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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 72(1): e49359, ene.-dic. 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1559319

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: A recent revision of the generic classification of the Trochilidae based on DNA sequences revealed many inconsistencies with the current generic classification, largely based on plumage characters subject to homoplasy, especially in the Trochilini, the largest tribe. A thorough generic reorganization brought the classification into accord with the phylogeny, but due to lack of genetic data, two species remained unclassified. One of these was the Mangrove Hummingbird, "Amazilia" boucardi, endemic to Costa Rica and included in the IUCN red list of threatened species. Objective: To obtain molecular evidence to clarify the generic relationships of "A." boucardi. Methods: We isolated DNA from tissues of this species and amplified 4 nuclear and 4 mitochondrial fragments and compared these with homologous fragments from 56 species in the Trochilini, constructing phylogenetic trees with maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Results: Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the placement of boucardi in the Trochilini and definitely excluded it from Amazilia but placed it with high confidence in the genus Chrysuronia Bonaparte, 1850, within which its closest relative is C. coeruleogularis, which also inhabits mangroves. Conclusions: Our genetic data based on nuclear and mitochondrial regions clearly indicate the relationship of A. boucardi and L. coeruleogularis. Moreover, it is also supported by their habitat distribution in the mangroves of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Western Panama. Therefore, we suggested to exclude A. boucardi as "incertae sedis".


Resumen Introducción: Una revisión reciente de la clasificación de la familia Trochilidae con base en secuencias de ADN demostró muchas incongruencias con la clasificación genérica previa, que había sido hecho con base en caracteres del plumaje muy sujetos a homoplasia, especialmente en la tribu más grande, Trochillini. Una reorganización de los géneros logró llevar su clasificación genérica a la concordancia con la filogenia, pero debido a la ausencia de datos genéticos, dos especies permanecieron sin clasificar. Una de estas fue el colibrí de manglar Amazilia boucardi, una especie endémica de Costa Rica, considerada como amenazada en la lista roja de la UICN. Objetivo: Obtener evidencia molecular para esclarecer las relaciones genéricas de A. boucardi. Métodos: Se aisló ADN de tejidos de esta especie y se amplificaron 4 fragmentos de ADN del núcleo y 5 de la mitocondria, y se compararon con fragmentos homólogos de 56 especies en la tribu Trochillini, generando árboles filogenéticos con métodos de máxima verosimilitud y bayesiano. Resultados: Los análisis filogénticos obtenidos confirmaron la ubicación de boucardi en Trochilini y definitivamente la excluyó del género Amazilia, pero la ubicó con un alto grado de confianza en el género Chrysuronia Bonaparte, 1850, dentro los cuales su pariente más cercano es C. coeruleogularis, que también habita manglares. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos genéticos basados en regiones nucleares y mitocondriales indican claramente la relación entre A. boucardi and L. coeruleogularis. Es más, lo anterior se sustenta por su distribución en los manglares de la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica y oeste de Panamá. Por lo tanto, sugerimos excluir a A. boucardi como "incertae sedis".


Assuntos
Animais , Aves/classificação , DNA/análise , Filogenia , Costa Rica , Genes Mitocondriais
2.
Parasite ; 31: 34, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949636

RESUMO

Wild rodents serve as reservoirs for Cryptosporidium and are overpopulated globally. However, genetic data regarding Cryptosporidium in these animals from China are limited. Here, we have determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium among 370 wild rodents captured from three distinct locations in the southern region of Zhejiang Province, China. Fresh feces were collected from the rectum of each rodent, and DNA was extracted from them. The rodent species was identified by PCR amplifying the vertebrate cytochrome b gene. Cryptosporidium was detected by PCR amplification and amplicon sequencing the small subunit of ribosomal RNA gene. Positive samples of C. viatorum and C. parvum were further subtyped by analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. A positive Cryptosporidium result was found in 7% (26/370) of samples, involving five rodent species: Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155), and R. tanezumi (86). Their respective Cryptosporidium positive rates were 8.3%, 5.3%, 11.1%, 7.1%, and 7.0%. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of three Cryptosporidium species: C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1), and C. muris (1), and two genotypes: Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV (16) and C. mortiferum-like (4). Additionally, two subtypes of C. parvum (IIdA15G1 and IIpA19) and one subtype of C. viatorum (XVdA3) were detected. These results demonstrate that various wild rodent species in Zhejiang were concurrently infected with rodent-adapted and zoonotic species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium, indicating that these rodents can play a role in maintaining and dispersing this parasite into the environment and other hosts, including humans.


