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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20200132, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1127495

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: to reflect on the relationships involving the older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of complexity, envisioning the path of hope. Method: this is a reflection based on the Theory of Complexity, according to Edgar Morin, and on articles addressing the new coronavirus. Results: the experiences during the pandemic showed economic, social, health, cultural, ethical, and moral difficulties in relation to the older adults. Facing the uncertainties of COVID-19 teaches about the attitude towards this inevitable involvement in the individual and collective life, as well as in the history of the country and the world - a problem aggravated by the fears of humanity. Therefore, adapting society and remodeling it with regard to relationships with the older adults can translate into success against the pandemic disease. This induces thought reform, reorganizing the understanding of the older adults, which currently involves scattered, disjoint, compartmentalized, and excluding thinking. This reform is broad, deep, paradigmatic, cultural, ethical, and moral, which strengthens the culture of aging, propagating and democratizing the poetry of living, allowing the older adults to know the beauty of emotions, and to discover their own truths through the masterpieces of their lives. However, this intention presupposes a metamorphosis of individualism, oppression, and exclusion, in whose context gerontological nursing is fundamental. Conclusion: the transformations experienced during the pandemic may be the prelude to changing relationships with the older adults, through multiple reforming and transforming processes that come together, by the strengthening of gerontological nursing. Perhaps the pandemic moment is the beginning of the path of hope for new times of Humanity's dignity.


RESUMEN Objetivo: reflexionar sobre las relaciones que implican a los adultos mayores durante la pandemia de COVID-19 desde la perspectiva de la complejidad, vislumbrando el camino de la esperanza. Método: reflexión basada en la Teoría de la Complejidad, según Edgar Morin, y en diversos artículos que tratan el tema del nuevo coronavirus. Resultados: las experiencias durante la pandemia evidenciaron dificultades económicas, sociales, de salud, culturales, éticas y morales en relación con los adultos mayores. Enfrentar las incertezas del COVID-19 deja enseñanzas sobre la postura frente a este fenómeno inevitable en la vida individual y colectiva, y en la historia del país y del mundo: un problema agravado por los miedos de la humanidad. En consecuencia, adaptar la sociedad y remodelarla en lo que concierne a las relaciones con el adulto mayor puede traducirse en el éxito contra la enfermedad pandémica. Eso induce a remodelar el pensamiento y a reorganizar la comprensión sobre el adulto mayor, que actualmente implica un pensamiento disperso, disociado, compartimentalizado y excluyente. Dicha reforma es amplia, profunda, paradigmática, cultural, ética y moral, y fortalece la cultura del envejecimiento, propagando y democratizando la poesía de vivir, tornando así posible que los adultos mayores conozcan la belleza de las emociones y descubran sus propias verdades por medio de las obras maestras de sus vidas. Sin embargo, esa intención presupone una metamorfosis del individualismo, de la opresión y de la exclusión, en cuyo contexto la enfermería gerontológica es fundamental. Conclusión: las transformaciones experimentadas durante la pandemia pueden ser el preludio del cambio en las relaciones con los adultos mayores, mediante múltiples procesos reformadores y transformadores que se entrelazan, gracias al fortalecimiento de la enfermería gerontológica. Quizás el momento pandémico sea el comienzo del camino de la esperanza para nuevos tiempos de dignidad de la Humanidad.


RESUMO Objetivo: refletir sobre as relações envolvendo os idosos durante a pandemia da COVID-19 sob o olhar da complexidade, vislumbrando o caminho da esperança. Método: trata-se de reflexão alicerçada na Teoria da Complexidade, segundo Edgar Morin, e em artigos abordando o novo coronavírus. Resultados: as vivências durante a pandemia evidenciaram dificuldades econômicas, sociais, de saúde, culturais, éticas e morais em relação aos idosos. Enfrentar as incertezas da COVID-19 ensina sobre a postura diante desse acometimento inevitável na vida individual, coletiva e na história do país e do mundo - um problema agravado pelos medos da humanidade. Portanto, adaptar a sociedade e remodelá-la no que concerne às relações com o idoso pode se traduzir no sucesso contra a doença pandêmica. Isso induz a reforma do pensamento, reorganização da compreensão sobre o idoso, que na atualidade envolve pensamento disperso, disjunto, compartimentalizado e excludente. Essa reforma é ampla, profunda, paradigmática, cultural, ética e moral, que fortalece a cultura do envelhecimento, propagando e democratizando a poesia do viver, possibilitando que os idosos conheçam a beleza das emoções, descubram as próprias verdades por meio das obras primas de suas vidas. Porém, essa intenção pressupõe metamorfose do individualismo, da opressão e da exclusão, em cujo contexto a enfermagem gerontológica é fundamental. Conclusão: as transformações vividas durante a pandemia podem ser o prelúdio da mudança nas relações com os idosos, mediante processos múltiplos reformadores e transformadores que se coligam, pelo fortalecimento da enfermagem gerontológica. Quiçá o momento pandêmico seja o começo do caminho da esperança para novos tempos de dignidade da Humanidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Idoso , Coronavirus , Esperança , Enfermagem Geriátrica
3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e53264, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145832

