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1.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 185, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pacific Island countries are vulnerable to disasters, including cyclones and earthquakes. Disaster preparedness is key to a well-coordinated response to preventing sexual violence and assisting survivors, reducing the transmission of HIV and other STIs, and preventing excess maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to identify the capacity development activities undertaken as part of the SPRINT program in Fiji and Tonga and how these enabled the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) response to Tropical Cyclones Winston and Gita. METHODS: This descriptive qualitative study was informed by a framework designed to assess public health emergency response capacity across various levels (systems, organisational, and individual) and two phases of the disaster management cycle (preparedness and response). Eight key informants were recruited purposively to include diverse individuals from relevant organisations and interviewed by telephone, Zoom, Skype and email. Template analysis was used to examine the data. FINDINGS: Differences in the country contexts were highlighted. The existing program of training in Tonga, investment from the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) Humanitarian Hub, the status of the Tonga Family Health Association as the key player in the delivery of SRH, together with its long experience of delivering contract work in short time-frames and strong relationship with the Ministry of Health (MoH) facilitated a relatively smooth and rapid response. In contrast, there had been limited capacity development work in Fiji prior to Winston, requiring training to be rapidly delivered during the immediate response to the cyclone with the support of surge staff from IPPF. In Fiji, the response was initially hampered by a lack of clarity concerning stakeholder roles and coordination, but linkages were quickly built to enable a response. Participants highlighted the importance of personal relationships, individuals' and organisations' motivation to respond, and strong rapport with the community to deliver SRH. DISCUSSION: This study highlights the need for comprehensive activities at multiple levels within a country and across the Pacific region to build capacity for a SRH response. While the SPRINT initiative has been implemented across several regions to improve organisational and national capacity preparedness, training for communities can be strengthened. This research outlines the importance of formalising partnerships and regular meetings and training to ensure the currency of coordination efforts in readiness for activation. However, work is needed to further institutionalise SRH in emergencies in national policy and accountability mechanisms.


Assuntos
Desastres , Saúde Sexual , Fiji , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Reprodutiva , Tonga
2.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 205, 2021 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women are disadvantaged by ageing: older women are more likely than older men to suffer from ill-health, have less access to health care and suffer discrimination within the health care system. Globally, there is a dearth of health research on gender and ageing with substantial knowledge gaps in low and middle-income country contexts. Part of a wider investigation on health and ageing in Fiji, our objective was to identify and describe gendered differences in healthy ageing in this Pacific Island context. We believe this to be the first such study in the Pacific region. METHODS: Applying a health systems lens, we used a mixed-methods approach, encompassing analysis of cause of death data; focus group discussion to gather community and family attitudes to health services; and policy analysis, and then used data triangulation techniques to draw out key themes and insights. RESULTS: We found that gender affects health outcomes among older persons, attitudes towards and experience of healthy ageing, and an older person's access to and use of health services. We also found that while Fiji's policy response to ageing has recognised the importance of gender, to-date there has been limited action to address gender differences. Gender (as oppose to sex differences) has direct and indirect implications for the health of older Fijians, while gendered inequalities and patriarchal norms appear to affect both men and women's experience of ageing and the health system response. Further, gender and age discrimination may be intersecting, intensifying their separate effects. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the feasibility and importance of applying a gender lens to the study of healthy ageing. Our findings from Fiji may be relevant to other island nations in the south Pacific which share similar challenges of population ageing, a constrained health budget and geographically-dispersed populations. The data triangulation methodology may be considered an efficient and insightful way to examine gendered responses to healthy ageing elsewhere.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Envelhecimento Saudável , Idoso , Feminino , Fiji , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
3.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113455, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365185

