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1.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 22, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) and leading cause of global disability, is endemic in 32 countries in Africa with almost 350 million people requiring regular drug administration, and only 16 countries achieving target coverage. Community Drug Distributors (CDDs) are critical for the success of NTD programs, and the distribution of medicines during mass drug administration (MDA) in Africa; however they could also be a weak link. The primary aim of this study is to explore and describe perceptions of CDDs during MDA for LF in Mvita sub-county in Mombasa county and Kaloleni sub-county in Kilifi county, Kenya; and provide recommendations for the effective engagement of communities and CDDs in low-resource settings. METHODS: In September 2018, we conducted six focus group discussions with community members in each sub-county, three with men aged 18-30, 31-50, and 51 years and above and three with women stratified into the same age groups. In each sub-county, we also conducted semi-structured interviews with nine community health extension workers (CHEWs), the national LF focal point, the county NTD focal points, and seven community leaders. Content analysis of the data was conducted, involving a process of reading, coding, and displaying data in order to develop a codebook. RESULTS: We found that several barriers and facilitators impact the engagement between CDDs and community members during MDA. These barriers include poor communication and trust between CDDs and communities; community distrust of the federal government; low community knowledge and perceived risk of LF, poor timing of MDA, fragmented supervision of CDDs during MDA; and CDD bias when distributing medicines. We also found that CDD motivation was a critical factor in their ability to successfully meet MDA targets. It was acknowledged that directly observed treatment and adequate health education were often not executed by CDDs. The involvement of community leaders as informal supervisors of CDDs and community members improves MDA. CONCLUSIONS: In order to achieve global targets around the elimination of LF, CDDs and communities must be effectively engaged by improving planning and implementation of MDA.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(1): e0007862, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is targeted for elimination by the year 2020. As of 2017, 67 of the 72 endemic countries have implemented annual Mass Drug Administration (MDA) for interrupting LF transmission. Transmission Assessment Survey (TAS) is the recommended protocol to evaluate the impact of MDA and to decide when to stop MDA in an Evaluation Unit (EU, population ≤2 million). As the human infection levels go down with repeated MDA rounds, it becomes a challenge to select the appropriate survey methods to assess transmission interruption. This study validates a standard protocol for molecular xenomonitoring of infection in vectors (MX) at an EU as a complementary tool for TAS to stop MDA and its utility for post-MDA or post-validation surveillance. METHODOLOGY: The study was conducted in Cuddalore district, Tamil Nadu, India, which was found eligible for TAS after 15 annual rounds of MDA (4 with DEC alone and 11 with DEC plus albendazole). The district was divided into two EUs as per the TAS protocol and one EU was randomly selected for the study. A two-stage cluster design vector sampling, developed and validated at a sub-district level, was implemented in 30 randomly selected clusters in the EU. Female Culex quinquefasciatus were collected placing gravid traps overnight (1800-0600 hrs) inside the premises of systematically selected households. Pools of 20-25 blood-fed, semi-gravid and gravid Cx. quinquefasciatus were subjected to real-time quantitative PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA. Pool infection rate (% of pools positive for W. bancrofti DNA), and the estimated prevalence of W. bancrofti DNA in mosquitoes and its 95% confidence interval were calculated. Additionally, in these 30 clusters, microfilaria (Mf) survey among individuals >5 years old was carried out. School-based TAS was conducted using Immunochromatographic Card Test (ICT) in the EU. Prepared itemized cost-menu for different cost components of MX survey and TAS were estimated and compared. RESULTS: MX survey showed that only 11 (3.1%) of the 358 pools (8850 Cx.quinquefasciatus females), collected from 30 clusters, were found positive for W. bancrofti DNA. The estimated vector infection rate was 0.13% (95% CI: 0.07-0.22%), below the provisional threshold (0.25%) for transmission interruption. Of 1578 children tested in the TAS, only four (0.25%) were positive for filarial antigenemia, and it is well below the critical cut-off (18 positives) for stopping MDA. Among 9804 persons tested in the 30 clusters, only four were found positive for Mf (0.04%; 95% CI: 0.01-0.1%). The Mf-prevalence was <1% threshold for transmission interruption in humans. The estimated costs for TAS and MX per EU were $14,104 USD and $14,259 USD respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The result of MX protocol was in good agreement with that of TAS, providing evidence to recommend MX as a complementary tool to TAS to decide on stopping MDA. MX can also be a potential surveillance tool for post-MDA and post-validation phases as it could detect sites with residual infection and risk of resurgence of transmission. MX is economically feasible as its cost is slightly higher than that of TAS.


