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1.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(3): 37, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779044

RESUMO

Within eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition we can distinguish at least three main theoretical positions: (i) Buffon's mechanism, (ii) Reimarus' theory of instincts, and (iii) the sensationalism of Condillac and Leroy. In this paper, I adopt a philosophical perspective on this debate and argue that in order to fully understand the justification Buffon, Reimarus, Condillac, and Leroy gave for their respective theories, we must pay special attention to the theoretical virtues these naturalists alluded to while justifying their position. These theoretical virtues have received little to no attention in the literature on eighteenth-century animal cognition, but figure prominently in the justification of the mechanist, instinctive, and sensationalist theories of animal behavior. Through my philosophical study of the role of theoretical virtues in eighteenth-century debates on animal cognition, we obtain a deeper understanding of how theoretical virtues were conceptualized in eighteenth-century science and how they influenced the justification of theories of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XVIII
2.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 42(2): 24, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519255

RESUMO

In the theory and history of ecology, Frederic Clements's theory of plant communities is usually presented as the historical prototype and a paradigmatic example of synecological organicism, characterised by the assumption that ecological communities are functionally integrated units of mutually dependent species. In this paper, I will object to this standard interpretation of Clements's theory. Undoubtedly, Clements compares plant communities with organisms and calls them "complex organisms" and "superorganisms". Further, he can indeed be regarded as a proponent of ecological organicism-provided that one defines ecological organicism as the interpretation of synecological units according to the model of the individual organism. However, Clements's theory does not include the assumption that mutual dependence is a principle of the organisation of plant communities. Rather, he interprets plant communities as top-down control-hierarchical entities, in which subordinate species depend on dominant species-but not the other way around. Therefore, his theory represents what may be called 'control-hierarchical organicism' as against 'mutualistic organicism'. The erroneous attribution to Clements of 'mutualistic organicism' might be due to an unawareness of the existence of different concepts of the organism. This unawareness results in the projection on Clements's theory of a seemingly self-evident mutualistic concept of organism that Clements himself did not use as a basis for his theory of plant communities.


Assuntos
Biota , Filosofia/história , Plantas , História do Século XX , Simbiose
3.
Ann Sci ; 77(2): 189-214, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375567

RESUMO

From 1797 to 1801 a controversy played out on the pages of the Medical Repository, the first scientific journal published in the United States. At its centre was the well-known feud between the followers of Antoine Lavoisier and Joseph Priestley, the lone supporter of the phlogiston model. The American debate, however, had more than two sides. The Americans chemists, Samuel Latham Mitchill and Benjamin Woodhouse, who rushed to support Priestley did not defend his scientific views. Rather, as citizens of a republic, they defended his right to have them. They also castigated the assertions of the "French chemists," whose claims that the new chemistry obviated debate seemed unsettlingly similar to the dictatorial ambitions of the French state. Using the Medical Repository, Mitchill and Woodhouse sought a compromise that validated the new chemistry, but united it with a more egalitarian form of discourse. The desired balance eluded them. Priestley proved too stubborn, and as the French Revolution descended into dictatorship and war, Mitchill and Woodhouse came more to realize that truly prising French chemistry from the culture of the revolutionary era. The episode left Mitchill and Woodhouse disillusioned with chemistry and hoping to redirect scientific enthusiasm to more pious ends.


Assuntos
Química/história , Filosofia/história , Ciência/história , França , Revolução Francesa , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , New York , Estados Unidos
4.
Ambix ; 67(1): 4-29, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32118524

RESUMO

So far it has never been clearly decided whether the treatise De natura rerum constitutes an authentic work by the physician and natural philosopher Theophrastus Bombast of Hohenheim, called Paracelsus (1493/94-1541) This article outlines the manuscript and printing traditions of De natura rerum, in which a recently discovered manuscript from 1571 is identified as the earliest source. The watermarks of this manuscript refer to the Tyrolean Inn Valley, where great alchemical expertise was available due to silver mining. A detailed examination of the content and style of the preface and the nine chapters indicates the involvement of at least three different authors. Some of these parts are definitely forgeries, while others cannot be judged with certainty as to their authenticity. On the other hand, three chapters, those on death, resuscitation and the signature of natural things, are most likely real writings of Paracelsus.


