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1.
Official Document;360ODD360.
Monografia em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52810

RESUMO

During 2019, PAHO exercised its leadership and role as a catalyst to improve the health and well‐being of the peoples of the Americas, in collaboration with Member States and partners. The Organization continued to provide direct technical cooperation with an integrated and multisectoral approach, mobilize resources, strengthen partnerships and networks, build capacity, generate and provide evidence, and serve as an advocate for achieving the targets set in the PAHO Strategic Plan 2014‐2019 during its final year of implementation. Important progress was made toward fulfilling the commitments in the Sustainable Health Agenda for the Americas 2018‐2030 and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Administração em Saúde , Administração Financeira , Capacidade de Liderança e Governança , Planejamento Estratégico , Cooperação Técnica , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Organização e Administração
2.
Artigo em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52781

RESUMO

[RESUMEN]. Los países de América Latina y el Caribe necesitan aumentar sus recursos públicos en salud para ampliar el acceso equitativo y eficiente a la salud. El aumento debe financiar un modelo específico que ha mostrado evidencia de eficacia, como el de redes integradas de servicios de salud (RISS) basadas en atención primaria de salud. La literatura global no ha prestado suficiente atención al financiamiento a las RISS; más bien se ha focalizado en establecimientos y agentes aislados, así como en mecanismos específicos. Sin embargo, en la Región de las Américas su desarrollo es una necesidad desde hace años. Una RISS es un conjunto de organizaciones de salud que ofrece intervenciones y servicios de salud coordinados a una población bajo su cargo y asume la responsabilidad de salud y económica en el logro de mejores resultados de salud. Un sistema de pago a una RISS debe ir dirigido a promover la integralidad de la atención y a fomentar un enfoque centrado en el ciclo de vida de las personas, la articulación y la coordinación de servicios. El presupuesto poblacional ajustado por riesgos se muestra como un mecanismo posible y potente para apoyar el logro de los objetivos. Su desarrollo requiere reconocer que la forma de financiamiento no responderá por sí sola a los desafíos y que se necesita, a la vez, de la planificación y de la gestión sanitarias. Se requiere abordar los desafíos técnicos, políticos e institucionales para tener éxito en este esfuerzo, que a su vez debe estar inserto en el proceso global de transformación de los sistemas de salud hacia la salud universal.


[ABSTRACT]. The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean need to increase their public resources in health to expand equitable and efficient access to health. The increase should finance a specific model with proven effectiveness, such as integrated health service networks (IHSN) based on primary health care. The global literature has not paid sufficient attention to financing IHSN; rather, it has focused on isolated facilities and agents, as well as on specific mechanisms. However, in the Region of the Americas, their development has been a necessity for years. An IHSN is a group of health organizations that offers coordinated health interventions and services to a population under their charge and assumes health and economic responsibility for achieving better health outcomes. A system of payment to an IHSN should be aimed at promoting the integrality of care and encouraging a focus on the life cycle of individuals, the articulation and the coordination of services. The risk-adjusted population budget is a possible and powerful mechanism to support the achievement of the objectives. Its development requires the recognition that the type of financing alone will not respond to the challenges and that there is a need for both health planning and health management. The technical, political and institutional challenges need to be addressed to succeed in this effort, which in turn must be embedded in the overall process of transforming health systems towards universal health.


Assuntos
Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Capitação , Sistemas de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , América , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Capitação , Sistemas de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , América
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47802

RESUMO

Traz informações relevantes acerca do financiamento e gastos nas ações e serviços públicos de Saúde no Brasil.


Assuntos
Economia da Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços Públicos de Saúde
4.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 37-44, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733658

