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1.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 127-129, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559575

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease-19 has affected million of people worldwide, constituting the biggest social, economic, and health crisis since World War 2. During this pandemic, the hospitals have become hot zones for the treatment of patients. Therefore, it is important to take the appropriate protective measures and ensure the physician's health and, especially, those who work in the intensive care units and in operating rooms. In this letter, we are trying to make a discussion regarding the measures that should be considered by the healthcare workers who are facing this invisible enemy during their effort to provide their services in the surgery rooms.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Filtros de Ar , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): 88-95, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559552

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 remains a threat for a fear of a second pandemic. Emergency orthopaedic operations are still among the most commonly performed procedures with increased risk of transmission of SARS CoV-2 to the patients and the healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to present the evidence available into best practices limiting the spread of COVID-19 in healthcare setting during current and future pandemics. METHODS: A review of the literature was performed in multiple databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, World Health Organization and Centers for Disease Control), using 'COVID-19' with other relevant keywords in different combinations. Owing to the limited and heterogenous evidence available, data were presented in a narrative manner. FINDINGS: From the evidence gathered it was noted that a multimodal approach to minimising pathogen transmission is required. This primarily comprises the wider engineering and administrative controls to reduce the concentration of the pathogen and to separate staff and patients from it. Theatre isolation and traffic control bundling, theatre flow and logistics, ventilation and waste management form a pivotal role in the environmental/engineering controls. Administrative measures include policies for both patients and staff. For patients, isolation and preoperative screening are of utmost value. For staff, testing for COVID-19, risk assessment, redeployment and provision of persona; protective equipment, together with the necessary training are important administrative controls. CONCLUSION: We believe these measures are likely to improve the sustainability of resources and can be carried to elective settings in order to return to some form of normality and help to mitigate the effects of future pandemics.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Serviço Hospitalar de Limpeza , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Salas Cirúrgicas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Ventilação , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Fluxo de Trabalho , Filtros de Ar , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Medição de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 180, 2021 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420069

RESUMO

The highly reactive nature of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the basis for widespread use in environmental and health-related fields. Conventionally, there are only two kinds of catalysts used for ROS generation: photocatalysts and piezocatalysts. However, their usage has been limited due to various environmental and physical factors. To address this problem, herein, we report thermoelectric materials, such as Bi2Te3, Sb2Te3, and PbTe, as thermocatalysts which can produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under a small surrounding temperature difference. Being the most prevalent environmental factors in daily life, temperature and related thermal effects have tremendous potential for practical applications. To increase the practicality in everyday life, bismuth telluride nanoplates (Bi2Te3 NPs), serving as an efficient thermocatalyst, are coated on a carbon fiber fabric (Bi2Te3@CFF) to develop a thermocatalytic filter with antibacterial function. Temperature difference induced H2O2 generation by thermocatalysts results in the oxidative damage of bacteria, which makes thermocatalysts highly promising for disinfection applications. Antibacterial activity as high as 95% is achieved only by the treatment of low-temperature difference cycles. The current work highlights the horizon-shifting impacts of thermoelectric materials for real-time purification and antibacterial applications.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bismuto/farmacologia , Desinfecção/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Telúrio/farmacologia , Filtros de Ar , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bismuto/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Telúrio/química , Temperatura , Têxteis , Difração de Raios X
4.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 17(1): 101-113, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394313

RESUMO

Modern technologies enable the exchange of information about the expansion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and the continually increasing number of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases almost in real time. The gravity of a current epidemiological situation is represented by the mortality rates, which are scrupulously updated daily. Performing autopsies on patients with either suspected or confirmed COVID-19 is of high importance since these might not only improve clinical management but also reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection expansion. The following paper aimed to present the most crucial aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection from the point of view of forensic experts and pathologists, recommendations and safety precautions regarding autopsies, autopsy room requirements, possible techniques, examinations used for effective viral detection, recommendations regarding burials, and gross and microscopic pathological findings of the deceased who died due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Autopsies remain the gold standard for determining the cause of death. Therefore, it would be beneficial to perform autopsies on patients with both suspected and confirmed COVID-19, especially those with coexisting comorbidities.