Assuntos
Culex/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/análise , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Wuchereria bancrofti/genética
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 48, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphedema is a public health problem in countries with lymphatic filariasis (LF) including Mali. We studied the epidemiology and clinical presentation of lymphedema in three previously LF-endemic health districts of Mali after at least five consecutive rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with albendazole and ivermectin. METHODS: From 2016 to 2018, we used passive and active case finding methods to identify lymphedema cases in three health districts with high pre-MDA LF prevalence: Kolondieba (66%), Bougouni (44%) and Kolokani (34%). RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty nine cases of lymphedema were identified, 235 (69.32%) through active case finding. Their median age was 56 years (range 2-90) and 286 (84.36%) were women. Lymphedema was reported in 226 (78.5%) people aged 41 years and older compared to 73 (21.5%) people below the age of 41 years (Chi2 = 17.28, df = 5, p = 0.004). One hundred and seventy five cases of lymphedema were found in Kolondieba (66 per 100,000 people), 116 in Bougouni (19 per 100,000) and 48 in Kolokani (16 per 100,000). Stage III lymphedema was observed in 131 (38.64%), stage II in 108 (31.86%), stage IV in 46 (13.57%), stage I in 23 (6.78%), stage V in 21 (6.19%) and stage VI in ten (2.95%). In the three study districts, lymphedema affected the legs in 281 (82.89%), the arms in 42 (12.39%) and both in 16 (4.72%) (Chi2 = 13.63, p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Health districts in Mali with the highest pre-MDA LF prevalences had the highest prevalence of lymphedema. Efforts to actively identify lymphedema cases should be scaled up in previous LF-endemic areas, and should be supplemented by a morbidity management and disability prevention plan at the peripheral health system level.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Linfedema/tratamento farmacológico , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Suspensão de Tratamento , Wuchereria bancrofti , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/complicações , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Linfedema/etiologia , Masculino , Mali/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224422, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preventive chemotherapy was administered to 3.2 million Sierra Leoneans in 13 health districts for lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and soil transmitted helminthes from October 2008 to February 2009. This paper aims to report the findings of a coverage survey conducted in 2009, compare the coverage survey findings with two reported rates for lymphatic filariasis coverage obtained using pre-mass drug administration (MDA) registration and national census projections, and use the comparison to understand the best source of population estimates in calculating coverage for NTD programming in Sierra Leone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Community drug distributors (CDDs) conducted a pre- MDA registration of the population. Two coverage rates for MDA for lymphatic filariasis were subsequently calculated using the reported number treated divided by the total population from: 1) the pre-MDA register and 2) national census projections. A survey was conducted to validate reported coverage data. 11,602 persons participated (response rate of 76.8%). Overall, reported coverage data aggregated to the national level were not significantly different from surveyed coverage (z-test >0.05). However, estimates based on pre-MDA registration have higher agreement with surveyed coverage (mean Kendall's W = 0.68) than coverage calculated with census data (mean Kendall's = 0.59), especially in districts with known large-scale migration, except in a highly urban district where it was more challenging to conduct a pre-MDA registration appropriately. There was no significant difference between coverage among males versus females when the analyses were performed excluding those women who were pregnant at the time of MDA. The surveyed coverage estimate was near or below the minimum 65% epidemiological coverage target for lymphatic filariasis MDA in all districts. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results from Sierra Leone illustrate the importance of choosing the right denominator for calculating treatment coverage for NTD programs. While routinely reported coverage results using national census data are often good enough for programmatic decision making, census projections can quickly become outdated where there is substantial migration, e.g. due to the impact of civil war, with changing economic opportunities, in urban settings, and where there are large migratory populations. In districts where this is known to be the case, well implemented pre-MDA registration can provide better population estimates. Pre-MDA registration should, however, be implemented correctly to reduce the risk of missing pockets of the population, especially in urban settings.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Oncocercose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Censos , Quimioprevenção/métodos , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(11): e0007836, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765388

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) is to phase out this endemic disease as a public health problem by 2020. Validation of elimination is obtained from the World Health Organization through evidence of non-transmission in countries that have already been subjected to mass drug administration (MDA) and in places adjoining these endemic areas. While three municipalities in Brazil have completed MDA, the epidemiological situation remains uncertain in nine adjoining municipalities. To determine the epidemiological status, this study was to perform a review of the literature and a school-based survey to describe the past and recent endemicity of lymphatic filariasis (LF) theses nine municipalities in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: For review of the literature, both formal and informal literature sources were accessed since the first reports of filariasis in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, Brazil. We conducted a school-based survey in 2016 using immunochromatographic card tests (ICTs) among schoolchildren aged 6-10 years living in nine municipalities contiguous with the endemic areas in which MDA was conducted. Our review of the literature identified eight studies involving surveys demonstrating that microfilariae had been circulating in eight of the municipalities since 1967, with a low prevalence of microfilaremia, isolated autochthonous cases, and treatment of individual cases. The school-based survey included 17,222 children in 185 urban schools in the nine areas of Brazil with uncertain endemicity. One child affected by allochthonous transmission was antigen positive based on ICT and lived in a municipality adjacent to Recife; this child's family came from Recife, but no other case was diagnosed within the family. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study results suggest that there is no transmission of LF in the municipalities investigated. However, these areas have population migration and socioenvironmental conditions favorable to mosquito breeding grounds; therefore, surveillance is strongly recommended in these areas.