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever a experiência de famílias que vivenciam o sofrimento mental em dispositivos existenciais presentes no território. Método: estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, fundamentado na fenomenologia de Merleau-Ponty. Com aprovação do comitê de ética em pesquisa, o estudo foi desenvolvido entre julho de 2017 e junho de 2018 em um município da Bahia, Brasil, com a participação de dez famílias, representadas por 24 pessoas. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas fenomenológicas e rodas de intersubjetividade, tendo sido analisados pela técnica analítica da ambiguidade. Resultados: as descrições foram categorizadas em: família como lugar de re(construção) de virtudes relacionais e liberdade como dispositivo existencial de cuidado. Conclusão: o estudo demostrou o potencial da família para se constituir como espaço de promoção de virtudes e fortalecimento de vínculos; e ressaltou a importância da construção e valorização de experiências dialógicas, a exemplo das rodas de intersubjetividade, que se mostraram como relevante estratégia de cuidado em saúde mental.


Objective: to describe the experience of families who experience mental suffering in existential spaces in the territory. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study, based on the phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty and approved by the research ethics committee, was conducted between July 2017 and June 2018 in a municipality in Bahia, Brazil, with the participation of ten families, represented by 24 people. Data were collected in phenomenological interviews and intersubjectivity groups, and then analyzed using the ambiguity analysis technique. Results: the resulting descriptions were categorized into the family as a place for re(building) relational virtues and freedom as an existential space for care. Conclusion: the study demonstrated the family's potential to constitute a space for promoting virtues and strengthening bonds, and highlighted the importance of building and valuing dialogical experiences, such as the intersubjectivity groups, which proved to be a substantial mental health care strategy.


Objetivo: describir la vivencia de familias que experimentan sufrimiento mental en espacios existenciales del territorio. Método: este estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, basado en la fenomenología de Merleau-Ponty y aprobado por el comité de ética en investigación, se realizó entre julio de 2017 y junio de 2018 en un municipio de Bahía, Brasil, con la participación de diez familias, representadas por 24 personas. Los datos fueron recolectados en entrevistas fenomenológicas y grupos de intersubjetividad, y luego analizados usando la técnica de análisis de ambigüedad. Resultados: las descripciones resultantes se categorizaron en la familia como lugar de reconstrucción de las virtudes relacionales y la libertad como espacio existencial para el cuidado. Conclusión: el estudio demostró el potencial de la familia para constituir un espacio de promoción de virtudes y fortalecimiento de vínculos, y destacó la importancia de construir y valorar experiencias dialógicas, como los grupos de intersubjetividad, que resultó ser una estrategia sustancial de atención en salud mental.


Assuntos
Humanos , Família/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Virtudes , Relações Familiares , Liberdade , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico/reabilitação , Brasil , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Serviços de Saúde Mental
4.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200259, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111777

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To promote a theoretical reflective analysis of what nursing has to learn and teach to global society in times of OVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Reflective theoretical essay aimed at contributing new knowledge and raising new questions, based on the assumptions of Edgar Morin's complexity thinking, subsidized by readings of texts extracted from electronic databases, as well as speeches by health professionals available in open communication tools. RESULTS: COVID-19 reiterates that the biological warfare of the current pandemic is not fought with nuclear or fire weapons, but with care in its multiple dimensions: physical, emotional, spiritual, family, social, political and economic. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: Nursing has to learn and teach global society that its main object of work, care, is related to the expansion of systemic interactions and associations and the capacity to strengthen the interlocution with complex reality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Teoria de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa
6.
J Christ Nurs ; 37(4): E43-E44, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898076

RESUMO

Nurses have put themselves in precarious situations by caring for COVID-19 patients. Through the grid of faith, hope, and love as depicted in 1 Corinthians, the author commends the selfless work of nurses and esteems God's faithfulness to nurses who acknowledge him.


