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1.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F345-F357, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715763

RESUMO

Angiotensin II (ANG II) is the key contributor to renal fibrosis and injury. The present study investigated the role of endothelium prolyl hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) in ANG II-mediated renal fibrosis and injury. In vitro, endothelial cells (ECs) were isolated from PHD2f/f control [wild-type (WT)] mice or PHD2 EC knockout (PHD2ECKO) mice. In vivo, WT and PHD2ECKO mice were infused with ANG II (1,000 ng·kg-1·min-1) for 28 days. Renal fibrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and iron contents were measured. Knockout of PHD2 resulted in a significant increase in the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in ECs. Intriguingly, knockout of PHD2 significantly reduced expression of the ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in ECs. WT mice infused with ANG II caused increases in renal fibrosis, ROS formation, and iron contents. ANG II treatment led to a downregulation of PHD1 expression and upregulation of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the renal cortex and medulla. Knockout of PHD2 in EC blunted ANG II-induced downregulation of PHD1 expression. Furthermore, knockout of PHD2 in ECs attenuated ANG II-induced expression of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, transforming growth factor-ß1, p47phox, gp91phox, heme oxygenase-1, and ferroportin. This was accompanied by a significant suppression of renal fibrosis, ROS formation, and iron accumulation. In summary, knockout of endothelial PHD2 suppressed the expression of AT1R in ECs and blunted ANG II-induced downregulation of PHD1 and upregulation of HIF-α in the kidney. Our study, for the first time, demonstrates a necessary role of endothelial PHD2 in ANG II-mediated renal fibrosis and injury.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Nefropatias/enzimologia , Rim/lesões , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotélio/metabolismo , Prolina Dioxigenases do Fator Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Rim/enzimologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/genética , Pró-Colágeno-Prolina Dioxigenase/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 257: 118015, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Cardiac fibrosis is the scarring process occurs commonly with CVDs impairing the function and structure of heart. Herein, we investigated the role of circPAN3 in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: A rat myocardial infarction (MI) model was constructed to evaluate the role of circPAN3. Expression of circPAN3 in MI was determined, and si-circPAN3 was applied to verify its profibrotic effects. With an in vitro model, cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFß1). Immunofluorescent staining was employed to assess the fibrosis-related markers, as well as autophagy activity. CCK-8 and transwell assays were performed to determine cell proliferation and migration. Luciferase reporter assay and RNA pull-down were subjected to verify the interaction of circPAN3/miR-221. The enrichment of FoxO3 on the promoter region of ATG7 was detected using CHIP assay. RESULTS: Elevated circPAN3 was found in rat MI heart tissue, of which knockdown attenuated cardiac fibrosis after MI. In an in vitro model exposing with TGFß1, increasing cell proliferation and migration were observed, whereas these effects were abolished by circPAN3 knockdown, as well as autophagy activity. miR-221 was identified as a target to be involved in circPAN3-mediated cardiac fibrosis after MI. miR-221 negatively regulated FoxO3, thus causing the inhibition of ATG7 transcription. The regulatory network of circPAN3/miR-221/FoxO3/ATG7 in cardiac fibrosis was further determined in vivo. CONCLUSION: circPAN3 exhibited profibrotic effects during autophagy-mediated cardiac fibrosis via miR-221/FoxO3/ATG7 axis, which may serve as potential biomarkers for cardiac fibrosis therapeutics.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Circular/genética , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Autofagia/fisiologia , Proteína 7 Relacionada à Autofagia/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/genética
3.
Gene ; 761: 144971, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707301