Assuntos
Autopsia/normas , Patologia Legal/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Filtros de Ar , Sepultamento , Cadáver , Vestuário , Cremação , Reservatórios de Doenças , Embalsamamento , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Radiografia , /patogenicidade , Manejo de Espécimes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(1): 857-867, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355436

RESUMO

Numerous threats to human health and ecosystems on earth exist due to air pollution and the spread of fatal diseases. Airborne pollutants and particulate matter (PM) pose serious public health risks. In addition, the emergence and spread of bacterial and viral diseases constantly threaten public health and safety. Although various approaches have been implemented thus far to protect humans from air pollution and exposure to diseases, several challenges remain to be addressed. In this study, we developed a hybrid air filter consisting of filtration, heating, and thermal insulation layers. The air filtration layer can effectively capture airborne PM1 particles (less than 1.0 µm in diameter). Furthermore, the heating layer enables the hybrid air filter to generate temperatures above 100 °C, and the insulation layer prevents the heat from being transferred to the other side (e.g., the human skin, if the hybrid air filter is used in a facemask). Since several bacteria and viruses are incapacitated under high temperatures, this hybrid air filter holds great promise for antibacterial and antiviral protection.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antivirais/química , Filtração/métodos , Esterilização/métodos , Filtros de Ar/normas , Microbiologia do Ar/normas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Calefação , Humanos , Material Particulado , Temperatura
6.
Work ; 67(4): 771-777, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The high spread rate of coronaviruses, specifically severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has raised concerns about the spread of the disease in crowded occupational environments. The risk of occupational exposure to coronavirus depends on the type of industry and the nature of work. Currently, most countries are working for reactivating their economies and need to improve working conditions for a safe situation during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: The present work aimed to investigate the current engineering and administrative control measures, which are necessary to protect workers against COVID-19 in workplaces. METHODS: The current strategies, including engineering control, administrative control, personal protective equipment, and their efficiencies, were reviewed and discussed. RESULTS: Reviewing the literature indicated that a collection of control approaches should be implemented for an effective control of the virus. Control measures could be selected based on the risk of exposure to COVID-19. The results also revealed that relying solely on a specific control measure could not effectively control the outbreak. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, employers and health professionals must continually monitor international and local guidelines to identify changes in recommendations to make their workplaces safer. Establishment of an expert team in any workplace for the implementation of more effective control measures is warranted, as well.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional , Local de Trabalho/organização & administração , Filtros de Ar , Acessibilidade Arquitetônica , Humanos , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Ventilação/métodos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0237206, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382705