Title: Transmission interspécifique de Cryptosporidium chez les rongeurs sauvages de la région sud de la province chinoise du Zhejiang et son impact possible sur la santé publique. Abstract: Les rongeurs sauvages servent de réservoirs à Cryptosporidium et ont des grandes populations à l'échelle mondiale. Cependant, les données génétiques concernant Cryptosporidium chez ces animaux en Chine sont limitées. Ici, nous avons déterminé la prévalence et les caractéristiques génétiques de Cryptosporidium parmi 370 rongeurs sauvages capturés dans trois endroits distincts de la région sud de la province du Zhejiang, en Chine. Des excréments frais ont été collectés dans le rectum de chaque rongeur et l'ADN en a été extrait. L'espèce de rongeur a été identifiée par amplification par PCR du gène du cytochrome b des vertébrés. Cryptosporidium a été détecté par amplification PCR et séquençage d'amplicons de la petite sous-unité du gène de l'ARN ribosomal. Les échantillons positifs de C. viatorum et C. parvum ont ensuite été sous-typés en analysant le gène de la glycoprotéine de 60 kDa. Un résultat positif pour Cryptosporidium a été trouvé dans 7 % (26/370) des échantillons, impliquant cinq espèces de rongeurs : Apodemus agrarius (36), Niviventer niviventer (75), Rattus losea (18), R. norvegicus (155) et R. tanezumi (86). Leurs taux respectifs de positivité pour Cryptosporidium étaient de 8,3 %, 5,3 %, 11,1 %, 7,1 % et 7,0 %. L'analyse des séquences a confirmé la présence de trois espèces de Cryptosporidium : C. parvum (4), C. viatorum (1) et C. muris (1), et de deux génotypes : Cryptosporidium génotype IV de rat (16) et C. mortiferum-like (4). De plus, deux sous-types de C. parvum (IIdA15G1 et IIpA19) et un sous-type de C. viatorum (XVdA3) ont été détectés. Ces résultats démontrent que diverses espèces de rongeurs sauvages du Zhejiang sont simultanément infectées par des espèces/génotypes de Cryptosporidium zoonotiques et adaptés aux rongeurs, ce qui indique que ces rongeurs peuvent jouer un rôle dans le maintien et la dispersion de ce parasite dans l'environnement et d'autres hôtes, y compris les humains.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Fezes , Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , China/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Cryptosporidium/classificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/transmissão , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Ratos/parasitologia , Roedores/parasitologia , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Filogenia , Humanos , DNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Murinae/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Genótipo
3.
Parasite ; 31: 35, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38949637

RESUMO

Myxidium rhodei Léger, 1905 (Cnidaria: Myxozoa) is a kidney-infecting myxosporean that was originally described from the European bitterling Rhodeus amarus. Subsequently, it has been documented based on spore morphology in more than 40 other cypriniform species, with the roach Rutilus rutilus being the most commonly reported host. This study introduces the first comprehensive data assessment of M. rhodei, conducted through morphological, ecological and molecular methods. The morphological and phylogenetic analyses of SSU rDNA sequences of Myxidium isolates obtained from European bitterling and roach did not support parasite conspecificity from these fish. In fact, the roach-infecting isolates represent three distinct parasite species. The first two, M. rutili n. sp. and M. rutilusi n. sp., are closely related cryptic species clustering with other myxosporeans in the freshwater urinary clade, sharing the same tissue tropism. The third one, M. batuevae n. sp., previously assigned to M. cf. rhodei, clustered in the hepatic biliary clade sister to bitterling-infecting M. rhodei. Our examination of diverse cypriniform fishes, coupled with molecular and morphological analyses, allowed us to untangle the cryptic species nature of M. rhodei and discover the existence of novel species. This underscores the largely undiscovered range of myxozoan diversity and highlights the need to incorporate sequence data in diagnosing novel species.


Title: Résoudre le casse-tête de Myxidium rhodei (Myxozoa) : aperçu de sa phylogénie et de sa spécificité d'hôte chez les Cypriniformes. Abstract: Myxidium rhodei Léger, 1905 (Cnidaria : Myxozoa) est un Myxosporea infectant les reins qui a été décrit à l'origine chez la bouvière, Rhodeus amarus. Par la suite, il a été documenté, sur la base de la morphologie des spores, chez plus de 40 autres espèces de cypriniformes, le gardon Rutilus rutilus étant l'hôte le plus fréquemment signalé. Cette étude présente la première évaluation complète des données sur M. rhodei, réalisée par des méthodes morphologiques, écologiques et moléculaires. Les analyse morphologiques et phylogénétiques des séquences d'ADNr SSU des isolats de Myxidium obtenus à partir de bouvières et de gardons européens n'ont pas confirmé la conspécificité du parasite de ces poissons. En fait, les isolats infectant les gardons représentent trois espèces distinctes de parasites. Les deux premières, M. rutili n. sp. et M. rutilusi n. sp., sont des espèces cryptiques étroitement apparentées, regroupées avec d'autres Myxosporea du clade urinaire d'eau douce, partageant le même tropisme tissulaire. La troisième, M. batuevae n. sp., précédemment attribuée à M. cf. rhodei, appartient au clade biliaire hépatique, groupe-frère de M. rhodei infectant la bouvière. Notre examen de divers poissons cypriniformes, couplé à des analyses moléculaires et morphologiques, nous a permis de démêler la nature cryptique des espèces de M. rhodei et de découvrir l'existence de nouvelles espèces. Cela souligne la diversité largement méconnue des Myxozoaires et souligne la nécessité d'incorporer des données de séquence dans le diagnostic de nouvelles espèces.


