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3.
Can J Surg ; 63(5): E460-E467, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols use evidence-based perioperative practices that reduce morbidity and length of stay and improve patient satisfaction. ERAS is considered standard of care; however, utilization remains low and substantial practice variation exists. The aim of this study was to pragmatically characterize variation in colorectal surgery practice and identify predictors of ERAS utilization. METHODS: A survey of general surgeons identified using the Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons database was conducted. Information on basic demographic characteristics, utilization of ERAS and predictors of ERAS implementation was collected. Nine ERAS behaviours were analyzed. Multivariable analysis was used to determine effects of demographic, hospital and surgeon covariates on ERAS utilization. RESULTS: Seven hundred and ninety-seven general surgeons were invited to participate in the survey, and 235 general surgeons representing 84 Ontario hospitals responded (30% response rate). Surgeons practising in academic settings and in large community hospitals represented 30% and 47% of the respondents, respectively. A total of 20% of the respondents used all 9 ERAS behaviours consistently. Rates of diet advancement on postoperative day 0, intravenous fluid restriction and having catheter and line procedures were significantly higher among respondents who adhered to ERAS protocols than among those who did not (74% v. 54%, p = 0.004; 92% v. 80%, p = 0.01; and 91% v. 41%, p < 0.001, respectively). Respondents from academic settings reported practising nearly 1 more ERAS behaviour than those from small community hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42 to 1.31, p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that colorectal fellowship training or exposure to ERAS during training did not significantly affect ERAS behaviour utilization (OR 0.32, 95% CI -0.31 to 0.94, p = 0.16; OR 0.28, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.82, p = 0.16, respectively). CONCLUSION: Substantial practice variation in colorectal surgery still exists. Individual ERAS principles are commonly followed; however, ERAS behaviours are not widely formalized into hospital protocols.


Assuntos
Colo/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reto/cirurgia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Protocolos Clínicos/normas , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Comunitários/normas , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ontário , Satisfação do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Padrão de Cuidado , Cirurgiões/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 81(9): 1-9, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990080

RESUMO

Guidance regarding appropriate use of personal protective equipment in hospitals is in constant flux as research into SARS-COV-2 transmission continues to develop our understanding of the virus. The risk associated with procedures classed as 'aerosol generating' is under constant debate. Current guidance is largely based on pragmatic and cautious logic, as there is little scientific evidence of aerosolization and transmission of respiratory viruses associated with procedures. The physical properties of aerosol particles which may contain viable virus have implications for the safe use of personal protective equipment and infection control protocols. As elective work in the NHS is reinstated, it is important that the implications of the possibility of airborne transmission of the virus in hospitals are more widely understood. This will facilitate appropriate use of personal protective equipment and help direct further research into the true risks of aerosolization during these procedures to allow safe streamlining of services for staff and patients.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Controle de Infecções , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral , Gestão de Riscos/organização & administração , Aerossóis , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/instrumentação , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 148, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are on the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak, and their constant exposure to infected patients and contaminated surfaces puts them at risk of acquiring and transmitting the infection. Therefore, they must employ protective measures. In practice, HCWs in Israel were not fully prepared for this sudden COVID-19 outbreak. This research aimed to identify and compare: (1) Israeli HCWs' perceptions regarding the official COVID-19 guidelines' applicability and their protective value, and (2) HCWs executives' response to HWCs' concern regarding personal protective equipment (PPE) shortage. METHODS: A mixed-methods sequential explanatory design consists of: (1) An online survey of 242 HCWs about the application of the guidelines and PPE, and (2) Personal interviews of 15 HCWs executives regarding PPE shortage and the measures they are taking to address it. RESULTS: A significant difference between the perceived applicability and protective value was found for most of the guidelines. Some of the guidelines were perceived as more applicable than protective (hand hygiene, signage at entrance, alcohol rub sanitizers at entrance, and mask for contact with symptomatic patients). Other were perceived as less applicable than protective (prohibited gathering of over 10 people, maintaining a distance of 2 m', and remote services). CONCLUSIONS: HCWs need the support of the healthcare authorities not only to provide missing equipment, but also to communicate the risk to them. Conveying the information with full transparency, while addressing the uncertainty element and engaging the HCWs in evaluating the guidelines, are critical for establishing trust.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16267-16272, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631982