RESUMO

Filter facepiece respirators (FFRs) are critical for preventing the transmission of respiratory tract infection disease, especially the dreadful coronavirus 2 (SARs-CoV-2). The N95 mask is a prototype, high-efficiency protective device that can effectively protect against airborne pathogens of less than 0.3 µm. The N95 mask is tightly fitting and has high filtration capacity. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has led to a greater requirement for FFR. This rising demand greatly exceeds current production capabilities and stockpiles, resulting in shortages. To address this, our team has invented a new type of half-piece respirator made from silicone and assembled with HEPA or elastostatic filter. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate this new device, including a qualitative fit test with the Bitrex® test kit and filtration test. The preliminary results showed that the new elastometric respirators pass the fit test. The filtration tests also confirmed the superiority of the new respirator over traditional N95 masks, with a mean performance of protection greater than 95%. For the filters, we used two types: SafeStar, which is a kind of HEPA filter; and CareStar, which is considered an elastostatic filler. CareStar was developed to filter virus and bacteria in the operating room, with a limit duration of use up to 24 h, while the safe star was designed for 72 h use and has the quality equivalent to a HEPA filter. Our study demonstrated superior filtration efficacy of both filters, more than 98% even after 24 h of use. CareStar has significantly more filtration efficacy than a safe star (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the development of our new N99 half-piece respirator should ultimately be applicable to healthcare workers with at least non-inferiority to the previously used N 95 respirators. As a universal masking policy is generally implemented, health care workers who are at risk must be protected with appropriate devices. Currently, the adequate supply of such equipment is not feasible. The advent of the new protective device will help protect healthcare workers and replenish the shortage of N95 respirators during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Filtros de Ar , Feminino , Filtração , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(5): 603-608, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish reuse process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. METHODS: The procedure of pretreatment, storage, recovery, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization process of positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods, which were used in the treatment of COVID-19 infection patients was established in Central Sterile Supply Department of the hospital. The cleaning and disinfection effects of the protective hoods after treatment were examined by magnifying glass method, residual protein detection method, real-time PCR, and agar pour plate method. RESULTS: Twenty five used protective hoods underwent totally 135 times of washing, disinfecting and sterilizing procedures. After washing, all the protein residue tests and COVID-19 nucleic acid tests showed negative results. After sterilizing, all the protective hoods met sterility requirement. All the tested protective hoods were undamaged after reprocessing. CONCLUSIONS: The established reuse procedures for used positive pressure powered air-filter protective hoods are safe.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Desinfecção , Reutilização de Equipamento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Esterilização , Filtros de Ar/normas , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção/normas , Reutilização de Equipamento/normas , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Esterilização/normas
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD013686, 2020 10 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many dental procedures produce aerosols (droplets, droplet nuclei and splatter) that harbour various pathogenic micro-organisms and may pose a risk for the spread of infections between dentist and patient. The COVID-19 pandemic has led to greater concern about this risk. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of methods used during dental treatment procedures to minimize aerosol production and reduce or neutralize contamination in aerosols. SEARCH METHODS: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases on 17 September 2020: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (in the Cochrane Library, 2020, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (from 1946); Embase Ovid (from 1980); the WHO COVID-19 Global literature on coronavirus disease; the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov); and the Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) performed by dental healthcare providers that evaluated methods to reduce contaminated aerosols in dental clinics (excluding preprocedural mouthrinses). The primary outcomes were incidence of infection in dental staff or patients, and reduction in volume and level of contaminated aerosols in the operative environment. The secondary outcomes were cost, accessibility and feasibility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors screened search results, extracted data from the included