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1.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(7): 381-383, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023307
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4982, 2020 10 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020474

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity but also found in non-obese individuals. Gut microbiome profiles of 171 Asians with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 31 non-NAFLD controls are analyzed using 16S rRNA sequencing; an independent Western cohort is used for external validation. Subjects are classified into three subgroups according to histological spectra of NAFLD or fibrosis severity. Significant alterations in microbiome diversity are observed according to fibrosis severity in non-obese, but not obese, subjects. Ruminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae are the main microbiota associated with fibrosis severity in non-obese subjects. Furthermore, stool bile acids and propionate are elevated, especially in non-obese subjects with significant fibrosis. Fibrosis-related Ruminococcaceae and Veillonellaceae species undergo metagenome sequencing, and four representative species are administered in three mouse NAFLD models to evaluate their effects on liver damage. This study provides the evidence for the role of the microbiome in the liver fibrosis pathogenesis, especially in non-obese subjects.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/análise , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Fibrose , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/patologia , Propionatos/análise , Propionatos/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(8): 788-92, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32875774

RESUMO

Joint contracture is one of the common musculoskeletal disorders. It has seriously disturbed patients' activities of daily living in various aspects. The pathogenesis of it is eager to explore to distinct degree. Nowadays the thickeness and fibrosis of joint capsular is redarded as the major reason to joint contracture. It is reported that excessive fibroblasts and myofibroblasts activity, collagen hyperplasia, and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in these fibrotic condtions lead to the contracture. In addition, upregulators of myofibroblast and collagen synthesis, transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1), and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were shown to be increased. Altered levels of cytokines were also thought to play a role in this process as elevated levelsof tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), matrix metalloproteinases(MMPs) and abnormal distribution tissue inhibitors of MMPs(TIMPs) were demonstrated in contracted capsules. At present, the methods for clinical treatment of joint contracture mainly include two major categories:stretching therapy, physical factor therapy, exercise therapy, botulinum toxin injection and other non-surgical treatments, arthroscopic lysis, open lysis, and other surgical treatments. Surgical treatment is performed when non-surgical treatment is difficult to achieve further improvement. It has a good effect on mild to moderate joint contracture, but it is difficult to completely restore joint activity for serious joint contracture. Although clinical treatment methods are diverse, the clinical effects are staggered and the effectiveness of their treatment is controversial. Joint contracture is an important challenge faced by orthopedics and rehabilitation physicians, therapists and patients. The review summarized the pathogenesisand treatment of joint contracture and provided a theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Contratura , Fibroblastos , Fibrose , Humanos , Cápsula Articular , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
5.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(10): 1331-1340, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993344

RESUMO

AIMS: Stiffness is a common complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Pathogenesis is not understood, treatment options are limited, and diagnosis is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate if MRI can be used to visualize intra-articular scarring in patients with stiff, painful knee arthroplasties. METHODS: Well-functioning primary TKAs (n = 11), failed non-fibrotic TKAs (n = 5), and patients with a clinical diagnosis of fibrosis1 (n = 8) underwent an MRI scan with advanced metal suppression (Slice Encoding for Metal Artefact Correction, SEMAC) with gadolinium contrast. Fibrotic tissue (low intensity on T1 and T2, low-moderate post-contrast enhancement) was quantified (presence and tissue thickness) in six compartments: supra/infrapatella, medial/lateral gutters, and posterior medial/lateral. RESULTS: Fibrotic tissue was identified in all patients studied. However, tissue was significantly thicker in fibrotic patients (4.4 mm ± 0.2 mm) versus non-fibrotic (2.5 mm ± 0.4 mm) and normal TKAs (1.9 mm ± 0.2 mm, p = < 0.05). Significant (> 4 mm thick) tissue was seen in 26/48 (54%) of compartments examined in the fibrotic group, compared with 17/30 (57%) non-fibrotic, and 10/66 (15%) normal TKAs. Although revision surgery did improve range of movement (ROM) in all fibrotic patients, clinically significant restriction remained post-surgery. CONCLUSION: Stiff TKAs contain intra-articular fibrotic tissue that is identifiable by MRI. Studies should evaluate whether MRI is useful for surgical planning of debridement, and as a non-invasive measurement tool following interventions for stiffness caused by fibrosis. Revision for stiffness can improve ROM, but outcomes are sub-optimal and new treatments are required. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(10):1331-1340.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Artropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Artropatias/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Meios de Contraste , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Aumento da Imagem , Masculino , Metais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 125(3): 161-168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865169

