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1.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1296-1308, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001458

RESUMO

PREMISE: Recent phylogeographic work suggests the existence of latitudinal gradients in genetic diversity in northern Mexican plants, but very few studies have examined plants of the Chihuahuan Desert. Tidestromia lanuginosa is a morphologically variable annual species whose distribution includes the Chihuahuan Desert Region. Here we undertook phylogeographic analyses of chloroplast loci in this species to test whether genetic diversity and differentiation of Mexican populations of T. lanuginosa change along a latitudinal gradient and whether diversity is higher in Coahuila, consistent with ideas of lower plant community turnover during the Pleistocene. METHODS: Haplotype network, maximum likelihood tree, and Bayesian phylogenetic haplotype were reconstructed, and genetic diversity was assessed among 26 populations. Barrier analysis was used to explore barriers to gene flow. RESULTS: Four major population groups were identified, corresponding with physiographic provinces in Mexico. Each population group displayed high levels of genetic structure, haplotype, and nucleotide diversity. Diversity was highest in southern populations across the species as a whole and among the Chihuahuan Desert populations. CONCLUSIONS: Tidestromia lanuginosa provides an important example of high phylogeographic and genetic diversity in plants of northern Mexico. Barriers to gene flow among the major population groups have most likely been due to a combination of orographic, climatic, and edaphic variables. The high genetic diversity of T. lanuginosa in southern and central Coahuila is consistent with the hypothesis of full-glacial refugia for arid-adapted plants in this area, and highlights the importance of this region as a center of diversity for the Chihuahuan Desert flora.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Refúgio de Vida Selvagem , Teorema de Bayes , México , Filogenia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5080, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033258

RESUMO

Natural transformation is the process by which bacteria take up genetic material from their environment and integrate it into their genome by homologous recombination. It represents one mode of horizontal gene transfer and contributes to the spread of traits like antibiotic resistance. In Vibrio cholerae, a type IVa pilus (T4aP) is thought to facilitate natural transformation by extending from the cell surface, binding to exogenous DNA, and retracting to thread this DNA through the outer membrane secretin, PilQ. Here, we use a functional tagged allele of VcPilQ purified from native V. cholerae cells to determine the cryoEM structure of the VcPilQ secretin in amphipol to ~2.7 Å. We use bioinformatics to examine the domain architecture and gene neighborhood of T4aP secretins in Proteobacteria in comparison with VcPilQ. This structure highlights differences in the architecture of the T4aP secretin from the type II and type III secretion system secretins. Based on our cryoEM structure, we design a series of mutants to reversibly regulate VcPilQ gate dynamics. These experiments support the idea of VcPilQ as a potential druggable target and provide insight into the channel that DNA likely traverses to promote the spread of antibiotic resistance via horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Fímbrias Bacterianas/ultraestrutura , Secretina/química , Vibrio cholerae/metabolismo , Vibrio cholerae/ultraestrutura , Cisteína/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/ultraestrutura , Modelos Moleculares , Mutação/genética , Filogenia , Domínios Proteicos , Transformação Bacteriana
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5070, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033260

RESUMO

The evolutionary progression from primary to metastatic prostate cancer is largely uncharted, and the implications for liquid biopsy are unexplored. We infer detailed reconstructions of tumor phylogenies in ten prostate cancer patients with fatal disease, and investigate them in conjunction with histopathology and tumor DNA extracted from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Substantial evolution occurs within the prostate, resulting in branching into multiple spatially intermixed lineages. One dominant lineage emerges that initiates and drives systemic metastasis, where polyclonal seeding between sites is common. Routes to metastasis differ between patients, and likely genetic drivers of metastasis distinguish the metastatic lineage from the lineage that remains confined to the prostate within each patient. Body fluids capture features of the dominant lineage, and subclonal expansions that occur in the metastatic phase are non-uniformly represented. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis reveals lineages not detected in blood-borne DNA, suggesting possible clinical utility.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Biópsia Líquida , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Células Clonais , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Filogenia
4.
Zootaxa ; 4768(3): zootaxa.4768.3.3, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055647

RESUMO

The female of eastern Nearctic Leuctra moha Ricker, 1952 is formally described for the first time. The identity of the female was confirmed with tree- and genetic distance-based phylogenetic methods. An emended description is also provided for the male. Digital images for both sexes are provided with scanning electronic and standard light microscopy. The female once tentatively associated with the male of L. moha is illustrated using standard light microscopy and refers to L. hicksi Harrison Stark, 2010. An updated distribution map is provided for both species.