RESUMO

Improper waste disposal and low rates of household waste diversion through material and organic waste recycling are a global concern. Understanding community perspectives on solid waste management services, outreach activities, and regulatory measures, and the barriers to sustainable practices, is crucial for designing effective waste management programmes. Longitudinal content analysis of archival data, such as newspapers, is a cost-effective, yet underutilised, research method to identify the viewpoints of diverse civic groups and examine the developments and challenges associated with the waste management sector. This paper investigates divergent stakeholders' perspectives and priorities using the Socio-Ecological Model (SEM) to examine the micro-system (intrapersonal and interpersonal), meso- and exo-system (community and institutional), and macro-system (policy level) factors that influence sustainable SWM practices. Using specific keywords, the authors searched online archives of a national newspaper in Fiji with a weekday circulation of over 20,000. Data from 482 newspaper articles, dated 2009-2020, were reviewed and dual-coded by two researchers using QDA Miner Lite. Findings indicate that poor waste management behaviour is linked to all factors within the Socio-Ecological system. While micro-level factors such as negligence, personal responsibility, lack of civic pride, and lack of awareness are causes of anti-environmental behaviour, structural factors such as inadequate waste collection services and recycling infrastructure contribute to low recycling rates. Civic education has been highlighted as a solution to encouraging pro-environmental behaviour (PEB), but there is a need to identify the type of educational tools and the frequency and impact of education workshops. This paper further discusses about the implications of community-based strategies and regulatory measures.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fiji , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise
4.
J Environ Manage ; 298: 113517, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388550

RESUMO

River water and sediment embody environmental characteristics that give valuable environmental management information. However, indexical and chemometric appraisal of heavy metals (HMs) in river water and sediment is very scarce in Island countries including Fiji. In this research, forty-five sediment and fifteen water samples from the Nakuvadra-Rakiraki River, Fiji were analyzed for appraising spatial distribution, pollution, and source identification of selected heavy metals (HMs) using the coupling tools of self-organizing map (SOM), compositional data analysis (CDA), and sediment and water quality indices. The mean concentration of HMs increased in the order of Cd < Co < Pb < Cu < Zn < Ni < Cr < Mn < Fe for sediment and Cd < Pb < Cu < Ni < Zn < Co < Cr < Fe < Mn for water, respectively. The outcomes of the enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index and contamination factor index varied spatially and most of the sediment samples were polluted by Pb, Mn, and Cu. The potential ecological risk recognized Cd, and Pb as ecological and public health risks to the surrounding communities. Based on SOM and CDA, three potential sources (e.g., point, nonpoint and lithological sources) of HMs for sediment and two sources (e.g., geogenic and human-induced sources) of HMs for water were identified. The spatial patterns of EWQI values revealed that the northern and northeast zones of the studied area possess a high degree of water pollution. The entropy weight indicated Ni and Cd as the main pollutants degrading the water quality. This study gives a baseline dataset for combined eco-environmental measures for the river's water and sediment pollution as well as contributes to an inclusive appraisal of HMs contamination in global rivers.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fiji , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
5.
Int J Surg ; 92: 106052, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375769

RESUMO

Fiji is facing the second wave of COVID-19 and has been recording increased number of COVID-19 cases. The response of Fijian Government is mainly directed towards obtaining international assistance in terms of expertise and vaccinations. While international support is necessary for the country, the Fijian Government also needs to consider the basic needs of the affected Fijians. In response, this article will provide an overview of the current COVID-19 crisis in Fiji to justify the need for reshaping the current approach of the Fijian Government.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Governo Federal , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos
6.
Int J Surg ; 92: 106012, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229095

RESUMO

The spread of misinformation, facilitated by social media and other digital platforms, has proven to be as destructive to global public health as the SARS-CoV-2 virus itself. Fake news adds challenges to human communication efforts, producing tension, misunderstanding, and disbelief. While social platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Viber, etc. have provided a huge relief during the lockdown helping reduce mental stress and depression as well as facilitating online education, and work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic, it has also raised concerns over the spread of fake news. In such a situation, online fake news poses a new threat to public health communication as more people now depend on the internet to get health-related information. In response, this study seeks to understand how manipulation of news on social media has posed a threat to Fijian public health. Eventually, some of these have resulted in police investigations.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Decepção , Pandemias , Mídias Sociais , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comunicação , Fiji , Humanos
7.
Int J Surg ; 92: 106019, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252594

RESUMO

Fiji is a small Pacific Island Country with a population of around 902,536 people. The current pandemic of COVID-19 is impacting the well-being, social life, and economic status of the country. Besides, the well-known health difficulties caused by this virus, education is another crucial sector that has been crippled. To prevent the local transmission of such deadly virus the common exercises used globally are lockdowns (stay-in), social distancing, and use of PPEs (facemask, hand glove, and face shield). As a result, students, and teachers at all levels of school have been obliged to quickly adapt to online learning. Therefore, in this paper, an outlook of COVID-19 and its impact on the educational system is discussed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação à Distância , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Fiji , Humanos , Pandemias
8.
Int J Surg ; 92: 106023, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252596