Assuntos
Cipriniformes , Doenças dos Peixes , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Myxozoa , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais , Filogenia , Animais , Myxozoa/classificação , Myxozoa/genética , Myxozoa/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Parasitárias em Animais/parasitologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Cipriniformes/parasitologia , DNA Ribossômico , Rim/parasitologia , Cyprinidae/parasitologia
4.
J Med Virol ; 96(7): e29750, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953413

RESUMO

The Phylum Cressdnaviricota consists of a large number of circular Rep-encoding single-stranded (CRESS)-DNA viruses. Recently, metagenomic analyzes revealed their ubiquitous distribution in a diverse range of eukaryotes. Data relating to CRESS-DNA viruses in humans remains scarce. Our study investigated the presence and genetic diversity of CRESS-DNA viruses in human vaginal secretions. Vaginal swabs were collected from 28 women between 29 and 43 years old attending a fertility clinic in New York City. An exploratory metagenomic analysis was performed and detection of CRESS-DNA viruses was confirmed through analysis of near full-length sequences of the viral isolates. A phylogenetic tree was based on the REP open reading frame sequences of the CRESS-DNA virus genome. Eleven nearly complete CRESS-DNA viral genomes were identified in 16 (57.1%) women. There were no associations between the presence of these viruses and any demographic or clinical parameters. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that one of the sequences belonged to the genus Gemycircularvirus within the Genomoviridae family, while ten sequences represented previously unclassified species of CRESS-DNA viruses. Novel species of CRESS-DNA viruses are present in the vaginal tract of adult women. Although they be transient commensal agents, the potential clinical implications for their presence at this site cannot be dismissed.


Assuntos
Vírus de DNA , Genoma Viral , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Vagina , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Vagina/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Vírus de DNA/isolamento & purificação , DNA Viral/genética , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Variação Genética
5.
Microb Genom ; 10(7)2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953769

RESUMO

Several hundred ciliate species live in animals' guts as a part of their microbiome. Among them, Muniziella cunhai (Trichostomatia, Pycnotrichidae), the largest described ciliate, is found exclusively associated with Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (capybara), the largest known rodent reaching up to 90 kg. Here, we present the sequence, structural and functional annotation of this giant microeukaryote macronuclear genome and discuss its phylogenetic placement. The 85 Mb genome is highly AT rich (GC content 25.71 %) and encodes a total of 11 397 protein-coding genes, of which 2793 could have their functions predicted with automated functional assignments. Functional annotation showed that M. cunhai can digest recalcitrant structural carbohydrates, non-structural carbohydrates, and microbial cell walls, suggesting a role in diet metabolization and in microbial population control in the capybara's intestine. Moreover, the phylogenetic placement of M. cunhai provides insights on the origins of gigantism in the subclass Trichostomatia.


Assuntos
Cilióforos , Filogenia , Animais , Cilióforos/genética , Cilióforos/classificação , Roedores/microbiologia , Genoma de Protozoário , Composição de Bases , Anotação de Sequência Molecular
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953888

RESUMO

Two novel strain pairs (HM61T/HM23 and S-34T/S-58) were isolated from soil and the faeces of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) collected at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of PR China. All four new isolates were aerobic, non-motile, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, and short rod-shaped bacteria. The results of phylogenetic analysis based on the full-length 16S rRNA genes and 283 core genomic genes indicated that the four strains were separated into two independent branches belonging to the genus Nocardioides. Strains HM61T and HM23 were most closely related to Nocardioides pelophilus THG T63T (98.58 and 98.65 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Strains S-34T and S-58 were most closely related to Nocardioides okcheonensis MMS20-HV4-12T (98.89 and 98.89 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains HM61T and S-34T were 70.6 and 72.5 mol%, respectively. Strains HM61T, S-34T and the type strains of closely related species in the analysis had average nucleotide identity values of 75.4-90.5 % as well as digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between 20.1 and 40.8 %, which clearly indicated that the four isolates represent two novel species within the genus Nocardioides. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of strains HM61T and S-34T were consistent with the genus Nocardioides. The major fatty acids of all four strains were iso-C16 : 0, C17 : 1 ω8c or C18 : 1 ω9c. For strains HM61T and S-34T, MK-8(H4) was the predominant respiratory quinone, ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid was the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan, and the polar lipids profiles were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol. Based on phylogenetic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic data, we propose that strains HM61T and S-34T represent two novel species of the genus Nocardioides, respectively, with the names Nocardioides bizhenqiangii sp. nov. and Nocardioides renjunii sp. nov. The type strains are HM61T (=GDMCC 4.343T=JCM 36399T) and S-34T (=CGMCC 4.7664T=JCM 33792T).


