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1.
Water Res ; 168: 115141, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590036

RESUMO

In this study, next generation sequencing was used to explore the virome in 20L up to 10,000L water from different purification steps at two Swedish drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), and in tap water. One DWTP used ultrafiltration (UF) with 20 nm pores, the other UV light treatment after conventional treatment of the water. Viruses belonging to 26 different families were detected in raw water, in which 6-9 times more sequence reads were found for phages than for known environmental, plant or vertebrate viruses. The total number of viral reads was reduced more than 4-log10 after UF and 3-log10 over UV treatment. However, for some viruses the reduction was 3.5-log10 after UF, as for hepatitis E virus (HEV), which was also detected in tap water, with sequences similar to those in raw water and after treatment. This indicates that HEV had passed through the treatment and entered into the supply network. However, the viability of the viruses is unknown. In tap water 10-130 International Units of HEV RNA/mL were identified, which is a comparable low amount of virus. The risk of getting infected through consumption of tap water is probably negligible, but needs to be investigated. The HEV strains in the waters belonged to subtypes HEV3a and HEV3c/i, which is associated with unknown source of infection in humans infected in Sweden. None of these subtypes are common among pigs or wild boar, the major reservoirs for HEV, indicating that water may play a role in transmitting this virus. The results indicate that monitoring small fecal/oral transmitted viruses in DWTPs may be considered, especially during community outbreaks, to prevent potential transmission by tap water.


Assuntos
Vírus da Hepatite E , Doenças dos Suínos , Vírus , Animais , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Viral , Suécia , Suínos
2.
Gene ; 723: 144149, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589959

RESUMO

The origin of the apple is known to be the Transcaucasian region. Eastern Anatolia, which is located on the migration routes from Asia to Europe, has a rich and an uncharacterized apple germplasm and the characterization of apple genetic sources from this region is important for both evolutionary studies and apple breeding. In this study, 94 M. domestica accessions originated from seven diverse regions within Eastern Anatolia were studied using 16 SSR (simple sequence repeat) loci. SSR markers we used produced high allele numbers in all loci and CH02d11 (PI: 0.059) with 18 alleles was the most informative locus. In addition, 14 identical accession groups were identified. Most likely due to self-incompatibility, relatively high levels of heterozygosity (Ho: 0.696) was found for Eastern Anatolia apples. Structure Harvester analyses of East Anatolian apple accessions showed that although each group seems to be somewhat distinct, some levels of admixture with other populations might also exist. Due to a significant gene flow between all pairs of seven apple populations, a limited (low) differentiation was found between the populations. Comparisons using 16 common SSR loci revealed that Eastern Anatolia accessions were genetically different from Anatolian accessions. In addition, based on FCA, and Nei's genetic distance analyses, Eastern Anatolian apples were found to be genetically different from the commercial apple cultivars Golden Delicious and Florina. Our results suggesting that Eastern Anatolia apple populations have a unique structure will be useful for future genetic and evolutionary studies on apples.


Assuntos
Malus/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Fluxo Gênico , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Filogenia , Turquia
3.
Gene ; 723: 144134, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589960

