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1.
Int Marit Health ; 72(3): 183-192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34604987

RESUMO

This narrative review examines current academic literature on the mental health of Filipino seafarers working internationally, including the mental health effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Framed within a rights-based approach, it aims to identify and analyse emerging themes on Filipino seafarers' mental health literature to understand what these studies potentially mean for the improvement of seafarers' education on mental health. Based on a broad selection criteria, 28 eligible papers demonstrate collectively three key findings: firstly, there is paucity in published research on seafarers' mental health; secondly, the majority of published studies are associated with a recent piracy crisis, where a significant number of mariners were attacked, taken as hostages, or killed; thirdly, three key areas emerged under which research on Filipino seafarers' mental health can be organized: the medical repatriation of seafarers, system of care for the mental health of seafarers including the diagnostic standards used, and seafarers' experiences and conceptions of mental health including the mental health effects of COVID-19. Though the bulk of the current understanding of the mental health problems is associated with piracy, several risk factors for which the quality of quantitative and qualitative evidence are patchy. The few sources of primary data to date lack focus on mental health needs which makes it difficult to grasp the extent of the problem. Developing policies and programmes for the promotion of mental health through mental health education among seafarers is important for a couple of reasons. Seafaring remains a dangerous and socially isolating occupation where work-related accidents are likely and will be potentially traumatic to mariners. Research on occupational stressors is increasingly providing evidence of their contributions to poor mental health outcomes among seafarers. Thus, mental health education of seafarers in the context of their work is important for proactive training and development.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Saúde Mental/educação , Medicina Naval/métodos , Crime/psicologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde do Trabalhador , Estresse Ocupacional , Filipinas/etnologia , Navios
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371849

RESUMO

The double burden of malnutrition (DBM) affects many low- and middle-income countries. However, few studies have examined DBM at the individual level, or undernutrition and overnutrition co-occurring within the same person. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and determinants of DBM among adults in the Philippines. Data from the 2013 National Nutrition Survey were used. The sample size in the analysis was 17,010 adults aged ≥20 years old, after excluding pregnant and lactating women. DBM was defined as the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity and anemia (definition #1), overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency (definition #2), and overweight/obesity and anemia or vitamin A deficiency or iodine insufficiency (definition #3). Anthropometric measurements and biochemical markers were used for DBM assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and logistic regression by R software. Results showed that definition #3 is the predominant type of DBM (7.0%) in the general population, whereas the prevalence of DBM has increased to 23.7% in overweight/obese persons. Sex, age, educational attainment, marital status, household size, wealth quintile, and smoking status were the determinants of DBM. This study revealed that Filipino adults experience malnutrition critically and must be addressed through food and nutrition interventions.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/etnologia , Antropometria , Comorbidade , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Iodo/deficiência , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Desnutrição/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/etnologia , Hipernutrição/epidemiologia , Hipernutrição/etnologia , Sobrepeso/etnologia , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 295: 113575, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248710

RESUMO

Within diverse global populations, validated tools are needed to assess common mental disorders. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is one of the most commonly used depression screeners. However, the PHQ-9 has not been structurally validated among female migrant domestic workers (MDWs). Female MDWs constitute a population numbering 11.5 million, and commonly report depression. This study aimed to structurally validate the PHQ-9 among Filipina and Indonesian female MDWs in Macao Special Administrative Region of China. Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling. Participants were adult female MDWs from The Philippines (N=1375) or Indonesia (N=367) and legally working in Macao. We used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test five structural models of depression using all PHQ-9 items with the Filipina and Indonesian samples. We applied multi-group CFA to test measurement invariance across samples. A two-factor (cognitive/affective, somatic) model yielded the best fit within both samples, and the multi-group CFA demonstrated invariance across samples. The two-factor model best represents the factor structure of the PHQ-9 among Filipina and Indonesian female MDWs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente/normas , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Psicometria/instrumentação , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/etnologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/etnologia , Macau/epidemiologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153082