Assuntos
Morte , Filosofia/história , Médicos/história , Ressuscitação/história , História do Século XVI
5.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(1): 63-68, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014100

RESUMO

Our knowledge of the young Mendel's life prior to his admission to the monastery comes essentially from the curriculum vitae submitted in 1850. His first biographer Hugo Iltis used this document as a sort of autobiography, although the document contained various voluntary omissions and inaccuracies. We have sought the reasons for these and in so doing have discovered why Mendel's entry into religion had become ineluctable.


Assuntos
Docentes/história , Monges/história , Classe Social/história , Teologia , Trabalho , República Tcheca , Docentes/educação , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Filosofia/história , Impostos , Capacitação de Professores/história , Teologia/educação , Teologia/história , Trabalho/economia , Trabalho/história
9.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(25): 1803-1809, 2019 12.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847017

RESUMO

Pain or misery strike us - but it is up to us how to deal with them. Suffering is a verb; this underlines the active nature of suffering. The present paper develops a constructive concept of suffering by taking up approaches from existential philosophy and psychology. It suggests that suffering, if allowed and accepted, has the potential to facilitate transformation and, subsequently, to release from pain. The text ends with reflections on how a transformative understanding of suffering can be opened up in the accompaniment of suffering or dying.


Assuntos
Filosofia/história , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
10.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(8): 1053-1058, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859971

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia , História do Século XV , Humanos
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 41(4): 49, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655927

RESUMO

In this paper, I investigate the variety and richness of the taxonomical practices between the end of the nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries. During these decades, zoologists and paleontologists came up with different quantitative practices in order to classify their data in line with the new biological principles introduced by Charles Darwin. Specifically, I will investigate Florentino Ameghino's mathematization of mammalian dentition and the quantitative practices and visualizations of several German-speaking paleontologists at the beginning of the twentieth century. In so doing, this paper will call attention to the visual and quantitative language of early twentieth-century systematics. My analysis will therefore contribute to a prehistory of the statistical frame of mind in biology, a study which has yet to be written in full. Second, my work highlights the productive intertwinement between biological practices and philosophical frameworks at the turn of the nineteenth century. Deeply rooted in Kantian bio-philosophy, several biologists sought to find rules in order to apply ordering principles to chaotic taxonomic information. This implies the necessity to investigate the neglected role of Kantian and Romantic bio-philosophy in the unfolding of twentieth-century biology.


Assuntos
Classificação/métodos , Paleontologia/história , Filosofia/história , Zoologia/história , Argentina , Alemanha , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX
13.
Orig Life Evol Biosph ; 49(3): 111-145, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399826

RESUMO

In this review, we describe some of the central philosophical issues facing origins-of-life research and provide a targeted history of the developments that have led to the multidisciplinary field of origins-of-life studies. We outline these issues and developments to guide researchers and students from all fields. With respect to philosophy, we provide brief summaries of debates with respect to (1) definitions (or theories) of life, what life is and how research should be conducted in the absence of an accepted theory of life, (2) the distinctions between synthetic, historical, and universal projects in origins-of-life studies, issues with strategies for inferring the origins of life, such as (3) the nature of the first living entities (the "bottom up" approach) and (4) how to infer the nature of the last universal common ancestor (the "top down" approach), and (5) the status of origins of life as a science. Each of these debates influences the others. Although there are clusters of researchers that agree on some answers to these issues, each of these debates is still open. With respect to history, we outline several independent paths that have led to some of the approaches now prevalent in origins-of-life studies. These include one path from early views of life through the scientific revolutions brought about by Linnaeus (von Linn.), Wöhler, Miller, and others. In this approach, new theories, tools, and evidence guide new thoughts about the nature of life and its origin. We also describe another family of paths motivated by a" circularity" approach to life, which is guided by such thinkers as Maturana & Varela, Gánti, Rosen, and others. These views echo ideas developed by Kant and Aristotle, though they do so using modern science in ways that produce exciting avenues of investigation. By exploring the history of these ideas, we can see how many of the issues that currently interest us have been guided by the contexts in which the ideas were developed. The disciplinary backgrounds of each of these scholars has influenced the questions they sought to answer, the experiments they envisioned, and the kinds of data they collected. We conclude by encouraging scientists and scholars in the humanities and social sciences to explore ways in which they can interact to provide a deeper understanding of the conceptual assumptions, structure, and history of origins-of-life research. This may be useful to help frame future research agendas and bring awareness to the multifaceted issues facing this challenging scientific question.