Assuntos
Antílopes , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Fezes , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Tibet , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Fezes/microbiologia , Antílopes/microbiologia , Animais , China , Actinomycetales/genética , Actinomycetales/isolamento & purificação , Actinomycetales/classificação , Peptidoglicano , Fosfolipídeos/análise
7.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 335, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38953983

RESUMO

Salmonella is considered as one of the most common zoonotic /foodborne pathogens in the world. The application of bacteriophages as novel antibacterial agents in food substrates has become an emerging strategy. Bacteriophages have the potential to control Salmonella contamination.We have isolated and characterized a broad-spectrum Salmonella phage, SP154, which can lyse 9 serotypes, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium, S. Pullorum, S. Arizonae, S. Dublin, S. Cholerasuis, S. Chester, S. 1, 4, [5], 12: i: -, and S. Derby, accounting for 81.9% of 144 isolates. SP154 showed a short latent period (40 min) and a high burst size (with the first rapid burst size at 107 PFUs/cell and the second rapid burst size at approximately 40 PFUs/cell). Furthermore, SP154 activity has higher survival rates across various environmental conditions, including pH 4.0-12.0 and temperatures ranging from 4 to 50 °C for 60 min, making it suitable for diverse food processing and storage applications. Significant reductions in live Salmonella were observed in different foods matrices such as milk and chicken meat, with a decrease of up to 1.9 log10 CFU/mL in milk contamination and a 1 log10 CFU/mL reduction in chicken meat. Whole genome sequencing analysis revealed that SP154 belongs to the genus Ithacavirus, subfamily Humphriesvirinae, within the family Schitoviridae. Phylogenetic analysis based on the terminase large subunit supported this classification, although an alternate tree using the tail spike protein gene suggested affiliation with the genus Kuttervirus, underscoring the limitations of relying on a single gene for phylogenetic inference. Importantly, no virulence or antibiotic resistance genes were detected in SP154. Our research highlights the potential of using SP154 for biocontrol of Salmonella in the food industry.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Genoma Viral , Fagos de Salmonella , Salmonella , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Fagos de Salmonella/genética , Fagos de Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Fagos de Salmonella/classificação , Fagos de Salmonella/fisiologia , Animais , Salmonella/virologia , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas , Leite/microbiologia , Leite/virologia , Carne/microbiologia , Carne/virologia , Filogenia
8.
Arch Microbiol ; 206(7): 337, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954015

RESUMO

Two Gram-staining-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped and phosphate-solubilizing strains designated SG2303T and SG2305, were isolated from paddy soil in China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16 S rRNA gene sequences indicated that SG2303T and SG2305 represented a member of the genus Crenobacter within the family Neisseriaceae of the phylum Pseudomonadota. Strain SG2303T displayed higher 16 S rRNA gene sequence similarities with members of the genus Crenobacter ranging from 93.5 to 94.0%. Strains C. luteus YIM 78141T and C. cavernae K1W11S-77T were closest related to the isolated strains and were considered as type strains. Growth of strain SG2303T occurred at 10-55 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 5.0-9.0 (optimum pH 6.0-7.0) and 0-1% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0%). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values between strain SG2303T and its closely related taxa were 76.1-78.2% and 20.5-22.1%, respectively. The genomic DNA G + C content was 62.2%. The quinone of strain SG2303T was Q-8. The major fatty acids (> 10%) of strain SG2303T were C16:0 (30.6%), summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) (26.0%) and C12:0 3OH (12.1%). The polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol (PG), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phospholipids (PL), glycolipid (GL) and unidentified lipids (UL). Based on the results of the phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical, and morphological analysis, strain SG2303T is recognized as a novel species of the genus Crenobacter, for which the name Crenobacter oryzisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SG2303T (= GDMCC 1.3970T = JCM 36468T). In addition, SG2303T was also able of phosphorus solubilization and promoting the growth of rice seeds. Strain SG2303T exhibited a relatively high dissolvable phosphorus content of 2.52 µg·mL- 1.