RESUMO

Viral kinases are known to undergo autophosphorylation and also phosphorylate viral and host substrates. Viral kinases have been implicated in various diseases and are also known to acquire host kinases for mimicking cellular functions and exhibit virulence. Although substantial analyses have been reported in the literature on diversity of viral kinases, there is a gap in the understanding of sequence and structural similarity among kinases from different classes of viruses. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of protein kinases encoded in viral genomes. Homology search methods have been used to identify kinases from 104,282 viral genomic datasets. Serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases are identified only in 390 viral genomes. Out of seven viral classes that are based on nature of genetic material, only viruses having double-stranded DNA and single-stranded RNA retroviruses are found to encode kinases. The 716 identified protein kinases are classified into 63 subfamilies based on their sequence similarity within each cluster, and sequence signatures have been identified for each subfamily. 11 clusters are well represented with at least 10 members in each of these clusters. Kinases from dsDNA viruses, Phycodnaviridae which infect green algae and Herpesvirales that infect vertebrates including human, form a major group. From our analysis, it has been observed that the protein kinases in viruses belonging to same taxonomic lineages form discrete clusters and the kinases encoded in alphaherpesvirus form host-specific clusters. A comprehensive sequence and structure-based analysis enabled us to identify the conserved residues or motifs in kinase catalytic domain regions across all viral kinases. Conserved sequence regions that are specific to a particular viral kinase cluster and the kinases that show close similarity to eukaryotic kinases were identified by using sequence and three-dimensional structural regions of eukaryotic kinases as reference. The regions specific to each viral kinase cluster can be used as signatures in the future in classifying uncharacterized viral kinases. We note that kinases from giant viruses Marseilleviridae have close similarity to viral oncogenes in the functional regions and in putative substrate binding regions indicating their possible role in cancer.


Assuntos
Proteínas Quinases/química , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Vírus/classificação , Domínio Catalítico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados de Proteínas , Variação Genética , Fosforilação , Filogenia , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas Virais/química , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/química , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Vírus/enzimologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
4.
Zootaxa ; 4578(1): zootaxa.4578.1.1, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715706

RESUMO

Chromadoridae is a widespread family of mostly free-living marine nematodes. This systematic review provides for each genus: a historical background, an updated diagnosis and a list of species. Our review recognizes 37 valid genera, 395 valid species, 57 descriptions without enough morphological information for accurate identification (species inquirenda) and 10 species incerta sedis. We also recognize 21 species as nomena nuda. Additionally, polytomous keys were constructed for the subfamilies and for the genera of the three major subfamilies (Chromadorinae, Euchromadorinae and Hypodontolaiminae) using the most important diagnostic characters. A phylogenetic analysis based on rDNA sequences of species available in the GenBank was also conducted. Phylogenetic trees based on the 18S and 28S rDNA confirmed the classification into three subfamilies (Spilipherinae, Hypodontolaiminae and Chromadorinae), despite the absence of defined synapomorphies. Phylogenetic relationships at lower taxonomic level are problematic given the large number of sequences not identified to species level.


Assuntos
Cromadoria , Nematoides , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.3, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715748

RESUMO

Cotithene gorayebi Valente, da Silva de Medeiros, sp. nov. is the first species of Cotithene Voss, 1940 described from the Amazonian forest in Brazil. The new species differs from other described species of Cotithene by its integument color pattern dissimilar between sexes and by the procoxal cavities separated by only a narrow septum in both male and female. It furthers differs by the unique morphology of male and female genitalia. A previously published key and phylogenetic matrix to Cotithene species were each modified to include the new species. The historical trajectory of host associations (inflorescences of Cyclanthaceae) in Cotithene is reanalyzed with the inclusion of the host of the new species. Previously known species are believed to be non-pollinators of various Cyclanthaceae; however, field observations of adults of the new species on inflorescences in anthesis of Evodianthus funifer (Cyclanthaceae) strongly suggest that this may be the first species of Cotithene known to play a role as a pollinator of Cyclanthaceae.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gorgulhos , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4576(3): zootaxa.4576.3.6, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715751