Assuntos
Cristianismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Religião e Medicina , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento Cooperativo , Empatia , Humanos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Pandemias , Filosofia em Enfermagem
7.
Nurs Ethics ; 27(4): 935-945, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249677

RESUMO

To practice compassion, the recognition, understanding, and alleviation of patient suffering are of utmost importance. Nursing literature provides ample guidance about the nature and meaning and patients' views about compassion and physical and psychological suffering. However, missing is the discussion about how nurses can achieve a deeper awareness of patients' suffering to practice compassion. This paper aims to describe the relational inquiry nursing approach and illustrate how this approach can enable nurses to develop a deeper awareness of patient suffering. The relational inquiry approach encompasses two components: a relational consciousness and inquiry as a form of action. Relational consciousness requires the nurses to focus on the concrete situations and relationships as well as recognize the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors affecting the situations. The interpersonal factors are among and between the individuals, intrapersonal factors are within the individuals, and contextual factors are the hidden factors influencing the individuals and situations. Inquiry as an action requires a critical analysis of the experiences of individuals, situational contexts, and knowledge to inform the nursing care modalities and actions. This approach encourages nurses to use the philosophies of hermeneutic phenomenology, critical theory, and pragmatism. The phenomenological worldview allows nurses to interpret their own and patients' experiences, the critical theory worldview allows nurses to examine the influence of social and cultural factors, and pragmatism allows nurses to question their prior knowledge and develop new knowledge in each situation. The relational inquiry approach allows nurses to develop a deeper understanding of patient suffering through building a therapeutic and trustworthy relationship, active listening, focusing on the details, and engaging in broad and situations specific inquiries to understand the patient narrative of suffering. Two case exemplars are shared to demonstrate how relational inquiry allowed nurses to move beyond recognizing physical suffering and understand patients' emotional and psychological suffering.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Empatia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Cuidados de Enfermagem/psicologia , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Estresse Psicológico , Hermenêutica , Humanos
8.
Br J Nurs ; 29(5): 314-317, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167808

RESUMO

Person-first thinking makes it a virtue to 'see the person, not the disability', overlooking, or making an effort to overlook, a person's impairment in order to see 'the person within'. This might seem a caring and compassionate approach in everyday nursing practice, but on closer examination it can be seen as unhelpful and even discriminatory. This article considers why this should be the case and introduces the affirmation model as a basis for a different way of thinking about the issue.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Empatia , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Humanos , Princípios Morais , Ética Baseada em Princípios
9.
Nurs Outlook ; 68(3): 355-364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138977

RESUMO

In this essay, I propose there are enduring ideas in the works of nurse theorists from the 1960s and 1970s that were valuable not only in the past, but in nursing today as well as in possibly shaping the future of nursing knowledge development. I identify these as gift ideas and draw on the work of Wiedenbach for the gift of dignity in nursing philosophy, and the gifts of dialogue from Orlando, behavioral systems from Johnson, context from Roy, self-care from Orem, and finally the gift of nursing science as emergent in understanding life processes from Rogers. Although the core of nursing knowledge may be elusive, the gift ideas mentioned in this essay provide some guideposts in articulating and developing that core in the present as well as in the future.


Assuntos
Enfermagem/tendências , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Feminino , Previsões , Doações , Humanos , Conhecimento
10.
J Nurs Adm ; 50(2): 85-89, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977945

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine program effectiveness in changing Caritas leadership, self-caring behaviors, and perceptions of coworkers of participants who completed the Caritas Coach Education Program (CCEP). BACKGROUND: The CCEP has been a highly successful education program for individuals who wish to intellectually and experientially learn to teach, live, and practice human caring theory. METHODS: A pretest-posttest descriptive design was used to evaluate changes in perceptions of self-caring, caritas leadership, and coworker behaviors after completion of CCEP. RESULTS: The mean scores of all measures improved significantly. CONCLUSIONS: After completion of CCEP, participants demonstrated statistically significant changes in 3 caritas measures: leadership, coworker, and self-rating. Caritas Coach participants exhibited the greatest change in their self-caring scores.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Empatia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/educação , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Adulto , Arizona , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
11.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 24(spe): e20200321, ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1146684