RESUMO

Rates of suicide in the United States are at a more than 20-y high. Suicide contagion, or spread of suicide-related thoughts and behaviors through exposure to sensationalized and harmful content is a well-recognized phenomenon. Health authorities have published guidelines for news media reporting on suicide to help prevent contagion; however, uptake of recommendations remains limited. A key barrier to widespread voluntary uptake of suicide-reporting guidelines is that more sensational content is perceived to be more engaging to readers and thus enhances publisher visibility and engagement; however, no empirical information exists on the actual influence of adherence to safe-reporting practices on reader engagement. Hence, we conducted a study to analyze adherence to suicide-reporting guidelines on news shared on social media and to assess how adherence affects reader engagement. Our analysis of Facebook data revealed that harmful elements were prevalent in news articles about suicide shared on social media while the presence of protective elements was generally rare. Contrary to popular perception, closer adherence to safe-reporting practices was associated with a greater likelihood of an article being reshared (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 1.27) and receiving positive engagement ("love" reactions) (AOR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.26). Mean safe-reporting scores were lower in the US than other English-speaking nations and variation existed by publisher characteristics. Our results provide empirical evidence that improved adherence to suicide-reporting guidelines may benefit not only the health of individuals, but also support publisher goals of reach and engagement.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Rede Social , Suicídio , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Suicídio/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Ann Vasc Surg ; 69: 197-205, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering medication can considerably lessen the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Despite well-publicized guidelines and the accessibility of effective therapies, many patients do not attain their lipid goals and remain at high cardiovascular risk. Guidelines recommend statins as first-line therapy to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in ASCVD. We aimed to analyze admission lipid levels in a broad contemporary population of patients with ASCVD attending a vascular clinic or admitted to an inpatient vascular unit. METHODS: Patients with known ASCVD, current cholesterol levels, and lipid-lowering medications were documented and compared with published current Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines recommendations for achieving <2.0 mmol/L or >50% reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Cholesterol levels (current and previous), demographic characteristics, cardiovascular risk factors, and medical therapy were assessed from available patient records. RESULTS: Two hundred eight adult patients were identified. The mean age of the patients was 72 (±10) years, and 76% were men. About half had peripheral arterial disease (n = 118, 56.7%), one-third had coronary artery disease (n = 78, 37.5%), and one-third had diabetes (n = 76, 36.5%). Most were hypertensive (n = 140, 67.3%) and half gave a history of dyslipidemia (n = 103, 49.5%). Most patients (n = 183, 88%) were taking a statin and the majority at a moderate-intensity dose (n = 79, 43.2%) or high-intensity dose (n = 101, 55.2%). However, 32.7% of patients (n = 68) did not reach target of LDL-C level of <2.0 mmol/L or had ≤50% reduction from the baseline level. Of the patients who did not reach goals, 7 (10.3%) did not fill their statin prescriptions in the last 3 months. Only 26 patients (12.5%) were also on ezetimibe, a guideline-recommended second-line therapy if targets are not reached with maximally tolerated statin therapy. One patient, who was able to reach target LDL-C, was on evolocumab monotherapy, a PCSK9 inhibitor, a contemporary nonstatin therapy that could be considered in ASCVD in those not at LDL-C goal. Of the 16 patients who were not prescribed any lipid-lowering therapy and did not reach target, 8 (50%) did not have any identified or documented reasons. Of the remaining 8 patients, 7 (87.5%) reported intolerance or side effects to statins only, and could benefit from nonstatin LDL-lowering therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In this observational study, we established suboptimal adherence to guideline recommendations for statin therapy and hesitancy to use nonstatin LDL-lowering agents in high-risk patients with ASCVD. These treatment gaps have an enormous effect on achieving improved cardiovascular clinical outcomes and must be tackled.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Quimioterapia Combinada , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Am J Infect Control ; 48(9): 1074-1079, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522610