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Fosfatos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , China , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Oryza/microbiologia , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek ; 117(1): 93, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954062

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile, aerobic bacterium, designated as strain TK19101T, was isolated from the intermediate seawater of yellow vent in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system located near Kueishantao Island. The strain was found to grow at 10-40 °C (optimum, 35 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, 7.0), and in 0-5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1%). Strain TK19101T was catalase-positive and oxidase-positive. The predominant fatty acids (> 10%) in strain TK19101T cells were C16:0, summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c and/or C18:1 ω7c), and C18:0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone of strain TK19101T was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipids of strain TK19101T comprised phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipid, and unknown polar lipid. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain TK19101T belonged to the genus Mesobacterium. Strain TK19101T exhibited highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity value to Mesobacterium pallidum MCCC M24557T (97.48%). The estimated average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain TK19101T and the closest related species Mesobacterium pallidum MCCC M24557T were 74.88% and 20.30%, respectively. The DNA G + C content was 63.49 mol%. On the basis of the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, genotypic and phylogenetic data, strain TK19101T has a unique phylogenetic status and represents a novel species of genus Mesobacterium, for which the name Mesobacterium hydrothermale sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TK19101T (= MCCC 1K08936T = KCTC 8354T).


Assuntos
Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Fontes Hidrotermais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Água do Mar , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fontes Hidrotermais/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Ilhas , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , China
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38954457

RESUMO

Four rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming, facultative anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive lactic acid bacteria, designated as EB0058T, SCR0080, LD0937T and SCR0063T, were isolated from different corn and grass silage samples. The isolated strains were characterized using a polyphasic approach and EB0058T and SCR0080 were identified as Lacticaseibacillus zeae by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Based on whole-genome sequence-based characterization, EB0058T and SCR0080 were separated into a distinct clade from Lacticaseibacillus zeae DSM 20178T, together with CECT9104 and UD2202, whose genomic sequences are available from NCBI GenBank. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) values within the new subgroup are 99.9 % and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) values are 99.3-99.9 %, respectively. In contrast, comparison of the new subgroup with publicly available genomic sequences of L. zeae strains, including the type strain DSM 20178T, revealed dDDH values of 70.2-72.5 % and ANI values of 96.2-96.6 %. Based on their chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, EB0058T and SCR0080 represent a new subspecies of L. zeae. The name Lacticaseibacillus zeae subsp. silagei subsp. nov. is proposed with the type strain EB0058T (=DSM 116376T=NCIMB 15474T). According to the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, LD0937T and SCR0063T are members of the Lacticaseibacillus group. The dDDH value between the isolates LD0937T and SCR0063T was 67.6 %, which is below the species threshold of 70 %, clearly showing that these two isolates belong to different species. For both strains, whole genome-sequencing revealed that the closest relatives within the Lacticaseibacillus group were Lacticaseibacillus huelsenbergensis DSM 115425 (dDDH 66.5 and 65.9 %) and Lacticaseibacillus casei DSM 20011T (dDDH 64.1 and 64.9 %). Based on the genomic, chemotaxonomic and morphological data obtained in this study, two novel species, Lacticaseibacillus parahuelsenbergensis sp. nov. and Lacticaseibacillus styriensis sp. nov. are proposed and the type strains are LD0937T (=DSM 116105T=NCIMB 15471T) and SCR0063T (=DSM 116297T=NCIMB 15473T), respectively.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , DNA Bacteriano , Ácidos Graxos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Filogenia , Poaceae , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Silagem , Zea mays , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Zea mays/microbiologia , Silagem/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Poaceae/microbiologia , Composição de Bases , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Lacticaseibacillus
11.
Open Biol ; 14(7): 230437, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955221

RESUMO

Toxorhynchites mosquitoes have an exclusively phytophagous feeding habit as adults, which leads to significant differences in their morphophysiology compared with haematophagous mosquitoes. However, the molecular mechanisms of digestion in this mosquito are not well understood. In this study, RNA sequencing of the posterior midgut (PMG) of the mosquito Toxorhynchites theobaldi was undertaken, highlighting its significance in mosquito digestion. Subsequently, a comparison was made between the differential gene expression of the PMG and that of the anterior midgut. It was found that the most abundant proteases in the PMG were trypsin and chymotrypsin, and the level of gene expression for enzymes essential for digestion (such as serine protease, α-amylase and pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase) and innate immune response (including catalase, cecropin-A2 and superoxide dismutase) was like that of haematophagous mosquitoes. Peritrophin-1 was detected in the entire midgut, with an elevated expression level in the PMG. Based on our findings, it is hypothesized that a non-haematophagic habit might have been exhibited by the ancestor of Tx. theobaldi, and this trait may have been retained. This study represents a pioneering investigation at the molecular level of midgut contents in a non-haematophagous mosquito. The findings offer valuable insights into the evolutionary aspects of feeding habits in culicids.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Culicidae/fisiologia , Culicidae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Transcriptoma , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Sistema Digestório/metabolismo , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Filogenia , Comportamento Alimentar
12.
Open Biol ; 14(7): 240071, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955222

