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1.
N Z Med J ; 135(1555): 10-18, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728230

RESUMO

AIM: To determine whether the guidance from the New Zealand medical programmes' national consensus statement on obtaining informed consent from patients for sensitive examinations are being met, and to explore medical students' experience of obtaining consent. METHOD: A self-reported, online, anonymous questionnaire was developed. Data were collected in the period just after graduation from final year medical students at The University of Auckland in 2019. RESULTS: The response rate was 35% (93/265). Most students reported that they were "not always compliant" with the national consensus statement for obtaining informed consent for almost all sensitive examinations. The main exception was for the female pelvic examination (not in labour) under anaesthesia, where most students reported being "always compliant". We identified factors related to students, supervisors, institution, and the learning context as reasons for lack of compliance. CONCLUSION: Adherence to the national consensus statement on obtaining informed consent for sensitive examinations is unsatisfactory. The medical programme needs to review the reasons for lapses in implementing the policy in practice, to ensure a safe learning environment for patients and our students.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido , Estudantes de Medicina , Consenso , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Exame Físico , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia
2.
Nurse Educ Today ; 115: 105375, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous blood specimen collection is a common procedure within healthcare and both diagnoses as well as treatment evaluation, are often based on results from these analyses. However, studies among both students and staff have demonstrated suboptimal adherence to venous blood specimen collection practice guidelines which in turn might jeopardize patient safety. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe final semester nursing students' experiences of deviations from venous blood specimen collection practice guidelines during clinical training. METHODS: This study adopted a qualitative design. Twentysix final (6th) semester nursing students were recruited through purposive sampling at a Swedish university. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face, focus group interviews in September 2015. The transcribed interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The students' experiences generated two categories; 1) Striving to blend in (subcategories Feeling uncomfortable and Adapting to the prevailing practice culture) and 2) Diminished confidence (subcategories Being confused due to inconsistency and Being uncertain about guideline usefulness) forming the overall theme Being a copycat. CONCLUSION: The research concludes that nursing students adapt to the prevailing practice culture encountered during clinical training, often at the expense of guidelines adherence. Since the students are being assessed during clinical training, the eagerness to belong to the team and be well-liked might be stronger than the ambition to follow guidelines. As a consequence, nursing students in clinical training might become copycats by aligning themselves with the prevailing practice culture which in turn might jeopardize adherence with VBSC guideline practice and thereby patient safety. With the ambition to support nursing students' learning in clinical training, facilitators of learning to comprise both students and supervisors need to be further addressed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Nursing students adapt to the prevailing venous blood sample collection practice culture and become copycats.


Assuntos
Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Bacharelado em Enfermagem/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 962022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We know the importance of hand hygiene in the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. However, its compliance is still a challenge. Moreover, when it is complied with, as in the case of preoperative hygiene, there are few studies on the proper performance of the technique. The aim of this paper is to assess adequacy of pre-surgical hand hygiene in operating room staff of different surgical specialities at a university teaching hospital in Madrid. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was made. Adequacy of pre-surgical hand hygiene was assessed in operating room staff of the different specialities and professional categories by direct covert observation. It was evaluated in 852 opportunities during the months of October, November and December 2020. A specific form was designed for data collection, following the recommendations of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Adequacy was described with frequency distributions of the different groups observed. Whether Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the different categories. RESULTS: Pre-surgical hand hygiene opportunities were evaluated, 75.5% in surgeons and 24.5% in nurses. Overall compliance with pre-surgical hand hygiene technique was 80.5 % (686). The most frequent surgical service evaluated was General Surgery with 240 observations. The professional category with the best adequacy was nursing (86.1%) and the surgical service one was Traumatology (90.2%). An stopwatch was used by some 25.8% of the evaluated professionals, with an adequate hygiene time of 96,8% (p<0,05) for that group. CONCLUSIONS: The overall adequacy of pre-surgical hand hygiene in the operating room professionals is high. Significant statistically differences in adequacy are found between professional categories and surgical specialities, with better compliance in nursing staff and in Traumatology. Better results are achieved by the use of an stopwatch.