RESUMO

Objetivo: refletir sobre as dimensões do ser humano e o cuidado de enfermagem no contexto pandêmico da Covid-19. Método: trata-se de um estudo reflexivo, em que foram discutidas as dimensões corpórea (Homo somaticus), de vida humana (Homo vivens), conhecer (Homo sapiens), vontade (Homo volens), linguagem (Homo loquens), social (Homo socialis), do trabalho (Homo faber), jogo e divertimento (Homo ludens) e o cuidado de enfermagem no contexto pandêmico da Covid-19. Resultados: as dimensões estão sendo influenciadas pelo contexto pandêmico do novo coronavírus, sendo necessárias intervenções de enfermagem humanizadoras como o manejo clínico e terapêutico transpessoal, suporte ao corpo físico em adoecimento, garantia de uma linguagem que possibilite o autocuidado e apoio psicológico, atitude de escuta aberta, incentivo às práticas de jogos para passar o tempo e métodos de relaxamento, meditação e imaginação guiada, entre outras. O ato de refletir sobre as dimensões cria novas possibilidades de sinalizar pontos de intercessão para a compreensão da nova realidade vivenciada pelo homem. Conclusão e implicações para a prática: ao refletir sobre as dimensões do homem à luz da antropologia com o embasamento teórico dos Modelos de cuidados da Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC), geram-se possibilidades de estabelecer um cuidado holístico no contexto da pandemia pelo novo coronavírus


Objective: to reflect on the dimensions of the human being and nursing care in the pandemic context of Covid-19. Method: this is a reflection study, in which the corporeal dimensions (Homo somaticus), human life (Homo vivens), knowing (Homo sapiens), will (Homo volens), language (Homo loquens), social (Homo socialis), work (Homo faber), play and fun (Homo ludens) and nursing care in the pandemic context of Covid-19. Results: the dimensions are being influenced by the pandemic context of the new coronavirus, requiring humanizing nursing interventions, such as transpersonal clinical and therapeutic management, support for the sick physical body, guarantee of a language that enables self-care and psychological support, attitude of open listening, encouraging game practices to spend time and methods of relaxation, meditation and guided imagination, among others. The act of reflecting on the dimensions creates new possibilities for signaling points of intercession for the understanding of the new reality experienced by man. Conclusion and implications for practice: when reflecting on the dimensions of man in the light of anthropology with the theoretical basis of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) Care Models, possibilities for holistic care are created in the context of the new coronavirus pandemic


Objetivo: reflexionar sobre las dimensiones del ser humano y la atención de enfermería en el contexto pandémico de Covid-19. Método: este es un estudio reflexivo, en el que las dimensiones corporales (Homo somaticus), la vida humana (Homo vivens), el conocimiento (Homo sapiens), la voluntad (Homo volens), el lenguaje (Homo loquens), social (Homo socialis), trabajo (Homo faber), juego y diversión (Homo ludens) y cuidados de enfermería en el contexto pandémico de Covid-19. Resultados: las dimensiones están siendo influenciadas por el contexto pandémico del nuevo coronavirus, que requiere intervenciones humanizadoras de enfermería, como el manejo clínico y terapéutico transpersonal, el apoyo al cuerpo físico enfermo, la garantía de un lenguaje que permita el autocuidado y el apoyo psicológico, la actitud de escucha abierta, fomentando prácticas de juego para pasar el tiempo y métodos de relajación, meditación e imaginación guiada, entre otros. El acto de reflexionar sobre las dimensiones crea nuevas posibilidades para señalar puntos de intercesión para comprender la nueva realidad experimentada por el hombre. Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica: reflexionar sobre las dimensiones del hombre a la luz de la antropología con la base teórica de los Modelos de Atención de la Clasificación de Intervenciones de Enfermería (NIC) genera posibilidades de atención integral en el contexto de la nueva pandemia de coronavirus


Assuntos
Humanos , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Betacoronavirus , Cuidados de Enfermagem , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Teoria de Enfermagem , Humanização da Assistência
12.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12273, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364814