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacts psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety symptoms) among the general population of Hong Kong and migrant Filipina domestic helpers (FDHs). Having to live with the employers by law, FDHs' working environment might affect their well-being during COVID-19 (e.g., household crowdedness/size, insufficiency of protective equipment against COVID-19, increased workload). Research has suggested that coping resources (e.g., social support, COVID-19-related information literacy) and COVID-19-specific worries are associated with people's well-being during COVID-19. This study examined the psychosocial correlates of probable anxiety among FDHs in Hong Kong amid the COVID-19 pandemic. By purposive sampling, FDHs (n = 295) were recruited and invited to complete a cross-sectional survey. Participants' working environment (crowdedness, household size), COVID-19 job arrangements (workload, provision of protective equipment), coping resources (social support, COVID-19 information literacy), COVID-19-specific worries (contracting COVID-19, getting fired if contracting COVID-19), and anxiety symptoms were measured. Multivariate regression results showed that the insufficiency of protective equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.18, 2.11), increased workload (OR = 1.51, 95%CI: 1.02, 2.25), and worries about being fired if getting COVID-19 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04, 1.68) were significantly associated with probable anxiety. This was one of the earliest studies to indicate that job arrangements and COVID-19-specific worries significantly contributed to FDHs' anxiety symptoms. Our findings shed light on the importance of addressing employment-related rights and pandemic-specific worries through interventions among FDHs in Hong Kong during pandemic situations.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Aglomeração , Características da Família , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Filipinas/etnologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081317

RESUMO

Precarious employment is increasing and adversely affects health. We aimed to investigate how perception of precariousness in current employment impacts gender and migrant workers in Australia. Using cross-sectional interviews of 1292 workers born in Australia, New Zealand, India and the Philippines, data were collected on self-reported health, employment conditions and sociodemographics. Factor analysis of nine questions about perceptions of current employment revealed two dimensions, vulnerability and insecurity. Women had higher vulnerability scores (µ = 6.5 vs. µ = 5.5, t = 5.40, p-value (p) < 0.000) but lower insecurity scores (µ = 8.6 vs. µ = 9.3 t = -4.160 p < 0.0003) than men. Filipino-born workers had higher vulnerability compared with other migrant workers (µ = 6.5 vs. µ = 5.8 t = -3.47 p < 0.0003), and workers born in India had higher insecurity compared with other migrant workers (µ = 9.8 vs. µ = 8.9, t = -6.1 p < 0.0001). While the prevalence of insecurity varied by migrant status, the negative effect on health was higher for Australian-born workers than migrants. Increasing levels of vulnerability and insecurity impacted self-reported health negatively (Coefficient (Coef).0.34 p < 0.0001; Coef.0.25 p < 0.0001, respectively). The combination of high vulnerability and high insecurity had the greatest impact on health (Coef. 2.37 p = 0.002), followed by high vulnerability and moderate insecurity (Coef. 2.0 p = 0.007). Our study suggests that understanding both changes in employment conditions over time as well as knowledge of cultural patterns may offer the best chance of understanding the impact of precarious employment experiences.


Assuntos
Emprego , Nível de Saúde , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia/etnologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(11): 2656-2661, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone mineral density (BMD) reference data exist for U.S. White, Black, and Hispanic (Mexican American) populations but not for U.S. Asians. Few studies have compared BMD findings among different U.S. Asian ethnicities. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Large northern California healthcare system. PARTICIPANTS: Asian and White women aged 50 to 79 years with BMD testing from 1998 to 2017 excluding those with estrogen or osteoporosis treatment, recent fracture, or select disorders affecting skeletal health. MEASUREMENTS: Femoral neck (FN)-BMD and height data. METHODS: Differences in FN-BMD were examined by ethnicity and age, comparing Filipino, Chinese, and Japanese women and non-Hispanic White women. Differences in BMD were also examined after adjustment for height. RESULTS: There were 37,224 Asian women (including 11,147 Filipino, 10,648 Chinese, and 2,519 Japanese) and 115,318 non-Hispanic White women. Mean height was similar among the Asian subgroups and about 6 to 8 cm lower than Whites. Mean FN-BMDs differed by less than 3% for Filipino, Chinese, and Japanese and all were lower than Whites, with smaller Asian-White differences among younger women (<3%; ages 50-59) and larger differences among older women (6-8%; ages 65-79). Adjusting FN-BMD for height reduced White-Asian differences by about 30% to 40%. CONCLUSION: Mean FN-BMD and height for Filipino, Chinese, and Japanese women were similar but consistently lower than White women, especially among older women. Although Asian-White BMD differences were substantially attenuated after height adjustment; some differences persisted for older women. Future studies should investigate potential age-cohort effects and the extent to which these BMD differences influence fracture risk and clinical care.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Idoso , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatura , California , China/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
J Community Psychol ; 48(8): 2608-2624, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845013