Assuntos
Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Erradicação de Doenças , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Prevalência
6.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(4): 329-339, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533400

RESUMO

Indonesia and South Korea have become inseparable in various respects since the 2 countries established diplomatic relation in 1973. Indonesia is a tropical region that stretches across the equator, comprised of 5 main islands (Java, Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Papua) and 4 archipelagoes (Riau, Bangka Belitung, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku). As most population of Eastern Indonesia (Sulawesi, Papua and Nusa Tenggara & Maluku) live in poor areas, it is expected that there will be many parasites. Nevertheless, little is known about the status of parasites in Indonesia. This study examines the prevalences of malaria and lymphatic filaria, which are prevalent in Indonesia, as well as those of soil-transmitted-helminths (STH). As a result, the Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax case loads are almost equal. The current prevalence of P. vivax is uniformly low (<5%) in all age groups and annual parasite incidence (API) showed decreasing tendency as 0.84 per 1,000 population in 2016. However, more than 65 million people still live in malaria epidemic regions. Lymphatic filariasis remains an important public health problem and 236 cities were classified as endemic areas in 514 cities/districts in 2017. It is difficult to ascertain the current prevalence rate of STH in Indonesia, although West Sumba and Southwest Sumba in East Nusa Tenggara reported prevalence rate of more than 20%. The study also considers the (sero) prevalences of other parasites identified in Indonesia. This report should be useful not only to parasitologists but also to travelers and people with business in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/transmissão , Prevalência , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Solo/parasitologia , Teníase/epidemiologia
7.
Indian J Med Res ; 149(6): 706-714, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31496523

RESUMO

Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are human filarial diseases belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases, leading to permanent and long-term disability in infected individuals in the endemic countries such as Africa and India. Microfilaricidal drugs such as ivermectin and albendazole have been used as the standard therapy in filariasis, although their efficacy in eliminating the diseases is not fully established. Anti-Wolbachia therapy employs antibiotics and is a promising approach showing potent macrofilaricidal activity and also prevents embryogenesis. This has translated to clinical benefits resulting in successful eradication of microfilarial burden, thus averting the risk of adverse events from target species as well as those due to co-infection with loiasis. Doxycycline shows potential as an anti-Wolbachia treatment, leading to the death of adult parasitic worms. It is readily available, cheap and safe to use in adult non-pregnant patients. Besides doxycycline, several other potential antibiotics are also being investigated for the treatment of LF and onchocerciasis. This review aims to discuss and summarise recent developments in the use of anti-Wolbachia drugs to treat onchocerciasis and LF.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Oncocercose/tratamento farmacológico , Wolbachia/patogenicidade , Adulto , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Doxiciclina/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/microbiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Oncocercose/epidemiologia , Oncocercose/microbiologia , Medicina Tropical , Wolbachia/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 440, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522689

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The baseline endemicity profile of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a key benchmark for planning control programmes, monitoring their impact on transmission and assessing the feasibility of achieving elimination. Presented in this work is the modelled serological and parasitological prevalence of LF prior to the scale-up of mass drug administration (MDA) in Nigeria using a machine learning based approach. METHODS: LF prevalence data generated by the Nigeria Lymphatic Filariasis Control Programme during country-wide mapping surveys conducted between 2000 and 2013 were used to build the models. The dataset comprised of 1103 community-level surveys based on the detection of filarial antigenemia using rapid immunochromatographic card tests (ICT) and 184 prevalence surveys testing for the presence of microfilaria (Mf) in blood. Using a suite of climate and environmental continuous gridded variables and compiled site-level prevalence data, a quantile regression forest (QRF) model was fitted for both antigenemia and microfilaraemia LF prevalence. Model predictions were projected across a continuous 5 × 5 km gridded map of Nigeria. The number of individuals potentially infected by LF prior to MDA interventions was subsequently estimated. RESULTS: Maps presented predict a heterogeneous distribution of LF antigenemia and microfilaraemia in Nigeria. The North-Central, North-West, and South-East regions displayed the highest predicted LF seroprevalence, whereas predicted Mf prevalence was highest in the southern regions. Overall, 8.7 million and 3.3 million infections were predicted for ICT and Mf, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: QRF is a machine learning-based algorithm capable of handling high-dimensional data and fitting complex relationships between response and predictor variables. Our models provide a benchmark through which the progress of ongoing LF control efforts can be monitored.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Topografia Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Parasitologia , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Trop ; 199: 105121, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400299