Assuntos
Insetos , Neópteros , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia , Filogenia
5.
Zootaxa ; 4816(4): zootaxa.4816.4.2, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055683

RESUMO

Two new species of Leptarma, L. dispersum n. sp. and L. reunionense n. sp. are described from Europa Island and Réunion Island, respectively. Genetically, based on the mitochondrial COX1 gene, both species are markedly divergent from other congeneric species. Phylogenetically, L. dispersum n. sp. shows close relationship with L. lenzii (De Man, 1895) while L. reunionense n. sp. clusters with L. aurifrons (Li, Ng Shih, 2019) and the species pair L. moluccense (De Man, 1892) and L. paucitorum (Rahayu Ng, 2009). Morphologically, the new species differ most significantly from congeners by the relative length of the ambulatory legs and the shapes of the first gonopods and carapace. After the description of these two new species, the number of species comprised in the genus Leptarma is raised to 20, four of them being distributed in and off East Africa.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Oceano Índico , Filogenia
6.
Zootaxa ; 4816(4): zootaxa.4816.4.3, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055684

RESUMO

The Gulf coastal drainages of central Mexico are a faunal transition zone between North and South America and harbor a unique assemblage of freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionida). However, little information is available regarding the taxonomy, distribution, and evolutionary history of the Mexican mussel fauna due to limited sampling over the last 100 years. To address these knowledge gaps, we evaluated species-level diversity in the genus Popenaias Frierson, 1927, in Mexican Gulf coastal drainages as part of a larger effort to inform conservation efforts for members of this genus both in Mexico and the United States of America. Based on our analyses, we describe Popenaias berezai n. sp. from the Río Valles of the Río Pánuco basin, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. We also provide presumptive distributional range, phylogenetic structure, and molecular and morphological diagnoses of the new species and provide comments on the other species currently in Popenaias. Our findings highlight the high levels of endemism among freshwater mussels in Mexican Gulf coastal drainages and will help guide impending conservation actions for P. popeii, which is listed as "endangered" in the United States.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Unionidae , Animais , Água Doce , México , Filogenia , Rios
7.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.5, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055746

RESUMO

Humid tropical forests in Mesoamerica are distributed along the Atlantic slope and, in scattered locations, along the Mexican Pacific slope. These poorly explored Mexican forests include microendemic bird species. Two species in the genus Dendrocolaptes occur in lowland and foothill humid tropical forests of Mesoamerica. One of these, D. sanctithomae, is comprised of four subspecies, of which the two that occur in Mexico, D. s. sanctithomae and D. s. sheffleri, are distinctly different morphologically, and the latter is a poorly known microendemic taxon of the Mexican Pacific humid tropical forest in the Sierra Madre del Sur. We used both nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to evaluate the genetic variation of D. sanctithomae in Mexico, and complemented this with a quantitative analysis of phenotypic traits. We also conducted analyses of environmental niche models to test the hypothesis of niche differentiation of D. s. sheffleri from other taxa of D. sanctithomae. Our phylogenetic reconstructions of mtDNA consistently recovered D. s. sheffleri and D. s. sanctithomae as reciprocally monophyletic, while they shared alleles of nDNA. These mtDNA differences are comparable with differences reported between other Dendrocolaptes sister-taxa pairs. Our analysis of phenotypic traits also indicated that the taxa differ in measurements of hallux and feather barring. In contrast, niche differentiation tests suggest that the niches of both taxa are more similar than expected by chance. Our evidence leads us to propose species status for D. sheffleri. This is an additional example of recent speciation in Mexico that indicates active and peripatric evolutionary differentiation in the northern Neotropics.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Passeriformes , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial , México , Filogenia
8.
Zootaxa ; 4780(2): zootaxa.4780.2.6, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055747