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious microvascular complication of diabetes across the world. Recently, many circular RNAs (circRNAs) can exert a crucial role in DN progression. Our investigation was designed to study whether circ_0123996 was associated with DN and aimed to find out the underlying mechanisms. We observed that circ_0123996 expression was significantly increased in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) with DN in comparison to those patients without DN. Consistently, circ_0123996 was also obviously elevated in DN mice models and high glucose (HG)-incubated MMCs. Then, it was proved transfection of circ_0123996 siRNA in mice mesangial cells (MMCs) restrained MMCs proliferation greatly. In addition, it was demonstrated that decrease of circ_0123996 alleviated fibrosis-related protein expression including FN and Col-4 in MMCs. Next, it was confirmed by our study that circ_0123996 can serve as a sponge for miR-149-5p. miR-149-5p has been identified in several diseases including diabetes. At present, we observed that miR-149-5p was decreased in DN. Overexpression of miR-149-5p greatly repressed the effect of circ_0123996 on MMCs. BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) is reported in various disease including some vascular diseases.Here, Bach1 was confirmed as a target of miR-149-5p. Circ_0123996 upregulated Bach1 expression and restrained MMCs proliferation and fibrosis through sponging miR-149-5p. Thus, it was revealed that circ_0123996 was involved in DN via sponging miR-149-5p and modulating Bach1 expression.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Adulto , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Células Mesangiais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Circular/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2768, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488016

RESUMO

Fibrotic disorders are some of the most devastating and poorly treated conditions in developed nations, yet effective therapeutics are not identified for many of them. A major barrier for the identification of targets and successful clinical translation is a limited understanding of the human fibrotic microenvironment. Here, we construct a stromal cell atlas of human fibrosis at single cell resolution from patients with Dupuytren's disease, a localized fibrotic condition of the hand. A molecular taxonomy of the fibrotic milieu characterises functionally distinct stromal cell types and states, including a subset of immune regulatory ICAM1+ fibroblasts. In developing fibrosis, myofibroblasts exist along an activation continuum of phenotypically distinct populations. We also show that the tetraspanin CD82 regulates cell cycle progression and can be used as a cell surface marker of myofibroblasts. These findings have important implications for targeting core pathogenic drivers of human fibrosis.


Assuntos
Contratura de Dupuytren/imunologia , Contratura de Dupuytren/metabolismo , Fibrose/imunologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Actinas/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quimiocinas CXC/metabolismo , Contratura de Dupuytren/patologia , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Medicina Molecular , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Tetraspaninas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral/fisiologia
5.
Life Sci ; 257: 117918, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate protective efficacies and mechanisms of Cathelicidin-BF (BF-30) peptide on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic kidney injury. METHODS: Effects of BF-30 on hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in HK-2 renal cells were assessed by CCK-8 method. Forty STZ-induced diabetic rats with kidney injury were randomly divided into model control group, BF-30 group at different doses (0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg). Blood biochemical and kidney related indexes as well adrenal morphological changes, inflammation related markers of diabetic rats were measured. RESULTS: Cell viability of HK-2 cells with oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide were significantly improved by BF-30 with 0.8 µg/mL for 56.5% and 1.6 µg/mL for 82.3% compared with control. Moreover, the decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased intracellular antioxidant enzymes GPX1, SOD2 and GSH were showed in BF-30 treated groups. In addition, co-incubation of BF-30 in HK-2 cells promoted the increase of p-AMPK and LC3, decreased activation of p-mTOR, BAX and Caspase 3. Chronic treatment of BF-30 improved the STZ-induced diabetic characteristics of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) model rats. Further renal histopathological examination revealed 12-week treatment of BF-30 effectively improved the morphology of nephropathy in DKD rats. Moreover, BF-30 also could ameliorate excessive oxidative stress, renal cell apoptosis and fibrosis, thereby protects renal tissues. CONCLUSION: BF-30 exerted protective effects on STZ-induced kidney injury mainly through the inhibiting oxidative stress in kidney tissue, reducing renal fibrosis, increasing autophagy, and reducing the renal cell apoptosis related proteins to decrease the cell damage and protect nephrocytes.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Catelicidinas/farmacologia , Rim/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Catelicidinas/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
6.
Life Sci ; 256: 117980, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561396