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Both intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) cyclophosphamide (CYC) showed beneficial effects on skin and lung involvement in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials and observational studies. Our goal was to compare the relative efficacy and safety of PO- versus IV-CYC for treating interstitial lung disease and/or skin involvement in SSc. METHODS: Patients were derived from the EUSTAR centres and the Scleroderma Lung Studies I and II. A minimum of 6 months of CYC treatment and 12 months follow-up were required. Serious (SAEs) and non-serious adverse events and efficacy data (change in FVC%, DLCO%, mRSS) were analysed at the end of CYC treatment (EoT) and at follow-up (FU). Analysis included descriptive statistics and linear regressions. RESULTS: Differences in ethnicity, previous DMARD exposure, previous and concomitant steroid exposure/dosage were observed in the PO (n=149) and IV (n=153) CYC groups. Adjusted and unadjusted changes in FVC%, DLCO% and mRSS were similar irrespective of mode of administration. PO patients had more leukopenia (p<0.001), haemorrhagic cystitis (p=0.011) and alopecia (p<0.001) at the EoT visit, while the IV group had more SAEs (p=0.025) and need for oxygen supplementation at FU (p=0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In a comparison of PO- to IV-CYC for SSc, we found no differences in lung function or cutaneous sclerosis after one year. Some differences in side effects were seen. The results need to be considered as preliminary; however, because we needed to use a combination of RCT and registry data, with some differences in demographics and concomitant medications, well-controlled studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Imunossupressores , Escleroderma Sistêmico , Ciclofosfamida , Fibrose , Humanos , Pulmão , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Urologiia ; (4): 144-150, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897029

RESUMO

Despite significant advances in andrology, the problem of penile cavernous fibrosis remains not fully understood. Many studies on the epidemiology of erectile dysfunction have been published, but consensus on the place and role of this pathology in the structure of sexual disorders has not yet been reached. The data obtained at different time intervals and in different geographical areas are strikingly different. Also, the role of organic disorders in the penis, including fibroplastic changes, in certain etiological factors has not been determined. In addition, the relationship between etiological factors and morphological changes in penile tissues is disputed due to the small amount of data obtained from the pathohistological study of human penis biopsies. This review is devoted to the systematization of epidemiological data and etiological factors of cavernous fibrosis, the definition of the relationship between them, the analysis of clinical and experimental studies, which study the relationship between the degree of severity of damaging agents and the formation of typical fibrogenic reactions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Induração Peniana , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Morfogênese , Ereção Peniana , Pênis
9.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 62, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intensive endurance exercise may induce a broad spectrum of right ventricular (RV) adaptation/remodelling patterns. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has also been described in cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of some endurance athletes and its clinical meaning remains controversial. Our aim was to characterize the features of contrast CMR and the observed patterns of the LGE distribution in a cohort of highly trained endurance athletes. METHODS: Ninety-three highly trained endurance athletes (> 12 h training/week at least during the last 5 years; 36 ± 6 years old; 53% male) and 72 age and gender-matched controls underwent a resting contrast CMR. In a subgroup of 28 athletes, T1 mapping was also performed. RESULTS: High endurance training load was associated with larger bi-ventricular and bi-atrial sizes and a slight reduction of biventricular ejection fraction, as compared to controls in both genders (p < 0.05). Focal LGE was significantly more prevalent in athletes than in healthy subjects (37.6% vs 2.8%; p < 0.001), with a typical pattern in the RV insertion points. In T1 mapping, those athletes who had focal LGE had higher extracellular volume (ECV) at the remote myocardium than those without (27 ± 2.2% vs 25.2 ± 2.1%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Highly trained endurance athletes showed a ten-fold increase in the prevalence of focal LGE as compared to control subjects, always confined to the hinge points. Additionally, those athletes with focal LGE demonstrated globally higher myocardial ECV values. This matrix remodelling and potential presence of myocardial fibrosis may be another feature of the athlete's heart, of which the clinical and prognostic significance remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Atletas , Cardiomegalia Induzida por Exercícios , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Resistência Física , Função Ventricular Direita , Remodelação Ventricular , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fibrose , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4467, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948751