OBJETIVO: Sabemos la importancia que tiene la higiene de manos en la prevención de infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria. Sin embargo, a día de hoy, su cumplimiento, es un reto. Además, cuando se cumple, como es el caso de en la higiene prequirúrgica, pocos estudios hay sobre la adecuada realización de la técnica. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la adecuación de la higiene de manos prequirúrgica en profesionales de quirófano de un Hospital Universitario de Madrid. METODOS: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo trasversal. Se evaluó la adecuación de la higiene de manos prequirúrgica mediante observación directa y enmascarada en 852 oportunidades durante los meses de octubre, noviembre y diciembre de 2020. Se consideró adecuada la higiene de manos si ésta se realizaba según la técnica correcta y durante el tiempo indicado. La adecuación de la higiene de manos se describió con la distribución de frecuencias y las diferencias entre categorías se compararon con la prueba x2 de Pearson o prueba exacta de Fisher. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron las oportunidades de higiene de manos prequirúrgica, el 75,5% en cirujanos y el 24,5% en personal de enfermería. La adecuación global de la higiene de manos fue del 80,5%. La categoría profesional con mejor adecuación fue Enfermería (86,1%) (p<0,05) y el servicio quirúrgico con mejor adecuación fue Traumatología (90,2%) (p<0,05). Un 25,8% de los profesionales evaluados utilizó el apoyo del cronómetro, consiguiendo este grupo una adecuación al tiempo de higiene del 96,8% (p<0,05). CONCLUSIONES: La adecuación global de la higiene de manos prequirúrgica en nuestros profesionales es muy alta. Se encuentran diferencias estadísticamente significativas de cumplimiento entre categorías profesionales y especialidades quirúrgicas, siendo mejor la adecuación en el personal de Enfermería y en la especialidad de Traumatología. El apoyo del cronómetro consigue mejores resultados en la adecuación al tiempo de higiene.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Higiene das Mãos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Espanha , Universidades
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 766, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients who deteriorate in hospital wards without appropriate recognition and/or response are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. Track-and-trigger tools have been implemented internationally prompting healthcare practitioners (typically nursing staff) to recognise physiological changes (e.g. changes in blood pressure, heart rate) consistent with patient deterioration, and then to contact a practitioner with expertise in management of acute/critical illness. Despite some evidence these tools improve patient outcomes, their translation into clinical practice is inconsistent internationally. To drive greater guideline adherence in the use of the National Early Warning Score tool (a track-and-trigger tool used widely in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe), a theoretically informed implementation intervention was developed (targeting nursing staff) using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) version 2 and a taxonomy of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs). METHODS: A three-stage process was followed: 1. TDF domains representing important barriers and enablers to target behaviours derived from earlier published empirical work were mapped to appropriate BCTs; 2. BCTs were shortlisted using consensus approaches within the research team; 3. shortlisted BCTs were presented to relevant stakeholders in two online group discussions where nominal group techniques were applied. Nominal group participants were healthcare leaders, senior clinicians, and ward-based nursing staff. Stakeholders individually generated concrete strategies for operationalising shortlisted BCTs ('applications') and privately ranked them according to acceptability and feasibility. Ranking data were used to drive decision-making about intervention content. RESULTS: Fifty BCTs (mapped in stage 1) were shortlisted to 14 (stage 2) and presented to stakeholders in nominal groups (stage 3) alongside example applications. Informed by ranking data from nominal groups, the intervention was populated with 12 BCTs that will be delivered face-to-face, to individuals and groups of nursing staff, through 18 applications. CONCLUSIONS: A description of a theory-based behaviour change intervention is reported, populated with BCTs and applications generated and/or prioritised by stakeholders using replicable consensus methods. The feasibility of the proposed intervention should be tested in a clinical setting and the content of the intervention elaborated further to permit replication and evaluation.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Reino Unido
5.
Malar J ; 21(1): 164, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35658968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization World Malaria Report of 2019 indicated an estimated 228 million cases of malaria occurred worldwide in 2018. More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria a leading public health problem in Ethiopia. Adherence to clinical guidelines improves the quality of care received by patients, thus improving patient outcomes. This study investigates healthcare workers' adherence to malaria testing and treatment guidelines in selected private clinics of Gambela Town, Ethiopia. METHODS: A mixed study design involving a retrospective review of 425 patient files and 20 healthcare worker interviews in private clinics was implemented. Data were collected using pre-tested data collection forms. The collected data were then cleaned and entered into statistical software for analysis, with a level of significance set at < 0.05. A qualitative analysis was also conducted using healthcare worker interviews to identify the existing barriers to guideline adherence. RESULTS: Among the 430 cases of suspected malaria, only 65% were tested for malaria. Of those tested, 75% tested positive and 25% tested negative. The most common co-morbidity in patients treated for malaria was anaemia (30%), followed by gastroenteritis (10%). Patients with co-morbidities were more likely to receive appropriate treatment (p = 0.03) compared to those without co-morbidities. All healthcare workers interviewed were aware of the existence of the malaria treatment guidelines. However, many were not aware of the contents of the guidelines and only 40% had been trained to understand the guidelines. Overall, 85% of the workers claimed to adhere to guidelines, with 15% claiming non-adherence. CONCLUSION: The gap between knowledge of the malaria treatment guidelines and their application by healthcare workers remains wide. The level of knowledge of these guidelines was also low. Continuous training, follow-up, supportive supervision, and improved adherence to the malaria guidelines are therefore recommended.