studies, assessed the risk of bias in the studies, and judged the certainty of the available evidence. We used mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect estimate for continuous outcomes, and random-effects meta-analysis to combine data. We assessed heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies with 425 participants aged 5 to 69 years. Eight studies had high risk of bias; eight had unclear risk of bias. No studies measured infection. All studies measured bacterial contamination using the surrogate outcome of colony-forming units (CFU). Two studies measured contamination per volume of air sampled at different distances from the patient's mouth, and 14 studies sampled particles on agar plates at specific distances from the patient's mouth. The results presented below should be interpreted with caution as the evidence is very low certainty due to heterogeneity, risk of bias, small sample sizes and wide confidence intervals. Moreover, we do not know the 'minimal clinically important difference' in CFU. High-volume evacuator Use of a high-volume evacuator (HVE) may reduce bacterial contamination in aerosols less than one foot (~ 30 cm) from a patient's mouth (MD -47.41, 95% CI -92.76 to -2.06; 3 RCTs, 122 participants (two studies had split-mouth design); very high heterogeneity I² = 95%), but not at longer distances (MD -1.00, -2.56 to 0.56; 1 RCT, 80 participants). One split-mouth RCT (six participants) found that HVE may not be more effective than conventional dental suction (saliva ejector or low-volume evacuator) at 40 cm (MD CFU -2.30, 95% CI -5.32 to 0.72) or 150 cm (MD -2.20, 95% CI -14.01 to 9.61). Dental isolation combination system One RCT (50 participants) found that there may be no difference in CFU between a combination system (Isolite) and a saliva ejector (low-volume evacuator) during AGPs (MD -0.31, 95% CI -0.82 to 0.20) or after AGPs (MD -0.35, -0.99 to 0.29). However, an 'n of 1' design study showed that the combination system may reduce CFU compared with rubber dam plus HVE (MD -125.20, 95% CI -174.02 to -76.38) or HVE (MD -109.30, 95% CI -153.01 to -65.59). Rubber dam One split-mouth RCT (10 participants) receiving dental treatment, found that there may be a reduction in CFU with rubber dam at one-metre (MD -16.20, 95% CI -19.36 to -13.04) and two-metre distance (MD -11.70, 95% CI -15.82 to -7.58). One RCT of 47 dental students found use of rubber dam may make no difference in CFU at the forehead (MD 0.98, 95% CI -0.73 to 2.70) and occipital region of the operator (MD 0.77, 95% CI -0.46 to 2.00). One split-mouth RCT (21 participants) found that rubber dam plus HVE may reduce CFU more than cotton roll plus HVE on the patient's chest (MD -251.00, 95% CI -267.95 to -234.05) and dental unit light (MD -12.70, 95% CI -12.85 to -12.55). Air cleaning systems One split-mouth CCT (two participants) used a local stand-alone air cleaning system (ACS), which may reduce aerosol contamination during cavity preparation (MD -66.70 CFU, 95% CI -120.15 to -13.25 per cubic metre) or ultrasonic scaling (MD -32.40, 95% CI - 51.55 to -13.25). Another CCT (50 participants) found that laminar flow in the dental clinic combined with a HEPA filter may reduce contamination approximately 76 cm from the floor (MD -483.56 CFU, 95% CI -550.02 to -417.10 per cubic feet per minute per patient) and 20 cm to 30 cm from the patient's mouth (MD -319.14 CFU, 95% CI - 385.60 to -252.68). Disinfectants ‒ antimicrobial coolants Two RCTs evaluated use of antimicrobial coolants during ultrasonic scaling. Compared with distilled water, coolant containing chlorhexidine (CHX), cinnamon extract coolant or povidone iodine may reduce CFU: CHX (MD -124.00, 95% CI -135.78 to -112.22; 20 participants), povidone iodine (MD -656.45, 95% CI -672.74 to -640.16; 40 participants), cinnamon (MD -644.55, 95% CI -668.70 to -620.40; 40 participants). CHX coolant may reduce CFU more than povidone iodine (MD -59.30, 95% CI -64.16 to -54.44; 20 participants), but not more than cinnamon extract (MD -11.90, 95% CI -35.88 to 12.08; 40 participants). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found no studies that evaluated disease transmission via aerosols in a dental setting; and no evidence about viral contamination in aerosols. All of the included studies measured bacterial contamination using colony-forming units. There appeared to be some benefit from the interventions evaluated but the available evidence is very low certainty so we are unable to draw reliable conclusions. We did not find any studies on methods such as ventilation, ionization, ozonisation, UV light and fogging. Studies are needed that measure contamination in aerosols, size distribution of aerosols and infection transmission risk for respiratory diseases such as COVID-19 in dental patients and staff.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/métodos , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Viroses/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Aerossóis , Idoso , Filtros de Ar , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/métodos , Odontologia , Desinfetantes , Humanos , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/economia , Controle de Infecções Dentárias/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Diques de Borracha , Sucção , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048980