RESUMO

Two new species of the genus Chironephthya, C. sirindhornae sp. nov. and C. cornigera sp. nov., are described based on three specimens collected from the Gulf of Thailand. Both species are well distinguished from the previously described species of the genus Chironephthya by their colonies consisting of multiple stems that stand upright from a common base, and by a significantly thinner canal wall without large spindles. As a result of phylogenetic analyses using COI, mtMutS, and 28S rDNA sequences of these two species, these three specimens constituted an independent small clade within a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, with the two species slightly different from each other. The discrepancy in the morphology suggested the erection of a new genus to accommodate these species, however, as the subclade was included in a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, we place these species within genus Chironephthya. Our results further highlight the continuing confusion between Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, and demonstrate the need for taxonomic revision of these genera.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , DNA Ribossômico , Filogenia , Tailândia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4778(1): zootaxa.4778.1.1, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055830

RESUMO

Despite decades of phylogenetic studies, the generic and species-level relationships of some Australian elapid snakes remain problematic. The morphologically conservative genus Parasuta comprises small nocturnal snakes with a particularly obfuscated taxonomic history. Here we provide a molecular phylogenetic analysis of all currently recognised species including members of the sister genus Suta and provide new morphological data that lead to a taxonomic revision of generic and species boundaries. We failed to find support for monophyly of Parasuta or Suta, instead supporting previous evidence that these two genera should be combined. Our species-level investigations revise the boundaries between P. gouldii (Gray) and P. spectabilis (Krefft) resulting in recognition that both P. spectabilis bushi (Storr) and P. spectabilis nullarbor (Storr) are conspecific with P. gouldii. We also find the Pilbara population of P. monachus (Storr) to be specifically distinct. As a consequence of this information, we synonymise Parasuta with its senior synonym Suta, redescribe S. gouldii, S. monachus and S. spectabilis to clarify morphological and geographical boundaries and describe S. gaikhorstorum sp. nov., which differs from all other described Suta species, including the geographically proximate and similar-looking S. monachus, by a combination of molecular genetic markers, morphometric attributes, details of colouration and scalation. The recognition of S. gaikhorstorum sp. nov. adds to the growing list of the many endemic reptiles from this exceptionally diverse biotic region. We also designate a lectotype for S. spectabilis from the original syntype series, highlight a distinctive population from the Great Victoria Desert in Western Australia and comment on further unresolved issues regarding the relationships between S. dwyeri (Worrell) and S. nigriceps (Gȕnther).


Assuntos
Elapidae , Lagartos , Animais , Filogenia , Austrália Ocidental
10.
Zootaxa ; 4778(1): zootaxa.4778.1.3, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055832

RESUMO

Fringe-toed lizards (Uma) are among the most specialized lizards in North America, adapted to insular windblown sand habitats in the hyper-arid southwestern deserts, with allopatric distributions, subtle morphological variation, and an unstable taxonomic history. We analyzed a morphological dataset of 40 characters for 65 specimens and a molecular dataset of 2,286 bases from three mitochondrial loci for 92 individuals and interpreted these data alongside published analyses of multi-locus genetic data with the goal of revising the taxonomy of the Uma notata (Baird 1858) species complex. We confirmed that fringe-toed lizards from the Mohawk Dunes in southwestern Arizona (U. sp.) constitute a cryptic species sister to the rest of the complex that can be diagnosed with DNA barcoding and geography, so we describe and name this species Uma thurmanae sp. nov. We also confirmed the evolutionary distinctiveness of U. inornata (Cope 1895), an endangered species endemic to Coachella Valley in southern California. We designate a lectotype for the taxon U. "rufopunctata", but we put its name in quotation marks to reflect its uncertain taxonomic status with respect to its neighboring species U. cowlesi and U. notata.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Arizona , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia
11.
Zootaxa ; 4778(1): zootaxa.4778.1.4, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055833