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an independent and specific cardiomyopathy, which is associated with cardiac failure in diabetic patients. Currently, the pathogenesis of DCM is a popular research topic in the investigation of cardiovascular diseases. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as the latent therapeutic targets for DCM. However, the functions and complex mechanisms of miRNAs in DCM have not been clarified. The cardiomyocyte injury model was established using high glucose (HG) ingestion, and the DCM rat model was established using 30 mg/kg streptozotocin. MicroRNA-223 (miR-223) expression was determined using qRT-PCR; the levels of NLRP3 inflammasome, fibrosis, and apoptosis-related genes and proteins were analyzed using qRT-PCR and western blot assays. Besides the morphological changes and fibrosis of myocardial tissues were evaluated using H&E and Masson staining. We discovered that miR-223 was highly expressed in the HG-induced cardiomyocyte injury model, and miR-223 inhibitor could further relieve the myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis, and inhibit NLRP3 inflammasome of HG-induced H9c2 cells. Additionally, we found that inhibition of miR-223 had obvious positive effects on the cardiac dysfunction and reduced the elevation of blood sugar in the DCM model rats. We found that the miRNA-223 inhibitor could improve the morphological structure and the degree of fibrosis in myocardial tissues in the DCM model rats. Moreover, we verified that inhibition of miR-223 could suppress the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and alleviate myocardial fibrosis and apoptosis of the DCM model rats. In conclusion, our results suggested that miR-223 might be an underlying therapeutic target for DCM by reducing NLRP3 inflammasome activation, fibrosis, and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Cardiomiopatias Diabéticas/patologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , MicroRNAs/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos
7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(1): F93-F105, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475133

RESUMO

The long noncoding RNA nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1) has been reported to promote liver fibrosis progression. However, its molecular mechanism in renal fibrosis was not elucidated. In the present study, an in vitro model of renal fibrosis was established with HK-2 and HKC-8 cells treated with transforming growth factor-ß1. C57BL/6 mice were used for the in vivo model with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Our results indicated that NEAT1 and collagen type I levels were significantly upregulated, whereas miR-129 was obviously downregulated, in the progression of renal fibrosis. Meanwhile, NEAT1 knockdown or miR-129 overexpression inhibited collagen type I deposition, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process, and the inflammation response to suppress renal fibrosis. NEAT1 directly targeted miR-129, and miR-129 directly bound to collagen type I. Downregulation of miR-129 reversed inhibition of renal fibrosis induced by NEAT1 silencing, and upregulation of collagen type I also reversed inhibition of renal fibrosis caused by miR-129 overexpression. NEAT1 knockdown alleviated renal fibrosis in mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, NEAT1 sponged miR-129 to modulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and inflammation response of renal fibrosis by regulation of collagen type I. Our study indicates a novel role in the regulation of renal fibrosis and provides a new potential treatment target for renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Linhagem Celular , Creatinina/sangue , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/patologia , Camundongos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/farmacologia
8.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(1): F139-F148, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538151

RESUMO

Inflammation is a major determinant for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). NF-κB is a master transcription factor upregulated in CKD that promotes inflammation and regulates apoptosis and vascular remodeling. We aimed to modulate this pathway for CKD therapy in a swine model of CKD using a peptide inhibitor of the NF-κB p50 subunit (p50i) fused to a protein carrier [elastin-like polypeptide (ELP)] and equipped with a cell-penetrating peptide (SynB1). We hypothesized that intrarenal SynB1-ELP-p50i therapy would inhibit NF-κB-driven inflammation and induce renal recovery. CKD was induced in 14 pigs. After 6 wk, pigs received single intrarenal SynB1-ELP-p50i therapy (10 mg/kg) or placebo (n = 7 each). Renal hemodynamics were quantified in vivo using multidetector computed tomography before and 8 wk after treatment. Pigs were then euthanized. Ex vivo experiments were performed to quantify renal activation of NF-κB, expression of downstream mediators of NF-κB signaling, renal microvascular density, inflammation, and fibrosis. Fourteen weeks of CKD stimulated NF-κB signaling and downstream mediators (e.g., TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and IL-6) accompanying loss of renal function, inflammation, fibrosis, and microvascular rarefaction versus controls. All of these were improved after SynB1-ELP-p50i therapy, accompanied by reduced circulating inflammatory cytokines as well, which were evident up to 8 wk after treatment. Current treatments for CKD are largely ineffective. Our study shows the feasibility of a new treatment to induce renal recovery by offsetting inflammation at a molecular level. It also supports the therapeutic potential of targeted inhibition of the NF-κB pathway using novel drug delivery technology in a translational model of CKD.