RESUMO

Background: The report from the World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that health spending worldwide remains highly unequal as more than 80% of the world's population live in low and middle-income countries but only account for about 20% of global health expenditure. Another report by the WHO on the state of health financing in Africa published in 2013 intimates that countries that are part of their member states are still on the average level in meeting set goals in financing key health projects. Objective: The study set out to investigate the association between public and private spending and health status for eight selected African countries, namely Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda. Health status indicators include the incidence of tuberculosis, mortality rates, maternal deaths and prevalence of HIV. Methods: Descriptive statistics and pairwise correlation are used to assess the relationship between healthcare spending and health status. Random and fixed effect models are further employed to provide insights into the association between descriptive statistics and pairwise correlation. We used annual data from the year 2000 to 2014 obtained from world development indicators. Results: The relationship between healthcare spending (public and private) and health status is statistically significant. Public healthcare expenditure has a higher association than private expenditure in reducing the mortality rate, tuberculosis and HIV for the average country in our sample. For example, an increase in public healthcare spending is negatively associated and statistically significant at 5% or better in reducing female mortality, male mortality, tuberculosis and HIV. Private healthcare spending is more impactful in the area of maternal deaths, where it is associated negatively and statistically significant at 1%. An increase in private healthcare spending is linked to a reduction in maternal deaths. We also compared the association between an increase in healthcare spending on males versus females and observed that public health expenditure impacts the health status of both sexes equally, however, private health expenditure provides a greater positive benefit to males. It is worth remembering that two goals of the United Nations agenda on sustainable development are gender equality and ensuring healthcare for all. Conclusion: The findings of this research call for the selected African countries to pay more attention to public healthcare expenditure in order to improve health status, especially since private healthcare which provides access to healthcare facilities for some poor people leads to costs that are a burden. So, future research should focus on analyzing components of private healthcare spending such as direct household out-of-pocket spending, private insurance and direct service payments by private corporations as dependent variables to understand what form of private investment should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde Pública/economia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , África Oriental , Infecções por HIV/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Morte Materna , Mortalidade , Prevalência
5.
Healthc Q ; 23(2): 18-20, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762815

RESUMO

A scientific paper published in the BMJ Open made international headlines by claiming that austerity policies led to 120,000 deaths in the UK (Watkins et al. 2017).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Canadá , Política de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Pobreza , Saúde Pública/economia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233601, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497063

RESUMO

Financing by patent pledge is an important way for small- and medium-sized pharmaceutical enterprises to address financing problems. In this study, eight indexes are analyzed considering both the pledge patent value and pledger credit value. And a prediction model for the patent pledge financing amount for pharmaceutical enterprises is constructed for the first time using the analytic hierarchy process and the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Three levels of financing amount are concluded through the prediction model and prediction results corresponding with the financing amount are displayed. This model was designed to help small- and medium-sized pharmaceutical enterprises get access to financing through patent pledge to relieve their financial stress. At the same time, it provides guides for pledgees and policymakers to improve the efficiency and quality of patent pledge. This work is reliable and valid in that it constructs this prediction model based on systematical data from official data sources.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/economia , China , Previsões/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos
10.
Georgian Med News ; (301): 183-188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535586

RESUMO

The purpose of this article is to analyze the current situation of the development of the financial support sources in healthcare. In theoretical part we used generalized scientific methods of research such as analysis and synthesis to determine all the financial support sources in healthcare. In practical part we used the bulk of raw and processed statistical data and forecasting engine from Excel 2019 to understand the development trends of the healthcare financing sources and to define the level of their maturity based on their development lines. Public expenses on healthcare cant cover all expenses of healthcare institutions, low level of insurance medicine in Ukraine, high corruption risks in healthcare sector and others. So, healthcare institutions have to search for additional funding. In our article, we analyzed both parts of the financial source maturity problem - theoretical and practical. In theoretical part we defined the term financial source maturity, underlined its levels and described the lines of indicators for each level. In practical part we proposed the mechanism of financing source maturity testing and tested the level of maturity of all available healthcare financing sources. As potential result, we tested that it is possible to use a forecasting engine based on AAA version of exponential smoothing that is provided by Excel 2016, 365 and 2019 versions for this research. Other versions contains the AAA version of exponential smoothing that doesn't have needed instructions and indicators.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Ucrânia
11.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 35(4): 813-817, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476158

RESUMO

Most developing countries with weak economies and low GDPs strive to invest an optimal amount of budget to health sector. Compounding on this state of affairs is their inherent inefficiency to spend even that meager amount on the welfare of the patients, improving service delivery, motivating their workforce and making their health systems responsive to the needs of the people they serve. With weak fiscal base and inelasticity in budget spending, when these countries face a catastrophe like COVID-19, there is a whole situation of havoc and lack of finances emerges as the biggest issue in such crises. Pakistan has been no exception to this kind of situation. Government funds allocated to other public sector development schemes are diverted to deal with the health emergency. Hence, the result is an overall socioeconomic shock that a country has to face. Amid such crises, other international commitments also face a state of uncertainty. With the changing disease patterns all over the world, the public financial management system for health sector needs to be revisited to devise a more sustainable and resilient mechanism not only to absorb shocks like COVID-19 but also to meet the international health commitments.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Política de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Gastos em Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
12.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 61, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186551