RESUMO

We used the mitochondrial 16S-NADH1 complex, mitochondrial 12S, and nuclear histone 3 genes to examine evolutionary relationships among members of the genus Austinixa Heard Manning, 1997, and their relationships to other pinnotherids. The monophyly of Austinixa was confirmed by maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and maximum parsimony analyses. Clades recovered on the basis of molecular data agreed with current morphology-based taxonomy at species rank. Morphological characters presently used to distinguish species of Austinixa are not synapomorphic at higher levels and therefore cannot be used to infer cladistic relationships among them. High genetic and morphological intraspecific variation was observed, consistent with patterns of restricted gene flow likely attributable to climatic and geographic history, physical characteristics of contemporary habitats, and host-related constraints on the symbiotic life styles of Austinixa spp. Molecular and morphological characters warrant description of three new species, herein named and illustrated: Austinixa cuestai sp. nov., from Pacific waters of Panama and Nicaragua; Austinixa artankeri sp. nov., from the Caribbean waters of Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela; and Austinixa roblesi sp. nov., from Belize and Panama. All three species inhabit intertidal zones, as do their congeners. To facilitate comparisons and augment the very limited original description, a redescription of the Pacific species Austinixa felipensis (Glassell, 1935) is provided on the basis of paratypes labelled by Glassell and more recently collected topoptypic specimens.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.3, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055868

RESUMO

The Music Frog genus Nidirana was recently resurrected as a distinct genus and contains 14 species distributed in subtropical eastern and southeastern Asia. The species diversity of Nidirana is dramatically underestimated, and half of its species was described in the last five years. In this study, Nidirana occidentalis sp. nov., a new species of Music Frog from western Yunnan, China, is proposed based on morphological and molecular evidences. The new species was previously misidentified as N. pleuraden, but can be distinguished from the true N. pleuraden from eastern Yunnan, and all other congeners, by a combination of morphological characteristics, and significant divergence in the mitochondrial genes (≥ 5.1% in 16S and ≥ 8.9% in CO1). Nidirana occidentalis sp. nov. is assigned to the N. pleuraden group on the basis of morphological characters, but its phylogenetic placement remains unresolved due to weak branch support. Geographically, these two species are isolated by the Red River in Yunnan, supporting the hypothesis that the Red River is an important geographical barrier that drives speciation in flora and fauna. Nidirana occidentalis sp. nov. represents the second species of N. pleuraden group and the 15th species of the genus.


Assuntos
Anuros , Ranidae , Animais , China , Genes Mitocondriais , Filogenia
13.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.5, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055870

RESUMO

The D'Aguilar Range of subtropical south-eastern Queensland (Australia), harbours an upland rainforest biota characterised by high levels of endemic diversity. Following recent phylogenetic and biogeographic research into the open-holed trapdoor spiders of the genus Namea Raven, 1984 (family Anamidae), remarkable levels of sympatry for a single genus of mygalomorph spiders were recorded from the D'Aguilar Range. It is now known that eight different species in the genus can be found in the D'Aguilar uplands, with five apparently endemic to rainforest habitats. In this paper we present a phylogenetic and taxonomic synopsis of the remarkable anamid fauna of the D'Aguilar Range: a key to the eight species is provided, and four new species of Namea are described (N. gloriosa sp. nov., N. gowardae sp. nov., N. nebo sp. nov. and N. nigritarsus sp. nov.). In shining a spotlight on the mygalomorph spiders of this region, we highlight the D'Aguilar Range as a hotspot of subtropical rainforest diversity, and an area of considerable conservation value.


Assuntos
Floresta Úmida , Aranhas , Animais , Austrália , Filogenia
14.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.6, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055871

RESUMO

A correction to the recent revision of the genus Hemidactylus Goldfuss, 1820 from Angola is presented. The previous revision assigned some historical specimens to H. bayonii and H. nzingae, with one specimen even being considered a paratype of the latter taxon. A review of the morphological data of all of the specimens used in the previous study found that two other undescribed taxa, morphologically similar to H. bayonii and H. nzingae, respectively, were overlooked. We here present a re-description of these specimens and provide the diagnostic characters that allow their recognition as two new species, both endemic to Angola. In order to provide an accurate picture of the diversity of Hemidactylus in the country and to correct our previous misidentifications that could lead to some taxonomic instability, we herein describe H. hannasabinae sp. nov. and H. vernayi sp. nov.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Angola , Animais , Filogenia
15.
Zootaxa ; 4861(1): zootaxa.4861.1.10, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055875

RESUMO

A new astropectinid asteroid, Eoastropecten sechuanensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Upper Triassic (Carnian) of Sechuan Province, China, based upon marginal ossicles. This occurrence extends the known fossil record of the family Astropectinidae back by 50 myr from the Lower Jurassic, and indicates that a significant part of the radiation of the neoasteroids probably took place around 240 Ma, only 12 myr after the P-T boundary extinction.