Assuntos
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Circulação Renal/efeitos dos fármacos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos
9.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(2): F304-F311, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567350

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) significantly increases the risk of development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, our laboratory generated a mouse model with the typical phenotypes of AKI to CKD transition in the unilateral kidney. However, AKI, CKD, and even the transition from AKI to CKD usually occur bilaterally rather than unilaterally in patients. Therefore, in the present study, we further modified the strategy and developed a new model of CKD transitioned from bilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in C57BL/6 mice. In this new model, unilateral severe IRI was performed in one kidney while the contralateral kidney was kept intact to maintain animal survival; then, following 14 days of recovery, when the renal function of the injured kidney restored above the survival threshold, the contralateral intact kidney was subjected to a similar IRI. Animals of these two-stage bilateral IRI models with pedicle clamping of 21 and 24 min at a body temperature of 37°C exhibited incomplete recovery from AKI and subsequent development of CKD with characteristics of progressive decline in glomerular filtration rate, increases in plasma creatinine, worsening of proteinuria, and deleterious histopathological changes, including interstitial fibrosis and glomerulosclerosis, in both kidneys. In conclusion, a new bilateral AKI to CKD transition animal model with a typical phenotype of CKD was generated in C57BL/6 mice.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/complicações , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/metabolismo , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/complicações
10.
Ren Fail ; 42(1): 513-522, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441195

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the way that miR-136 regulated spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) and transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad3 signaling pathways on renal fibrosis.Methods: 100 male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into diabetic nephropathy (DN) group, normal control (NC) group, miR-136 mimics group, and control group. The renal fibrosis model of diabetic rats was established by streptozotocin (STZ) method. NRK-52E cells were transfected into six groups: HG group, HG + miR-136 group, HG + miR-NC group, miR-136 + SYK group, miR-136 + NC group, and control group. Histopathological examination, the expressions of miR-136 and SYK mRNA, the expression of mTOR, blood glucose, urine protein, body weight, creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and KW/BW were detected in each group. Transfection efficiency, the targeted binding, and regulation between miR-136 and SYK, as well as the expression level of related inflammatory factors, the expression levels of SYK, E-Cad (E-cadherin), Vimentin, Collagen I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) were detected.Results: It was shown that the expression level of miR-136 in DN group significantly decreased. The blood glucose and urine protein concentrations in the DN group and miR-136 mimics group significantly increased and the body weight was decreased, but the blood glucose concentration in the miR-136 mimics group increased with time. The prolongation of the decline significantly decreased, and the growth rate of urinary protein reduced. Creatinine, BUN, and the kidney weight to body weight ratio (KW/BW) in DN group increased significantly. Cell culture results showed that SYK was a target gene of miR-136 and miR-136/SYK-mediated renal fibrosis by activating TGF-ß1/Smad3 signal.Conclusion: SYK activates TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling, while miR-136 inhibits TGF-ß1/Smad3 signaling mediating tubular epithelial cell fibrosis by down-regulating SYK.


Assuntos
Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Quinase Syk/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Nefropatias/genética , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Quinase Syk/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
11.
Life Sci ; 254: 117783, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413404