RESUMO

Globally, digital contact tracing initiatives has been used as a tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The Fijian Government and Ministry of Health are promoting the use of the "careFiji" app to help in contact tracing. This paper will discuss the rollout of the careFiji app which helps in combating COVID-19 in Fiji, and the challenges caused by the digital gap that has surfaced during the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Aplicativos Móveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300006

RESUMO

From a clinical perspective, effective and efficient communication is part of a strategy to ensure doctors are providing high-quality care to their patients. Despite the positive impact of effective doctor-patient communication on health outcomes, limited information is available on this in Fiji. This study was carried out to determine the current patients' perception of doctors' communication behaviour and identify factors affecting the doctor-patient communication in Fiji. This mixed-method study was conducted in the outpatient setting of three randomly selected health centres in the Suva Subdivision, Fiji. For the quantitative phase, systematic random sampling was used to select the 375 participants who completed the structured questionnaire; of those, 20 participants were selected for the qualitative interview. From the patients' perception, 45.6% of them perceived doctors' communication behaviour as good, 53.6% as fair, and 0.8% as poor communication behaviour. Qualitative findings highlight factors such as the attitude of the doctors, their approach, their interaction with the patients, and them providing an explanation as important factors during doctor-patient communication. In Fiji, the majority of patients perceived doctors' communication behaviour as fair to good and the doctors' skills were important for effective doctor-patient communication. This study highlighted the importance of doctor-patient communication and suggested that doctors might not be practicing patient-centred care and communication; thus, they need to upgrade their patient-centred communication skills.


Assuntos
Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos , Comunicação , Fiji , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 636, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oxygen is vital in the treatment of illnesses in children and adults, yet is lacking in many low and middle-income countries health care settings. Oxygen concentrators (OCs) can increase access to oxygen, compared to conventional oxygen cylinders. We investigated the costs and critical success factors of OCs in three hospitals in Fiji, and extrapolated these to estimate the oxygen delivery cost to all Sub-Divisional hospitals (SDH) nationwide. METHODS: Data sources included key personnel interviews, and data from SDH records, Ministry of Health and Medical Services, and a non-governmental organisation. We used Investment Logic Mapping (ILM) to define key issues. An economic case was developed to identify the investment option that optimised value while incorporating critical success factors identified through ILM. A fit-for-purpose analysis was conducted using cost analysis of four short-listed options. Sensitivity analyses were performed by altering variables to show the best or worst case scenario. All costs are presented in Fijian dollars. RESULTS: Critical success factors identifed included oxygen availability, safety, ease of use, feasibility, and affordability. Compared to the status quo of having only oxygen cylinders, an option of having a minimum number of concentrators with cylinder backup would cost $434,032 (range: $327,940 to $506,920) over 5 years which would be 55% (range: 41 to 64%) of the status quo cost. CONCLUSION: Introducing OCs into all SDHs in Fiji would reduce overall costs, while ensuring identified critical success factors are maintained. This study provides evidence for the benefits of OCs in this and similar settings.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde , Oxigênio , Criança , Custos e Análise de Custo , Fiji , Hospitais , Humanos
11.
Curr Protoc ; 1(7): e157, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260822

RESUMO

NeutrophilExtracellular Trap (NET) formation (NETosis) is a unique process that occurs in response to numerous stimuli. To investigate NETosis, we created a method that can be used easily without the need for complex programming abilities and commercial software packages. This article describes a fully automated assay to quantify NETosis using fluorescence live imaging on an automated widefield inverted microscope. Herein, we describe (1) sample preparation, (2) required equipment for automated acquisition, and finally (3) analysis of NETosis using the readily available image analysis software Fiji (ImageJ2). This protocol can be adapted to evaluate NETosis after different stimuli, and can be easily modified to allow high-throughput acquisition and analysis using a multi-well plate format. Published 2021. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Current Protocols published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Neutrophil isolation and plate setup Basic Protocol 2: Microscope and acquisition setup for automated high throughput imaging Basic Protocol 3: Analysis of NETosis and apoptosis data.


