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2.
Nature ; 578(7793): 41-42, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025005
3.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 174-188, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346908

RESUMO

The film ratings system employed by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) has been criticized by LGBTQ critics who claim the system discriminates by holding queer content to a higher ratings standard than content in other films. The MPAA argues the constituency for its ratings system is parents in traditional families who may find queer themes inappropriate for their children. Paradoxically, a number of organizations serving adolescents identifying as LGBTQ or as questioning their sexualities have created lists of recommended films, many of whose MPAA ratings make them virtually off-limits to teens unless their parents approve. Cyberspace is also populated with lists of films recommended for teens regardless of their sexuality and gender identity. This article compares ratings distributions for lists of films recommended for queer teens and those recommended for mainstream teens and finds evidence of negative impact on access by queer teens to potentially helpful film content.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos/normas , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Controle Social Formal , Estados Unidos
4.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 22(3): 280-289, set.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1043583

RESUMO

RESUMO: Como algumas produções cinematográficas contribuem ao debate sobre noções de trauma em psicanálise? Analisamos dois filmes dirigidos por Clint Eastwood, "Sobre meninos e lobos" e "Sniper americano" retomando, como método de trabalho, os conceitos de narcisismo das pequenas diferenças, trauma, fala como acontecimento, acontecimento e acontecimento-ruptura, de modo a colocar em questão os pensamentos por oposição binária e ego-referenciados, que podem reforçar estereótipos e preconceitos e que obturam a mobilidade e a transformação do acontecimento traumático em propulsão para a vida. Nossa intenção é desconstruir alguns discursos que pautam a cultura contemporânea e contribuir para intervenções psicanalíticas clínico-políticas.


ABSTRACT: How can some film productions feed the debate on the psychoanalytical notions of trauma? We analyze two films by Clint Eastwood, "Mystic River" and "American Sniper" based on the psychoanalytic view of trauma. As a working method, we resume the concepts of narcissism of minor differences, trauma, speech as an event, event and event break-up to call into question binary opposition and ego-referenced thinking that can reinforce stereotypes and prejudices that hinder the mobility and transformation of traumatic events in thrusts toward life. Our intention is to deconstruct some speeches guiding contemporary culture and to contribute to clinical-political psychoanalytic interventions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicanálise , Filmes Cinematográficos , Narcisismo
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(43): 974-978, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31671080

RESUMO

The Surgeon General has concluded that there is a causal relationship between depictions of smoking in movies and initiation of smoking among young persons (1). Youths heavily exposed to onscreen smoking imagery are more likely to begin smoking than are those with minimal exposure (1,2). To assess tobacco-use imagery in top-grossing youth-rated movies (General Audiences [G], Parental Guidance [PG], and Parents Strongly Cautioned [PG-13]),* 2010-2018 data from the Breathe California Sacramento Region and University of California-San Francisco's Onscreen Tobacco Database were analyzed.† The percentage of all top-grossing movies with tobacco incidents remained stable from 2010 (45%) to 2018 (46%), including youth-rated movies (31% both years). However, total tobacco incidents increased 57% from 2010 to 2018, with a 120% increase in PG-13 movies. Tobacco incidents in PG-13 fictional movies declined 57% from 511 in 2010 to an all-time low of 221 in 2018. Although the number of PG-13 fictional movies with tobacco incidents declined 40% during 2010-2018, the number of PG-13 biographical dramas with tobacco incidents increased 233%. In 2018, biographical dramas accounted for most tobacco incidents, including 82% of incidents in PG-13 movies; 73% of characters who used tobacco in these biographical dramas were fictional. Continued efforts could help reduce tobacco incidents in top-grossing movies, particularly in PG-13 biographical dramas, to help prevent youth smoking initiation.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos/economia , Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 525-539, jul.-set. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1016683

RESUMO

Protagonistas nas lutas LGBTs, as drag queens viveram constantemente um apagamento histórico, fruto do preconceito estrutural que envolve, inclusive, a própria comunidade LGBT. No entanto, contemporaneamente, a cultura drag vive um momento de forte presença midiática suscitada pela popularização do programa estadunidense RuPaul's Drag Race. Tendo isso em vista, o presente artigo visa elaborar um entendimento sobre o percurso histórico que possibilitou a construção da cultura drag, tal qual a compreendemos contemporaneamente. Além disso, busca situar esses sujeitos como importantes na história LGBT mundial, observando sua presença, também, na cultura e mídia brasileiras.