RESUMO

Recent studies have reported that upregulation of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L) prevented lipid-induced renal injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the role and regulation of proximal tubular DsbA-L for renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) remains unclear. In current study, we found that a proximal tubules-specific DsbA-L knockout mouse (PT-DsbA-L-KO) attenuated UUO-induced TIF, renal cell apoptosis and inflammation. Mechanistically, the DsbA-L interacted with Hsp90 in mitochondria of BUMPT cells which activated the signaling of Smad3 and p53 to produce connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and then resulted in accumulation of ECM of BUMPT cells and mouse kidney fibroblasts. In addition, the progression of TIF caused by UUO, ischemic/reperfusion (I/R), aristolochic acid, and repeated acute low-dose cisplatin was also alleviated in PT-DsbA-L-KO mice via the activation of Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis. Finally, the above molecular changes were verified in the kidney biopsies from patients with obstructive nephropathy (Ob). Together, these results suggest that DsbA-L in proximal tubular cells promotes TIF via activation of the Hsp90 /Smad3 and p53/CTGF axis.


Assuntos
Fibrose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Idoso , Animais , Apoptose , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fibrose/patologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação , Rim/lesões , Nefropatias/patologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22181, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: By now, the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing. The development of various CKD is attributed to the continuous aggravation of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) in the process of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Oral treatment of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the therapies for RIF. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM treatment RIF have been reported, but its effectiveness and safety have yet been systematically investigated. Therefore, through the systematic analysis and meta-analysis, our study will summarize the effectiveness and safety of oral treatment RIF of TCM, in order to provides scientific reference for clinical practice. METHODS: This protocol follows Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Evaluation and Meta-Analysis. RCTs will be only selected. Such databases as the PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), Excerpt Medical Database (Embase), WanFan Data, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform will be searched from the inception to June, 2020 to collect the RCTs about taking TCM orally in treating RIF. The literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, data-extracted and the methodological quality evaluated will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. The clinical outcomes including renal function indices (Scr, BUN, 24-hour urinary protein quantity) and Indicators of RIF (TGF-ß1, Notch1, Jagged-1). The risk of bias included in the RCTs will be evaluated by the bias risk assessment tool provided in the Cochrane System Evaluation Manual 5.1.0. Review Manager 5.3 provided by the Cochrane collaboration network will be used to process the data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Some more targeted and practical results about the efficacy of taking TCM orally in RIF have been provided by our study. The available evidence suggests that the therapeutic effects of combining TCM with Western medicine therapies is much better for RIF than Western medicine therapies only.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fibrose , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 53, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pilea umbrosa (Urticaceae) is used by local communities (district Abbotabad) for liver disorders, as anticancer, in rheumatism and in skin disorders. METHODS: Methanol extract of P. umbrosa (PUM) was investigated for the presence of polyphenolic constituents by HPLC-DAD analysis. PUM (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) was administered on alternate days for eight weeks in rats exposed with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Serum analysis was performed for liver function tests while in liver tissues level of antioxidant enzymes and biochemical markers were also studied. In addition, semi quantitative estimation of antioxidant genes, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced stress markers, pro-inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis related genes were carried out on liver tissues by RT-PCR analysis. Liver tissues were also studied for histopathological injuries. RESULTS: Level of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and glutathione (GSH) decreased (p < 0.05) whereas level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), H2O2 and nitrite increased in liver tissues of CCl4 treated rat. Likewise increase in the level of serum markers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin was observed. Moreover, CCl4 caused many fold increase in expression of ER stress markers; glucose regulated protein (GRP-78), x-box binding protein1-total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein1-unspliced (XBP-1 u) and x-box binding protein1-spliced (XBP-1 s). The level of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was aggregated whereas suppressed the level of antioxidant enzymes; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf-2). Additionally, level of fibrosis markers; transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), Smad-3 and collagen type 1 (Col1-α) increased with CCl4 induced liver toxicity. Histopathological scrutiny depicted damaged liver cells, neutrophils infiltration and dilated sinusoids in CCl4 intoxicated rats. PUM was enriched with rutin, catechin, caffeic acid and apigenin as evidenced by HPLC analysis. Simultaneous administration of PUM and CCl4 in rats retrieved the normal expression of these markers and prevented hepatic injuries. CONCLUSION: Collectively these results suggest that PUM constituted of strong antioxidant chemicals and could be a potential therapeutic agent for stress related liver disorders.