Assuntos
Equinodermos , Fósseis , Animais , China , Filogenia
16.
Zootaxa ; 4860(4): zootaxa.4860.4.3, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055879

RESUMO

The so far monotypic genus Sibogella Billard, 1911 is revised based on literature data. Its type species, S. erecta Billard, 1911, is thoroughly redescribed and illustrated, and accounts on two new congeners, S. flabellata sp. nov. from shallow waters of Indonesia and S. spissa sp. nov. from deep waters of New Caledonia, are provided. Single- (16S rRNA) and multi-locus (concatenated 16S, 18S, and 28S rRNA) phylogenetic assessments of the Plumulariidae, including newly-sequenced Sibogella material, supplement the alpha-taxonomical study.


Assuntos
Hidrozoários , Animais , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
17.
Zootaxa ; 4834(4): zootaxa.4834.4.1, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056102

RESUMO

The morphology of the spermatheca is described in 109 species of 86 genera representing all four currently recognised subfamilies of Coreidae, covering the undivided Hydarinae, both tribes of Pseudophloeinae, all three tribes of Meropachyinae and 27 of the 32 tribes of Coreinae. Three types of spermatheca are recognised. Type I is bipartite, consisting only of a simple tube differentiated into distal seminal receptacle and proximal spermathecal duct and lacks the intermediate part present in most Pentatomomorpha, in which it serves as muscular pump. Type II is also bipartite but more elaborate in form with the receptacle generally distinctly wider than the duct. Type III is tripartite, with receptacle, duct and an often complex intermediate part. Four subtypes are recognised within type III. Type I is found only in Hydarinae and type II only in Pseudophloeinae. Type III is found in both Coreinae and Meropachyinae. Subtype IIIA ("Coreus-group") unites many tribes from the Eastern Hemisphere and only one (Spartocerini) from the Western Hemisphere. Subtypes IIIB ("Nematopus-group") and IIID ("Anisoscelis-group") are confined to taxa from the Western Hemisphere and subtype IIIC ("Chariesterus-group") is found in tribes from both hemispheres. The polarity of several characters of the intermediate part and some of the spermathecal duct is evaluated, suggesting autapomorphies or apomorphies potentially relevant to the classification of Coreidae at the sufamilial and tribal levels. Characters of the intermediate part strongly indicate that the separation of Meropachyinae and Coreinae as currently constituted cannot be substantiated. The tribes Anisoscelini, Colpurini, Daladerini and Hyselonotini are heterogeneous, each exhibiting two subtypes of spermatheca, and probably polyphyletic. Two tribes, Cloresmini and Colpurini, requiring further investigation remain unplaced. This study demonstrates the great importance of characters of the spermatheca, in particular its intermediate part, for research into the phylogeny and taxonomy of Pentatomomorpha.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Animais , Filogenia
18.
Zootaxa ; 4834(4): zootaxa.4834.4.4, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056105

RESUMO

The species-rich, megophryid frog genus Leptobrachella Smith, 1925 is distributed throughout the uplands of mainland Southeast Asia but is conspicuously absent from the Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia, where it has been known only by a single, undetermined metamorphic specimen collected nearly two decades ago. We report two adult female specimens of Leptobrachella collected a decade later at a second locality in the Cardamom Mountains and use mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA, and morphology to show that it represents a distinct species. Leptobrachella neangi sp. nov., named after its collector, is most closely related in mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to L. fuliginosa (Matsui, 2006) and L. melanoleuca (Matsui, 2006) from western Thailand, but has uncorrected pairwise distances of 8.69-10.99% in a mitochondrial 16S gene fragment from its two sister species. The new species is also readily distinguished from these and other congeners by having the combination of (1) SVL 35.4-36.3 mm in two adult females, (2) distinct dorsolateral glandular line absent, (2) belly transparent, immaculate purplish gray in life, creamy white in preservative, (3) dark inguinal blotch absent, (4) tympanum with black coloration extending from line under supratympanic fold, (5) dorsal skin with small, irregular bumps and ridges, and (6) iris coppery orange around pupil, fading to gold at periphery, not distinctly bicolored. The new species is the first named Leptobrachella from the Cardamom Mountains and the third from Cambodia.