RESUMO

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been known in Egypt since ancient times. By 1930s it was recognized to be a major public health problem in the Nile Delta, and to be caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted by Culex pipiens. Remarkably, as a result of widespread DEC treatment and intensive vector control by the Ministry of Health and Population (MoHP), the infection rate of LF declined in the 1960s. However, relaxation of these efforts resulted in resurgence of filariasis in the 1980s and 1990s. In 2000, Egypt was among the first countries to join the WHO global efforts to eliminate LF as a public health problem by initiating a national LF elimination programme (NLFEP). This article reviews the history of LF control activities and summarizes the NLFEP extensive interventions to eliminate LF in Egypt. Based on MoHP data, mass drug administration (MDA) with DEC and ALB was started in 2000 in 161 implementation units (IUs). Additional IUs were included in subsequent MDA rounds, with the last IU included in 2007. MDA stopping surveys were conducted based on WHO guidelines (2005; 2011). Information about the presence of those suffering from lymphoedema/elephantiasis and hydrocele patients was collected, and care provided to those needing care in five rural health units (RHU) by primary health care system providers who were given training on LF morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP). The NLFEP made excellent progress due to strong collaboration between different ministries, through intensive training and supervision, and the use of advocacy for mobilization of endemic communities. The epidemiological coverage for all MDA rounds was effectively ≥80%. Antigenemia levels found in schoolchildren during transmission assessment surveys (TAS) in 166 IUs approximately 10 years after stopping MDA was 0%. In 2017, TAS conducted in additional 29 IUs indicated 0.1% antigenemia and 0% microfilaremia. In 2015, the registration of chronic LF patients was updated to 1472 lymphoedema and 18 hydrocele patients. Lymphoedema patients were trained on self-management, and hydrocele patients were referred to local General Hospitals for surgery. Thus, after over a decade of sustained effort, Egypt met the WHO criteria for successful elimination of LF as a public health problem. In December 2017, WHO validated Egypt as the first country in the Eastern Mediterranean Region to successfully achieve elimination.