Assuntos
Tetracloreto de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Urticaceae/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fibrose/genética , Inflamação/genética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 16(5): 616-625, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919482

RESUMO

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2), which are used in food production, may be harmful to the body. Long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 can lead to hepatic injury; however, the effect of nano-TiO2 on liver fibrosis and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. The TGF-ß/Smad/MAPK/Wnt signaling pathway is important for tissue fibrosis. In this study, mice were fed nano-TiO2 (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg body weight) for nine consecutive months to investigate its effect on liver fibrosis. Nano-TiO2 induced hepatic inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatic fibrosis and upregulated the expression of HIF-1α (+75-fold to +2.38-fold), Wnt3 (+12% to +135%), Wnt4 (1.33-fold to 6-fold), NF-κB (+3.13% to +34.38%), TGF-ß1 (+1307-fold to +1.85-fold), TGF-ß1R (+0.8-fold to 1.33-fold), Smad-2 (+0.58-fold to +1.58-fold), ILK (+0.43-fold to +1.19-fold), ECM (+1.82-fold to 2.36-fold), calpain 2 (+0.11-fold to +0.78-fold), α-SMA (+0.63-fold to +1.56-fold), c-Myc (+0.27-fold to +0.46-fold), and collagen I (+8% to +36%), and increased the phosphorylation level of p38MAPK (+66.67% to +153.33%) in inflammatory and fibrotic liver tissues, whereas it downregulated cyclin D (-6.25% to -43.75%) and decreased the phosphorylation levels of GSK-3ß (-3.12% to -46.88%) and ß-catenin (-19.57% to -45.65%). These results indicate that hepatic fibrosis induced by nano-TiO2 is mediated by the TGF-ß/Smads/MAPK/Wnt signaling pathway. This study provides insight into the mechanism underlying hepatic toxicity induced by nano-TiO2 .


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Fibrose , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta , Cirrose Hepática , Camundongos , Titânio
14.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115025, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806417

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are new persistent organic pollutants derived from the degradation of plastics. They can accumulate along the food chain and enter the human body through oral administration, inhalation and dermal exposure. To identify the impact of Polystyrene (PS) MPs on the cardiovascular system and the underlying toxicological mechanism, 32 male Wister rats were divided into control group and three model groups, which were exposed to 0.5 µm PS MPs at 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/L for 90 days. Our results suggested that PS MPs exposure increased Troponin I and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels in serum, resulted in structure damage and apoptosis of myocardium, and led to collagen proliferation of heart. Moreover, PS MPs could induce oxidative stress and thus activate fibrosis-related Wnt/ß-catenin signaling pathway. These results suggested that PS MPs could lead to cardiovascular toxicity by inducing cardiac fibrosis via activating Wnt/ß-catenin pathway and myocardium apoptosis triggered by oxidative stress. The present study provided some novelty evidence to elucidate the potential mechanism of cardiovascular toxicity induced by PS MPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poliestirenos , Animais , Apoptose , Fibrose , Humanos , Masculino , Miócitos Cardíacos , Plásticos , Ratos , Via de Sinalização Wnt
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(30): e20797, 2020 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791669