Assuntos
Armadilhas Extracelulares , Fiji , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia , Neutrófilos
12.
Chemosphere ; 276: 130161, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088082

RESUMO

The global reliance on pharmaceuticals coupled with the lack of effective treatment methods has resulted in pseudo-persistence of pharmaceuticals within the environment. Globally, efforts to quantify and monitor pharmaceuticals within the environment have been well underway, however few studies have been made within small Pacific Islands. This study aims at screening for the occurrence and concentration of pharmaceutical residues within the southern coastal waters of Fiji's main island, Viti Levu. Water samples were collected from a depth of ca. 0.6 m from seven sites and were analyzed for 80 pharmaceuticals via a combination of chromatography and heated electrospray ionization. Seventy-two pharmaceuticals were quantified at least once with average concentrations ranging between 0.04 ng/L (diltiazem) and 19 ng/L (ketoconazole), and with all but two pharmaceuticals (trimethoprim and biperiden) being present in less than 50% of the samples. Findings suggest that even though the release of pharmaceuticals into the marine environment is sporadic and pharmaceuticals are diluted via turbulent mixing, there are measurable concentrations of pharmaceuticals in Fiji and these pollutants are not necessarily restricted to highly populated areas.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fiji , Pesquisa , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063626

RESUMO

The 10/66 dementia protocol was developed as a language and culture-fair instrument to estimate the prevalence of dementia in non-English speaking communities. The aim of this study was to validate the 10/66 dementia protocol in elders of Indian ethnicity born in the Fiji Islands (Fijian-Indian) living in New Zealand. To our knowledge, this is the first time a dementia diagnostic tool has been evaluated in the Fijian-Indian population in New Zealand. We translated and adapted the 10/66 dementia protocol for use in in Fijian-Indian people. Individuals (age ≥ 65) who self-identified as Fijian-Indian and had either been assessed for dementia at a local memory service (13 cases, eight controls) or had participated in a concurrent dementia prevalence feasibility study (eight controls) participated. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and Youden's index were obtained by comparing the 10/66 diagnosis and its sub-components against the clinical diagnosis (reference standard). The 10/66 diagnosis had a sensitivity of 92.3% (95% CI 70.3-99.5), specificity of 93.8% (95% CI 75.3-99.6), positive predictive value of 92.3% (95% CI 70.3-99.5), and negative predictive value of 93.8% (95% CI 75.3-99.6). The study results show that the Fijian-Indian 10/66 dementia protocol has adequate discriminatory abilities to diagnose dementia in our sample. This instrument would be suitable for future dementia population-based studies in the Fijian-Indian population living in Aotearoa/New Zealand or the Fiji-Islands.


Assuntos
Demência , Idioma , Idoso , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia
14.
Int J Surg ; 91: 106001, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34153530

RESUMO

Since the beginning of the pandemic, a variety of interventions have reduced SARS-CoV-2 virus infection and mortality, including individual precautions such as wearing proper personal protective equipment (i.e., hand gloves, facemasks, and face shields), social distancing, handwashing, and limiting interpersonal interaction to outside situations. The most promising hope for ending the COVID-19 pandemic is the successful launch of COVID-19 vaccines. In response, this letter to editor will disclose the rollout of COVID-19 vaccination and challenges caused by digital platforms in Fiji.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/provisão & distribuição , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Tecnologia Digital , Vacinação em Massa , Fiji , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
15.
N Z Med J ; 134(1536): 100-104, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34140716

RESUMO

Ciguatera poisoning has caused illnesses in New Zealand through the consumption of contaminated reef fish imported from Pacific Islands. In May 2020 five people became ill and one was hospitalised following the consumption of Fiji Kawakawa (camouflage grouper; Epinephelus polyphekadion). The fish was purchased in New Zealand but imported from Fiji. The meal remnants were analysed for ciguatoxins, the causative compounds of ciguatera poisoning, and showed the presence of the three main toxic fish metabolites. Other fish tested from the same shipment did not contain detectable levels of ciguatoxins, indicating they were likely not toxic.