RESUMO

The enzymatic breakdown and regulation of food passage through the vertebrate antral stomach and pyloric sphincter (antropyloric region) is a trait conserved over 450 million years. Development of the structures involved is underpinned by a highly conserved signalling pathway involving the hedgehog, bone morphogenetic protein and Wingless/Int-1 (Wnt) protein families. Monotremes are one of the few vertebrate lineages where acid-based digestion has been lost, and this is consistent with the lack of genes for hydrochloric acid secretion and gastric enzymes in the genomes of the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) and short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) . Furthermore, these species feature unique gastric phenotypes, both with truncated and aglandular antral stomachs and the platypus with no pylorus. Here, we explore the genetic underpinning of monotreme gastric phenotypes, investigating genes important in antropyloric development using the newest monotreme genomes (mOrnAna1.pri.v4 and mTacAcu1) together with RNA-seq data. We found that the pathway constituents are generally conserved, but surprisingly, NK3 homeobox 2 (Nkx3.2) was pseudogenized in both platypus and echidna. We speculate that the unique sequence evolution of Grem1 and Bmp4 sequences in the echidna lineage may correlate with their pyloric-like restriction and that the convergent loss of gastric acid and stomach size genotypes and phenotypes in teleost and monotreme lineages may be a result of eco-evolutionary dynamics. These findings reflect the effects of gene loss on phenotypic evolution and further elucidate the genetic control of monotreme stomach anatomy and physiology.


Assuntos
Estômago , Animais , Estômago/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Ornitorrinco/genética , Filogenia , Evolução Molecular
13.
Biol Lett ; 20(7): 20240171, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955224

RESUMO

Arboreality has evolved in all major vertebrate lineages and is often associated with morphological adaptations and increased diversification concomitant with accessing novel niche space. In squamate reptiles, foot, claw, and tail morphology are well-studied adaptations shown to be associated with transitions to arboreality. Here, we examined a less well understood trait-the keeled scale-in relation to microhabitat, climate, and diversification dynamics across a diverse lizard radiation, Agamidae. We found that the ancestral agamid had keeled dorsal but not ventral scales; further, dorsal and ventral keels are evolutionarily decoupled. Ventral keeled scales evolved repeatedly in association with arboreality and may be advantageous in reducing wear or by promoting interlocking when climbing. We did not find an association between keeled scales and diversification, suggesting keels do not allow finer-scale microhabitat partitioning observed in other arboreal-associated traits. We additionally found a relationship between keeled ventral scales and precipitation in terrestrial species where we posit that the keels may function to reduce scale degradation. Our results suggest that keeled ventral scales facilitated transitions to arboreality across agamid lizards, and highlight a need for future studies that explore their biomechanical function in relation to microhabitat and climate.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Ecossistema , Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/fisiologia , Lagartos/anatomia & histologia , Escamas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Escamas de Animais/fisiologia , Filogenia , Clima
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2026): 20240514, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955232

RESUMO

Caddisflies (Trichoptera) are among the most diverse groups of freshwater animals with more than 16 000 described species. They play a fundamental role in freshwater ecology and environmental engineering in streams, rivers and lakes. Because of this, they are frequently used as indicator organisms in biomonitoring programmes. Despite their importance, key questions concerning the evolutionary history of caddisflies, such as the timing and origin of larval case making, remain unanswered owing to the lack of a well-resolved phylogeny. Here, we estimated a phylogenetic tree using a combination of transcriptomes and targeted enrichment data for 207 species, representing 48 of 52 extant families and 174 genera. We calibrated and dated the tree with 33 carefully selected fossils. The first caddisflies originated approximately 295 million years ago in the Permian, and major suborders began to diversify in the Triassic. Furthermore, we show that portable case making evolved in three separate lineages, and shifts in diversification occurred in concert with key evolutionary innovations beyond case making.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Fósseis , Insetos , Filogenia , Animais , Insetos/genética , Transcriptoma
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 58(6): 862-868, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38955734