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher requirement is put forward in the measurement of hand hygiene (HH) during a pandemic. This study aimed to describe HH compliance measurement and explore observed influencing factors with respect to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) guidelines in China. METHODS: Compliance was measured as the percentage of compliant opportunities based on criteria for 17 moments. The criteria for compliance included HH behavior, procedure, duration, hand drying method, and the overall that counts them all. The observed influencing factors included different departments and areas and protection motivation. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: The compliance of overall criteria, HH behavior, procedure, duration, and hand drying method were 79.44%, 96.71%, 95.74%, 88.93%, and 88.42%, respectively, which were significantly different from each other (P < .001). Meanwhile, the overall and hand drying method compliance in semi-contaminated areas (odds ratio [OR] = 1.829, P < .001; OR = 2.149, P = .001) and hygienic areas (OR = 1.689, P = .004; OR = 1.959, P = .015) were significantly higher than those in contaminated area. The compliance with HH behavior for the motivation of patient-protection (OR = 0.362, P < .001) was lower than that for the motivation of self-protection. CONCLUSIONS: HH compliance was firstly measured using different criteria for 17 moments according to COVID-19 guidelines in China. The measurement of HH compliance needs clearer definition and comprehensive practice. Contaminated areas and motivation of patient-protection contribute to lower compliance, which may be addressed by allocating more human resources and increasing supervision and education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Hospitais/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Neurology ; 95(3): e299-e309, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify similarities and differences in protocols on determination of brain death/death by neurologic criteria (BD/DNC) around the world. METHODS: We collected and reviewed official national BD/DNC protocols from contacts around the world between January 2018 and April 2019. RESULTS: We communicated with contacts in 136 countries and found that 83 (61% of countries with contacts identified, 42% of the world) had BD/DNC protocols, 78 of which were unique. Protocols addressed the following prerequisites and provided differing instructions: drug clearance (64, 82%), temperature (61, 78%), laboratory values (56, 72%), observation period (37, 47%), and blood pressure (34, 44%). Protocols did not consistently identify the same components for the clinical examination of brain death; 70 (90%) included coma, 70 (90%) included the pupillary reflex, 68 (87%) included the corneal reflex, 67 (86%) included the oculovestibular reflex, 64 (82%) included the gag reflex, 62 (79%) included the cough reflex, 58 (74%) included the oculocephalic reflex, 37 (47%) included noxious stimulation to the face, and 22 (28%) included noxious stimulation to the limbs. Apnea testing was mentioned in 71 (91%) protocols; there was variability in the technique and target across protocols. Ancillary testing was included as a requirement for all determinations of BD/DNC in 22 (28%) protocols. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability in BD/DNC determination protocols around the world. Medical standards for death should be the same everywhere. We recommend that a worldwide consensus be reached on the minimum standards for BD/DNC.