RESUMO

Resilience is a broad concept that encompasses individual and social resources to thrive from difficult circumstances. The resilience that occurs as a collective effort or country-wide phenomenon is referred to as national resilience (NR), which connotes the ability of a nation to deal with crises while keeping its social fabric intact. Like the rest of the world, the Philippines has been greatly impacted by the coronavirus pandemic and we argue that a stable and robust NR is needed to bounce back from the challenges and adversities of the crisis. This pioneering study on NR in Filipino adults was conducted to achieve two aims (1) assess the psychometric properties of the Filipino adapted National Resilience Scale (NRS-Filipino) and (2) determine demographic and psychological variables that influence NR. Data from 401 participants yielded an exploratory factor analysis with a good model fit for a four-factor solution that is similar to the original National Resilience Assessment Scale. NRS-Filipino also demonstrated acceptable reliability and convergent validity. Among the variables purported to be associated with NR, community resilience, and political attitude came out as strong predictors.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Psicometria/normas , Resiliência Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(4): 305-308, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605702

RESUMO

We described a case of a 30-year-old Filipino woman who presented with fevers, night sweats, left hip pain, painful scalp lesions, and a neck mass. Symptoms began 6 months earlier, with nasal drainage, fever, cough, and occasional hemoptysis, which did not resolve with outpatient antibiotics. A further workup revealed lymphadenopathy and several lytic bone lesions. Her hospital course was later further complicated by the development of a tracheoesophageal fistula secondary to an esophageal mass and, then later, aseptic meningitis. Extensive diagnostic workup and immunologic tests were performed and finally led to the diagnosis. Here, we discussed the diagnostic workup and pathophysiology of the underlying condition. This case illustrated the importance of appropriate immunologic workup to make the diagnosis of a rare condition that proves to be clinically significant and presents challenges in management.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Interferon gama/imunologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/diagnóstico , Osteólise/diagnóstico por imagem , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Febre/etiologia , Quadril , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Linfadenite/diagnóstico , Linfadenite/etiologia , Meningite Asséptica/diagnóstico , Meningite Asséptica/etiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/etiologia , Infecção por Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare/imunologia , Osteólise/etiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Fístula Traqueoesofágica/etiologia
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(11): 1567-1575, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645277

RESUMO

Rationale: Most U.S. residents who develop tuberculosis (TB) were born abroad, and U.S. TB incidence is increasingly driven by infection risks in other countries.Objectives: To estimate the potential impact of effective global TB control on health and economic outcomes in the United States.Methods: We estimated outcomes using linked mathematical models of TB epidemiology in the United States and migrants' birth countries. A base-case scenario extrapolated country-specific TB incidence trends. We compared this with scenarios in which countries achieve 90% TB incidence reductions between 2015 and 2035, as targeted by the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy ("effective global TB control"). We also considered pessimistic scenarios of flat TB incidence trends in individual countries.Measurements and Main Results: We estimated TB cases, deaths, and costs and the total economic burden of TB in the United States. Compared with the base-case scenario, effective global TB control would avert 40,000 (95% uncertainty interval, 29,000-55,000) TB cases in the United States in 2020-2035. TB incidence rates in 2035 would be 43% (95% uncertainty interval, 34-54%) lower than in the base-case scenario, and 49% (95% uncertainty interval, 44-55%) lower than in 2020. Summed over 2020-2035, this represents 0.8 billion dollars (95% uncertainty interval, 0.6-1.0 billion dollars) in averted healthcare costs and $2.5 billion dollars (95% uncertainty interval, 1.7-3.6 billion dollars) in productivity gains. The total U.S. economic burden of TB (including the value of averted TB deaths) would be 21% (95% uncertainty interval, 16-28%) lower (18 billion dollars [95% uncertainty level, 8-32 billion dollars]).Conclusions: In addition to producing major health benefits for high-burden countries, strengthened efforts to achieve effective global TB control could produce substantial health and economic benefits for the United States.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Erradicação de Doenças , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Índia/etnologia , México/epidemiologia , México/etnologia , Modelos Teóricos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/mortalidade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Vietnã/etnologia
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(5): 609-615, 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538456