RESUMO

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic there is unprecedented demand for personal protective equipment (PPE), especially N95 respirators and surgical masks. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to be transmitted via respiratory droplets from asymptomatic individuals has necessitated increased usage of both N95 respirators in the healthcare setting and masks (both surgical and homemade) in public spaces. These precautions rely on two fundamental principles of transmission prevention: particle filtration and droplet containment. The former is the focus of NIOSH N95 testing guidelines, and the latter is an FDA guideline for respirators and surgical masks. While studies have investigated droplet containment to provide guidance for homemade mask production, limited work has been done to characterize the filtration efficiency (FE) of materials used in home mask making. In this work, we demonstrate the low-cost (<$300) conversion of standard equipment used to fit-test respirators in hospital and industrial settings into a setup that measures quantitative FEs of materials based on NIOSH N95 guidelines, and subsequently measure FEs of materials found in healthcare and consumer spaces. These materials demonstrate significant variability in filtration characteristics, even for visually similar materials. We demonstrate a FE of 96.49% and pressure drop of 25.4 mmH20 for a double-layer of sterilization wrap used in surgical suites and a FE of 90.37% for a combination of consumer-grade materials. The excellent filtration characteristics of the former demonstrate potential utility for emergent situations when N95 respirators are not available, while those of the latter demonstrate that a high FE can be achieved using publicly available materials.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/normas , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Segurança de Equipamentos/métodos , Máscaras/normas , Teste de Materiais/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Aerossóis , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Segurança de Equipamentos/instrumentação , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Teste de Materiais/instrumentação , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
11.
Surgery ; 168(5): 968-974, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious airborne and surface pathogens constitute a substantial and poorly explored source of patient subclinical illness and infections. With that in mind, a system of advanced air purification technology was designed to destroy the DNA and RNA of all bacteria, fungi, and viruses. This study compares the effects of advanced air purification technology versus high efficiency particulate air filtration with respect to certain metrics of health care economics and resource utilization at a large, community-based, urban hospital. Our hypothesis was that the use of the advanced air purification technology would decrease health care durations of stay, lead to fewer nonhome discharges, and decrease hospital charges. METHODS: After the installation of advanced air purification technology, 3 resultant air purification "zones" were established: zone C, a control floor with high efficiency particulate air filtration; zone B, a mixed high efficiency particulate air and advanced air purification technology floor; and zone A, a comprehensive advanced air purification technology remediation. This study included nonbariatric surgical patients admitted to any zone between December 2017 and December 2018, with reported case mix index on discharge. We analyzed hospital duration of stays, discharge destination, and hospital charges with adjustment for severity of illness using the case mix index. The likelihood of mortality, health care-associated infection, and readmission for each study zone was examined using logistic regression adjusting for case mix index, age, sex, and source of admission. RESULTS: The study included 1,002 patients across the 3 zones, with mean age of 55.8 years (53.7% female), average case mix index of 1.98, and mortality of 1.7%. Compared with zone C, patients in zones A and B demonstrated decreased hospital stays, a greater percentage of home discharges (86.5-87.8% vs 64.7%), and less hospital charges. In addition, logistic regression modeling performed on 999 study patients showed that the likelihood of mortality, hospital-acquired infections, and readmissions did not differ among the 3 zones. A trend toward a lesser incidence of hospital-acquired infections was noted in zones A and B (0.40% and 0.48%, respectively) when compared with zone C (0.63%). CONCLUSION: Patients in the advanced air purification technology zones demonstrated statistically significant improvements in durations of stay, discharge to home, and costs after adjusting for case mix index. In addition, a trend toward fewer hospital-acquired infections in advanced air purification technology zones was noted. These findings suggest that environmental factors may affect key clinical and economic outcomes, supporting further research in this important and largely unexplored area.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Custos Hospitalares , Tempo de Internação , Adulto , Idoso , Microbiologia do Ar , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039424, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963071