Assuntos
Morte Encefálica/diagnóstico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Internacionalidade , Exame Neurológico/normas , Morte , Humanos , Exame Neurológico/métodos
10.
J Surg Res ; 255: 106-110, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32543374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pediatric brain injuries are common, but current management of patients with mild traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (T-ICH) is suboptimal, often including unnecessary repeat head CT (RHCT) and neurosurgical consultation (NSC). Brain Injury Guidelines (BIG) have been developed to standardize the management of TBI, and recent work suggests they may be applied to children. The aim of this study was to apply BIG to a low-risk pediatric TBI population to further determine whether the framework can be safely applied to children in a way that reduces overutilization of RHCTs and NSC. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of a Level I Adult and Pediatric Trauma Center's pediatric registry over 4 y was performed. BIG was applied to these patients to evaluate the utility of RHCT and need for neurosurgical intervention (NSG-I) in those meeting BIG-1 criteria. Those with minor skull fracture (mSFx) who otherwise met BIG-1 criteria were also included. RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with low-risk T-ICH met criteria for review. RHCT was performed in seven patients, with only two being prompted by clinical neurologic change/deterioration. NSC occurred in 21 of the cases. Ultimately, no patient identified by BIG-1 ± mSFx required NSG-I. CONCLUSIONS: Application of BIG criteria to children with mild T-ICH appears capable of reducing RHCT and NSC safely. Additionally, those with mSFx that otherwise fulfill BIG-1 criteria can be managed similarly by acute care surgeons. Further prospective studies should evaluate the application of BIG-1 in larger patient populations to support the generalizability of these findings.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/normas , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Adolescente , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Provedores de Redes de Segurança/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Front Med ; 14(5): 623-629, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495288

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently under a global pandemic trend. The efficiency of containment measures and epidemic tendency of typical countries should be assessed. In this study, the efficiency of prevention and control measures in China, Italy, Iran, South Korea, and Japan was assessed, and the COVID-19 epidemic tendency among these countries was compared. Results showed that the effective reproduction number(Re) in Wuhan, China increased almost exponentially, reaching a maximum of 3.98 before a lockdown and rapidly decreased to below 1 due to containment and mitigation strategies of the Chinese government. The Re in Italy declined at a slower pace than that in China after the implementation of prevention and control measures. The Re in Iran showed a certain decline after the establishment of a national epidemic control command, and an evident stationary phase occurred because the best window period for the prevention and control of the epidemic was missed. The epidemic in Japan and South Korea reoccurred several times with the Re fluctuating greatly. The epidemic has hardly rebounded in China due to the implementation of prevention and control strategies and the effective enforcement of policies. Other countries suffering from the epidemic could learn from the Chinese experience in containing COVID-19.


Assuntos
Número Básico de Reprodução/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comparação Transcultural , Regulamentação Governamental , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Validade Social em Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 155-159, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196680

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conocer la evolución de los cuidados tras la implantación de la Guía de buenas prácticas «Valoración y cuidado de adultos en riesgo de ideación y comportamiento suicida». MÉTODO: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo longitudinal en la Unidad de Hospitalización de Salud Mental del Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves de Granada. Se incluyeron 1.471 pacientes, todos los ingresados entre 2016 y 2018. Se evaluaron el cumplimiento en indicadores del proceso de cuidados y la situación de riesgo suicida, y se obtuvo la tasa de suicidio por 100.000 habitantes. Se calcularon frecuencias absolutas y relativas de los indicadores y su evolución en el tiempo con el test chi-cuadrado de Pearson para p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Se observó un incremento estadísticamente significativo en todos los procesos. El porcentaje de pacientes con valoración de riesgo suicida aumentó del 16% en 2016 al 45,25% en 2018. La aplicación de medidas de seguridad aumentó hasta el 100% en 2018, y la derivación a otros servicios comunitarios pasó del 70,31% al 90,50%. El porcentaje de pacientes en riesgo de ideación suicida se mantuvo estable. La tasa de suicidios por 100.000 habitantes en la provincia de Granada disminuyó un 24,50%. CONCLUSIONES: La mejora en los procesos de cuidados y la disminución de la tasa de suicidio en Granada desde la implantación son consistentes con los hallazgos de otros estudios y ofrecen una visión esperanzadora. Se deben potenciar las estrategias integrales de prevención y continuar con la evaluación de las iniciativas puestas en marcha