RESUMO

Background: The epidemiology of herpes simplex virus infections is of growing interest but information on its seroprevalence in many countries is scarce. Aims: This study aimed to measure the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in Filipino and Indian men living in Qatar. Methods: Blood serum specimens were collected from male blood donors aged ≥ 18 years in Qatar from 2013 to 2016. HerpeSelect® 1/2 and Euroline-WB assays were used to measure antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in 120 Filipino and 325 Indian men. Results: The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-1 was 84.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 78.4-90.0%) in Filipino men and 48.3% (95% CI: 43.6-53.0%) in Indian men. The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 was 8.3% (95% CI: 4.6-13.7%) in Filipinos and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.2-5.9%) in Indians. The seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 increased with age, but this trend was only statistically significant in Indian men (P = 0.013 and P = 0.011 respectively). Conclusions: The seroprevalence rates of herpes simplex virus-2 in Filipino and Indian men living in Qatar were similar to those found in the Philippines and India. However, the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-1 in Indians, while similar to that found in India, was substantially lower than that of other countries in Asia and developing countries worldwide, which needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Herpesvirus Humano 2 , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Herpes Simples/virologia , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Catar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Aggress Behav ; 46(4): 327-340, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249458

RESUMO

We investigated whether bidirectional associations between parental warmth and behavioral control and child aggression and rule-breaking behavior emerged in 12 cultural groups. Study participants included 1,298 children (M = 8.29 years, standard deviation [SD] = 0.66, 51% girls) from Shanghai, China (n = 121); Medellín, Colombia (n = 108); Naples (n = 100) and Rome (n = 103), Italy; Zarqa, Jordan (n = 114); Kisumu, Kenya (n = 100); Manila, Philippines (n = 120); Trollhättan/Vänersborg, Sweden (n = 101); Chiang Mai, Thailand (n = 120); and Durham, NC, United States (n = 111 White, n = 103 Black, n = 97 Latino) followed over 5 years (i.e., ages 8-13). Warmth and control were measured using the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire, child aggression and rule-breaking were measured using the Achenbach System of Empirically-Based Assessment. Multiple-group structural equation modeling was conducted. Associations between parent warmth and subsequent rule-breaking behavior were found to be more common across ontogeny and demonstrate greater variability across different cultures than associations between warmth and subsequent aggressive behavior. In contrast, the evocative effects of child aggressive behavior on subsequent parent warmth and behavioral control were more common, especially before age 10, than those of rule-breaking behavior. Considering the type of externalizing behavior, developmental time point, and cultural context is essential to understanding how parenting and child behavior reciprocally affect one another.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comparação Transcultural , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Jordânia/etnologia , Quênia/etnologia , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/etnologia , Tailândia/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 533-540, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091367

RESUMO

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends screening populations at increased risk for tuberculosis (TB), including persons born in countries with high TB rates. This approach assumes that TB risk for expatriates living in the United States is representative of TB risk in their countries of birth. We compared US TB rates by country of birth with corresponding country rates by calculating incidence rate ratios (IRRs) (World Health Organization rate/US rate). The median IRR was 5.4. The median IRR was 0.5 for persons who received a TB diagnosis <1 year after US entry, 4.9 at 1 to <10 years, and 10.0 at >10 years. Our analysis suggests that World Health Organization TB rates are not representative of TB risk among expatriates in the United States and that TB testing prioritization in the United States might better be based on US rates by country of birth and years in the United States.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/etnologia , México/etnologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etnologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(3): 615-617, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091380

RESUMO

Using shotgun metagenomics, we identified an imported case of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium leprae in a Filipino resident of Saudi Arabia in 2017. We determined the phylogenomic lineage (3K1) and identified mutations in rpoB and rrs corresponding to the multidrug-resistance phenotype clinically observed. Metagenomics sequencing can be used to identify multidrug-resistant M. leprae.