RESUMO

To evaluate the value of a breast computed tomography (CT) (B-CT) in assessing breast density, pathologies and implant integrity in women with breast implants.This retrospective study was approved by the local ethics committee. B-CT images of 21 women with implants (silicone/saline; 20 bilateral, 1 unilateral) who underwent opportunistic screening or diagnostic bilateral B-CT were included. Breast density, implant integrity, extensive capsular fibrosis, soft tissue lesions and micro-/macrocalcifications were rated. In 18 of the 21 women, an additional ultrasound and in two patients breast magnetic resonance imaging was available for comparison. The average dose was calculated for each breast using verified Monte Carlo simulations on 3D image data sets.Breast density was nearly completely fatty (ACR a) in two patients, scattered fibroglandular (ACR b) in five, heterogeneously dense (ACR c) in ten and very dense (ACR d) in four women. In three women showed a unilateral positive Linguine sign indicative of an inner capsule rupture. Extensive capsular fibrosis was found in three women. In three women, soft tissue lesions were depicted, which revealed to be cysts (n = 2) and lymph nodes (n = 1) on subsequent sonography. Diffuse, non-clustered microcalcifications were found in nine women. Eleven women showed cutaneous or intramammary macrocalcifications. Average dose was 6.45 mGy (range 5.81-7.28 mGy).In women with implants, B-CT presents a promising modality for evaluating breast density, implant integrity, extensive capsular fibrosis, soft tissue lesions and micro-/macrocalcifications without the need of breast compression utilizing a lower dose compared to doses reported for conventional four-view mammography.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Implantes de Mama , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Adulto , Idoso , Mama/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237360, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and cardiometabolic dysfunction. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the cardio-metabolic parameters and SIBO in patients with different degrees of hepatic fibrosis estimated by NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS). METHODS: Subjects (n = 78) were allocated to three groups: Healthy control (n = 30), NAFLD with low risk of advanced fibrosis (NAFLD-LRAF, n = 17) and NAFLD with a high risk of advanced fibrosis (NAFLD-HRAF, n = 31). Anthropometrics, blood pressure, electrocardiogram and heart rate variability (HRV) were evaluated. Only the NAFLD-LRAF and NAFLD-HRAF groups were submitted to blood biochemical analysis and glucose hydrogen breath tests. RESULTS: The NAFLD-HRAF group had higher age and body mass index when compared to the control and NAFLD-LRAF groups. The prevalence of SIBO in the NAFLD group was 8.33%. The low frequency/high-frequency ratio (LF/HF ratio) was augmented in NAFLD-LRAF (p < 0.05) when compared with control group. NAFLD-HRAF group had a wide QRS complex (p < 0.05) and reduced LF/HF ratio (p < 0.05) compared to the control and NAFLD-LRAF groups. Serum levels of albumin and platelets were more reduced in the NAFLD-HRAF subjects (p < 0.05) than in the NAFLD-LRAF. CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD impairs cardiac autonomic function. Greater impairment was found in subjects with a worse degree of hepatic fibrosis estimated by NFS. Hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia were higher in subjects with a worse degree of hepatic fibrosis, whereas prevalence of SIBO positive was similar between the groups.


