rating of perceived breathlessness) and peripheral effort sensation (e.g. rating of perceived exertion) may also help to elucidate mechanisms underpinning the effectiveness of respiratory muscle training.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Inalação/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Fluxo Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Capacidade Vital
12.
Clin Ter ; 171(5): e381-e384, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the effectiveness of home care through a telemonitoring system in reducing the incidence of new colonization by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in a population of patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) followed by the CF clinic of the Bambino Gesù Hospital in Rome over a period of 36 months. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of patients were recruited, homogeneous for age, sex, BMI, FEV1, prevalence of CF-related Diabetes and CF-related Hepatopathy, access to new therapies with modulators: a) an IN group (N = 44 ) followed through a home telemonitoring system, b) an OUT control group (N = 110) followed according to the standards of care. The following parameters were detected for all patients: pulmonary colonization of the lungs, number and type of hospital admissions, respiratory function, BMI. RESULT: The OUT group had a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infections during the observation period. Furthermore, a significant decrease in lung function assessed through FEV1 was also observed in the OUT group. CONCLUSION: Adolescent and adult patients belonging to the CF center who are not followed through the dedicated home telemonitoring service show, in the three-year period 2017-19, an increase in Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infections and a greater decrease in respiratory function. The use of telemedicine in CF is therefore an effective system not only in monitoring the disease but also as a treatment strategy, in the context of an evolving multidisciplinary model. As advantages, telemedicine can reduce the number of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa lung infections and the greater stability of respiratory function over time.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Infecções por Pseudomonas/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Prevalência , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD008227, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most people with cystic fibrosis (CF) (80% to 90%) need pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) to prevent malnutrition. Enzyme preparations need to be taken whenever food is taken, and the dose needs to be adjusted according to the food consumed. A systematic review on the efficacy and safety of PERT is needed to guide clinical practice, as there is variability between centres with respect to assessment of pancreatic function, time of commencing treatment, dose and choice of supplements. This is an updated version of a published review. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PERT in children and adults with CF and to compare the efficacy and safety of different formulations of PERT and their appropriateness in different age groups. Also, to compare the effects of PERT in CF according to different diagnostic subgroups (e.g. different ages at introduction of therapy and different categories of pancreatic function). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Most recent search: 07 November 2019. We also searched an ongoing trials website and the websites of the pharmaceutical companies who manufacture pancreatic enzyme replacements for any additional trials. Most recent search: 26 December 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials in people of any age, with CF and receiving PERT, at any dosage and in any formulation, for a period of not less than four weeks, compared to placebo or other PERT preparations. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed trials and extracted outcome data. They also assessed the risk of bias and quality of the evidence (GRADE) of the trials included in the review. MAIN RESULTS: 14 trials were included in the review (641 children and adults with CF), two of these were parallel trials and 12 were cross-over trials. Interventions included different enteric and non-enteric-coated preparations of varying formulations in comparison to each other. The number of participants in each trial varied between 14 and 129. 13 trials were for a duration of four weeks and one trial lasted seven weeks. The majority of the trials had an unclear risk of bias from the randomisation process as the details of this were not given; they also had a high risk of attrition bias and reporting bias. The quality of the evidence ranged from moderate to very low. We mostly could not combine data from the trials as they compared different formulations and the findings from individual trials provided insufficient evidence to determine the size and precision of the effects of different formulations. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence of benefit from enteric-coated microspheres when compared to non-enteric coated pancreatic enzyme preparations up to one month. In the only comparison where we could combine any data, the fact that these were cross-over trials is likely to underestimate the level of inconsistency between the results of the trials due to over-inflation of CIs from the individual trials.There is no evidence on the long-term effectiveness and risks associated with PERT. There is also no evidence on the relative dosages of enzymes needed for people with different levels of severity of pancreatic insufficiency, optimum time to start treatment and variations based on differences in meals and meal sizes. There is a need for a properly designed trial that can answer these questions.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/normas , Dor Abdominal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Cápsulas/administração & dosagem , Criança , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Terapia de Reposição de Enzimas/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Microesferas , Estado Nutricional , Pâncreas/enzimologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ganho de Peso
16.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(698): 1229-1235, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558451

RESUMO

Cystic Fibrosis is a genetic disorder resulting in the absence or dysfunction of the CFTR protein, a chloride channel present on the surface of epithelia, particularly respiratory. Until recently, treatments only concerned the consequences of the disease. But a new type of molecules called «â€…modulators ¼, is already available to some patients and targets the origin of the disease. «â€…Modulators ¼ are divided into «â€…potentiators ¼, which improve the transport of chloride by the CFTR protein, and «â€…correctors ¼, increasing the amount of CFTR proteins. An oral triple therapy combining a potentiator and two correctors has just been approved in the USA and will treat 85 % of patients. The clinical benefit of «â€…modulators ¼ is remarkable, and these drugs are revolutionizing the treatment of Cystic Fibrosis.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/terapia , Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/genética , Regulador de Condutância Transmembrana em Fibrose Cística/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação
17.
J Vis Exp ; (159)2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478753