Assuntos
Bass , Intoxicação por Ciguatera , Ciguatoxinas/análise , Alimentos Marinhos , Adulto , Animais , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/diagnóstico , Intoxicação por Ciguatera/terapia , Fiji , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto Jovem
16.
Int J Surg ; 91: 105995, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118439

RESUMO

COVID-19 pandemic is a designated worldwide public health emergency, the use of a variety of plastic-based personal protective equipment (PPE) has escalated as a means of reducing infection. Emerging reports imply that the rapid expansion of PPE during the COVID-19 outbreak has exacerbated microplastics contamination in the ocean. In response, this letter to the editor will disclose the impact of PPEs on clean water sanitation, life below water, and life on land in regards to SDGs 6, 14, and 15, respectively.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Fiji , Objetivos , Humanos , Pandemias , Plásticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamento , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas , Água
17.
J Environ Manage ; 293: 112868, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089960

RESUMO

Although mining is essential for human economic development, is amongst the most polluting anthropogenic sources that influence seriously in water resources. Thus, understanding the presence and concentration of heavy metals in water and sediment in the vicinity of mines is important for the sustainability of the ecosystem. In this work, a multidisciplinary approach was developed to characterize the contamination level, source apportionment, co-existence, and degree of ecological and human health risks of HMs on water resources in the Vatukoula Goldmine region (VGR), Fiji. The outcomes suggested significant contamination by Cd (range: 0.01-0.95 g/L), Pb (range: 0.03-0.53 g/L), and Mn (range: 0.01-3.66 g/L) in water samples surpassed the level set by Fiji and international laws, whereas higher concentration of Cd (range: 2.60-23.16 mg/kg), Pb (range: 28.50-200.90 mg/kg) and Zn (range: 36.50-196.66 mg/kg) were detected in sediment samples. Lead demonstrated a strong significant co-existence network with other metals (e.g., Mn, Ni). Source apportionment recognized four source patterns (Cd, Pb, Ni, and Mn) for water and (Cr, Cd-Pb, Mn, and Zn) for sediment which was further confirmed by principal component analysis. The mine inputs source mainly contributed to Cd (66.07%) for water, while mineral processing mostly contributed to Zn (76.10%) for sediment. High non-carcinogenic (>1) and carcinogenic (>10-4) health risks, particularly in children, are related to the elevated Cd, Pb and Cr contents from the VGR. Uncertainty analysis demonstrates that the 90th quantile of Cd led to higher carcinogenic risk. Pollution indices disclosed a moderate to extremely contamination status mainly along the Toko dam which poses high ecological risks identified by index calculation. However, sediment quality indicators based on probable effect levels showed that there was a 75% of likelihood that the concentrations of Cd and Pb adjacent to the VGR have a severe toxic impact on aquatic lives.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Criança , China , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fiji , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Recursos Hídricos
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1185, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158012

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fiji, a Pacific Island nation of 884,887 (2017 census), has experienced a prolonged epidemiological transition. This study examines trends in mortality and life expectancy (LE) in Fiji by sex and ethnicity over 1996-2017, with comparisons to published estimates. METHODS: Trends in infant mortality rates (IMR), under-5 mortality (U5M), adult mortality (probability of dying), LE (at birth) and directly age-standardised death rates (DASRs) by sex and ethnicity, are calculated (with 95% confidence limits) using unit death records from the Fiji Ministry of Health and Medical Services. The LE gap between populations, or within populations over time, is examined using decomposition by age. Period trends are assessed for statistical significance using linear regression. RESULTS: Over 1996-98 to 2014-17: IMR and U5M for i-Taukei and Fijians of Indian descent declined; U5M decline for i-Taukei (24.6 to 20.1/1000 live births) was significant (p = 0.016). Mortality (15-59 years) for i-Taukei males was unchanged at 27% but declined for Indians 33 to 30% (p = 0.101). Mortality for i-Taukei females increased 22 to 24% (p = 0.011) but declined for Indians 20 to 18% (p = 0.240). DASRs 1996-2017 were lower for i-Taukei (9.3 to 8.2/1000 population) than Indian males (10.6 to 9.8/1000). DASRs declined for i-Taukei (both sexes, p < 0.05), and for Indians (both sexes, p > 0.05). Over 22 years, LE at birth increased by 1 year or less (p = 0.030 in male i-Taukei). In 2014-17, LE (years) for males was: i-Taukei 64.9, Indians 63.5; and females: i-Taukei 67.0 and Indians 68.2. Mortality changes in most 5-year age groups increased or decreased the LE gap less than 10 weeks over 22 years. Compared to international agency reports, 2014-17 empirical LE estimates (males 64.7, females 67.8) were lower, as was IMR. CONCLUSIONS: Based on empirical data, LE in Fiji has minimally improved over 1996-2017, and is lower than some international agencies report. Adult mortality was higher in Indian than i-Taukei men, and higher in i-Taukei than Indian women. Exclusion of stillbirths resulted in IMRs lower than previously reported. Differing mortality trends in subgroups highlight the need to collect census and health data by ethnicity and sex, to monitor health outcomes and inform resource allocation.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Infantil , Expectativa de Vida , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mortalidade , Ilhas do Pacífico , Gravidez
19.
Mol Ecol ; 30(16): 4005-4022, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184342