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the genotype and epidemiological characteristics of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among hospitalized cases with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children in Changchun City, Jilin Province, China. Methods: From June 2019 to June 2023, throat swabs of ARI inpatients in Changchun Children's Hospital were collected, and their epidemiological and clinical information were also collected. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR was used to identify HMPV-positive cases, followed by the amplification of the G gene and genetic analysis in the HMPV-positive cases. Results: A total of 3 311 children hospitalized with ARI were included in this study. Their age ranged from 0 to 17 years old, and the M (Q1, Q3) of age was 2 (1, 3) years. About 1 811 (54.70%) cases were males. A total of 167 HMPV-positive cases were detected with a positive rate of 5.04%, of which 92.81% (155/167) were children under 5 years old. The positive rate of HMPV in 2019 was 6.37% (30/471), which dropped to the lowest in 2020 (2.31%, 10/432). The HMPV-positive rate was then rebounded in 2021 (4.70%, 60/1 277) and 2022 (4.56%, 21/461), which increased to 6.87% (46/670) in 2023. The difference in HMPV-positive rate among each year was statistically significant (P<0.05). The prevalence peak of HMPV varied in different years, showing either a unimodal or bimodal distribution in one year. A total of 79 HMPV G gene sequences were obtained, of which subtype A and subtype B accounted for 48.10% and 51.90%, respectively. All of the subtype A sequences were clarified as A2c duplicated variants, and subtype B was mainly B2 genotype. Besides, subtypes A and B were prevalent alone or co-circulated in different years, and there was a subtype replacement pattern in HMPV. Conclusion: The positive rate of HMPV in hospitalized ARI cases in children is significantly different from 2019 to 2023 in Changchun City. Notably, there are certain switch patterns of HMPV subtypes A and B in different years.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Metapneumovirus , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/classificação , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Lactente , China/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Paramyxoviridae/virologia , Doença Aguda , Hospitalização , Recém-Nascido , Filogenia
16.
Microbiome ; 12(1): 120, 2024 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38956705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional redundancy (FR) is widely present, but there is no consensus on its formation process and influencing factors. Taxonomically distinct microorganisms possessing genes for the same function in a community lead to within-community FR, and distinct assemblies of microorganisms in different communities playing the same functional roles are termed between-community FR. We proposed two formulas to respectively quantify the degree of functional redundancy within and between communities and analyzed the FR degrees of carbohydrate degradation functions in global environment samples using the genetic information of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) encoded by prokaryotes. RESULTS: Our results revealed that GHs are each encoded by multiple taxonomically distinct prokaryotes within a community, and the enzyme-encoding prokaryotes are further distinct between almost any community pairs. The within- and between-FR degrees are primarily affected by the alpha and beta community diversities, respectively, and are also affected by environmental factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salinity). The FR degree of the prokaryotic community is determined by deterministic factors. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the functional redundancy of GHs is a stabilized community characteristic. This study helps to determine the FR formation process and influencing factors and provides new insights into the relationships between prokaryotic community biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Polissacarídeos , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Microbiota , Células Procarióticas/metabolismo , Células Procarióticas/classificação , Filogenia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
17.
J Insect Sci ; 24(4)2024 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38958929

RESUMO

The potential role of the juvenile hormone receptor gene (methoprene-tolerant, Met) in reproduction of Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)(Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was investigated by cloning, analyzing expression profiles by quantitative real-time PCR, and via RNA interference (RNAi). CsMet encoded a 1518-bp open reading frames with a predicted protein product of 505 amino acids; the latter contained 2 Per-Arnt-Sim repeat profile at amino acid residues 30-83 and 102-175. CsMet was expressed in different C. septempunctata larvae developmental stages and was most highly expressed in third instar. CsMet expression in female adults gradually increased from 20 to 30 d, and expression levels at 25 and 30 d were significantly higher than levels at 1-15 d. CsMet expression in 20-d-old male adults was significantly higher than in males aged 1-15 d. CsMet expression levels in fat body tissues of male and female adults were significantly higher than expression in the head, thorax, and reproductive system. At 5 and 10 d after CsMet-dsRNA injection, CsMet expression was significantly lower than the controls by 75.05% and 58.38%, respectively. Ovary development and vitellogenesis in C. septempunctata injected with CsMet-dsRNA were significantly delayed and fewer mature eggs were produced. This study provides valuable information for the large-scale rearing of C. septempunctata.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Besouros , Proteínas de Insetos , Animais , Besouros/genética , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Interferência de RNA , Filogenia
18.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0306181, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959227

RESUMO

Babesia is a tick-transmitted parasite that infects wild and domestic animals, causes babesiosis in humans, and is an increasing public health concern. Here, we investigated the prevalence and molecular characteristics of Babesia infections in the rodents in Southeastern Shanxi, China. Small rodents were captured, and the liver and spleen tissues were used for Babesia detection using traditional PCR and sequencing of the partial 18S rRNA gene. The analysis revealed that 27 of 252 small rodents were positive for Babesia, with an infection rate of 10.71%. The infection rates in different sexes and rodent tissues were not statistically different, but those in different rodent species, habitats, and sampling sites were statistically different. The highest risk of Babesia infection was observed in Niviventer confucianus captured from the forests in Huguan County. Forty-three sequences from 27 small rodents positive for Babesia infection were identified as Babesia microti, including 42 sequences from 26 N. confucianus, and one sequence from Apodemus agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all sequences were clustered together and had the closest genetic relationship with Babesia microti strains isolated from Rattus losea and N. confucianus in China, and belonged to the Kobe-type, which is pathogenic to humans. Compared to other Kobe-type strains based on the nearly complete 18S rRNA gene, the sequences obtained in this study showed the difference by 1-3 bp. Overall, a high prevalence of Babesia microti infection was observed in small rodents in Southeastern Shanxi, China, which could benefit us to take the implementation of relevant prevention and control measures in this area.