RESUMO

Antimicrobial resistance, a major consequence of diagnostic uncertainty and antimicrobial overprescription, is an increasingly recognized cause of severe infections, complications, and mortality worldwide with a huge impact on our society and on the health system. In particular, patients with compromised immune systems or pre-existing and chronic pathologies, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), are subjected to frequent antibiotic treatments to control the infections with the appearance and diffusion of multidrug resistant isolates. Therefore, there is an urgent need to address alternative therapies to counteract bacterial infections. Use of bacteriophages, the natural enemies of bacteria, can be a possible solution. The protocol detailed in this work describes the application of phage therapy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in CF zebrafish embryos. Zebrafish embryos were infected with P. aeruginosa to demonstrate that phage therapy is effective against P. aeruginosa infections as it reduces lethality, bacterial burden and pro-inflammatory immune response in CF embryos.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Embrião não Mamífero/microbiologia , Terapia por Fagos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/terapia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacteriófagos/fisiologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Microinjeções , Morfolinos/farmacologia , Terapia por Fagos/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Thorax ; 75(8): 632-639, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409613

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic lung disease (eg, cystic fibrosis (CF)) often receive antimicrobial therapy including aminoglycosides resulting in ototoxicity. Extended high-frequency audiometry has increased sensitivity for ototoxicity detection, but diagnostic audiometry in a sound-booth is costly, time-consuming and requires a trained audiologist. This cross-sectional study analysed tablet-based audiometry (Shoebox MD) performed by non-audiologists in an outpatient setting, alongside home web-based audiometry (3D Tune-In) to screen for hearing loss in adults with CF. METHODS: Hearing was analysed in 126 CF adults using validated questionnaires, a web self-hearing test (0.5 to 4 kHz), tablet (0.25 to 12 kHz) and sound-booth audiometry (0.25 to 12 kHz). A threshold of ≥25 dB hearing loss at ≥1 audiometric frequency was considered abnormal. Demographics and mitochondrial DNA sequencing were used to analyse risk factors, and accuracy and usability of hearing tests determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of hearing loss within any frequency band tested was 48%. Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.127; (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.18; p value<0.0001) per year older) and total intravenous antibiotic days over 10 years (OR 1.006; (95% CI: 1.002 to 1.010; p value=0.004) per further intravenous day) were significantly associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Tablet audiometry had good usability, was 93% sensitive, 88% specific with 94% negative predictive value to screen for hearing loss compared with web self-test audiometry and questionnaires which had poor sensitivity (17% and 13%, respectively). Intraclass correlation (ICC) of tablet versus sound-booth audiometry showed high correlation (ICC >0.9) at all frequencies ≥4 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with CF have a high prevalence of drug-related hearing loss and tablet-based audiometry can be a practical, accurate screening tool within integrated ototoxicity monitoring programmes for early detection.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística/complicações , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Adulto , Audiometria , Computadores de Mão , Estudos Transversais , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Cyst Fibros ; 19(3): 355-358, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376098

RESUMO

Information is lacking on the clinical impact of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, on people with cystic fibrosis (CF). Our aim was to characterise SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Anonymised data submitted by each participating country to their National CF Registry was reported using a standardised template, then collated and summarised. RESULTS: 40 cases have been reported across 8 countries. Of the 40 cases, 31 (78%) were symptomatic for SARS-CoV-2 at presentation, with 24 (60%) having a fever. 70% have recovered, 30% remain unresolved at time of reporting, and no deaths have been submitted. CONCLUSIONS: This early report shows good recovery from SARS-CoV-2 in this heterogeneous CF cohort. The disease course does not seem to differ from the general population, but the current numbers are too small to draw firm conclusions and people with CF should continue to strictly follow public health advice to protect themselves from infection.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Fibrose Cística/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália , Canadá , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Avaliação de Sintomas , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(8): 978-984, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357084

RESUMO

Introduction: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major world health problem. All U.S. states have advised their cystic fibrosis (CF) populations to socially isolate. Major health care payors such as Medicare and most private insurance companies have agreed to reimburse health care providers for telemedicine and telephone visits. Methods: The CF adult team at the University of Virginia (UVA) transitioned from face-to-face clinics to multidisciplinary telemedicine clinics by using WebEx® (Cisco Systems, San Jose, CA), a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) compliant platform. Interventions: Patients were contacted before scheduled visits and triaged into: (1) patients eligible for the multidisciplinary telemedicine clinic, (2) patients to be seen in clinic urgently due to acute needs, and (3) stable patients who can be rescheduled at a later time. Ineligible patients for the telemedicine clinic due to lack of access to technology were followed up via telephone. Results: A total of 63 patients were scheduled to be seen in the UVA clinic over 4 weeks, 10 clinic days. Of these patients, 20 (32%) rescheduled their appointment. In addition, 2 patients (3%) were seen in clinic for acute needs and 38 (60%) were seen by the multidisciplinary team through telemedicine. Conclusions: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, implementing a telemedicine clinic process that serves the needs of a multidisciplinary care team is paramount to preserving the CF care model. Through a systematic design and test process, a feasible and sustainable program was created that can be utilized by other multidisciplinary programs to adapt to their context.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fibrose Cística/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Agendamento de Consultas , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Pandemias , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Triagem , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...