OBJECTIVE: To establish the evolution of the care process after the implementation of the Best Practices Guideline «Assessment and Care of Adults at Risk for Suicidal Ideation and Behaviour». METHOD: A descriptive longitudinal study was carried out at the Mental Health Hospitalization Unit in Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada. All patients admitted to the Unit between 2016 and 2018, 1471 in total, were included. Compliance of care process indicators and suicidal risk were evaluated; in addition, suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants were obtained. Absolute and relative frequencies of the indicators were calculated, as well as the change during the study period by the chi-square Pearson test, for P<.05. RESULTS: We observed a statistically significant increase in the entire care process. The percentage of patients with suicidal risk assessment improved from 16% in 2016 to 45.25% in 2018. The application of safety measures grew reaching 100% in 2018, and community services referral went from 70.31% to 90.50%. The percentage of patients at risk of suicidal ideation remains stable. Suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants in Granada decreased by 24.50%. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in the care process and the decrease in the suicide rate in Granada since the implementation of the guideline are consistent with the results of other research and offer a hopeful vision. Comprehensive strategies for suicide prevention must be promoted, and the evaluation of initiatives undertaken must continue


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação em Enfermagem/métodos , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Currículo/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Ideação Suicida , Estudos Longitudinais , Medição de Risco/normas , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle
13.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 160-167, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196681

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El ictus es causa importante de morbimortalidad en adultos y supone un elevado coste sociosanitario por las secuelas que provoca. Para minimizarlas es importante aplicar guías de buenas prácticas que aseguren cuidados basados en la evidencia y reduzcan la variabilidad clínica. El objetivo del estudio es evaluar los resultados de implantación de una Guía de buenas prácticas para la atención de pacientes con ictus hospitalizados. MÉTODO: Estudio cuasi-experimental pre/post-intervención. Mayores de 18 años ingresados en el Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete (CHUA) y Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN) con diagnóstico de ictus. Variables de proceso: valoración neurológica (Escala canadiense y la National Institute of Health Stroke Scale), valoración de la disfagia (Test del agua y el método de exploración clínica volumen-viscosidad), riesgo de caídas (Escala Downton), detección de dolor (Escala numérica), riesgo de lesiones por presión (Escala Braden) y educación sanitaria. Variables de resultado: neumonía por aspiración, caídas, independencia para las actividades de la vida diaria (índice de Barthel y Rankin modificada), lesiones por presión e intensidad del dolor. RESULTADOS: Se evaluaron 1.270 pacientes en el CHUA y 627 en el CHN, mayoritariamente hombres mayores de 69 años y con alta incidencia de ictus isquémicos. En el CHUA se registraron 16 lesiones por presión, 17 caídas y 20 casos de neumonías por aspiración. En CHN se identificaron 15 casos de lesiones por presión. El aumento de casos podría atribuirse al incremento de pacientes evaluados y a una mayor concienciación para registrar estos eventos. CONCLUSIONES: La aplicación de las recomendaciones de la GBP ha mejorado de manera estadísticamente significativa a lo largo del tiempo, existiendo posibilidades de mejora tanto en la calidad de los cuidados prestados como en los resultados en salud de los pacientes


INTRODUCTION: Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and implies high social and healthcare costs due to the consequences it causes. To minimize these, it is important to apply best practice guidelines that ensure evidence-based care and reduce clinical variability. The objective of the study is to evaluate the results of implantation of the Ictus Best Practice Guideline for attending in-hospital stroke patients. METHOD: Quasi-experimental pre-post intervention study. Over 18 years of age admitted to the University Hospital Complex of Albacete and Hospital Complex of Navarra with a diagnosis of stroke. Process variables: Neurological assessment (Canadian Scale and the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale), dysphagia assessment (Water Test and the Volume-Viscosity Clinical Exploration Method), risk falls (Downton Scale), pain detection (Numerical Scale), pressure injury risk (Braden Scale), health education. Outcome variables: Aspiration pneumonia, falls, independence of daily life activities (modified Barthel and Rankin index), pressure injuries and pain intensity. RESULTS: 1270 patients were evaluated in CHUA and 627 in CHN, most were men and the average age was over 69 years, with a higher incidence of ischaemic strokes. In CHUA 16 pressure sores, 17 falls and 20 cases of aspiration pneumonia were recorded and 15 cases of pressure sores were identified in CHN. An increase of cases could be attributed to the greater number of patients evaluated and the increased nursing awareness about recording adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Application of guideline recommendations improved statistically significantly throughout the implementation time. Some possibilities for improvement are detected, so it is necessary to continue working on both the quality of care provided and the health outcomes of patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Avaliação em Enfermagem , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Hospitalização
14.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 185-197, mayo-jun. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196684