Assuntos
Culex/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Filaricidas/administração & dosagem , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Wuchereria bancrofti , Animais , Criança , Egito/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Filaricidas/farmacologia , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Saúde Pública , Saúde da População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Wuchereria bancrofti/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(8): e0007115, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ghana started its national programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in 2000, with mass drug administration (MDA) with ivermectin and albendazole as main strategy. We review the progress towards elimination that was made by 2016 for all endemic districts of Ghana and analyze microfilaria (mf) prevalence from sentinel and spot-check sites in endemic districts. METHODS: We reviewed district level data on the history of MDA and outcomes of transmission assessment surveys (TAS). We further collated and analyzed mf prevalence data from sentinel and spot-check sites. RESULTS: MDA was initiated in 2001-2006 in all 98 endemic districts; by the end of 2016, 81 had stopped MDA after passing TAS and after an average of 11 rounds of treatment (range 8-14 rounds). The median reported coverage for the communities was 77-80%. Mf prevalence survey data were available for 430 communities from 78/98 endemic districts. Baseline mf prevalence data were available for 53 communities, with an average mf prevalence of 8.7% (0-45.7%). Repeated measurements were available for 78 communities, showing a steep decrease in mean mf prevalence in the first few years of MDA, followed by a gradual further decline. In the 2013 and 2014 surveys, 7 and 10 communities respectively were identified with mf prevalence still above 1% (maximum 5.6%). Fifteen of the communities above threshold are all within districts where MDA was still ongoing by 2016. CONCLUSIONS: The MDA programme of the Ghana Health Services has reduced mf prevalence in sentinel sites below the 1% threshold in 81/98 endemic districts in Ghana, yet 15 communities within 13 districts (MDA ongoing by 2016) had higher prevalence than this threshold during the surveys in 2013 and 2014. These districts may need to intensify interventions to achieve the WHO 2020 target.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Microfilárias/patogenicidade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007542, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Bangladesh Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) Elimination Programme has made significant progress in interrupting transmission through mass drug administration (MDA) and has now focussed its efforts on scaling up managing morbidity and preventing disability (MMDP) activities to deliver the minimum package of care to people affected by LF clinical conditions. This paper highlights the Bangladesh LF Programme's success in conducting a large-scale cross-sectional survey to determine the number of people affected by lymphoedema and hydrocoele, which enabled clinical risk maps to be developed for targeted interventions across the 34 endemic districts (19 high endemic; 15 low endemic). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the 19 high endemic districts, 8,145 community clinic staff were trained to identify and report patients in their catchment area. In the 15 low endemic districts, a team of 10 trained field assistants conducted active case finding with cases reported via a SMS mHealth tool. Disease burden and prevalence maps were developed, with morbidity hotspots identified at sub-district level based on a combination of the highest prevalence rates per 100,000 and case-density rates per square kilometre (km2). The relationship between morbidity and baseline microfilaria (mf) prevalence was also examined. In total 43,678 cases were identified in the 19 high endemic districts; 30,616 limb lymphoedema (70.1%; female 55.3%), 12,824 hydrocoele (29.4%), and 238 breast/female genital swelling (0.5%). Rangpur Division reported the highest cases numbers and prevalence of lymphoedema (26,781 cases, 195 per 100,000) and hydrocoele (11661 cases, 169.6 per 100,000), with lymphoedema predominately affecting females (n = 21,652). Rangpur and Lalmonirhat Districts reported the highest case numbers (n = 11,199), and prevalence (569 per 100,000) respectively, with five overlapping lymphoedema and hydrocoele sub-district hotspots. In the 15 low endemic districts, 732 cases were identified; 661 lymphoedema (90.2%; female 39.6%), 56 hydrocoele (7.8%), and 15 both conditions (2.0%). Spearman's correlation analysis found morbidity and mf prevalence significantly positively correlated (r = 0.904; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Bangladesh LF Programme has developed one of the largest, most comprehensive country databases on LF clinical conditions in the world. It provides an essential database for health workers to identify local morbidity hotspots, deliver the minimum package of care, and address the dossier elimination requirements.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Gerenciamento de Base de Dados , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/prevenção & controle , Filariose Linfática/terapia , Objetivos , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Linfedema/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Microfilárias , Morbidade , Prevalência , Telemedicina/métodos , Hidrocele Testicular/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002839, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31233507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) provides antifilarial medications to hundreds of millions of people annually to treat filarial infections and prevent elephantiasis. Recent trials have shown that a single-dose, triple-drug treatment (ivermectin with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole [IDA]) is superior to a two-drug combination (diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole [DA]) that is widely used in LF elimination programs. This study was performed to assess the safety of IDA and DA in a variety of endemic settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Large community studies were conducted in five countries between October 2016 and November 2017. Two studies were performed in areas with no prior mass drug administration (MDA) for filariasis (Papua New Guinea and Indonesia), and three studies were performed in areas with persistent LF despite extensive prior MDA (India, Haiti, and Fiji). Participants were treated with a single oral dose of IDA (ivermectin, 200 µg/kg; diethylcarbamazine, 6 mg/kg; plus albendazole, a fixed dose of 400 mg) or with DA alone. Treatment assignment in each study site was randomized by locality of residence. Treatment was offered to residents who were ≥5 years of age and not pregnant. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed by medical teams with active follow-up for 2 days and passive follow-up for an additional 5 days. A total of 26,836 persons were enrolled (13,535 females and 13,300 males). A total of 12,280 participants were treated with DA, and 14,556 were treated with IDA. On day 1 or 2 after treatment, 97.4% of participants were assessed for AEs. The frequency of all AEs was similar after IDA and DA treatment (12% versus 12.1%, adjusted odds ratio for IDA versus DA 1.15, 95% CI 0.87-1.52, P = 0.316); 10.9% of participants experienced mild (grade 1) AEs, 1% experienced moderate (grade 2) AEs, and 0.1% experienced severe (grade 3) AEs. Rates of serious AEs after DA and IDA treatment were 0.04% (95% CI 0.01%-0.1%) and 0.01% (95% CI 0.00%-0.04%), respectively. Severity of AEs was not significantly different after IDA or DA. Five of six serious AEs reported occurred after DA treatment. The most common AEs reported were headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and fatigue. AE frequencies varied by country and were higher in adults and in females. AEs were more common in study participants with microfilaremia (33.4% versus 11.1%, P < 0.001) and more common in microfilaremic participants after IDA than after DA (39.4% versus 25.6%, P < 0.001). However, there was no excess of severe or serious AEs after IDA in this subgroup. The main limitation of the study was that it was open-label. Also, aggregation of AE data from multiple study sites tends to obscure variability among study sites. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that IDA was well tolerated in LF-endemic populations. Posttreatment AE rates and severity did not differ significantly after IDA or DA treatment. Thus, results of this study suggest that IDA should be as safe as DA for use as a MDA regimen for LF elimination in areas that currently receive DA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02899936.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Antiparasitários/efeitos adversos , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/efeitos adversos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos/métodos , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cefaleia/induzido quimicamente , Cefaleia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Pathog Glob Health ; 113(3): 143-148, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31138026