Assuntos
Anemia , Malária , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Malária/diagnóstico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054837, 2022 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35697439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with the infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and identify the factors influencing this compliance using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework. DESIGN: Quantitative data from an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study were employed in this research. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: From 17 May to 30 August 2020, 604 physicians and nurses working at six randomly selected tertiary care facilities in Dhaka City in Bangladesh took part in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with the WHO's guidance on IPC measures, as well as the associated factors, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A mean compliance score of 0.49 (±0.25) was observed on a 0-1 scale. HCWs were most compliant with the medical mask wearing guidelines (81%) and were least compliant with the high-touch surface decontamination regulations (23%). Compliance with the IPC guidance was significantly associated with increasing age, female sex, working as a nurse, having non-communicable diseases and history of exposure to patients with COVID-19. Perceived benefits (B=0.039, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.076), self-efficacy (B=0.101, 95% CI 0.060 to 0.142) and cues to action (B=0.045, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.088) were positively associated with compliance. Compliance with IPC guidance was 0.061 times greater among participants who reported low perceived barriers compared with those with high perceived barriers. CONCLUSION: Overall, compliance with IPC guidance among HCWs was unsatisfactory. As self-efficacy exerted the greatest contribution to compliance, it should be emphasised in any endeavour to improve HCWs' IPC adherence. Such interventions should also focus on perceived barriers, including unreliability of the information sources, unsafe working places and unavailability of protective equipment and cues to action, including trust in the administration and availability of adequate IPC guidance.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Controle de Infecções , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Centros de Atenção Terciária
11.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269002, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk evaluation of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) remains the cornerstone of primary prevention. The cardiovascular risk assessment can guide the decision-making on various preventive measures such as initiating or deferring statin therapy. Thus, our study aimed to assess the physicians' knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases risk assessment. Also, we evaluated the physician-patient discussion and counseling practices before statin therapy initiation in concordance with recommendations from the latest clinical practice guideline. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2020 and January 2021. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 physicians (GPs, residents, specialists, and consultants). Two trained pharmacists distributed the questionnaires in 5 major tertiary governmental hospitals and more than ten private hospitals. Also, private clinics were targeted so that we get a representative sample of physicians at different workplaces. RESULTS: A total of 270 physicians filled the questionnaire out of 350 physicians approached, with 14 being excluded due to high missing data, giving a final response rate of 73%. Participants had suboptimal knowledge and practices with a high positive attitude toward atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases risk assessment. The knowledge and practices were higher among consultants, participants from the cardiology department, those with experience years of more than nine years, and those who reported following a specific guideline for cholesterol management or using a risk calculator in their practice. Notably, the risk assessment and counseling practices were lower among physicians who reported seeing more patients per day. CONCLUSION: Physicians had overall low knowledge, suboptimal practices, and a high positive attitude toward cardiovascular risk assessment. Therefore, physicians' training and continuing medical education regarding cholesterol management and primary prevention clinical practice guidelines are recommended. Also, the importance of adherence to clinical practice guidelines and their impact on clinical outcomes should be emphasized.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Hipercolesterolemia , Médicos , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colesterol , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Medição de Risco , Iêmen
12.
13.
Nutrients ; 14(9)2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565734