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Describir la progresión del grado de adherencia a las recomendaciones de la Guía «Prevención de caídas» del Programa Best Practice Spotlight Organization (BPSO®) y resultados en caídas en los Centros Comprometidos con la Excelencia en Cuidados (CCEC®). MÉTODO: Estudio cuasiexperimental pretest-postest con carácter multicéntrico desarrollado entre 2012 y 2018. Se incluye a los pacientes ≥65 años, dados de alta en las unidades de implantación de la Guía, analizando variables sociodemográficas (sexo, edad); estancia hospitalaria; valoración del riesgo de caídas al ingreso y pacientes con riesgo; plan de cuidados para la prevención de caídas e incidencia de caídas. Se han comparado los indicadores del programa CCEC® medidos en los periodos: basal (T1), de candidatura en los 3 primeros años (T2) y de sostenibilidad (T3). Se ha realizado un análisis estadístico descriptivo e inferencial. RESULTADOS: Se ha evaluado a 31.486 pacientes de 7 centros hospitalarios (T1=465; T2=14.255; T3=16.766). El 51,87% fueron hombres, con una edad media de 79,06 años. La estancia hospitalaria fue 8,15 días. La valoración del riesgo al ingreso se realizó en el 81,96% (T1=44,30%; T2=81,11%; T3=83,73%), estando en riesgo un 52,31%. Tenían planificados cuidados para prevenir caídas un 47,75% (T1=24,73%; T2=42,43%; T3=52,90%). De las 423 caídas registradas, el 62,17% no tuvieron lesiones. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de las diferencias entre hospitales, como las características estructurales, las estrategias, los instrumentos de valoración y el ritmo en la progresión de datos, el grado de adherencia a las recomendaciones está siendo exitoso mejorando de forma generalizada. La implantación de la Guía ha permitido abordar la problemática de las caídas, produciendo cambios positivos en el proceso y favoreciendo la implantación y sostenibilidad de prácticas basadas en la evidencia


AIM: To describe the progress of implementing the «Preventing falls» Guideline of the Best Practice Spotlight Organization (BPSO®) Programme and fall outcomes in Centres Committed to Excellence in Care (CCEC®). METHOD: A Quasi-experimental study pre-post test from a multicentric approach carried out between 2012-2018. The study is focused on patients aged 65 or older, discharged from guideline implementation units, analysing sociodemographic variables (sex, age, hospitalization days; fall risk assessment on admission and patient in risk; fall prevention plan; incidence of falls. Data was compared from CCEC® programme indicators measured over the periods: baseline (T1), candidate during the first three years (T2), and sustainability (T3). Descriptive and inferential analysis was performed. RESULTS: 31,486 patients were evaluated in 7 centres (T1=465; T2=14,255; T3=16,766). Of the patients, 51.87% were men and average age was 79.06 years. Hospitalization was 8.15 days. Fall risk assessment on admission was performed in 81.96% of patients (T1=44.30%, T2=81.11%, T3=83.73%) and 52.31% patients had high risk. A prevention falls plan was registered in 47.75% of patients (T1=24.73%, T2=42.43%, T3=52.90%). Four hundred and twenty-three falls were recorded, 62.17% without injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the differences between hospitals, such as structural characteristics, strategies, assessment tools and data progression pace; adherence to recommendations is proving successful, improving widely. Guideline implementation has allowed fall problems to be addressed, producing positive changes in the process and encouraging the implementation and sustainability of evidence-based nursing practice