RESUMO

Two new Throscidae genera from Baltic amber are described: Tyrannosthroscus n..gen. (type species Tyrannothroscus rex n.sp.) and Pseudothroscus n. gen. (type species Pseudothroscus balticus n. sp.). Four species are described from Baltic amber: Tyrannothroscus rex n. sp., Pseudothroscus balticus n. sp., Potergus superbus n. sp. and Trixagus parvulus n. sp. Pactopus burmensis n. sp. is described from Burmese amber. A phylogenetic analysis of the known throscid genera is performed. Aulonothroscus Horn and Trixagus Kugelann are shown to be sister-groups, the sister-group of this clade is the genus Pactopus Horn and the sister group of these three genera is the genus Potergus Bonvouloir. The oldest previously known throscids were species belonging to the genera Rhomboaspis Kirejtshuk Kovalev and Potergosoma Kirejtshuk Kovalev, both from Lebanese Amber, 125-135 Mya. The present analysis shows that the extinct Baltic amber genera Jaira Muona and Pseudothroscus belong to clades at least as old as the Lebanese fossils. The Burmese amber fossil Pactopus burmensis, 99 Mya, is considerably older than any of the previously known species belonging to the four extant genera: Pactopus, Potergus, Aulonothroscus or Trixagus. At least three throscid lineages are now known to have gone extinct. Both the Pactopus and Potergus lineages are more than 99 milion years old, whereas the Aulonothroscus and Trixagus lineages extend at least to the Baltic amber, 50 million years ago. The presence of Jaira in Baltic amber shows that that lineage persisted at least 80 million years before going to extinction.


Assuntos
Besouros , Fósseis , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Filogenia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.4, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715910

RESUMO

Coloration, gene-sequence data (H3, 12s, 16s), and subtle features in morphology support the description of two new species, both formerly regarded to represent accepted variants of Phimochirus holthuisi s.l. While color in life consistently separates these species from P. holthuisi s.s. and from each other, morphological distinctions are subtle and less than absolute in small specimens, being based on ventral spine counts of walking leg dactyls and relative development of the superior crest on the major chela. Molecular phylogenetic analyses clearly support the separation of sister clades, representing two new species, from P. holthuisi s.s. as well as other congeners available for analysis. Both of the new species are presently known to occur widely throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico, though one occurs more commonly in the northeastern and southeastern Gulf, and may range as far south as Suriname. The other has been taken primarily in the northwestern Gulf, and is not known from outside Gulf waters. While both of the new species appear restricted to relatively deep subtidal waters of the continental shelf, Phimochirus holthuisi s.s. is instead more commonly found in shallow nearshore tropical waters on or near coral reefs. Previous literature reports of P. holthuisi usually represent, at least in part, one or both of these two new species.


Assuntos
Anomuros , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Golfo do México , México , Filogenia , Suriname
8.
Zootaxa ; 4684(1): zootaxa.4684.1.1, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715906

RESUMO

Fasciolariids are buccinoid neogastropods and key predators in the tropics and subtropics, comprising more than 500 species in the subfamilies Fasciolariinae, Fusininae and Peristerniinae. Tulip shells, horse-conchs, spindles, etc., have been grouped into heterogeneous combinations of unrelated species, while several generic names have been used to group conchologically similar species. The latest molecular phylogenetic study conflicts with the current circumscription of many genera, and even more so, with the three currently recognized subfamilies. This work is the first morphological approach to the phylogeny of fasciolariids, using a parsimony analysis in TnT of 53 taxa based on 100 characters. This analysis reveals a monophyletic Fasciolariidae, with the genera Dolicholatirus and Teralatirus representing the most basal clade in the family, followed by three nodes that correspond to a fusinine grade, which includes the genus Pseudolatirus (Peristerniinae). A terminal clade groups the peristerniine genera Peristernia and Fusolatirus, fasciolariines and the remaining peristerniines. Although none of these clades correspond to currently accepted taxonomic groups, the latter two clades are corroborated in the most recent multilocus molecular phylogeny. This study supports the utility of morphological data in the recovery of groups, even in the molecular era.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
Zootaxa ; 4683(4): zootaxa.4683.4.6, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715912