Protagonists in the LGBT struggles, drag queens have constantly lived a historical erasure, as a result of the structural prejudice that involves, even, the own LGBT community. However, at the same time, the drag culture lives a moment of strong media presence raised by the popularization of the American program RuPaul's Drag Race. Taking this into account, this article aims to elaborate an understanding of the historical path that allowed the construction of the drag culture as we understand it contemporaneously. In addition, it seeks to situate these subjects as important in LGBT world history, noting their presence, also, in Brazilian culture and media.


Protagonistas de las luchas LGBT, las drag queens experimentan un borrado histórico, como consecuencia del prejuicio estructural que implica, incluso, la propia comunidad LGBT. Sin embargo, al mismo tiempo, la cultura del arrastre vive un momento de fuerte presencia de los medios levantada por la popularización del programa norteamericano RuPaul's Drag Race. Teniendo esto en cuenta, este artículo tiene como objetivo elaborar una comprensión del recorrido histórico que permitió la construcción de la cultura drag como la entendemos contemporáneamente. Además, busca situar esos temas como importantes en la historia mundial LGBT, observando su presencia, también, en la cultura y los medios brasileños.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Social , Travestismo , Cultura , Mídia Audiovisual , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Identidade de Gênero , Política Pública , Transexualismo , Violência , Estilo de Vida , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Filmes Cinematográficos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382598

RESUMO

Background. Exposure to fictional suicide scenes raises concerns about the risk of suicide contagion. However, researchers and clinicians still lack empirical evidence to estimate this risk. Here, we propose a theory-grounded tool that measures properties related to aberrant identification and suicidal contagion of potentially harmful suicide scenes. Methods. The items of the Movies and Video: Identification and Emotions in reaction to Suicide (MoVIES) operationalize the World Health Organization's recommendations for media coverage of suicide, and were adapted and completed with identification theory principles and cinematographic evidence. Inter-rater reliability (Cohen's kappa) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) were estimated and optimized for two series of 19 and 30 randomly selected movies depicting a suicide scene. The validity of the scale in predicting identification with the suicidal character was tested in nine unknowledgeable participants who watched seven suicide movie scenes each. Results. The MoVIES indicated satisfying psychometric properties with kappas measured at 0.7 or more for every item and a global internal consistency of [α = 0.05]. The MoVIES score significantly predicted participants' strength of identification independently from their baseline empathy ((ß = 0.20), p < 0.05). Conclusions. The MoVIES is available to scholars as a valid, reliable, and useful tool to estimate the amount of at-risk components of fictional suicidal behavior depicted in films, series, or television shows.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia
9.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 26(2): 66-72, mayo-ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185033