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the ability of fabrics which might be used to create home-made face masks to filter out ultrafine (0.02-0.1 µm) particles at the velocity of adult human coughing. METHODS: Twenty commonly available fabrics and materials were evaluated for their ability to reduce air concentrations of ultrafine particles at coughing face velocities. Further assessment was made on the filtration ability of selected fabrics while damp and of fabric combinations which might be used to construct home-made masks. RESULTS: Single fabric layers blocked a range of ultrafine particles. When fabrics were layered, a higher percentage of ultrafine particles were filtered. The average filtration efficiency of single layer fabrics and of layered combination was found to be 35% and 45%, respectively. Non-woven fusible interfacing, when combined with other fabrics, could add up to 11% additional filtration efficiency. However, fabric and fabric combinations were more difficult to breathe through than N95 masks. CONCLUSIONS: The current coronavirus pandemic has left many communities without access to N95 face masks. Our findings suggest that face masks made from layered common fabric can help filter ultrafine particles and provide some protection for the wearer when commercial face masks are unavailable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tosse , Máscaras/provisão & distribução , Teste de Materiais , Material Particulado , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Têxteis , Filtros de Ar , Betacoronavirus , Celulose , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Fibra de Algodão , Humanos , Nylons , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Poliésteres , Poliuretanos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/provisão & distribução , Fibra de Lã
13.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 11(20): 3177-3179, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991148

RESUMO

Several lines of evidence suggest the role of air-conditioning systems in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, the likelihood of novel coronavirus to take refuge inside a microbial Trojan horse, that is, Acanthamoeba, can further enhance possibility of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the environment. Here we propose the use of various disinfection strategies that can be employed using filters with antimicrobial fabricated surfaces or using UV irradiation to achieve germicidal properties for removal of pathogenic microbes such as SARS-CoV-2 and amoebae in the ventilation systems.


Assuntos
Ar Condicionado/métodos , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Desinfecção/métodos , Humanos
14.
Rinsho Ketsueki ; 61(8): 885-887, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908051

RESUMO

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used as a cryoprotectant for peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) preservation. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a metabolite of DMSO secreted through patients' breath after PBSC infusion. It possesses malodor causing an unpleasant environment. We evaluated the efficacy of a photocatalyst environment purifier, which has the potential to lyse toxic substances, in reducing DMS malodor. High DMS concentration in the air after PBSC infusion rapidly decreased after operating the device. Our results suggest that photocatalytic reaction has the potential to reduce the DMS odor associated with PBSC infusion.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Células-Tronco de Sangue Periférico , Criopreservação , Humanos , Sulfetos
15.
Appl Opt ; 59(25): 7585-7595, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902458

RESUMO

We present evidence-based design principles for three different UV-C based decontamination systems for N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) within the context of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak of 2019-2020. The approaches used here were created with consideration for the needs of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) and other under-resourced facilities. As such, a particular emphasis is placed on providing cost-effective solutions that can be implemented in short order using generally available components and subsystems. We discuss three optical designs for decontamination chambers, describe experiments verifying design parameters, validate the efficacy of the decontamination for two commonly used N95 FFRs (3M, #1860 and Gerson #1730), and run mechanical and filtration tests that support FFR reuse for at least five decontamination cycles.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Descontaminação/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Máscaras , Raios Ultravioleta , Filtros de Ar/microbiologia , Filtros de Ar/virologia , Reutilização de Equipamento , Umidade , Ozônio/síntese química , Ozônio/toxicidade , Temperatura , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 689-697, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734732

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a well-known risk factor in the triggering and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. Indoor environments, where people spend most of their time, are of utmost importance. To assess the effects of air purifiers [equipped with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters] on allergic rhinitis (AR) in adult patients, we performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with house dust mite (HDM)-induced AR were randomly assigned to either active or mockup (placebo) air-purification groups. Two air purifiers (placed in living room and bedroom) were operated for 6 weeks in each home environment. The primary study endpoint was to achieve improvement in AR symptoms and medication scores. Secondary endpoints were to achieve improvement in the quality of life (QoL) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores, as well as in the indoor (bedroom and living room) concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10. RESULTS: After 6 weeks of air purifier use, medication scores improved significantly in the active (vs. placebo) group, although subjective measures (symptoms, VAS, and QoL scores) did not differ. Bedroom PM2.5 concentrations initially exceeded living room or outdoor levels, but declined (by up to 51.8%) following active purifier operation. Concentrations of PM2.5 in living room and PM10 in bedroom and living room were also significantly reduced through active purification. CONCLUSION: The use of air purifiers with HEPA filters significantly reduced medication requirements for patients with HDM-induced AR and significantly lowered indoor PM2.5 concentrations, regardless of room placement. Active intervention to reduce household air pollutants may help improve allergic airway disease (clinicaltrials.gov NCT03313453).