RESUMO

We investigated the phylogenetic relationship of the Critically Endangered bush frog Philautus sanctisilvaticus Das and Chanda, 1997 and other species distributed across the fragmented forests of Deccan Peninsula and the northern Eastern Ghats. A short fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene was employed to assess phylogenetic relationships across Philautus sanctisilvaticus Das and Chanda, 1997, Raorchestes terebrans (Das and Chanda, 1998) and Philautus similipalensis Dutta, 2003. All sequenced specimens, including material from near the type localities of P. sanctisilvaticus (Amarkantak) and P. similipalensis (Simlipal) were genetically extremely similar, with pairwise uncorrected distances 1% in the 16S gene, and were phylogenetically placed within the genus Raorchestes. The results based on morphology are ambiguous and do not go hand in hand with molecular data, which however do not provide support for a three species hypothesis either. our findings advocate the need for making nomenclatural amendments. Philautus sanctisilvaticus Das and Chanda, 1997, is the first available nomen for this taxon, and we propose to include this species in Raorchestes as Raorchestes sanctisilvaticus (Das and Chanda, 1997), and to consider the nomina Philautus terebrans Das and Chanda, 1998 syn. nov. and Philautus similipalensis Dutta, 2003 syn. nov. as junior subjective synonyms for this nomen following the Principle of Priority in article 23.1 of the ICZN. The findings are notable from the point of conservation of the species and present a novel case with remarkable genetic homogeneity across the fragmented forests of Deccan Peninsula and Eastern Ghats.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Anuros/genética , Peixes , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
10.
Zootaxa ; 4683(1): zootaxa.4683.1.4, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715936

RESUMO

Previous studies on leaf-tailed geckos of the genus Uroplatus identified a lineage from the Ankarana karst massif in northern Madagascar as genetically highly divergent, but only fragmentary information was available on these geckos. Here, we provide an integrative analysis based on molecular and morphological data, including a newly collected specimen from this locality. Phylogenetic analysis placed the Ankarana lineage sister to U. ebenaui, but with a surprisingly high genetic divergence of over 19% uncorrected pairwise distance in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. We formally describe the Ankarana lineage as Uroplatus fetsy sp. nov. and provide new information on the distribution and genetic differentiation of its sister species, Uroplatus ebenaui. Based on DNA sequences of newly examined samples this latter species is confirmed as widespread, ranging from low-elevation dry forests from Beanka in western Madagascar to Forêt d'Ambre and Analalava/Fanambana in northern Madagascar, and thus far has not been found in the Ankarana Massif, where U. fetsy occurs.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Lagartos/genética , Madagáscar , Parques Recreativos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
11.
Zootaxa ; 4680(1): zootaxa.4680.1.1, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715943

RESUMO

Lobotes, Datnioides and Hapalogenys are assigned to a newly defined Acanthuriformes on the basis of their pattern of tooth replacement (termed posterolateral tooth replacement), where new teeth form at the posterolateral ends of series. Posterolateral tooth replacement is shown to be a synamorphy of the order. The order is expanded to include Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, Drepaneidae, Ephippidae, Leiognathidae, Antigonia, Scatophagidae and Capros, along with the more traditional members, Siganidae, Luvaridae, Zanclidae and Acanthuridae. Three-item analysis of 63 adult and larval morphological characters yields two optimal trees that differ only in the relative positions of Capros and Siganidae. The intersection tree of the two optimal trees is: (((Hapalogenys (Datnioides, Lobotidae)) (Pomacanthidae (Drepaneidae (Chaetodontidae (Ephippidae (Leiognathidae (Scatophagidae (Antigonia (Siganidae, Capros (Luvaridae (Zanclidae, Acanthuridae)))))))))))). This cladogram is compared with recent phylogenies based on analyses of sequence data, and few differences are found once the weakly-supported interior nodes of the latter are collapsed. Aside from expansion of the Acanthuriformes, the following classification changes are proposed in order to reflect the phylogenetic relationships: redefinition of the Lobotidae to include Lobotes, Datnioides and Hapalogenys; separate families for Antigonia and Capros (Antigoniidae and Caproidae, respectively); continued recognition of Drepaneidae (often considered a synonym of Ephippidae). The larvae of Capros aper are illustrated to show features overlooked in earlier descriptions.