RESUMO

Adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations has been associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality. The association between baseline adherence to fruit, vegetable, and physical activity guidelines and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in El Banco por Salud (El Banco) was examined. El Banco is a wellness biobank for Latino individuals affiliated with partnered Federally Qualified Health Centers in southern Arizona. Study participants (n = 972) were 65% female, 62.3% foreign-born, 56.3% obese, 29.2% food insecure, and with an average age of 51.3 years. Adherence scores were developed using baseline questionnaires for fruits and vegetable consumption and self-reported physical activity. Adherence was low in those fully meeting guidelines for fruit, vegetable, and physical activity at 14.6%, 37.5%, and 23.5%, respectively. Roughly 65% (n = 630) had ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors. Large waist circumference was the most prevalent risk factor at 77.9%. Adherence to physical activity recommendations differed by MetS status with 32.8% without MetS reporting ≥150 min of physical activity per week compared to 18.5% in those with MetS (p < 0.001). There were no significant associations with adherence to any guidelines and MetS in the fully adjusted model. Overall, in this sample guideline adherence was low and the cardiometabolic risk factors prevalence was high.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , Verduras , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35627707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Assessing the patients' CVD risk, controlling the risk factors, and ensuring the guideline-adherent cardiovascular pharmacotherapy are crucial interventions to improve health outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of pharmacists to improve the adherence to pharmacotherapy guidelines and the achievement of risk factor goals among patients who attended a community pharmacy. METHODS: We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study. We performed in-pharmacy point-of-care testing, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and reviewed patients' pharmacotherapy, based on European Society of Cardiology guidelines. RESULTS: Of the 333 patients, 63.1% were in the high/very high risk category, 91.9% showed at least two modifiable risk factors, and in 61.9% of patients the cardiovascular pharmacotherapy was non-adherent to the current guidelines, failing to reach treatment goals. The lipid-lowering therapy was the least guideline adherent, with a suboptimal use of statins. However, we found no statistically significant difference between the guideline-adherent and the non-adherent group in terms of risk factor control. The pharmacist recommended 603 interventions to adhere to the guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Community pharmacists are able to identify opportunities to optimize cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and support the patients to achieve cardiovascular risk factor goals, based on evidence-based guidelines, contributing to the improvement of CVD management.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Farmácias , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Portugal , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cancer ; 128(14): 2796-2805, 2022 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 22092-62092 STRASS trial failed to demonstrate the superiority of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (RT) over surgery alone in patients with retroperitoneal sarcoma. Therefore, an RT quality-assurance program was added to the study protocol to detect and correct RT deviations. The authors report results from the trial RT quality-assurance program and its potential effect on patient outcomes. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of RT compliance on survival outcomes, a composite end point was created. It combined the information related to planning target volume coverage, target delineation, total dose received, and overall treatment time into 2 groups: non-RT-compliant (NRC) for patients who had unacceptable deviation(s) in any of the previous categories and RT-compliant (RC) otherwise. Abdominal recurrence-free survival (ARFS) and overall survival were compared between the 2 groups using a Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for known prognostic factors. RESULTS: Thirty-six of 125 patients (28.8%) were classified as NRC, and the remaining 89 patients (71.2%) were classified as RC. The 3-year ARFS rate was 66.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 55.8%-75.7%) and 49.8% (95% CI, 32.7%-64.8%) for the RC and NRC groups, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.25-4.32; P = .008). Local recurrence after macroscopic complete resection occurred in 13 of 89 patients (14.6%) versus 2 of 36 patients (5.6%) in the RC and NRC groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The current analysis suggests a significant benefit in terms of ARFS in favor of the RC group. This association did not translate into less local relapses after complete resection in the RC group. Multidisciplinary collaboration and review of cases are critical to avoid geographic misses, especially for rare tumors like retroperitoneal sarcoma.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Retroperitoneais , Sarcoma , Neoplasias de Tecidos Moles , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/radioterapia , Neoplasias Retroperitoneais/cirurgia , Sarcoma/radioterapia , Sarcoma/cirurgia
16.
Chiropr Man Therap ; 30(1): 23, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35534902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inappropriate use of lumbar spine imaging remains common in primary care despite recommendations from evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to avoid imaging in the absence of red flags. This study aimed to explore factors influencing ordering behaviours and adherence to radiographic guidelines for low back pain (LBP) in chiropractors in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL), Canada. METHODS: We conducted two focus groups in December 2018 with chiropractors in different regions of NL (eastern, n = 8; western, n = 4). An interview guide based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) served to identify perceived barriers to, and enablers of, target behaviours of guideline adherence and managing LBP without X-rays. We conducted thematic analysis of chiropractors' statements into relevant theoretical domains, followed by grouping of similar statements into specific beliefs. Domains key to changing radiographic guideline adherence, LBP imaging behaviours, and/or informing intervention design were identified by noting conflicting beliefs and their reported influence on the target behaviours. RESULTS: Six of the 14 TDF domains were perceived to be important for adherence to radiographic guidelines and managing non-specific LBP without imaging. Participating chiropractors reported varying levels of knowledge and awareness of guidelines for LBP imaging (Knowledge). Many chiropractors based their decision for imaging on clinical presentation, but some relied on "gut feeling" (Memory, attention, and decision processes). While chiropractors thought it was their role to manage LBP without imaging, others believed ordering imaging was the responsibility of other healthcare providers (Social/professional role and identity). Contrasting views were found regarding the negative consequences of imaging or not imaging LBP patients (Beliefs about consequences). Communication was identified as a skill required to manage LBP without imaging (Skills) and a strategy to enable appropriate imaging ordering behaviours (Behavioural regulation). Chiropractors suggested that access to patients' previous imaging and a system that facilitated better interprofessional communication would likely improve their LBP imaging behaviours (Behavioural regulation). CONCLUSION: We identified potential influences, in six theoretical domains, on participating chiropractors' LBP imaging behaviours and adherence to radiographic guidelines. These beliefs may be targets for theory-informed behaviour change interventions aimed at improving these target behaviours for chiropractors in NL.