RESUMO

Mass drug administration (MDA) is the main counter-transmission strategy of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. In endemic countries, there are areas where MDA is not required. However, there is no standard approach in these areas, and studies are important to evaluate the epidemiological status. This study aimed to investigate lymphatic filariasis and strategies developed for its control in an area where MDA is not required. Together with the 2018 morbidity evaluation, a survey was conducted using point-of-care immunochromatographic test-AD12 tests for diagnostic screening in an area where MDA is not required. The methodology also included desk research based on Health Department reports of the control activities for lymphatic filariasis during 2003-2016. Among the 934 cases investigated in 2018, there was a 0.64% prevalence of circulating filarial antigen positive, comprising five adults and one 2-year-old child. Six patients aged 39-63 years had filarial disease. Fourteen surveys have already been conducted as control activities, and since 2009, there have been no positive cases. This study showed that the prevalence of antigenemia decreased from 2.97% in 2003 to 0.64% in 2018. Moreover, the transmission of filariasis infection was under control in this area. Our study provides insights into the surveillance phase by identifying areas of low transmission and where MDA is not required. Although we have not identified cases of filarial infection, there is a need to provide services that will provide assist those already affected with morbidity and help reduce and prevent disability.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 39, 2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The island of Hispaniola, shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic (DR), is the only remaining malaria-endemic island in the Caribbean and accounts for 95% of the lymphatic filariasis (LF) burden in the Americas. Both countries aim to eliminate the diseases by 2020. Migration from Haiti, where both diseases are more prevalent, may promote transmission in the DR. Historically, Haitian migrant labourers live in rural Dominican agricultural 'company towns' called bateyes, many of which received mass drug administration (MDA) for LF elimination. This study sought to determine the prevalence of malaria and LF in bateyes of the DR and to describe related risk factors for disease. METHODS: From March to April 2016, a cross-sectional, cluster survey was conducted across Dominican bateyes stratified into three regions: southwest, north and east. A household questionnaire (n = 776), captured demographics, ethnic origin, mobility patterns, malaria intervention coverage, and knowledge, and recent fever and treatment-seeking. Two individuals per household (n = 1418) were tested for malaria parasites by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and LF antigen by filariasis test strip (FTS). Population-level estimates and confidence intervals (CI) were computed adjusting for the survey design. Two-sided t-tests compared differences in knowledge scores. RESULTS: No (0%) blood sample was Plasmodium-positive by microscopy or RDT. Six individuals were FTS-positive (0.5%; 95% CI: 0.2-1.5), but none (0%) of these were microfilariae-positive. Most batey residents were born in the DR (57.8%), documented (85.0%), and permanent residents (85.1%). Very few respondents (9.4%) reported travel to Haiti in the past year. Overall, half (53.8%) of respondents owned a bed net, and 82.3% of net owners reported using it the previous night. Indoor residual spraying (IRS) differed by region (range: 4.7%-61.2%). Most of those with recent fever sought care (56.0%), yet only 30.5% of those seeking care were tested for malaria. Compared to Dominican-born populations, Haitian-born respondents more frequently reported recent fever, did not seek care for the fever, had not heard of malaria, and could not name symptoms or prevention methods. CONCLUSIONS: Malaria and LF transmission appear absent or extremely low in Dominican bateyes, which are a mixture of Haitian and Dominican residents. Travel to Haiti is rare, meaning risk of malaria and LF importation is low. Addressing identified gaps in intervention coverage, malaria knowledge, treatment seeking and service delivery will improve the quality of surveillance for these diseases, particularly among marginalized populations and promote island-wide elimination.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Antígenos de Protozoários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/sangue , Feminino , Haiti/etnologia , Humanos , Malária/sangue , Malária/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquiteiros , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 442, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode parasites that can lead to the disfiguring swelling of the limbs (lymphedema or elephantiasis for late stage) and/or genitalia (hydrocele) in men. Growing evidence suggests that not only are filarial lymphedema patients confronted with huge societal stigma and discrimination, but also experience acute filarial attacks accompanied by swelling of the affected part(s), fever, wounds and peeling of the skin of affected limbs(s). However, the extent to which seasonal variation influence filarial attacks among people with lymphedema was highly speculated without empirical evidence and was thus investigated. METHODS: In light of this, a cross-sectional study where 142 (70.4% females and 29.6% males) lymphedema patients were recruited from 8 established Wuchereria bancrofti endemic communities in the Ahanta West District, Ghana was carried out to investigate the prevalence and seasonal variation (rainy/wet and dry seasons) of acute filarial attacks. Chi-square test was used to test for association between frequency of attacks and seasonality. The STROBE guidelines for reporting cross-sectional studies was adopted. RESULTS: The average lymphedema leg stage was 2.37 and 2.33 for left and right legs, respectively, while mossy lesions, sores and ulcers were observed among 33.1% of patients with late stage disease (elephantiasis). It was found that 97 (68.3%) of the study participants experience filarial attacks during the wet season and 36 (25.4%) reported the incidence of filarial attacks during both seasons (wet and dry) while 9 (6.3%) of the study participants did not experience any attack at all. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study show compelling evidence that the frequency and the prevalence of filarial attacks is significantly increased during wet seasons compared to the dry season.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Linfedema/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/parasitologia , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217706, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141548