Assuntos
Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Larva , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4678(1): zootaxa.4678.1.1, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715979

RESUMO

A total of 50 (43 known and seven new) species in the subgenus Phortica (sensu stricto) were surveyed and (re)described from China: P. bicornuta (Chen Toda, 1997); P. bipartita (Toda Peng, 1992); P. biprotrusa (Chen Toda, 1998); P. cardua (Okada, 1977); P. chi (Toda Sidorenko, 1996); P. conifera (Okada, 1977); P. eparmata (Okada, 1977); P. eugamma (Toda Peng, 1990); P. excrescentiosa (Toda Peng, 1990); P. fangae (Máca, 1993); P. flexuosa (Zhang Gan, 1986); P. foliata (Chen Toda, 1997); P. gamma (Toda Peng, 1990); P. gigas (Okada, 1977); P. glabtabula Chen Gao, 2005; P. hainanensis (Chen Toda, 1998); P. hongae (Máca, 1993); P. huazhii Cheng Chen, 2008; P. iota (Toda Sidorenko, 1996); P. jadete Zhu, Cao Chen, 2018; P. kappa (Máca, 1977); P. lambda (Toda Peng, 1990); P. latifoliacea Chen Watabe, 2008; P. magna (Okada, 1960); P. okadai (Máca, 1977); P. omega (Okada, 1977); P. orientalis (Hendel, 1914); P. pangi Chen Wen, 2005; P. paramagna (Okada, 1971); P. perforcipata (Máca Lin, 1993); P. pi (Toda Peng, 1990); P. protrusa (Zhang Shi, 1997); P. pseudopi (Toda Peng, 1990); P. pseudotau (Toda Peng, 1990); P. psi (Zhang Gan, 1986); P. rhagolobos Chen Gao, 2008; P. saeta (Zhang Gan, 1986); P. setitabula Chen Gao, 2005; P. subradiata (Okada, 1977); P. tau (Toda Peng, 1990); P. uncinata Chen Gao, 2005; P. unipetala Chen Wen, 2005; P. allomega Gong Chen, sp. nov.; P. archikappa Gong Chen, sp. nov.; P. dianzangensis Gong Chen, sp. nov.; P. imbacilia Gong Chen, sp. nov.; P. liukuni Gong Chen, sp. nov.; P. tibeta Gong Chen, sp. nov.; and P. xianfui Gong Chen, sp. nov. In addition, seven new synonyms were recognized: P. acongruens (Zhang Shi, 1997), syn. nov.; P. antillaria (Chen Toda, 1997), syn. nov.; P. kukuanensis Máca, 2003, syn. nov.; P. linae (Máca Chen, 1993), syn. nov.; P. shillongensis (Singh Gupta, 1979), syn. nov.; P. takadai (Okada, 1977), syn. nov.; and P. watanabei (Máca Lin, 1993), syn. nov. A key to all Asian species (except for the eparmata species complex) of this subgenus was provided. All currently available DNA barcode (partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene) sequences of this subgenus (217 sequences of 54 species) are employed in a molecular analysis using different species delimitation methods. The results indicate that approximately 68.5% (37 of 54 spp.) of Phortica (s. str.) species could be clearly distinguished from closely related morphospecies or cryptic species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Drosophilidae , Animais , China , Drosophilidae/genética , Extremo Oriente , Filogenia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4591(1): zootaxa.4591.1.1, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716071

RESUMO

Actias selene (Hübner) is an important silk-spinning moth. Like other moths, it has innate immunity but no acquired immunity. However, there are few studies on immune-related genes of A. selene. Here, differential expression RNAseq experiment was employed to examine the genes related to different metabolic pathways and to explore the immune mechanism of the A. selene post Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Micrococcus luteus (ML) stimuli. A total of 64,372,921 clean reads were obtained and 39,057 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. In the Bb vs. PBS group (PBS as the control), 9,092 genes were up-regulated and 4,438 genes were down-regulated; in the ML vs. PBS group, 5,903 genes were up-regulated and 5,175 genes were down-regulated. The KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) and GO (Gene Ontology) analyses of DEGs confirmed that many DEGs were associated with "Metabolism pathway", "cellular process", "cell" and "catalytic activity". Among them, 194 and 149 differentially expressed genes were related to immunity in the Bb vs. PBS group and ML vs. PBS group, respectively. We verified the reliability of the data with reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis of randomly selected genes. Furthermore, the phylogenetic tree results showed that HSP90, PGRP and MyD88 genes of A. selene were most closely related to Antheraea pernyi (Guérin-Méneville). These results will provide an overview of the molecular mechanism of A. selene resistance to fungal and bacterial infections as well as an evolutionary aspect of these genes. Moreover, the interrelated trophic mechanisms among different groups of organisms are vital to explore, thus this study will lay a foundation for further studies on the innate immune mechanism of saturniid moths, and provide important theoretical basis for studying the relationship between A. selene and other species.