Assuntos
Quiroprática , Dor Lombar , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Dor Lombar/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Lombar/terapia
17.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak ; 22(1): 121, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) causes significant mortality and morbidity in hospitalised patients. Risk factors for VTE are well known and there are validated risk assessment tools to support the use of prophylactic therapies. In England, reporting the percentage of patients with a completed VTE risk assessment is mandated, but this does not include whether that risk assessment resulted in appropriate prescribing. Full guideline compliance, defined as an assessment which led to an appropriate action-here prescribing prophylactic low molecular weight heparin where indicated, is rarely reported. Education, audit and feedback enhance guideline compliance but electronic prescribing systems (EPS) can mandate guideline-compliant actions. We hypothesised that a systems-based EPS intervention (prescribing rules which mandate approval or rejection of a proposed prescription of prophylactic low molecular weight heparin based on the mandated VTE assessment) would increase full VTE guideline compliance more than interventions which focused on targeting individual prescribers. METHODS: All admitted patients within University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust were included for analysis between 2011 and 2020. The proportion of patients who received a fully compliant risk assessment and action was assessed over time. Interventions included teaching sessions and face-to-face feedback based on measured performance (an approach targeting individual prescribers) and mandatory risk assessment and prescribing rules into an EPS (a systems approach). RESULTS: Data from all 235,005 admissions and all 5503 prescribers were included in the analysis. Risk assessments were completed in > 90-95% of all patients at all times, but full guideline compliance was lower (70% at the start of this study). Face-to-face feedback improved full VTE guideline compliance from 70 to 77% (p ≤ 0.001). Changes to the EPS to mandate assessment with prescribing rules increased full VTE compliance to 95% (p ≤ 0.001). Further amendments to the EPS system to reduce erroneous VTE assessments slightly reduced full compliance to 92% (p < 0.001), but this was then maintained including during changes to the low molecular weight heparin used for VTE prophylaxis. DISCUSSION: An EPS-systems approach was more effective in improving sustained guideline-compliant VTE prevention over time. Non-compliance remained at 8-5% despite this mandated system. Further research is needed to assess the potential reasons for this.