RESUMO

Introducción: La esquizofrenia es uno de los trastornos mentales que mayor discapacidad humana genera en todo el mundo. Hasta el momento, el tratamiento de síntomas negativos en esquizofrenia dista de estar resuelto de un modo satisfactorio. La singular capacidad del cine para activar la atención, la imaginación y la memoria, así como de activar procesos mentales complejos en los espectadores, permite pensar que puede ser una herramienta terapéutica eficaz para el tratamiento de determinados trastornos mentales. Objetivos: Evaluar el eficacia de una nueva técnica psicoterapéutica (diseñada ad hoc) basada en el análisis fílmico por secuencias y el doble visionado utilizando cine de ficción en pacientes con diagnóstico de trastornos del espectro de la esquizofrenia y otros trastornos psicóticos. Metodología: Se realizó un ensayo clínico multicéntrico, aleatorizado y en grupos paralelos en el que participaron 48 pacientes con diagnóstico de trastornos psicóticos del espectro de la esquizofrenia. Se compararon los efectos de la aplicación de una técnica psicoterapéutica grupal, basada en el uso de cine de ficción como soporte y cuya técnica estaba inspirada en el análisis fílmico, frente a un grupo control que también trabajaba con una técnica más inespecífica sobre el mismo soporte. Para el desarrollo de la nueva técnica psicoterapéutica grupal -objeto de este estudio- se seleccionaron 3 técnicas del análisis fílmico en las que los investigadores en su práctica clínica observaron un potencial terapéutico: 1) la segmentación del material fílmico en secuencias; 2) el análisis por secuencias de los contenidos de la película, y 3) el doble visionado del material cinematográfico. La intervención constaba de 26 sesiones, que implicaban la doble visión de los 13 episodios de la primera temporada de la serie de televisión Los Soprano. Las medidas primarias de resultado fueron los cambios obtenidos en las subescalas de la Escala de Síndromes Positivo y Negativo de la Esquizofrenia, según el modelo pentafactorial de Wallwork, entre la situación basal y final tras el tratamiento. Como medidas de resultado cognitivas se utilizaron los cambios en las escalas de cognición incluidas en la MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery y en escalas de cognición social (MSCEIT, FEIT, FBS) antes y después del tratamiento. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron una mejoría estadísticamente significativa en el grupo experimental frente al grupo control en los síntomas, positivos (p=0,01; d=0,82 [IC del 95%, 0,2-1,43]), negativos (p=0,005; d=0,89 [IC del 95%, 0,26-1,51]) y desorganizados (p=0,013; d=0,49 [IC del 95%, 0,11-1,09]). En el análisis post-hoc del factor negativo se encontró mejorías estadísticamente significativas en las variables: embotamiento afectivo (p=0,041; d=0,64 [IC del 95%, 0,03-1,24]), retraimiento emocional (p=0,012; d=0,80 [IC del 95%, 0,18-1,41]), contacto pobre (p=0,000; d=1,18 [IC del 95%, 0,52-1,82]) y enlentecimiento motor (p=0,003; d=0,96 [IC del 95%, 0,33-1,58]). En el análisis post-hoc del factor positivo se encontró mejoría significativa en el subdominio delirios (p=0,01; d=0,82 [IC del 95%, 0,2-1,4]). No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en síntomas afectivos ni en ninguno de los dominios cognitivos estudiados. Conclusiones: La nueva técnica psicoterapéutica propuesta es aplicable y bien aceptada por los pacientes con esquizofrenia y otros trastornos psicóticos. El uso de esta nueva técnica psicoterapéutica inspirada en el uso del análisis fílmico puede servir para mejorar los síntomas positivos, negativos y desorganizados en pacientes con esquizofrenia


Introduction: Schizophrenia is one of the mental disorders that generate the greatest human disability in the world. The treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia is still far from being resolved satisfactorily. The unique ability of cinema to activate attention, imagination and memory, as well as to activate complex mental processes in viewers leads one to think that it can be an effective therapeutic tool for the treatment of certain mental disorders. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a new psychotherapeutic technique (designed ad hoc) based on the analysis of film sequences and double viewed using fiction films in patients diagnosed with spectrum disorders of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Methods: A multicentre, randomised and parallel group clinical trial was conducted on 48 patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorders of the schizophrenia spectrum. The effects of the application of a psychotherapeutic group therapy technique, based on the use of fiction films, were compared to a control group that also worked with fiction films, but using a non-specific technique. Three film analysis techniques with potential therapeutic properties were selected for the development of the new group psychotherapy technique: 1) the segmentation of the cinematic material into sequences, 2) the analysis by sequences of the contents of the film, 3) the double viewing of the cinematographic material. The intervention consisted of 26 sessions, which involved the double viewing of the 13 episodes of the first season of the television series Los Soprano. The primary outcome measures were the changes obtained in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) subscales, according to Wallwork's five-factor model, between the baseline and final situation after treatment. Cognitive outcome measurements included changes in the cognition scales included in the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) and in social cognition scales, like MSCEIT, FEIT, and FBS (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Facial Emotion Identification Test, and Frankfurt self-assessment scale for persons with schizophrenia, respectively), before and after treatment. Results: The results showed a statistically significant improvement in the experimental group versus the control group in the positive [P=.01; d=0.82 (95% CI; 0.2-1.43)], negative [P=.005; d=0.89 (95% CI; 0.26-1.51)] and disorganised symptoms [P=.013; d=0.49 (95% CI; 0.11-1.09)]. In the "post-hoc" analysis of the negative factor, statistically significant improvements were found in the following variables: blunted effect (P=.041, d=0.64 (95% CI; 0.03-1.24)], emotional withdrawal (P=.012, d=0.80 (95% CI; 0.18-1.41)], poor contact (P=.000, d=1.18 (95% CI; 0.52-1.82)], and motor retardation (P=.003, d=0.96 (95% CI; 0.33-1.58).] In the "post-hoc" analysis of the positive factor there was a significant improvement in the delusions subdomain [P=.01; d=0.82 (95% CI; 0.2-1.4).] No significant differences were found between groups in affective symptoms or in any of the cognitive domains. Conclusions: The proposed new psychotherapy technique is applicable and well accepted by patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The use of this new psychotherapy technique inspired in film analysis is effective in leading to improvements in the positive, negative, and disorganised symptoms in patients with schizophrenia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/terapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Terapias Sensoriais através das Artes/métodos
10.
12.
Neural Netw ; 118: 208-219, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299625