RESUMO

There is substantial debate about the relative roles of climate change and human activities on biodiversity and species demographies over the Holocene. In some cases, these two factors can be resolved using fossil data, but for many taxa such data are not available. Inferring historical demographies of taxa has become common, but the methodologies are mostly recent and their shortcomings often unexplored. The bee genus Homalictus is developing into a tractable model system for understanding how native bee populations in tropical islands have responded to past climate change. We greatly expand on previous studies using sequences of the mitochondrial gene COI from 474 specimens and between 171 and 3928 autosomal (DArTSeq) single nucleotide polymorphism loci from 19 specimens of the native Fijian bee, Homalictus fijiensis, to explore its historical demography using coalescent and mismatch analyses. We ask whether past changes in demography were human- or climate-driven, while considering analytical assumptions. We show that inferred changes in population sizes are too recent to be explained by past climate change. Instead we find that a dramatic increase in population size for the main island of Viti Levu coincides with increasing occupation by humans and their modification of the environment. We found no corresponding change in bee population size for another major island, Kadavu, where human populations and agricultural activities have been historically very low. Our analyses indicate that molecular approaches can be used to disentangle the impacts of humans and climate change on a major tropical pollinator and that stringent analytical approaches are required for reliable interpretation of results.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Atividades Humanas , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Fiji , Humanos , Filogenia , Densidade Demográfica
20.
Front Public Health ; 9: 671197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041220

RESUMO

Background: Adolescent population face a number of health concerns which calls for objective and comprehensive assessment of their wellness during their critical development phase. This study aimed to determine adolescent wellness and its predictors amongst adolescents in secondary schools in Fiji. Methods: This quantitative cross sectional study was conducted in four purposively selected schools in Suva and the greater Suva area, Fiji, between August and September, 2019. Students of Fijian nationality, enrolled into years 11-13 in the selected schools were purposively selected. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on four dimensions of wellness including physical, emotional, social, and spiritual. Spearman's Rho correlation was conducted to test for associations. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were applied to analyze the data by the SPSS software version 25. A p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 350 students participated in the study. Mean raw scores for wellness dimensions were as follows: physical = 51 (out of 60), psychological = 63 (out of 80), social = 42 (out of 50), and spiritual = 34 (out of 40). For overall wellness, two significant differences were observed: students of Fijian Itaukei descent (193.68 ± 14.2) and participants with a family income of $40,000-50,000 (199.08 ± 12.60) (p = 0.04) had a higher overall wellness score. There were three significant differences observed for psychological wellness dimension; Fijians of Indian descent (64.68 ± 9.30), participants enrolled into year 13 (64.68 ± 9.30) and those with a family income of $40,000-50,000 had higher psychological score. For social wellness, a significant difference was observed: Itaukei participants had higher scores (43.34 ± 4.42) when compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.05). In terms of spiritual wellness, a significant difference was observed for ethnicity: Itaukei participants had a higher mean score (35.59 ± 4.26) when compared to other ethnic groups (p < 0.05). Strong correlations were observed for all dimensions of wellness. Conclusions: Findings of this study highlighted different factors affecting adolescents' wellness in Fiji. It is recommended that health education and awareness program be carried out for developing adolescent wellness by considering these factors. It is also recommended that parental and family support are provided to adolescents.


Assuntos
Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Fiji/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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