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Rinite Alérgica/terapia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Placebos , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039454, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There are widespread shortages of personal protective equipment as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reprocessing filtering facepiece particle (FFP)-type respirators may provide an alternative solution in keeping healthcare professionals safe. DESIGN: Prospective, bench-to-bedside. SETTING: A primary care-based study using FFP-2 respirators without exhalation valve (3M Aura 1862+ (20 samples), Maco Pharma ZZM002 (14 samples)), FFP-2 respirators with valve (3M Aura 9322+ (six samples) and San Huei 2920V (16 samples)) and valved FFP type 3 respirators (Safe Worker 1016 (10 samples)). INTERVENTIONS: All masks were reprocessed using a medical autoclave (17 min at 121°C with 34 min total cycle time) and subsequently tested up to three times whether these respirators retained their integrity (seal check and pressure drop) and ability to filter small particles (0.3-5.0 µm) in the laboratory using a particle penetration test. RESULTS: We tested 33 respirators and 66 samples for filter capacity. All FFP-2 respirators retained their shape, whereas half of the decontaminated FFP-3 respirators showed deformities and failed the seal check. The filtering capacity of the 3M Aura 1862 was best retained after one, two and three decontamination cycles (0.3 µm: 99.3%±0.3% (new) vs 97.0±1.3, 94.2±1.3% or 94.4±1.6; p<0.001). Of the other FFP-2 respirators, the San Huei 2920 V had 95.5%±0.7% at baseline vs 92.3%±1.7% vs 90.0±0.7 after one-time and two-time decontaminations, respectively (p<0.001). The tested FFP-3 respirator (Safe Worker 1016) had a filter capacity of 96.5%±0.7% at baseline and 60.3%±5.7% after one-time decontamination (p<0.001). Breathing and pressure resistance tests indicated no relevant pressure changes between respirators that were used once, twice or thrice. CONCLUSION: This small single-centre study shows that selected FFP-2 respirators may be reprocessed for use in primary care, as the tested masks retain their shape, ability to retain particles and breathing comfort after decontamination using a medical autoclave.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Descontaminação/métodos , Reutilização de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Máscaras/normas , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/normas , Filtros de Ar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/normas , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ventiladores Mecânicos
20.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 6042146, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831855

RESUMO

Few studies have investigated household interventions to enhance indoor air quality (IAQ) and health outcomes in relatively low-income communities. This study aims to examine the impact of the combined intervention with asthma education and air purifier on IAQ and health outcomes in the US-Mexico border area. An intervention study conducted in McAllen, Texas, between June and November 2019 included 16 households having children with asthma. The particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were monitored in the bedroom, kitchen, and living room to measure the IAQ for 7 days before and after the intervention, respectively. Multiple surveys were applied to evaluate changes in children's health outcomes. The mean PM2.5 levels in each place were significantly improved. Overall, they significantly decreased by 1.91 µg/m3 on average (p < 0.05). All surveys showed better health outcomes; particularly, quality of life for children was significantly improved (p < 0.05). This pilot study suggests that the combined household intervention might improve IAQ in households and health outcomes for children with asthma and reduce health disparities in low-income communities. Future large-scale studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of this household intervention to improve IAQ and asthma management.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Asma/etiologia , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Material Particulado/análise , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Texas
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