RESUMO

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of lymphatic filariasis and vector control strategies normally involve the use of synthetic insecticides targeted against them. Extensive and uncontrolled use of these synthetic insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance in the mosquito vectors. In this context, to study the resistance status of Cx. quinquefasciatus, field populations were collected from three districts of Northern part of West Bengal and tested against insecticides (5% malathion, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambdacyhalothrin,0.75% permethrin, 0.1% propoxur, 4% DDT and Temephos). Qualitative and quantitative enzyme assay was also conducted in order to find the role of detoxifying enzymes behind the development of insecticide resistance. This study revealed the presence of widespread resistance amongst the field populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus throughout the studied regions. Moreover, the result of native PAGE and biochemical enzyme assay may be linked to some extent in the involvement of the detoxifying enzymes in conferring resistance against insecticides in most of the tested Cx. quinquefasciatus populations. The present study involving the survey of resistance status may be of immense help during the implementation of vector control strategies throughout this region.


Assuntos
Dengue/transmissão , Filariose Linfática/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Animais , Culex/virologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Dengue/virologia , Vetores de Doenças , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/patologia , Índia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Isoenzimas/genética , Malation/farmacologia , Mortalidade , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007365, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sri Lanka's Anti-Filariasis Campaign conducted 5 annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) plus albendazole to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) in all endemic districts between 2002 and 2006. Post-MDA surveillance has consistently documented Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaremia (Mf) rates below 1% in all sentinel and spot check sites since that time, and all implementation units easily satisfied WHO's target for school-based transmission assessment surveys (school-TAS) in 2013. However, more detailed studies have identified foci of persistent infection in the large coastal evaluation unit (EU) (population about 0.6 million) in Galle district. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity and feasibility of community-based TAS in adults (adult-TAS) and to compare results obtained by adult-TAS with prior school-TAS and molecular xenomonitoring (MX, molecular detection of filarial DNA in systematically sampled mosquitoes) results in this known problem area. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two cluster surveys were performed in independent samples of 30 evaluation areas (EAs) in the coastal Galle EU in 2015. Each survey tested approximately 1,800 adults for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) with the Alere Filariasis Test Strip. The CFA prevalence for all persons tested (N = 3,612) was 1.8% (CI 1.4-2.2), and this was significantly higher than the CFA rate of 0.4% obtained by school-TAS in 2013. CFA prevalences in the two samples were similar [1.5% (CI 1.0-2.2), and 2.0% (CI 1.4-2.7)]. Antigenemia prevalence in sampled EUs was highly variable (range 0-11%), and it exceeded 5% in 6 EAs. The 30 EAs sampled in one of our adult-TAS surveys had recently been assessed for persistent filariasis by molecular xenomonitoring (MX). CFA prevalence in adults and filarial DNA prevalence in mosquitoes in these EAs were significantly correlated (r = 0.43; P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Community based adult-TAS provided a reproducible measure of persistent W. bancrofti infection in a large evaluation unit in Sri Lanka that has low-level persistence of LF following multiple rounds of MDA. In addition, adult-TAS and MX results illustrate the focality of persistent LF in this setting. Adult-TAS may be more sensitive than school-TAS for this purpose. Adult-TAS and MX are potential options for post-MDA and post-validation surveillance programs to identify problem areas that require mop-up activities. Adult-TAS should also be useful for remapping areas with uncertain LF endemicity for possible inclusion in national LF elimination programs.


Assuntos
Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Dietilcarbamazina/administração & dosagem , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Wuchereria bancrofti/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(4): e0007229, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30943198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Culex species are widespread across Cameroon and responsible for high burden of nuisance in most urban settings. However, despite their high nuisance, they remain less studied compared to anophelines. The present study aimed to assess Culex species distribution, susceptibility to insecticide, bionomics and role in Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) transmission in the city of Yaoundé. METHODS: Mosquito collections were conducted from March to December 2017 using Centre for Disease Control light traps (CDC-LT), human landing catches (HLC) and larval collections. Mosquitoes were identified using morphological identification keys. Mosquitoes from the Culex pipiens complex were further identified using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) to assess the presence of sibling species. Bioassays were conducted with 2-5 day-old unfed females to assess mosquito susceptibility to DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb following WHO guidelines. Dead, control and surviving mosquitoes from bioassays were screened by PCR to detect the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles. Pools of mosquitoes were examined by PCR to detect the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti. RESULTS: A total of 197,956 mosquitoes belonging to thirteen species were collected. The density of mosquito collected varied according to the collection methods, districts and seasons. Culex quinquefasciatus emerged as the most abundant and the only species of the Culex pipiens complex in Yaoundé. Culex species were found breeding in different types of breeding sites including polluted and unpolluted sites. All Culex species including Cx antennatus, Cx duttoni, Cx perfuscus and Cx tigripes were found to be highly resistant to permethrin, deltamethrin and DDT. Culex quinquefasciatus was also found to be resistant to bendiocarb. A high frequency of the West Africa kdr allele was recorded in resistant Cx. quinquefasciatus. Out of the 247 pooled samples of 25 Culex spp. examined for the presence of Wuchereria bancrofti, none was found infected. CONCLUSION: The study confirms the high adaptation of Culex species particularly Culex quinquefasciatus to the urban environment and no implication of this species in the transmission of LF in Yaoundé Cameroon. Culex species predominance in urban settings highlight potential transmission risk of West Nile and rift valley fever in Yaoundé.