RESUMO

Nursing theories are typically anthropocentric and emphasize caring for a person as a unitary whole. They maintain the dualisms of human-nonhuman, natural-social and material-ideal. Recent developments in nonhuman ontology question the utility of that approach. One important philosopher in this new materialism is political theorist Jane Bennett. In this paper, I explore Bennett's vital materialism and enchantment as two concepts arising from the nonhuman turn that should inform nursing philosophy. Vital materialism considers the lively power of matter to affect the world and be affected in relations. Enchantment refers to a sense of wonder and captivation with matter. While summarizing her important contributions, I also describe common criticisms and responses. I consider the human as an assemblage of matter as well as the agency or "thing power" of matter external to humans. This has implications for nursing thought and practice, and it can inform a more capacious research methodology. I also discuss how compassion fatigue or burnout and other professional issues may be seen as a form of disenchantment with the material world. I argue that embracing these and other elements of Bennett's new materialist philosophy can help nurses and other health professionals enrich their theories and practice to advance their disciplines and improve care for persons and populations.


Assuntos
Antropologia Cultural/ética , Processo de Enfermagem/normas , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Antropologia Cultural/tendências , Equidade em Saúde , Humanos , Processo de Enfermagem/tendências
14.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12286, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608593

RESUMO

This article presents the works of great Polish philosopher, Mieczyslaw Albert Krapiec, whose creative output can be applied to professional nursing practice. Krapiec's philosophical heritage is extensive and encompasses many philosophical fields: metaphysics, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of law, philosophy of culture, philosophy of politics and philosophy of language. Krapiec created an original philosophical synthesis characterized by a realistic approach. In this paper, I present only one of several original philosophical concepts developed by Krapiec: the theory of the person based on seven essential characteristics, that is the ability for cognition, love, freedom, religion, legal subjectivity, completeness and dignity. I attempt to show how these personal characteristics correspond to various patient needs. I argue that the qualitative deficit of any personal characteristics indicated by Krapiec corresponds to a patient's real need that must be satisfied. I also stress that the skilful diagnosing of all-not only selected-qualitative deficits of characteristics can be defined as holistic care in the nursing profession.


Assuntos
Processo de Enfermagem/normas , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Humanos , Processo de Enfermagem/tendências , Teoria de Enfermagem , Pessoalidade
15.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12248, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31157947

RESUMO

What is consciousness? What is its importance and how is it to be described? The paper looks at some of the principal theories and their attempts to solve the "hard problem" of how consciousness is produced by nervous tissue, and attempts to close the "explanatory gap" between such (apparently) profoundly different things as subjective awareness and a physical brain. It ends with a tentative suggestion that, despite centuries of philosophical frustration, recent appeals to quantum physics may offer a glimmer of hope.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/ética , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Humanos
16.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12246, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046199

RESUMO

Confusion remains about the concept "nursing science." Definitions vary, depending on country, context and setting. Even among nurse scholars and scientists there is disagreement about the content and boundaries of nursing science. There is an urgent need for an acceptable definition that can guide nursing knowledge development, education, and practice. In this article, we highlight the problems for the profession of this sort of conceptual ambiguity, arguing that it is an ethical responsibility for the profession to gain clarity about the meaning and apt focus of our knowledge development initiatives. We parse out nursing and science as separate concepts and synthesize from this analysis a simple yet comprehensive definition of nursing science. We propose that this definition is capable of unifying ongoing nursing endeavors and should serve as the basis for evaluating nursing's knowledge development and educational initiatives.


Assuntos
Enfermagem/classificação , Ciência/classificação , Humanos , Enfermagem/métodos , Enfermagem/tendências , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Ciência/tendências
17.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12244, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050383