Assuntos
Anuros , Animais , Camboja , Feminino , Filogenia
19.
Zootaxa ; 4834(3): zootaxa.4834.3.3, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056114

RESUMO

We examine the phylogenetic relationships among salamanders of the genus Bolitoglossa (Eladinea) distributed in the Amazonian basin of northern Peru and southern Ecuador and assess species diversity based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. We infer a molecular phylogeny using sequences from two mitochondrial (Cytb, 16S) and two nuclear genes (RAG-1, POMC). We find two well-supported subclades, one including [B. altamazonica + B. peruviana] + B. awajun sp. n., and the other including Bolitoglossa sp. Ituxi + Bolitoglossa sp. Jurúa. Ecuadorian lineages form divergent clades from the Peruvian lineages. Accordingly, Ecuadorian populations previously assigned to Bolitoglossa peruviana sensu lato are treated as members of a Bolitoglossa equatoriana species complex. A newly defined Bolitoglossa altamazonica species complex contains only populations from the Amazonian rainforest of Peru. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses confirm the phylogenetic placement of B. altamazonica and B. peruviana, and support recognition of a related new species of Bolitoglossa. The uncorrected genetic distances between the new species and B. altamazonica are 6.5% for Cytb and 4.9% for 16S; and the uncorrected genetic distances between the new species and B. peruviana are 8.0% for Cytb and 3.9% for 16S. Additionally, analyses of nuclear gene sequences show no haplotype sharing between the new species and closely related species. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological characters: (1) Standard length mean 37.7 mm in males (range 32.0-42.2; n=5) and 41.4 mm in females (range 34.9-48.2; n=6); (2) in life, dorsal coloration uniformly brown with a dark brown triangular marking between the eyes or some irregular light cream spots or patches on the head, back and flanks; (3) iris pale golden; (4) in preservative, dark brown venter with cream mottlings or moderate-sized blotches on the gular region, belly, cloacal region and tail; (5) tips of third finger and third toe protuberant and pointed with nearly complete webbing on the hands and feet; (6) 11-26 maxillary teeth and 8-24 vomerine teeth. Given that the syntypes of B. altamazonica are lost, we designate a neotype for B. altamazonica from Allpahuayo Mishana National Reserve, Loreto department, Peru. Newly collected specimens from ~30 km NE from Moyobamba (type locality of B. peruviana) provide a better understanding of B. peruviana and enable us to show that it is the sister taxon of B. altamazonica. The new species is known from pre-montane forests in Cordillera Escalera Regional Conservation Area, Cordillera Azul National Park and Shucshuyacu, San Martin department, Peru at 485-1311 m elevation,  ~75 km SE from Moyobamba. Bolitoglossa awajun sp. n. is the fourth endemic species of salamander from Peru.


Assuntos
Urodelos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Masculino , Peru , Filogenia
20.
Zootaxa ; 4859(1): zootaxa.4859.1.4, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056207

RESUMO

Ethiopia is known for its highly endemic and rich herpetofaunal diversity shaped by its biogeographical patterns. Here, a new species of skink, Trachylepis boehmei sp. nov., is described from the Ethiopian Highlands. It differs from its congeners in having smooth uncarinated dorsal scales, 26-29 scale rows around midbody, a slender body of small size, a relatively short tail, a low eye-snout distance and a unique colour pattern with 6-8 darkish brown dorsal stripes. Based on morphological characteristics, its biogeographical pattern and comparisons with other similar congeners this new species is closely related to Trachylepis megalura. A published new record of Trachylepis wingati for the Kafa region is re-examined and identified as T. megalura. An updated comprehensive key to the Trachylepis found in Ethiopia is provided. In the context of ongoing phylogenetic and taxonomic revisions of Trachylepis and its species complexes the presence of further cryptic taxa can be expected also for the Ethiopian biodiversity hotspots. Consequently, the need of further herpetological investigations in this region of ecological importance is stressed.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Biodiversidade , Etiópia , Filogenia
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