Assuntos
Culex/classificação , Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Variação Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Animais , Camarões/epidemiologia , Culex/parasitologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Controle de Mosquitos , Nitrilos , Permetrina , Piretrinas , Wuchereria bancrofti/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 162, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding risk factors for lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Central Africa. To expand on what is known, we studied the epidemiology of LF in two endemic villages in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS: Dependent variables were Wuchereria bancrofti antigenaemia detected with filarial test strips (FTS) and microfilaraemia detected by night blood smears. The following factors were investigated: sex, age, the use of bednets, the use of latrines, hunting, fishing and agricultural activities, history of treatment with anthelmintic drugs, overnight stays in the bush, population density, the number of household members, and distance to rivers. Mixed multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty nine out of 820 (31.6%) of subjects aged ≥ 5 years had W. bancrofti antigenaemia and 11.8% (97/820) had microfilaraemia. Multivariable analysis of risk factors for antigenaemia demonstrated increased risk for males (aOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.53, P = 0.003), for older individuals (aOR = 9.12 in those aged > 35 years, 95% CI: 4.47-18.61, P < 0.001), for people not using bednets (aOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.06-2.33, P = 0.023), for farmers (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.25-3.90, P = 0.006), and for those who live close to a river (aOR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.14-6.74, P = 0.024). Significant risk factors for microfilaraemia included age, male gender, overnight stay in the bush, and residence close to a river (aOR = 1.86, 2.01, 2.73; P = 0.011, 0.010, 0.041; for the three latter variables, respectively). People who reported having taken levamisole (n = 117) during the prior year had a significantly decreased risk of having filarial antigenaemia (aOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21-0.76, P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Age, sex, not using bednets, and occupation-dependent exposure to mosquitoes were important risk factors for infection with W. bancrofti in this study. The association with levamisole use suggests that the drug may have prevented filarial infections. Other results suggest that transmission often occurs outside of the village. This study provides interesting clues regarding the epidemiology of LF in Central Africa.


Assuntos
Filariose Linfática/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , República Democrática do Congo/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosquiteiros , Exposição Ocupacional , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lymphat Res Biol ; 17(2): 121-126, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995179

RESUMO

Lymphedema has always been a neglected global health care problem. A central requirement for the development of any chronic disease is the clear use of public health definitions that can be used internationally to define populations. The term "lymphedema" has historically been defined as either primary, resulting from failure of lymphatic development, or secondary, following damage to the lymphatics (e.g., cancer treatment, injury, or filariasis). Attempts to integrate causes of edema arising from damage to the venous system or the effects of gravity, immobility, and systemic disease have rarely been integrated. More recently, the prominent role of the lymphatics in tissue fluid homeostasis in all forms of chronic edema has been recognized. These advances led to the development of the term: "Chronic edema: a broad term used to describe edema, which has been present for more than three months." It can be considered an umbrella term that includes not only conventional "lymphedema" but also chronic swelling, which may have a more complex cause. This definition has been adapted in the international epidemiology study (LIMPRINT) that identified people throughout the health and social care systems in participating countries. Clearer definitions will allow for examination of this important public health problem that is likely to escalate given the projections of an aging population with multiple comorbidities. It will be possible to define both the hidden mortality and morbidity associated with complications, such as cellulitis and the impact on health-related quality of life. This evidence is urgently required to lobby for increased resource and effective health care in an increasingly competitive health care arena in which more established conditions have greater priority and funding.


Assuntos
Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/epidemiologia , Edema/epidemiologia , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Elefantíase/epidemiologia , Linfedema não Filariídeo/epidemiologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/diagnóstico , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/patologia , Linfedema Relacionado a Câncer de Mama/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Edema/diagnóstico , Edema/patologia , Edema/fisiopatologia , Elefantíase/diagnóstico , Elefantíase/patologia , Elefantíase/fisiopatologia , Filariose Linfática/diagnóstico , Filariose Linfática/patologia , Filariose Linfática/fisiopatologia , Saúde Global/economia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Sistema Linfático/patologia , Sistema Linfático/fisiopatologia , Linfedema não Filariídeo/diagnóstico , Linfedema não Filariídeo/patologia , Linfedema não Filariídeo/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública/economia , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Terminologia como Assunto , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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