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Instituições para Cuidados Intermediários/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Cuidados de Enfermagem/normas , Enfermagem Baseada em Evidências
15.
J Med Vasc ; 45(3): 125-129, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The clinical relevance of hereditary thrombophilia (HT) testing in venous thromboembolic disease (VTE) is limited to specific guidelines. The present study aimed to evaluate the consistency of HT prescriptions in clinical practice according to the current French guidelines. METHODS: This study was conducted from April 2017 to February 2018 in a specialized haemostasis centre and included 58 consecutive patients referred by their clinicians for thrombophilia screening (56 patients following a personal VTE event and 2 asymptomatic relatives of a first-degree patient who had had VTE). One experienced clinician met every patient and assessed a pre-test prediction for the presence or absence of HT based on the clinical characteristics of VTE which was compared to the HT biological results. RESULTS: Among the 58 patients referred to our specialized haemostasis centre, 60% were outside the scope of recommendations for thrombophilia screening. Eight patients were diagnosed with HT. Six out of 8 (75%) patients with diagnosed HT had a history of unprovoked VTE event. Familial history with VTE was a poor predictor for positive HT testing among relatives. The positive and negative predictive values of the clinical prediction were respectively of 19% and 89%. CONCLUSION: The present results underline that screening for HT remains too largely prescribed. Pre-test physician's feeling for the presence of HT was neither sensitive nor specific. Increasing physicians' awareness on this issue and current recommendations should limit prescriptions of HT tests while providing the best possible care for patients with VTE.