Assuntos
Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Progressão da Doença , Intestinos/microbiologia , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/microbiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Risco
17.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(29): 2303-2308, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32746603

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the protective effect of microRNA 223 (miR-223) on cardiac fibrosis-related signaling pathway and its regulation on expression of Twist family basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (Twist1) and transforming growth factor-ß1 receptor 2 (TGFBR2) in rat cardiomyocytes. Methods: Rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2) were cultured in vitro and treated with TGF-ß to induce myocardial fibrosis. The miR-223 group was transfected with miR-223 lentivirus and miR-223-NC group was transfected with miR-223-NC lentivirus. Model group and blank control group had no transfection. Immunocytochemistry staining of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was used to calculate myocardial fibrosis. The mRNA level of miR-223, collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, Twist1 and TGFBR2 were detected by real-time PCR. The protein level of Twist1, TGFBR2, collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA were detected by Western blot. Target regulation of miR-223 on Twist1 and TGFBR2 3'UTR was verified by double luciferase reporter gene system. Results: The average optical density of α-SMA-positive cardiomyocytes in miR-223 group (0.089±0.013) was significantly lower than that in model group and miR-223-NC group (0.134±0.018, 0.132±0.016, respectively). The mRNA level of collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ, Twist1 and TGFBR2 in miR-223 group were significantly lower than that in model group and miR-223-NC group (all P<0.05). The protein level of Twist1, TGFBR2, collagen Ⅰ, collagen Ⅲ and α-SMA in miR-223 group was significantly lower than model group and miR-223-NC group (all P<0.05). Twist1, TGFBR2 3'UTR wild-type double luciferase reporter plasmids and miR-223 mimics were co-transfected in 293T cells, and luciferase activity was significantly reduced (0.48±0.06 vs 0.92±0.17 and 0.51±0.07 vs 0.94±0.12). Conclusion: MiR-223 may inhibit the activation of fibrosis-related signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes by down-regulating the expression of Twist1 andTGFBR2 genes.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , Miócitos Cardíacos , Animais , Fibrose , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139923, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758941

RESUMO

Air pollution exposure is recently reported to be one of the drivers of exacerbation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). But there was a lack of direct evidence between pollution and lung fibrosis. Here, our data show effects of pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and protein G-protein-coupled receptor family C group 5 type A (GPRC5A) on pulmonary fibrosis, which might help limit potential pollutant injury and disease progression. We cross-referenced epithelial differentially-expressed-genes (DEGs) from pollutant injury and published experimental fibrosis and IPF patients' data, top common-DEG (CO-DEG) GPRC5A was identified as a potential link between exposure-damage and fibrogenesis. The role of GPRC5A was evaluated under BaP exposure, in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) tissue-array and via CRISPR/Cas9 knockout mice (Gprc5a-/-). BaP exposure enhanced bleomycin (BLM)-induced murine pulmonary fibrosis with increased Fibronectin and α-SMA expression in primary fibroblasts, thickened respiratory membrane and damaged alveolar type II cell, combined with Gprc5a decline in fibrotic mass. GPRC5A mRNA reduced after 10-14 days' BaP exposure in human epithelial cell A549. GPRC5A protein was further found to decrease in IIP epithelium, especially hyperplastic regions. A high epithelial GPRC5A expression score was positively associated with long survival time (R = 0.34) while negatively with high age (R = -0.4) and IIP type IPF (R = -0.5). Low GPRC5A expression predicts poor prognosis (HR = 4.5). Gprc5a depletion aggravated mortality rate (50%) with increased collagen deposition and myofibroblast activation under BLM treatment and exacerbated BaP injury in lung remodeling. Vitamin metabolic imbalance and Mitofusion2 (Mfn2) or Opa1-regulated mitochondrial dynamics were deduced to contribute to Gprc5a depletion and fibrogenesis. Pollutant BaP exposure worsens murine fibrosis and myofibroblast activation via GPRC5A reduction in the damaged epithelium. GPRC5A deficiency was first confirmed to contribute to both poor prognosis of IIP patients and fibrogenesis in murine model; thus, GPRC5A could serve as a novel therapeutic target in pollutant injury and pulmonary fibrosis.