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to examine the anti-fibrotic role of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid derived 2 (NF-E2) in human renal tubule (HK-11) cells and in type 1 and type 2 diabetic (T1D, T2D) mouse kidneys. MAIN METHODS: Anti-fibrotic effects of NF-E2 were examined in transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) treated HK-11 cells by over-expressing/silencing NF-E2 expression and determining its effects on profibrotic signaling. NF-E2 proteasomal degradation was confirmed by proteasome inhibition in HK-11 cells and diabetic mice. Clinical relevance of changes in NF-E2 expression to fibrotic changes in the kidney were assessed in T1D and T2D mouse kidneys. KEY FINDINGS: NF-E2 expression was significantly decreased in TGF-ß treated HK-11 cells and in kidneys of diabetic mice with concurrent increase in expression of fibrotic proteins. TGF-ß treatment of HK-11 cells did not inhibit NF-E2 mRNA expression, suggesting that the post-translational changes may contribute to NF-E2 protein degradation. The down-regulation of NF-E2 expression was attributed to its proteasomal degradation, as TGF-ß- and diabetes-induced NF-E2 down regulation was prevented by proteasome inhibitor treatment. In HK-11 cells TGF-ß treatment decreased E-cadherin expression and induced pSer82Hsp27/NF-E2 association, likely to promote NF-E2 degradation, as Hsp27 can target proteins to the proteasome. A critical role for NF-E2 in regulation of renal fibrosis was demonstrated as over-expression of NF-E2 or silencing NF-E2 expression, decreased or increased profibrotic proteins in TGF-ß-treated HK-11 cells, respectively. SIGNIFICANCE: NF-E2, a novel anti-fibrotic protein, is down-regulated in diabetic kidneys. Preserving/inducing NF-E2 expression in diabetic kidneys may provide a therapeutic potential to combat DN.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/fisiologia , Animais , Caderinas/biossíntese , Células Cultivadas , Inibidores de Cisteína Proteinase/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP27/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Leupeptinas/farmacologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/biossíntese , Subunidade p45 do Fator de Transcrição NF-E2/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
Metabolism ; 108: 154258, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376130

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which is closely related to functional injury of the kidney, can be observed in advanced stages of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mammalian serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 (MST1), a core component of the Hippo pathway that is involved in cellular proliferation and differentiation, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple metabolic diseases, kidney diseases and cancer. METHODS: In type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, as well as in human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), activation of MST1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In db/db mice, MST1 protein was knocked down or overexpressed by shRNA, and renal function, fibrosis, and downstream signaling were then investigated. RNA silencing and overexpression were performed by using an MST1 or YAP knockdown/expression lentivirus to investigate the regulation of MST1-mediated YAP/TEAD signaling pathways in the fibrosis process in HK-2 cells. Luciferase and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were used to identify whether YAP directly regulated TEAD activation by forming a YAP-TEAD heterodimer, which ultimately leads to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. RESULTS: MST1 activation was significantly decreased in type 1 and type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Notably, the downregulation of MST1 activation was also observed in HK-2 cells in a glucose- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, downregulation of MST1 was sufficient to promote renal dysfunction and fibrosis in db/m mice, whereas overexpression of MST1 ameliorated diabetic nephropathy-induced renal fibrosis. Further mechanistic study demonstrated that activated YAP induced by MST1 inhibition directly upregulated TEAD activation by binding to TEAD and forming a YAP-TEAD heterodimer, resulting in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis in renal tubular epithelial. CONCLUSIONS: MST1 activation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent the progression of diabetic nephropathy-induced renal fibrosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/fisiologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Animais , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Túbulos Renais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(20): 10832-10838, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358190

RESUMO

While the concept of intercellular mechanical communication has been revealed, the mechanistic insights have been poorly evidenced in the context of myofibroblast-fibroblast interaction during fibrosis expansion. Here we report and systematically investigate the mechanical force-mediated myofibroblast-fibroblast cross talk via the fibrous matrix, which we termed paratensile signaling. Paratensile signaling enables instantaneous and long-range mechanotransduction via collagen fibers (less than 1 s over 70 µm) to activate a single fibroblast, which is intracellularly mediated by DDR2 and integrin signaling pathways in a calcium-dependent manner through the mechanosensitive Piezo1 ion channel. By correlating in vitro fibroblast foci growth models with mathematical modeling, we demonstrate that the single-cell-level spatiotemporal feature of paratensile signaling can be applied to elucidate the tissue-level fibrosis expansion and that blocking paratensile signaling can effectively attenuate the fibroblast to myofibroblast transition at the border of fibrotic and normal tissue. Our comprehensive investigation of paratensile signaling in fibrosis expansion broadens the understanding of cellular dynamics during fibrogenesis and inspires antifibrotic intervention strategies targeting paratensile signaling.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Animais , Receptor com Domínio Discoidina 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrinas , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Mecanotransdução Celular
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(4): 15, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298438