Assuntos
Babesia microti , Babesiose , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S , Roedores , Animais , Babesia microti/genética , Babesia microti/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Babesiose/parasitologia , Prevalência , Roedores/parasitologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/parasitologia
19.
PLoS One ; 19(7): e0305108, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38959255

RESUMO

The Global Specialized Polio Laboratory at CDC supports the Global Poliovirus Laboratory Network with environmental surveillance (ES) to detect the presence of vaccine strain polioviruses, vaccine-derived polioviruses, and wild polioviruses in high-risk countries. Environmental sampling provides valuable supplementary information, particularly in areas with gaps in surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) mainly in children less than 15 years. In collaboration with Guatemala's National Health Laboratory (Laboratorio Nacional de Salud Guatemala), monthly sewage collections allowed screening enterovirus (EV) presence without incurring additional costs for sample collection, transport, or concentration. Murine recombinant fibroblast L-cells (L20B) and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells are used for the isolation of polioviruses following a standard detection algorithm. Though non-polio-Enteroviruses (NPEV) can be isolated, the algorithm is optimized for the detection of polioviruses. To explore if other EV's are present in sewage not found through standard methods, five additional cell lines were piloted in a small-scale experiment, and next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used for the identification of any EV types. Human lung fibroblast cells (HLF) were selected based on their ability to isolate EV-A genus. Sewage concentrates collected between 2020-2021 were isolated in HLF cells and any cytopathic effect positive isolates used for NGS. A large variety of EVs, including echoviruses 1, 3, 6, 7, 11, 13, 18, 19, 25, 29; coxsackievirus A13, B2, and B5, EV-C99, EVB, and polioviruses (Sabin 1 and 3) were identified through genomic typing in NGS. When the EV genotypes were compared by phylogenetic analysis, it showed many EV's were genomically like viruses previously isolated from ES collected in Haiti. Enterovirus occurrence did not follow a seasonality, but more diverse EV types were found in ES collection sites with lower populations. Using the additional cell line in the existing poliovirus ES algorithm may add value by providing data about EV circulation, without additional sample collection or processing. Next-generation sequencing closed gaps in knowledge providing molecular epidemiological information on multiple EV types and full genome sequences of EVs present in wastewater in Guatemala.


Assuntos
Enterovirus , Fibroblastos , Águas Residuárias , Humanos , Enterovirus/genética , Enterovirus/isolamento & purificação , Águas Residuárias/virologia , Fibroblastos/virologia , Guatemala/epidemiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Pulmão/citologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Linhagem Celular , Filogenia , Animais , Poliovirus/genética , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Esgotos/virologia , Camundongos , Infecções por Enterovirus/virologia , Infecções por Enterovirus/epidemiologia
20.
Invertebr Syst ; 382024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38963889

RESUMO

Accurate identification and precise classification of freshwater mussel species that are among the most threatened freshwater taxa in the world, play a crucial role in informing conservation and management efforts for these organisms. However, due to the variability in shell morphology, relying solely on shell characteristics for species taxonomy poses significant challenges, thereby impeding effective conservation planning and management. The freshwater mussel genus Ptychorhynchus Simpson, 1900 is one such group in need of study. We integrate molecular phylogeny, shell morphology and soft-body anatomy to examine the classification of Ptychorhynchus denserugata (Haas, 1910) and Ptychorhynchus resupinatus (von Martens, 1902). The COI barcoding data support the clustering of P. denserugata and Nodularia douglasiae within a single clade, and P. denserugata shares the diagnostic feature of the genus Nodularia , i.e. knobs or bumps on the inner mantle surface in the excurrent aperture. Therefore, by integrating molecular data and anatomical characteristics, we confirm that the nominal species P. denserugata syn. nov. is a new synonym for N. douglasiae . The multi-locus (COI + ND1 + 16S rRNA + 18S rRNA + 28S rRNA ) phylogeny and mitochondrial phylogenomics support the transfer of P. resupinatus from Ptychorhynchus to the newly elevated genus Cosmopseudodon stat. rev., as Cosmopseudodon resupinatus stat. rev. that is still considered the designated type species. We also describe a new species based on integrative taxonomy, i.e. Cosmopseudodon wenshanensis sp. nov. The comprehensive understanding of the taxonomy and diversity of the revised Cosmopseudodon species, and shell heteromorphism of N. douglasiae (=P. denserugata syn. nov.), will serve as a crucial foundation for further scientific assessment and conservation strategies pertaining to these taxa. ZooBank: urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E48968B1-DF0F-42AD-8F31-B8C95F23CE57.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie , Unionidae , Animais , Unionidae/genética , Unionidae/classificação , Unionidae/anatomia & histologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
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