Assuntos
Hanseníase/diagnóstico , Mycobacterium leprae/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Hansenostáticos/farmacologia , Hansenostáticos/uso terapêutico , Hanseníase/tratamento farmacológico , Metagenômica , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium leprae/efeitos dos fármacos , Filipinas/etnologia , Arábia Saudita
14.
Am J Public Health ; 110(4): 520-526, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078359

RESUMO

Objectives. To determine the impact of data disaggregation on the ability to identify health disparities and needs for future research for Filipino, Vietnamese, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean adults in California.Methods. Using available data from the 2011-2017 California Health Interview Survey, we conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses to assess disparities in health conditions, outcomes, and service access compared with non-Hispanic Whites for Asians as an overall group and for each individual subgroup.Results. As an aggregate category, Asians appeared healthier than did non-Hispanic Whites on most indicators. However, every Asian subgroup had at least 1 disparity disguised by aggregation. Filipinos had the most disparities, with higher prevalence of fair or poor health, being obese or overweight, and having high blood pressure, diabetes, or asthma compared with non-Hispanic Whites (P < .05) in multivariable analyses.Conclusions. Failure to disaggregate health data for individual Asian subgroups disguises disparities and leads to inaccurate conclusions about needs for interventions and research.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , China/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Japão/etnologia , Filipinas/etnologia , República da Coreia/etnologia , Vietnã/etnologia
15.
Malar J ; 19(1): 59, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to anti-malarial drugs hinders malaria elimination. Monitoring the molecular markers of drug resistance helps improve malaria treatment policies. This study aimed to assess the distribution of molecular markers of imported Plasmodium falciparum infections. METHODS: In total, 485 P. falciparum cases imported from Africa, Southeast Asia, and Oceania into Zhejiang province, China, from 2016 to 2018 were investigated. Most were imported from Africa, and only a few cases originated in Asia and Oceania. Blood samples were collected from each patient. Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt) at residues 72-76 and Kelch13-propeller (k13) were determined by nested PCR and DNA sequence. RESULTS: Wild-type Pfcrt at residues 72-76 was predominant (72.61%), but mutant and mixed alleles were also detected, of which CVIET (22.72%) was the most common. Mutant Pfcrt haplotypes were more frequent in patients from West Africa (26.92%), North Africa (25%), and Central Africa (21.93%). The number of cases of P. falciparum infections was small in Southeast Asia and Oceania, and these cases involved Pfcrt mutant type. For the k13 propeller gene, 26 samples presented 19 different point mutations, including eight nonsynonymous mutations (P441S, D464E, K503E, R561H, A578S, R622I, V650F, N694K). In addition, R561H, one of the validated SNPs in k13, was detected in one patient from Myanmar and one patient from Rwanda. A578S, although common in Africa, was found in only one patient from Cameroon. R622I was detected in one sample from Mozambique and one sample from Somalia. The genetic diversity of k13 was low in most regions of Africa and purifying selection was suggested by Tajima's D test. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency and spatial distributions of Pfcrt and k13 mutations associated with drug resistance were determined. Wild-type Pfcrt was dominant in Africa. Among k13 mutations correlated with delayed parasite clearance, only the R561H mutation was found in one case from Rwanda in Africa. Both Pfcrt and k13 mutations were detected in patients from Southeast Asia and Oceania. These findings provide insights into the molecular epidemiological profile of drug resistance markers in the study region.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Plasmodium falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , África/etnologia , Idoso , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Mianmar/etnologia , Papua Nova Guiné/etnologia , Filipinas/etnologia , Mutação Puntual , Migrantes , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 22(3): 571-579, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183593

RESUMO

Research has found that 24% of foreign domestic workers (FDWs) in Singapore have poor mental health (24%), with depressive symptoms being identified as the second most severe psychological symptoms [1]. The study assessed the acceptability and effectiveness of a 4-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based paraprofessional training program for FDWs in Singapore on depression literacy and CBT knowledge (primary outcomes), depression-related stigma, as well as attitudes towards seeking professional help (secondary outcomes) immediately and 2 months following the training. Forty female Filipino FDWs were recruited and randomized into either a CBT-based paraprofessional training program or wait-list (WL) group. Participants completed outcome measures before, after, and 2 months following their training. No significant difference was found on changes on any of the outcome variables in the intervention group as compared to the WL group. Following training, both groups showed significantly improved depression literacy, CBT knowledge, and attitudes towards seeking professional help. These changes were sustained at 2-month follow-up. All participants indicated a high level of satisfaction with the training program. While findings from between-group analyses do not support the efficacy of the CBT-based paraprofessional training program in improving depression literacy and related outcomes, participation in the program was associated with improvements in several outcomes within the training group. Future research should explore adaptations to the program (e.g., in terms of training duration and modes of delivery) that would increase its efficacy in improving depression literacy and CBT knowledge among FDWs.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/educação , Serviço de Limpeza , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Grupo Associado , Adulto , Depressão/terapia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Singapura
18.
AIDS Behav ; 24(2): 418-427, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840160