Assuntos
Benzo(a)pireno , Poluentes Ambientais , Pneumonias Intersticiais Idiopáticas , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática , Animais , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Fibrose , Humanos , Pulmão , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G
19.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 22(1): 57, 2020 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is observed in multiple cardiac conditions including hypertension and aortic stenosis. Excessive fibrosis is associated with adverse clinical outcomes, but longitudinal human data regarding changes in left ventricular remodelling and fibrosis over time are sparse because of the slow progression, thereby making longitudinal studies challenging. The purpose of this study was to establish and characterize a mouse model to study the development and regression of left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in response to increased blood pressure and to understand how these processes reverse remodel following normalisation of blood pressure. METHODS: We performed a longitudinal study with serial cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging every 2 weeks in mice (n = 31) subjected to angiotensin II-induced hypertension for 6 weeks and investigated reverse remodelling following normalisation of afterload beyond 6 weeks (n = 9). Left ventricular (LV) volumes, mass, and function as well as myocardial fibrosis were measured using cine CMR and the extracellular volume fraction (ECV) s. RESULTS: Increased blood pressure (65 ± 12 vs 85 ± 9 mmHg; p < 0.001) resulted in higher indices of LV hypertrophy (0.09 [0.08, 0.10] vs 0.12 [0.11, 0.14] g; p < 0.001) and myocardial fibrosis (ECV: 0.24 ± 0.03 vs 0.30 ± 0.02; p < 0.001) whilst LV ejection fraction fell (LVEF, 59.3 [57.6, 59.9] vs 46.9 [38.5, 49.6] %; p < 0.001). We found a strong correlation between ECV and histological myocardial fibrosis (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Following cessation of angiotensin II and normalisation of blood pressure (69 ± 5 vs baseline 65 ± 12 mmHg; p = 0.42), LV mass (0.11 [0.10, 0.12] vs 0.09 [0.08, 0.11] g), ECV (0.30 ± 0.02 vs 0.27 ± 0.02) and LVEF (51.1 [42.9, 52.8] vs 59.3 [57.6, 59.9] %) improved but remained impaired compared to baseline (p < 0.05 for all). There was a strong inverse correlation between LVEF and %ECV during both systemic hypertension (r = - 0.88, p < 0.001) and the increases in ECV observed in the first two weeks of increased blood pressure predicted the reduction in LVEF after 6 weeks (r = - 0.77, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We have established and characterized angiotensin II infusion and repeated CMR imaging as a model of LV hypertrophy and reverse remodelling in response to systemic hypertension. Changes in myocardial fibrosis and alterations in cardiac function are only partially reversible following relief of hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Angiotensina II , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Fibrose , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Life Sci ; 258: 118178, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739468

RESUMO

AIMS: Gentamicin (GEN) is one of the most valuable aminoglycoside antibiotics utilized against life-threatening bacterial infections. Unfortunately, GEN-induced nephrotoxicity limited its clinical utility. The pathologic process of nephrotoxicity caused by GEN may involve epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Resveratrol (RES) is a natural compound was revealed to inhibit EMT in kidney. The present work was conducted to explore the potential renoprotective role of RES on GEN-induced EMT. Moreover, the underlying signaling pathway of this inhibition was investigated. MAIN METHODS: Mice were treated with GEN by intraperitoneal (i.p.) route daily for 15 days to identify EMT onset with regard to GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. To assess the ameliorative role of RES against GEN-induced EMT, RES was i.p. administrated in high and low doses before and concurrently with GEN treatment. KEY FINDINGS: GEN administration significantly deteriorated kidney functions. In addition, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in the content of kidney malondialdehyde (MDA) after GEN treatment. Histological changes and deposition of collagen were extensive in renal corpuscles and tubules. Increased expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2 were observed after GEN administration, while E-cadherin expression was decreased. On the contrary, pretreatment with both doses of RES reversed the modifications caused by GEN administration. SIGNIFICANCE: We concluded that EMT contributes to pathogenesis of GEN-induced nephrotoxicity. RES has a protective effect on GEN-induced EMT via suppressing oxidative stress and a possible involvement of TGF-ß/Smad signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Gentamicinas/efeitos adversos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fibrose , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo
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