RESUMO

Purpose: Pathological neovascularization and fibrosis are common pathological changes of many retinal diseases, such as proliferative retinopathy (PR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Treatment modalities for these pathological changes are limited. The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endocannabinoid mimetic amide, on retinal neovascularization and fibrosis and to determine its molecular mechanism of action. Methods: A rat Müller cell line (rMC-1), a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), and the very-low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) knockout mouse model were used. PEA was intraperitoneally injected or orally administrated in animal models. Inflammation and profibrotic changes were evaluated by western blot analysis. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) were measured by RT-PCR and western blot analysis. Results: Profibrotic changes were present in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas. PEA significantly alleviated inflammation and inhibited neovascularization in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas and suppressed profibrotic changes in OIR and Vldlr-/- retinas. Moreover, PEA potently suppressed Müller gliosis in these retinas. In rMC-1 cells, PEA suppressed Müller gliosis, reduced inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated profibrotic changes. Further, both mRNA and protein levels of PPARα were elevated in the retina under PEA treatment, and the effects of PEA were abolished in Pparα-/- OIR mice. Conclusions: PEA reduced retinal neovascularization and fibrotic changes and suppressed Müller gliosis in experimental PR and neovascular AMD by activating PPARα. PEA may be a potential treatment for retinopathies with pathological neovascularization and fibrosis.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Gliose/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR alfa/metabolismo , Ácidos Palmíticos/uso terapêutico , Retina/patologia , Neovascularização Retiniana/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Ependimogliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/metabolismo , Fibrose/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/genética , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Gliose/metabolismo , Gliose/patologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Oxigênio/toxicidade , PPAR alfa/genética , Ratos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptores de LDL/genética , Retina/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/induzido quimicamente , Neovascularização Retiniana/metabolismo , Neovascularização Retiniana/patologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294106

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is associated with high risks of morbidity and mortality. Hyperbilirubinemia might have some renal protection but with no clear cutoff value for protection. Related studies are typically on limited numbers of patients and only in conditions of vascular intervention. METHODS: We performed this study to elucidate CI-AKI in patients after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CCT). The outcomes were CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality. Patients were divided to three groups based on their serum levels of total bilirubin: ≤1.2 mg/dl, 1.3-2.0 mg/dl, and >2.0 mg/dl. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 9,496 patients who had received CCT. Patients with serum total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI. Those undergoing dialysis had the highest incidence of PC-AKI (p<0.001). No difference was found between the two groups of total bilirubin ≤1.2 and 1.3-2.0 mg/dl. Patients with total bilirubin >2mg/dl were associated with CI-AKI (OR = 1.89, 1.53-2.33 of 95% CI), dialysis (OR = 1.40, 1.01-1.95 of 95% CI) and mortality (OR = 1.63, 1.38-1.93 of 95% CI) after adjusting for laboratory data and all comorbidities (i.e., cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, and acute myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal bleeding, cirrhosis, peritonitis, ascites, hepatoma, shock lung and colon cancer). We concluded that total bilirubin level >2 mg/dl is an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after CCT. These patients also had high risks for cirrhosis or hepatoma. CONCLUSION: This is the first study providing evidence that hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin >2.0 mg/dl) being an independent risk factor for CI-AKI, dialysis and mortality after receiving CCT. Most patients with total bilirubin >2.0mg/dl had cirrhosis or hepatoma.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Bilirrubina/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperbilirrubinemia/sangue , Hiperbilirrubinemia/diagnóstico por imagem , Incidência , Rim , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1221: 669-684, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32274731

RESUMO

Organ fibrosis is defined as a deregulated wound-healing process characterized by a progressive accumulation of fibrous tissue and by reduced remodeling that can lead to the loss of functionality of the affected organ. This pathological process is quite common in several parenchymal organs such as kidneys, liver, and lungs and represents a real health emergency in developed western countries since a real anti-fibrotic therapy is not yet available in most cases. Heparanase (HPSE), which is the enzyme that cuts off the side chains of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, appears to be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of fibrosis in all these organs, even if with different mechanisms. Here we discuss how the interplay between HPSE and components of the immune and inflammatory responses can activate recruitment, proliferation, and activation of myofibroblasts which represent the main cell type responsible for the deposition of fibrous matrix. Finally, bearing in mind that once the activity of HPSE is inhibited no other molecule is able to perform the same function, it is desirable that this enzyme could prove to be a suitable pharmacological target in anti-fibrotic therapy.