RESUMO

This article aims at giving insight into Norwegian mental health service by exploring the ideologies of two diametrical philosophers, the American Robert Nozick (1938-2002) and the German Axel Honneth (1949-). Nozick proposes as an ideal a minimal state in which citizens have a "negative right" to the absence of interference and to follow their own interests without restriction from the state. On the other side, Axel Honneth claims that there is no freedom without state interference. In his view, governmental involvement is understood as a prerequisite for personal freedom. We may call this state an opposite of the minimal state; a maximal state. To get a better understanding of these opposite philosophies, we use texts written from conversations with people suffering from mental health problems, nurses and other caregivers in four Norwegian municipalities. Nozick's notion of the minimal state and Honneth's political philosophy of freedom and recognition were used as analytical tools. Among patients and helpers, there were different opinions about good care and how much caregivers should intervene. Some emphasized autonomy, independency, minimal involvement in human contact by nurses and other caregivers, similar a minimal state. Others perceived good care as bonding between helpers and service-users. They underlined equal and personal relationships, as well as helping with practicalities, similar a maximal state. In the discussion, we focus on how people with chronic illnesses are supposed to transform themselves into self-cared individuals, able to manage their own condition successfully with minimal help from public welfare and at a lower cost. Finally, we express concerns about who will care for disempowered patients without family and other resources in a minimal state.


Assuntos
Programas Governamentais/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Programas Governamentais/normas , Programas Governamentais/tendências , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/tendências , Noruega
18.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12254, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087495

RESUMO

Patient-centred care has gained ground in health service following a health policy initiative aimed at changing the paternalistic culture towards one with more patient involvement. Development of knowledge relating to people's lived experiences of illness is important in this context. Literature in the field of health science describes methods for exploring what is at stake for people affected by illness, and the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur has been a significant source of inspiration. Especially, Ricoeur's interpretation theory has been construed and applied in different, often schematic, methodological variations, whereas his narrative philosophy is a little used source of inspiration. Health science has been characterized by a biomedical awareness of method and the idea that there is a direct and immediate path to patients' experiences, a viewpoint that can be traced back to Descartes and the philosophy of subjectivism. Opposed to Descartes, Ricoeur says that we are already embedded in a world of traditions and meanings over which we have no control. According to Ricoeur, we leave traces when we express ourselves, and traces are formed by the world of meanings and traditions to which we belong. Often, the sense in the traces is hidden, making it impossible to directly understand individual's experiences. Reflection on an individual's lived experiences must take place via the narratives in which the individual expresses themselves. The centrepiece of Ricoeur's narrative philosophy is the threefold mimesis, which is an approach to understanding the meaning of peoples' lived experiences. The philosophical hermeneutics of Gadamer plays an important role in Ricoeur's theory of interpretation, although he has criticized Gadamer for failing to include one dimension in his philosophy; he finds this dimension in Habermas' ideology critique. Ricoeur's ideology critique is absent in health science research, which is why it has been made a focal point in this article.


Assuntos
Hermenêutica , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/ética , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Humanos , Pesquisa Metodológica em Enfermagem/tendências , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/métodos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/tendências
19.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12294, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852029

RESUMO

This article critically analyses the hermeneutic commitment of interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In the theoretical framework of IPA, the role of preconceptions and prejudices is consistently downplayed; priority is given to the participant's own words. Paley has argued that IPA's interpretative phase is always and necessarily determined by the researcher's fore-conceptions, as opposed to the participant's narrative. I demonstrate that IPA's failure to recognize the importance of an external frame of reference in interpretation may arise from the misunderstanding of the method's hermeneutic underpinnings. I essentially argue that bracketing the researcher's fore-conceptions during the initial phases of IPA is merely an illusion. While it is beyond the scope of this article to dispute whether IPA is genuinely phenomenological, my claim ultimately poses a challenge to IPA's phenomenological commitment on its own terms. The article concludes with a proposal to substantially improve IPA's consistency with hermeneutic tradition and its grounding in phenomenological philosophy.


Assuntos
Hermenêutica , Filosofia em Enfermagem , Humanos
20.
Nurs Philos ; 21(2): e12276, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441216

RESUMO

Since its inception, phenomenological philosophy has exerted an influence on empirical science. But what is the best way to practice, use and apply phenomenology in a non-philosophical context? How deeply rooted in phenomenological philosophy must qualitative research be in order to qualify as phenomenological? How many of the core commitments of phenomenology must it accept? In the following contribution, I will take a closer look at Max van Manen's work. I will argue that van Manen's understanding of and presentation of phenomenology is quite problematic and that his book Phenomenology of Practice rather than amounting to a clear and accessible presentation of the phenomenological method that would make it do-able to researchers who are not themselves professional philosophers is in fact both abstruse and excessively complicated. I will then turn to nursing, and by taking that as my example, outline a better way to apply and practice phenomenology.


Assuntos
Filosofia em Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências
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