RESUMO

Multimodal emotion understanding enables AI systems to interpret human emotions. With accelerated video surge, emotion understanding remains challenging due to inherent data ambiguity and diversity of video content. Although deep learning has made a considerable progress in big data feature learning, they are viewed as deterministic models used in a "black-box" manner which does not have capabilities to represent inherent ambiguities with data. Since the possibility theory of fuzzy logic focuses on knowledge representation and reasoning under uncertainty, we intend to incorporate the concepts of fuzzy logic into deep learning framework. This paper presents a novel convolutional neuro-fuzzy network, which is an integration of convolutional neural networks in fuzzy logic domain to extract high-level emotion features from text, audio, and visual modalities. The feature sets extracted by fuzzy convolutional layers are compared with those of convolutional neural networks at the same level using t-distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding. This paper demonstrates a multimodal emotion understanding framework with an adaptive neural fuzzy inference system that can generate new rules to classify emotions. For emotion understanding of movie clips, we concatenate audio, visual, and text features extracted using the proposed convolutional neuro-fuzzy network to train adaptive neural fuzzy inference system. In this paper, we go one step further to explain how deep learning arrives at a conclusion that can guide us to an interpretable AI. To identify which visual/text/audio aspects are important for emotion understanding, we use direct linear non-Gaussian additive model to explain the relevance in terms of causal relationships between features of deep hidden layers. The critical features extracted are input to the proposed multimodal framework to achieve higher accuracy.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Emoções , Lógica Fuzzy , Filmes Cinematográficos , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo/classificação , Emoções/fisiologia , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos/classificação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos
15.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 69(2): 77-86, 16 jul., 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184018

RESUMO

Introducción. La parálisis cerebral se define como un grupo de trastornos del desarrollo del movimiento y la postura que limitan la actividad de la persona, que se deben a alteraciones no progresivas que se produjeron en el cerebro fetal o infantil en desarrollo en los primeros años de vida y que se acompaña con frecuencia de epilepsia, alteraciones cognitivas, sensoriales, de la comunicación o el comportamiento. La parálisis cerebral se ha mostrado en la literatura, el cine y la televisión, y este estudio tiene por objetivo conocer cómo se ha representado en estos medios. Desarrollo. La parálisis cerebral se ha representado en la literatura, el cine y la televisión de manera exhaustiva y con mayor o menor acierto. Se ha mostrado la sintomatología, las vivencias de pacientes, familiares y cuidadores, los tratamientos, los productos de apoyo, las barreras arquitectónicas o las relaciones sociales y laborales. En ocasiones, la representación se ha realizado de forma muy ajustada a la realidad, mientras que en otros casos se han amplificado los aspectos más dramáticos para dar consistencia a la trama. Conclusiones. La parálisis cerebral se ha representado ampliamente en obras de ficción y testimonio, cómics, películas, cortometrajes, documentales y series de televisión, en ocasiones de manera muy realista, mientras que en otras se ha podido contribuir a incrementar el estigma ofreciendo una visión distorsionada de la realidad, pero que en cualquier caso han contribuido a dar visibilidad a este cuadro patológico