Assuntos
Fibrose/enzimologia , Fibrose/patologia , Glucuronidase/metabolismo , Fibrose/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas de Heparan Sulfato , Humanos , Miofibroblastos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Cicatrização
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 685: 108354, 2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibrosis following myocardial infarction (MI) leads to cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Dysregulation of Smad7 which negatively regulates the profibrotic transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)/Smad signaling promotes cardiac fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TGF-ß1/Smad7 dysregulation remain elusive. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently emerging as important regulators of cardiac diseases. Here, we report lnc-Ang362 is a novel lncRNA mediating MI-induced fibrosis through TGF-ß1/Smad7 signaling pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MI model was established by artificial coronary artery occlusion in rats. Microarray analysis identified 215 lncRNAs (fold change > 2.0, P < 0.05) differentially expressed between MI hearts and the sham group 4 weeks after MI. Lnc-Ang362 had the highest fold upregulation and the change was validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Also, MI caused a marked increase in TGF-ß1 and collagen I/III expression, but significantly downregulated Smad7 expression. Adult rat cardiac fibroblasts (RCFs) treated with TGF-ß1 showed increased lnc-Ang362 expression and decreased Smad7 expression. Moreover, overexpression and knockdown of lnc-Ang362 by small interfering RNAs reduced and increased Smad7 expression, respectively. Importantly, this result was negatively correlated with the expression of collagen I/III in RCFs. Furthermore, the luciferase reporter assays confirmed that Smad7 was a validated lnc-Ang362 target. Further silencing Smad7 attenuated the effects of lnc-Ang362 knockdown on decreasing collagen I/III expression in RCFs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested lnc-Ang362 promoted cardiac fibrosis after MI via directly suppressing Smad7, which may decrease the inhibitory feedback regulation of TGF-ß1/Smad signaling pathway. Thus, lnc-Ang362 may be a novel profibrotic lncRNA in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis post MI.


Assuntos
Fibrose/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Miocárdio/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Proteína Smad7/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Colágeno/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Fibrose/etiologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
18.
Pharmacol Rev ; 72(2): 486-526, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198236

RESUMO

Before it was molecularly cloned in 1994, acute-phase response factor or signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 was the focus of intense research into understanding the mammalian response to injury, particularly the acute-phase response. Although known to be essential for liver production of acute-phase reactant proteins, many of which augment innate immune responses, molecular cloning of acute-phase response factor or STAT3 and the research this enabled helped establish the central function of Janus kinase (JAK) family members in cytokine signaling and identified a multitude of cytokines and peptide hormones, beyond interleukin-6 and its family members, that activate JAKs and STAT3, as well as numerous new programs that their activation drives. Many, like the acute-phase response, are adaptive, whereas several are maladaptive and lead to chronic inflammation and adverse consequences, such as cachexia, fibrosis, organ dysfunction, and cancer. Molecular cloning of STAT3 also enabled the identification of other noncanonical roles for STAT3 in normal physiology, including its contribution to the function of the electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation, its basal and stress-related adaptive functions in mitochondria, its function as a scaffold in inflammation-enhanced platelet activation, and its contributions to endothelial permeability and calcium efflux from endoplasmic reticulum. In this review, we will summarize the molecular and cellular biology of JAK/STAT3 signaling and its functions under basal and stress conditions, which are adaptive, and then review maladaptive JAK/STAT3 signaling in animals and humans that lead to disease, as well as recent attempts to modulate them to treat these diseases. In addition, we will discuss how consideration of the noncanonical and stress-related functions of STAT3 cannot be ignored in efforts to target the canonical functions of STAT3, if the goal is to develop drugs that are not only effective but safe. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Key biological functions of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 signaling can be delineated into two broad categories: those essential for normal cell and organ development and those activated in response to stress that are adaptive. Persistent or dysregulated JAK/STAT3 signaling, however, is maladaptive and contributes to many diseases, including diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis, and cancer. A comprehensive understanding of JAK/STAT3 signaling in normal development, and in adaptive and maladaptive responses to stress, is essential for the continued development of safe and effective therapies that target this signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Janus Quinases/genética , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética
19.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 134(6): 609-628, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175563