Assuntos
Biologia/história , Química/história , Historiografia , Informática/história , Origem da Vida , Paleontologia/história , Filosofia/história , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Biologia Molecular/história
14.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1588-1595, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368024

RESUMO

Until well in the 19th century, the Aristotelian concept of the scala naturae (ladder of nature) was the most common biological theory among Western scientists. It dictated that only humans possessed a rational soul that provided the ability to reason and reflect. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533-1592) was the first philosopher influential enough to lastingly posit that animals are cognitive creatures. His view stirred a fierce controversy, with René Descartes (1596-1650) leading among his many adversaries. Only after it became accepted that animals and humans alike have cognitive abilities, did the research on the influence of conscious awareness and intention on the behavior of an animal become possible in the 20th century. We found the anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1515-1564) to have already rejected the Aristotelian view on the lack of the rational soul in animals in his 1543 opus magnum De Humani Corporis Fabrica Libri Septem. His observation "that there is a difference in size according to the amount of reason that they seem to possess: man's brain is the largest, followed by the ape's, the dog's, and so on, corresponding to the amount of rational force that we deduce each animal to have" resonated some 330 years later when Darwin concluded that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind." We conclude that Vesalius was instrumental in breaking with two millenniums of dominance of the concept of lack of animal cognition.


Assuntos
Anatomia Comparada/história , Cognição , Filosofia/história , Animais , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(8): 1053-1058, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058642

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the presence of the modern concept of melancholy in the Intercenales (1424-1439) by the humanist Leon Battista Alberti. The Intercenales is a collection of satirical, allegorical and moralizing writings composed with the purpose of entertaining an audience of close friends. In spite of the fact that the term "melancholia" does not appear in the text, this paper argues that Alberti's character of "the philosopher" is melancholic, since he is "ill in the soul" (suffering from morbus animi), and his illness is evidenced by a series of physical and psychological symptoms associated with melancholy in the classical and medieval medical traditions. These symptoms are stomach pain, pallor, insomnia, a rich memory, a propensity to study at night, and an ability to have premonitory dreams. With this characterization Alberti promotes a connection between melancholy and being a genius, which is distinctive to the Renaissance and the basis for the modern concept of melancholy. The essay concludes that the ultimate purpose of the Intercenales is to cure, from a literary and philosophical point of view, the illness of the melancholic philosopher.


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XV , Filosofia/história , Transtorno Depressivo/história , Medicina na Literatura/história , Transtorno Depressivo/patologia
16.
Stud Hist Philos Biol Biomed Sci ; 78: 101191, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353304

RESUMO

In this paper I propose a new account of living natural products in Kant's physical geography. I argue that Kant adopts Buffon's twofold conception of natural history, which consists of a general theory of nature as a physical nexus of causes and a particular account of living natural products in the setting of the earth. Yet in contrast to Buffon, who placed the two parts of natural history on equal epistemic footing, Kant's physical geography can be understood as a second, pragmatic level of inquiry that stands under the formal conditions of nature outlined in Universal Natural History. On the higher, formal level, natural history provides a physical account of time and space as an expanding causal sequence. On the lower, pragmatic level, physical geography provides a causal account of particular natural products as developing within a specific place. I argue that this two-tiered account not only clarifies the relation between metaphysics and experience in Kant's pre-critical philosophy, it also sheds light on the continuity between the method of physical geography and the systematisation of nature presented in the critical philosophy.


Assuntos
Geografia/história , História Natural/história , Filosofia/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Metafísica/história
18.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 5-14, jun. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183844