Assuntos
Beauveria , RNA , Transcriptoma , Animais , Beauveria/genética , Micrococcus luteus , Filogenia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
Zootaxa ; 4590(4): zootaxa.4590.4.3, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716081

RESUMO

Deep-sea shrimps of the species Plesionika acanthonotus (Smith, 1882) and P. holthuisi Crosnier Forest, 1968 are morphologically similar and exhibit overlapping amphi-Atlantic distributions. In the literature, through morphological studies, there are reports of doubts about the validity of P. holthuisi and some authors believe that the eastern and western Atlantic populations of P. acanthonothus could represent two distinct species. The objective of the present study was to use molecular data to elucidate the taxonomic status of the two populations of P. acanthonothus. DNA sequences of two mitochondrial genes (16S rDNA and Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I) and a nuclear gene (Histone 3) were obtained for both species and for both populations of P. acanthonotus. The sequences were also obtained from Genbank for comparison. The trees (separate and multi-locus/partitioned genes) were generated by Bayesian Inference analyzes, and genetic divergence (Kimura-2-parameters) was also calculated. All specimens that had their DNA sequenced were examined morphologically to confirm their identification; morphological variations were noted. The genetic data showed that Plesionika holthuisi is closely related to P. acanthonotus, but clearly separated, indicating that P. holthuisi is a valid species. In the multi-locus analysis, the P. acanthonothus specimens were divided into two clades, one with the eastern Atlantic specimens and another with the western Atlantic specimens. However, this genetic separation was considered to be a population structuring for three reasons: (1) the genetic divergences of the two mitochondrial genes between these two groups (eastern Atlantic X western Atlantic) were smaller than the interspecific divergence for Plesionika; (2) the P. acanthonothus sequences of the Histone 3 gene showed no genetic variation; (3) in the analyzed individuals, no valid morphological character was found to support this separation. Thus, the conclusion of this study is that P. holthuisi probably is a valid species and P. acanthonothus presents two populations with mitochondrial divergences that could be in the process of speciation, but which currently represent only one species.


Assuntos
Decápodes (Crustáceos) , Pandalidae , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4590(3): zootaxa.4590.3.2, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716086

RESUMO

Two rare and endemic psammophines (Serpentes: Psammophiinae) occur in Angola. The taxonomic status of Psammophylax rhombeatus ocellatus Bocage, 1873 and Psammophis ansorgii Boulenger, 1905 have long remained problematic, with both having varied past and present taxonomic assignments, and whose distributions may therefore present zoogeographic anomalies. Little was known of their biology, habitat associations, or phylogenetic relationships. New material was collected during biodiversity surveys of the Humpata Plateau, near Lubango, Angola. It allowed fuller descriptions of scalation and live coloration for both species, and resolution of their taxonomic status. Genetic analysis confirms that both are distinct at the specific level. In addition, within Psammophis, Jalla's Sand Snake (Psammophis jallae Peracca, 1896), of which P. rohani Angel, 1925, remains a synonym, is sister to P. ansorgii, and Boulenger's comment on similarities with P. crucifer are not supported. The status of an unusual skaapsteker from Calueque, Cunene Province, Angola, is discussed and its assignment to Ps. ocellatus is provisional and requires additional material for taxonomic resolution. The new P. ansorgii records from Tundavala represent a range (+400 km southwest) and altitude (1800 m to 2286 m a.s.l) extension from the previous only known precise locality of Bela Vista (= Catchiungo), Huambo Province, whilst that for Ps. ocellatus doubles the known altitude from 1108 m to 2286 m a.s.l and extends the range about 122 km to the northwest from historical material from the plateau of Huíla and Cunene provinces.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Serpentes , Angola , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4590(3): zootaxa.4590.3.3, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716087