RESUMO

Diabetic cardiac fibrosis increases ventricular stiffness and facilitates the occurrence of diastolic dysfunction. Retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays an important role in cardiac development and has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of RXR agonist treatment on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) and the underlying mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced by STZ injection were treated with either RXR agonist bexarotene (Bex) or vehicle alone. Echocardiography was performed to determine cardiac structure and function. Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were treated with high glucose (HG) with or without the indicated concentration of Bex or the RXR ligand 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA). The protein abundance levels were measured along with collagen, body weight (BW), blood biochemical indexes and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß) levels. The effects of RXRα down-regulation by RXRα small interfering RNA (siRNA) were examined. The results showed that bexarotene treatment resulted in amelioration of left ventricular dysfunction by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. Immunoblot with heart tissue homogenates from diabetic rats revealed that bexarotene activated liver kinase B1 (LKB1) signaling and inhibited p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). The increased collagen levels in the heart tissues of DCM rats were reduced by bexarotene treatment. Treatment of CFs with HG resulted in significantly reduced LKB1 activity and increased p70S6K activity. RXRα mediated the antagonism of 9-cis-RA on HG-induced LKB1/p70S6K activation changes in vitro. Our findings suggest that RXR agonist ameliorates STZ-induced DCM by inhibiting myocardial fibrosis via modulation of the LKB1/p70S6K signaling pathway. RXR agonists may serve as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of DCM.


Assuntos
Bexaroteno/administração & dosagem , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores X Retinoide/agonistas , Animais , Cardiomiopatias/etiologia , Cardiomiopatias/genética , Cardiomiopatias/metabolismo , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose/etiologia , Fibrose/genética , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Receptores X Retinoide/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Estreptozocina
20.
Am J Pathol ; 190(6): 1236-1255, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201263

RESUMO

Hyaluronidase (HYAL)-2 is a weak, acid-active, hyaluronan-degrading enzyme broadly expressed in somatic tissues. Aberrant HYAL2 expression is implicated in diverse pathology. However, a significant proportion of HYAL2 is enzymatically inactive; thus the mechanisms through which HYAL2 dysregulation influences pathobiology are unclear. Recently, nonenzymatic HYAL2 functions have been described, and nuclear HYAL2 has been shown to influence mRNA splicing to prevent myofibroblast differentiation. Myofibroblasts drive fibrosis, thereby promoting progressive tissue damage and leading to multimorbidity. This study identifies a novel HYAL2 cytoplasmic function in myofibroblasts that is unrelated to its enzymatic activity. In fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, HYAL2 interacts with the GTPase-signaling small molecule ras homolog family member A (RhoA). Transforming growth factor beta 1-driven fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation promotes HYAL2 cytoplasmic relocalization to bind to the actin cytoskeleton. Cytoskeletal-bound HYAL2 functions as a key regulator of downstream RhoA signaling and influences profibrotic myofibroblast functions, including myosin light-chain kinase-mediated myofibroblast contractility, myofibroblast migration, myofibroblast collagen/fibronectin deposition, as well as connective tissue growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression. These data demonstrate that, in certain biological contexts, the nonenzymatic effects of HYAL2 are crucial in orchestrating RhoA signaling and downstream pathways that are important for full profibrotic myofibroblast functionality. In conjunction with previous data demonstrating the influence of HYAL2 on RNA splicing, these findings begin to explain the broad biological effects of HYAL2.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Hialuronoglucosaminidase/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Proteína rhoA de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Animais , Fibrose/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Processamento de RNA , Ratos
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