RESUMO

In the second half of the 19th century Spain was rather isolated from the rest of Europe, although there was remarkable scientific activity. In the midst of this scenario, the figure of Cajal emerged on the scene. During a visit to the laboratory of Luis Simarro in Madrid in 1887, Cajal became acquainted with a paper published by Golgi in 1873 dealing with his famous method. Cajal immediately recognized the value of this method and applied it with much success to the study of the nervous tissue. In the triennium 1887-1889 Cajal's discoveries were so sensational that he decided to attend the meeting of the Anatomische Gesellschaft (Germany Anatomical Society) in Berlin in 1889 in order to present them abroad. The trip proved a great success, and he was able to establish close relations with the president of the society, Alexander von Kölliker, who, in turn, mediated contacts with further renowned scientists such as Retzius, His, Waldeyer, van Gehuchten, etc. Prior to his trip to Berlin, he had already contacted Golgi, but the fact that Cajal's neuronal theory conflicted with Golgi's reticular theory not only prevented a normal relationship between them, but was also -especially on Golgi's part- the source of bitter rivalry between them. Von Kölliker immediately recognized and admired Cajal's stature as a scientist and generously helped him to publicize his ideas throughout the scientific world, and to attain the recognition he deserved. Von Kölliker's relationship with Golgi was of a different nature, and could be described as sincere friendship. Von Kölliker, in fact, proposed both Golgi and Cajal as candidates for the Nobel Prize in 1906, which was subsequently awarded to them jointly. Thanks to Von Kölliker, Cajal's great mentor, the neuronal theory entered the scientific world through the main door and continues to occupy a prevailing position


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XIX , Sistema Nervoso/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia/história , Neurônios , Filosofia/história , Teoria de Sistemas , Teoria Psicológica , Complexo de Golgi , Neurofisiologia/história
19.
Eur. j. anat ; 23(supl.1): 73-83, jun. 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183851

RESUMO

This essay explores the regenerationist thought of Santiago Ramón y Cajal in his Vacation Stories (1905). Two stories of the collection, "The Accursed House" and "The Natural Man and The Artificial Man", can be read as an allegory of Spain at the end of the century nineteenth. In "The Accursed House", the indiano scientist Julián tries to convince Inés to adopt the same scientific perspective of the world that he has. Similarly, he sets out to regenerate his degenerated manor, to which he has given the suggestive nickname Villa Inés. The story serves as a model for the regeneration of Inés, who represents traditional Spaniards, and Villa Inés, which represents Spain. For its part, the story of Esperaindeo Carcabuey in "The Natural Man" offers a warning, as it tells of his failed life, which he links directly with his inferior education (impregnated as this was with metaphysics). Only by adopting Jaime's progressivism can Esperaindeo change the direction of his life. In both stories, Cajal links the reeducation of the characters with his more comprehensive interest in national regeneration. In view of the allegorical impulse of these stories, Vacation Stories constitutes a foundational myth on which Cajal constructs his vision of a modern Spain


No disponible


Assuntos
Ciência/educação , Ciência/história , Filosofia/história , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Narração/história , Anedotas como Assunto/história , Cultura
20.
Uisahak ; 28(1): 239-290, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092808

RESUMO

In their embryology, Aristotle and Galen greatly disagreed on the role of human derived materials like menstrual blood and vaginal secretion (called by them female sperm or semen). This gap made those two ancients also disagree on their understanding of mother's role in the generation of the human body in her womb. During the Middle Ages, especially during the thirteenth century, the scholastics drew on those two ancient thoughts for some rational underpinnings of their philosophical and theological doctrines. However, the manners of adoption and assimilation were varied. For example, Albert the Great strived to reconcile the two in the image of Avicenna, one of the main and the most important sources of Galenist medicine in the thirteenth Century. By contrast, those scholastics who played an important role in the controversy over plurality/unicity of the substantial form, drew on their disagreements. For example, pluralists like Bonaventure, William of la Mare, and Duns Scotus appealed to Galenist medical perspective to underpin their positions and paved ways to decorate Virgin Mary's motherhood and her active contribution to the Virgin birth and to the manhood of her Holy Son. in contrast a unicist like Thomas Aquinas advanced his theory in line with Aristotelian model that Mary's role in her Son's birth and manhood was passive and material. Giles, another unicist, while repudiating Galenist embryology with the support of Averroes's medical work called Colliget, alluded to some theologically crucial impieties with which might be associated some pluralists' Mariology based on the Roman physician's model. In this processus historiae, we can see not only the intertwining of medieval medicine, philosophy, and theology, but some critical moments where medicine provided, side by side with philosophy, natural settings and explanations for religious marvels or miracles such as the Virgin birth, the motherhood of Mary, the manhood of Christ, etc. Likewise, we can observe two medieval maxims coincide and resonate: "philosophia ancilla theologiae" and "philosophia et medicina duae sorores sunt."


Assuntos
Embriologia/história , Filosofia/história , Teologia/história , História da Medicina , História Antiga , História Medieval
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