Assuntos
Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/normas , Coagulação Sanguínea , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Encaminhamento e Consulta/normas , Trombofilia/diagnóstico , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/genética , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 237, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current analysis was performed to estimate the percentage and number of Chinese adults with hypertension and the percentage and number of Chinese adults recommended to receive pharmacological antihypertensive treatment according to the 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline compared with the same parameters according to the 2010 Chinese guideline. METHODS: We used 2011 data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). A total of 12,499 Chinese adults aged ≥18 years with complete blood pressure (BP) values were selected for the present analysis. RESULTS: The crude prevalence rates (95% CI) of hypertension according to the definitions from the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline and the 2010 Chinese guideline were 58.0% (57.2 to 58.9%) and 25.4% (24.7 to 26.2%), respectively. Moreover, the percentage of the participants recommended to take antihypertensive medications were 31.5 and 28.8%, respectively. Among adults who took antihypertensive medications, 88.8% had above-goal BP levels compared to 53.3%. Overall, 613.3 million Chinese adults (aged ≥18 years) met the criteria for hypertension according to the 2017 ACC/AHA guideline, and 267.7 million met the criteria according to 2010 Chinese guideline. An additional 28.4 million (2.7%) Chinese adults were recommended to take antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis revealed that the 2017 ACC/AHA hypertension guideline will result in a substantial increase in the percentage and number of Chinese adults defined as having hypertension and a small increase in the percentage of adults who are recommended to take antihypertensive medications compared to the same parameters based on the 2010 Chinese guideline. More intensive management and antihypertensive medications use are suggested to improve the control rate of hypertension among Chinese adults.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Padrões de Prática Médica/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , China/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Endovasc Ther ; 27(4): 608-613, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine in a chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) population who underwent endovascular therapy (EVT) how many patients would have been categorized as preferred for bypass surgery according to the Global Vascular Guidelines (GVG) and ascertain their surgical risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study analyzed 1043 CLTI patients who presented WIfI (wound, ischemia, and foot infection) stage ≥2 and underwent EVT between April 2010 and December 2017. Of these, 176 were excluded for lack of angiographic or other data, leaving 867 CLTI patients (mean age 74±10 years; 523 men) for stratification according to the GVG into bypass-preferred, indeterminate, or EVT-preferred groups. The GVG recommend bypass as the first-line treatment when the wound is severe (WIfI stage ≥3) and lesions are complex (GLASS stage III). Surgical risk was estimated using the modified PREVENT III risk score. To further stratify the bypass-preferred population according to mortality risk, a survival decision tree was constructed using recursive partitioning. RESULTS: The bypass-preferred group accounted for 55% [95% confidence interval (CI) 51% to 58%] of the overall population. The decision tree analysis extracted a low-mortality risk subgroup with a survival rate of 99% (95% CI 98% to 100%) at 1 month and 80% (95% CI 73% to 87%) at 2 years. According to the PREVENT III score, 34% (95% CI 27% to 42%) of the low mortality risk subgroup were classified as high surgical risk. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of patients undergoing EVT were considered bypass preferred based on the GVG, and the survival of these patients was not significantly different whether they were high or low surgical risk.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/normas , Isquemia/terapia , Seleção de Pacientes , Doença Arterial Periférica/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Enxerto Vascular/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amputação/normas , Doença Crônica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Humanos , Isquemia/diagnóstico , Isquemia/mortalidade , Salvamento de Membro/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Doença Arterial Periférica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Enxerto Vascular/efeitos adversos , Enxerto Vascular/mortalidade
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 397, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The increasing complexity and variability in radiology have significantly fueled the need for guidelines. There are many methods for disseminating and implementing guidelines however; and obtaining lasting changes has been difficult. Implementation outcome is usually measured in a decrease in unwarranted examinations, and qualitative data are rarely used. This study's aim was to evaluate a guideline implementation process and identify factors influencing implementation outcome using qualitative data. METHODS: Seven general practitioners and five radiological personnel from a Norwegian county participated in four focus group interviews in 2019. The data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, where some categories were predetermined, while most were drawn from the data. RESULTS: Four main categories were developed from the data material. 1) Successful/unsuccessful parts of the implementation, 2) perceived changes/lack of changes after the implementation, 3) environment-related factors that affected guideline use, and 4) User related factors that affect guideline use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that clinical guideline implementation is difficult, despite the implementation strategy being tailored to the target groups. Several environment- and user-related factors contributed to the lack of changes experienced in practice for both general practitioners and radiological personnel.


Assuntos
Diagnóstico por Imagem/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Sistema Musculoesquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Avaliação de Processos em Cuidados de Saúde , Grupos Focais , Clínicos Gerais , Humanos , Noruega , Radiologistas
20.
Phys Ther ; 100(7): 1084-1093, 2020 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors aimed to understand how physical therapists used practice guidelines to manage patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in Australia. METHODS: This study used a concurrent triangulation mixed-method approach to explore how physical therapists applied clinical guidelines when managing patients with knee OA in an outpatient setting via completion of a semi-structured interview. Interviews were thematically analyzed by 2 investigators using an inductive approach. Themes were then triangulated to the results of an audit that evaluated the level of adherence to respective areas in the clinical guidelines among physical therapists at the participating site. RESULTS: One main theme and 3 subthemes were identified from 18 participants: (1) physical therapists were most confident in applying guidelines to improving range of movement and strength; (2) lack of knowledge in prescription of aerobic exercise, weight, and pain management; (3) pain is a bigger barrier in areas where knowledge is lacking; and (4) lack of clarity around the scope of practice. Themes converged with the reported level of adherence to guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Physical therapists commonly include range of movement and muscle strength exercises when managing people with knee OA. However, they were less confident in prescribing aerobic exercise and recommending weight and pain management strategies. IMPACT: Apart from the need to upskill physical therapists in the aforementioned areas of clinical practice, the role of a physical therapist in the management of people with knee OA requires further clarification.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Osteoartrite do Joelho/reabilitação , Fisioterapeutas , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Austrália , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Manejo da Dor , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Âmbito da Prática
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