RESUMO

The discovery of the new species Halbherria daffneri Perreau, n. sp., a troglobitic species with pholeuonid body shape, in the high altitude karst system of Piani Eterni in southern Dolomites (northern Italy) is taken as an opportunity for a morphological investigation of the phylogeny of Bathysciotina with a special emphasis to the Italian genera. The monophyly of the set of Italian genera, (Aphaotus, Halbherria, Lessiniella, Neobathyscia, Sinuicollia) is confidently supported, with Neobathysica as the sister group of the four other genera. However the monophyly of the subtribe Bathysciotina is not significantly supported and the genus Sphaerobathyscia should clearly be excluded from the subtribe. The subgenus Albanella of the genus Speonesiotes is raised to genus rank.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Itália , Filogenia
17.
Zootaxa ; 4590(2): zootaxa.4590.2.3, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716093

RESUMO

Three new species of the xenodermatid genus Achalinus are described from northern Vietnam based on morphological and molecular evidence: Achalinus juliani sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 28; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) internasal not fused to prefrontal; 4) loreal not fused with prefrontal; 5) infralabials 6; 6) mental separated from anterior chin shields; 7) two elongated anterior temporals, in contact with the eye, and two posterior temporals; 8) dorsal scales in 25-23-23 rows, keeled; 9) ventrals 173-179; 10) subcaudals 77-91, unpaired; 11) a total length of at least 413 mm (with a maximum tail length of 109 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.22-0.37); 12) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above, with the lower and posterior head sides being paler; venter greyish cream, with the underside of the tail being somewhat darker. Achalinus timi sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 27; 2) suture between the internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) loreal fused with the prefrontal on each side, with the prefrontal extending towards the supralabials; 4) dorsal scales in 25-25-23 rows, keeled; 5) ventrals 170+1; 6) subcaudals 72, unpaired; 7) a total length of at least 177.9 mm in males (with a tail length of 37.9 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.21); 8) dorsum in preservative reddish to greyish brown above, with wide portion of the vertebral region being distinctly darker; the lower head sides somewhat paler; infralabial and chin shields light greyish brown; venter greyish cream, with the underside of the tail being somewhat darker and the chin region somewhat paler. Achalinus emilyae sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the following characters: 1) maxillary teeth 27 or 28; 2) suture between internasals distinctly longer than that between the prefrontals; 3) internasal not fused to prefrontal; 4) loreal not fused with prefrontal; 5) infralabials 5; 6) mental separated from anterior chin shields; 7) two anterior temporals, only the upper one in contact with eye, and two posterior temporals; 8) dorsal scales in 23-23-23 rows, keeled; 9) ventrals in females 157-161; 10) subcaudals in females 63, unpaired; 11) a total length of at least 519.5 mm (with a maximum tail length of 95.1 mm, and a tail/total length ratio of 0.18 in females); 12) dorsum iridescent pale yellowish brown with a dark longitudinal mid-dorsal stripe. In terms of pairwise genetic distance (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, COI), the three new species differ by at least 12.7% from other members of the genus, including themselves. The total number of Achalinus known is increased to twelve and the number of Achalinus species known from Vietnam is increased from three to six. Currently ten species of xenodermatids are known to exist in Vietnam: Achalinus ater, A. emilyae, A. juliani, A. rufescens, A. spinalis, A. timi, Fimbrios klossi, F. smithi, Parafimbrios lao, and P. vietnamensis.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Serpentes , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Cabeça , Masculino , Filogenia , Vietnã
18.
Zootaxa ; 4590(2): zootaxa.4590.2.8, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716098