Introduction. Cerebral palsy is defined as a group of developmental disorders affecting movement and posture that limit a person's activity. They due to non-progressive alterations that occurred in the developing foetal or infant brain in the early years of life and are often accompanied by epilepsy and cognitive, sensory, communication or behavioural disorders. Cerebral palsy has been portrayed in literature, cinema and television, and this study aims to explore how it has been represented in these media. Development. Cerebral palsy has frequently been represented in literature, cinema and television and with varying degrees of realism. The symptoms, the experiences of patients, relatives and caregivers, treatments, supporting products, architectural barriers or social and labour relations have all been portrayed. Sometimes they have been represented in a way that is very close to reality, while in other cases the most dramatic aspects have been amplified to add to the plot. Conclusions. Cerebral palsy has been widely represented in works of fiction and testimonies, comics, films, short films, documentaries and television series, sometimes in a very realistic way, while in others it has been done in a way that may increase the stigma surrounding this condition by offering a distorted vision of reality. Nevertheless, in any event they have helped to make this condition more visible


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina na Literatura , Filmes Cinematográficos , Televisão , Paralisia Cerebral
17.
18.
Int J Eat Disord ; 52(8): 895-903, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241208

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Abundant research points to the central role of body image disturbances in the occurrence of eating disorders (ED). While emotional arousal has been identified as a trigger for binge eating in bulimia nervosa (BN), empirical knowledge on the influence of emotions on body image in individuals with BN is scarce. The present study sought to experimentally examine effects of a positive and negative emotion induction on body dissatisfaction and selective attention towards negatively valenced body parts among people with BN. METHOD: In a randomized-controlled cross-over design, happiness and sadness were induced by film clips one-week apart in women with BN (n = 23) and non-ED controls (n = 26). After the emotion induction, participants looked at their body in a full-length mirror, while their attentional allocation was recorded with the help of a mobile eye tracker. Participants repeatedly rated their momentary body dissatisfaction. RESULTS: Induction of happiness led to a significant decrease in self-reported body dissatisfaction. Furthermore, attentional bias (higher gaze duration and frequency) towards the most disliked body part relative to the most liked body part was significantly greater in the sadness than happiness condition in BN. No significant effects of emotion induction on gaze duration and gaze frequency during mirror exposure were found for controls. DISCUSSION: In line with assumptions of current models on ED, findings support the notion that emotional state influences the body image of patients with BN.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Bulimia Nervosa/psicologia , Fixação Ocular , Felicidade , Tristeza , Adulto , Nível de Alerta , Viés de Atenção , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos , Autorrelato
20.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(1): 22-29, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225729

RESUMO

Despite the criticism and reservations made about him still nowadays, Louis Pasteur may be considered one of the most important scientists of the last two centuries in public health, even if the work of the numerous scientists who preceded him have largely contributed to the successes he obtained without following too much to the rules of deontology and ethics currently in force in the world of research and medicine. He has definitively put down, by his experiments, the "theory of spontaneous generation" in force since antiquity, validated that of "germs or microbes", enacted the first rules of asepsis, while inspiring those of the antisepsis applied by Joseph Lister, and developed a certain number of vaccinations in veterinary and human medicine, including the anti-rabies, the one which made him famous all over the world. All this was not done without difficulty and Pasteur encountered for a large part of his life the misunderstanding of his contemporaries and the hostility of the medical world to which he did not belong. The authors comment in this text the movie The Story of Louis Pasteur by William Dieterle, filmed in 1936, based on the knowledge acquired since that date and doing the part of the real and the fiction.


Assuntos
Filmes Cinematográficos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Filmes Cinematográficos/história , Vacinas Antirrábicas/história , Pesquisa/história , Vacinas/história
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