Assuntos
Prescrição Eletrônica , Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde , Tromboembolia Venosa , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tromboembolia Venosa/tratamento farmacológico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle
18.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 17(1): 28, 2022 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 U.S. Centers for Disease Control Opioid Prescribing Guideline (CDC Guideline) is currently being revised amid concern that it may be harmful to people with chronic pain on long-term opioid therapy (CP-LTOT). However, a methodology to faithfully implement the CDC guideline, measure prescriber adherence, and systematically test its effect on patient and public health outcomes is lacking. We developed and tested a CDC Guideline implementation strategy (termed TOWER), focusing on an outpatient HIV-focused primary care setting. METHODS: TOWER was developed in a stakeholder-engaged, multi-step iterative process within an Information, Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) framework of behavior change. TOWER consists of: 1) a patient-facing opioid management app (OM-App); 2) a progress note template (OM-Note) to guide the office visit; and 3) a primary care provider (PCP) training. TOWER was evaluated in a 9-month, randomized-controlled trial of HIV-PCPs (N = 11) and their patients with HIV and CP-LTOT (N = 40). The primary outcome was CDC Guideline adherence based on electronic health record (EHR) documentation and measured by the validated Safer Opioid Prescribing Evaluation Tool (SOPET). Qualitative data including one-on-one PCP interviews were collected. We also piloted patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) reflective of domains identified as important by stakeholders (pain intensity and function; mood; substance use; medication use and adherence; relationship with provider; stigma and discrimination). RESULTS: PCPs randomized to TOWER were 48% more CDC Guideline adherent (p < 0.0001) with significant improvements in use of: non-pharmacologic treatments, functional treatment goals, opioid agreements, prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs), opioid benefit/harm assessment, and naloxone prescribing. Qualitative data demonstrated high levels of confidence in conducting these care processes among intervention providers, and that OM-Note supported these efforts while experience with OM-App was mixed. There were no intervention-associated safety concerns (defined as worsening of any of the PROMs). CONCLUSIONS: CDC-guideline adherence can be promoted and measured, and is not associated with worsening of outcomes for people with HIV receiving LTOT for CP. Future work would be needed to document scalability of these results and to determine whether CDC-guideline adherence results in a positive effect on public health. Trial registration https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03669939 . Registration date: 9/13/2018.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Infecções por HIV , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Padrões de Prática Médica
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7730, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545653

RESUMO

This Korean nationwide, multicenter, noninterventional, prospective cohort study aimed to analyze physician adherence to guideline-recommended therapy for heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and its effect on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Patients diagnosed with or hospitalized for HFrEF within the previous year were enrolled. Treatment adherence was considered optimal when all 3 categories of guideline-recommended medications (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, or angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors; beta-blockers; and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists) were prescribed and suboptimal when ≤ 2 categories were prescribed. The 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) scores were compared at baseline and 6 months between the 2 groups. Overall, 854 patients from 30 hospitals were included. At baseline, the optimal adherence group comprised 527 patients (61.7%), whereas during follow-up, the optimal and suboptimal adherence groups comprised 462 (54.1%) and 281 (32.9%) patients, respectively. Patients in the suboptimal adherence group were older, with a lower body mass index, and increased comorbidities, including renal dysfunction. SF-36 scores were significantly higher in the optimal adherence group for most domains (P < 0.05). This study showed satisfactory physician adherence to contemporary treatment for HFrEF. Optimal adherence to HF medication significantly correlated with better PROs.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Médicos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Neprilisina , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Angiotensina , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
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