RESUMO

The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily was first recognized by Erichson (1843) in a much broader sense, including what is now the Cillaeinae. According to Kirejtshuk (2008), there are seven genera and 13 subgenera within Carpophilinae. To date, however, no comprehensive tribal or generic phylogenetic reconstructions have been published for the subfamily. This work constitutes a preliminary stage of a larger project that will address the subfamily in a rigorous taxonomic and systematic framework. A stable taxonomic foundation for Carpophilus species and other Carpophilinae taxa is needed to ensure the validity of future work in the subfamily. Herein we designate lectotypes and paralectotypes and confirm holotypes for 14 species of carpophiline sap beetles following ICZN (1999) articles 73.1 and 74.1.


Assuntos
Besouros , Animais , Londres , Museus , Filogenia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4583(1): zootaxa.4583.1.1, 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716193

RESUMO

Species from artesian springs associated with the Queensland Great Artesian Basin that were previously included in the tateid genus Jardinella are included in three new genera, namely Eulodrobia, with six species, five of them new and all from the Eulo Supergroup; Springvalia, with one species from the Springvale Supergroup; and Carnarvoncochlea with two previously-described species, from the Carnarvon Supergroup. The genus Edgbastonia is extended to include eight previously described species, in addition to the type species, and four new species-group taxa from the Barcaldine Supergroup springs; all but the type species are included in the new subgenus Barcaldinia. Three new species from non-artesian springs in north Queensland are included in Edgbastonia, one of them tentatively. Two additional related new genera, both with a single new species, are described from outside the Great Artesian Basin; Conondalia from southeast Queensland and Nundalia from north-eastern New South Wales. The genus Jardinella, previously used for all the Queensland spring tateids, is here restricted to three species found in coastal rivers and streams in northeast Queensland. A molecular phylogenetic analysis using COI and 16S mitochondrial genes in combination suggests that the Queensland Great Artesian Basin taxa may be more closely related to the tateid genera Austropyrgus, Pseudotricula, Posticobia and Potamopyrgus than to the South Australian GAB taxa, thus indicating the separate origins of these two desert spring faunas.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Austrália , New South Wales , Filogenia , Queensland
20.
Zootaxa ; 4614(2): zootaxa.4614.2.3, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716379

RESUMO

Petta Malmgren, 1866 is a small and poorly known genus of the annelid family Pectinariidae Quatrefages, 1866. Prior to this study, the genus comprised four species P. pusilla Malmgren, 1866 (type locality Gullmarsfjord, west coast of Sweden), P. assimilis McIntosh, 1885 (type locality between Prince Edward and Kerguelen Island, southern Indian Ocean), P. pellucida (Ehlers, 1887) (type locality Santarem Channel between Cay Sal Bank and Bahamas, Caribbean Sea) and P. tenuis Caullery, 1944 (type locality Sulu, Philippines, tropical Pacific Ocean), the two last ones were known only from the original description. We revised the genus by re-examining the types and providing updated illustrated re-descriptions of its species, except for P. assimilis of which the type material has been lost. Commonly used morphological characters of the genus are expanded to also include new ones such as the presence of pair of lateral ear-shaped lobes adjacent to dorsal base of cephalic veil, pair of ventral lappets on segment 1, pair of dorso-lateral pads on segment 5, large basal hump on branchiae, and a rounded anterior peg with a blunt tip and a longitudinal row of two major teeth on uncini. The type species P. pusilla is recognised as having four lappets on the anterior margins of cephalic veil and a large lower lip posterior to buccal cavity. Two species P. investigatoris n. sp. and P. williamsonae n. sp. are described from deep water off the coast of southeastern Australia and represent the first records of this genus in Australian waters. A phylogenetic position of one new species was assessed in the framework of a phylogeny based on a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene (mtCOI). An updated taxonomic key to Pectinariidae genera and all species of Petta is given.


Assuntos
Anelídeos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Austrália , Bahamas , Região do Caribe , Oceano Índico , Ilhas , Oceano Pacífico , Filipinas , Filogenia , Suécia , Índias Ocidentais
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