RESUMO

Transnational migrant workers are known to be at high risk for HIV/STIs. This study estimated the point prevalence of HIV/syphilis and examined correlates of HIV/syphilis testing uptake among female migrant domestic workers in Macao, China. Data was obtained from 1363 female Filipino domestic workers who were offered free rapid HIV and syphilis testing. A mixed methods analysis was undertaken to examine correlates of testing and themes about reasons for not testing. Among 1164 women tested, there were no cases of HIV/syphilis observed and 199 (14.6%) refused HIV/syphilis testing. Greater social integration (aOR 1.12; 95% CI 1.02-1.24), having more than one sexual partner (aOR 1.65; 95% CI 1.02-2.65), and longer working hours on the testing day (aOR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.00), were associated with testing uptake. Among those who tested, the majority (> 70%) had never tested before, suggesting the need to improve testing outreach. Qualitative themes about reasons for not testing included low perceived need and insufficient time. Individual and structural testing barriers should be reduced to optimize HIV/STI testing in migrant populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Sorodiagnóstico da Sífilis/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas/etnologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Testes Sorológicos , Comportamento Sexual , Parceiros Sexuais , Sífilis/epidemiologia
19.
Child Dev ; 91(1): 307-326, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273981

RESUMO

This study investigated the association between perceived material deprivation, children's behavior problems, and parents' disciplinary practices. The sample included 1,418 8- to 12-year-old children and their parents in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Multilevel mixed- and fixed-effects regression models found that, even when income remained stable, perceived material deprivation was associated with children's externalizing behavior problems and parents' psychological aggression. Parents' disciplinary practices mediated a small share of the association between perceived material deprivation and children's behavior problems. There were no differences in these associations between mothers and fathers or between high- and low- and middle-income countries. These results suggest that material deprivation likely influences children's outcomes at any income level.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/etnologia , Comparação Transcultural , Status Econômico , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Comportamento Problema , Criança , China/etnologia , Colômbia/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/etnologia , Jordânia/etnologia , Quênia/etnologia , Masculino , Filipinas/etnologia , Tailândia/etnologia , Estados Unidos/etnologia
20.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(5): 1021-1029, 2020 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Asian Americans are the fastest-growing minority group in the United States, yet little is known about their functional mobility. To overcome such a gap, this study examined the association between demographic/economic characteristics and functional limitations for middle-aged and older Asian Indians, Chinese, and Filipinos. METHOD: This study utilized microdata from the National Health Interview Survey pooled sample (2010-2016 IPUMS NHIS with a sample size of 6,767 Asians). Logit regressions were used to examine factors associated with functional limitations. Measures include age, gender, currently married, education (categorized as less than high school, high school, some college, college, advanced degree), birth and citizenship status, household income, home ownership, types of health insurance (e.g., Medicaid, Medicare, private), and geographic region (i.e., Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). RESULTS: Chinese (odds ratio [OR] 0.57, p < .01) and Filipinos (OR 0.74, p < .05) had lower odds for any functional limitations relative to Asian Indians. Currently married and individuals with a higher income were also associated with reduced odds for limitations in the overall analysis. As for the subgroup analysis, there was a positive association between age and the presence of any functional limitations for Asian Indians (OR 1.05, p < .01), Chinese (OR 1.08, p < .01), and Filipinos (OR 1.03, p < .01). In terms of gender, Asian Indian men were less likely (OR 0.51, p < .01), whereas Filipino men were more likely to have limitations (OR 1.09, p < .05). DISCUSSION: Asian Indians appeared to have a poorer health profile for limitations in dressing, eating, walking, or working when compared with Chinese and Filipinos. A pronounced difference at older ages was also apparent for Asian Indians by gender and the likelihood of having any limitations increased much faster for Asian Indian women. For Chinese, there was a dramatic increase in functional limitations after age 75 (particularly for women) and the predicted probability for this subgroup approximated 20%. For Filipinos, men were more likely to have limitations. These findings raise interesting questions about the on-set of disability by age and gender for Asian subgroups.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Filipinas/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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