RESUMO

On February 19th 2020, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) has announced the first 2 cases of SARS-CoV-2, a novel emerging coronavirus which causes an infection termed as COVID-19, in Qom city. As such, the Iranian government, through the establishment of the "National Headquarters for the management and control of the novel Coronavirus", has started implementing policies and programs for the prevention and control of the virus. These measures include schools and universities closure, reduced working hours, and increased production and delivery of equipment such as masks, gloves and hygienic materials for sterile environments. The government has also made efforts to divulge high-quality information concerning the COVID-19 and to provide laboratories and hospitals with diagnostic kits and adequate resources to treat patients. However, despite such efforts, the number of cases and deaths has progressively increased with rising trends in total confirmed cases and deaths, as well as in new daily cases and deaths associated with the COVID-19. Iran is a developing country and its economic infrastructure has been hit hardly by embargo and sanctions. While developed countries have allocated appropriate funding and are responding adequately to the COVID-19 pandemics, Iran has experienced a serious surge of cases and deaths and should strive to provide additional resources to the health system to make healthcare services more accessible and to increase the fairness of that access. All relevant actors and stakeholders should work together to fight this disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 61, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32375787

RESUMO

On February 19th 2020, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME) has announced the first 2 cases of SARS-CoV-2, a novel emerging coronavirus which causes an infection termed as COVID-19, in Qom city. As such, the Iranian government, through the establishment of the "National Headquarters for the management and control of the novel Coronavirus", has started implementing policies and programs for the prevention and control of the virus. These measures include schools and universities closure, reduced working hours, and increased production and delivery of equipment such as masks, gloves and hygienic materials for sterile environments. The government has also made efforts to divulge high-quality information concerning the COVID-19 and to provide laboratories and hospitals with diagnostic kits and adequate resources to treat patients. However, despite such efforts, the number of cases and deaths has progressively increased with rising trends in total confirmed cases and deaths, as well as in new daily cases and deaths associated with the COVID-19. Iran is a developing country and its economic infrastructure has been hit hardly by embargo and sanctions. While developed countries have allocated appropriate funding and are responding adequately to the COVID-19 pandemics, Iran has experienced a serious surge of cases and deaths and should strive to provide additional resources to the health system to make healthcare services more accessible and to increase the fairness of that access. All relevant actors and stakeholders should work together to fight this disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
18.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 269-274, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects more than 339 million people worldwide. In the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries, in 2016, its prevalence ranged from 9.5% (Portugal) to 3.91% (Brazil). Chronic disease management programs aim to improve the health status of patients with chronic disease and reduce associated costs. The objective of this study is to identify models of asthma asthma 'management and control' that are that are implemented in the Community of Portuguese Speaking Countries (CPLP), and analyse them through the integrated disease management model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A rapid review of the PubMed indexed scientific literature and grey literature on 'management and control of asthma' in the countries of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries was carried out. RESULTS: Portugal, Brazil and Mozambique presented publications on 'management and control of asthma', at different stages of implementation. Clinical management and organization and service delivery are the dimensions of integrated disease management most addressed in publications. DISCUSSION: The implementation of asthma management and control programs is influenced by health systems, care delivery structures, and the surrounding political and social environment. The dimensions of funding and information systems are the most difficult to implement given the degree of economic, social and technological development of most countries under study. CONCLUSION: Only Portugal, Brazil and Mozambique adopted asthma integrated disease management as the main form of asthma management and control. The programs developed by these countries can constitute a model for asthma integrated disease management in the other countries under study.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Asma/prevenção & controle , Brasil , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Sistemas de Informação , Idioma , Moçambique , Portugal , Desenvolvimento de Programas
19.
J Glob Health ; 10(1): 010803, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32257167

RESUMO

Background: China's health financing system has changed from the government-led mode under the planned economy to the diversified mode under the market economy. Equity in health financing has been a national health priority. This study aimed to predict changes in total health expenditure (THE), government health expenditure (GHE), social health expenditure (SHE) and out-of-pocket health expenditure (OOP) in China from 2018 to 2022, and to provide a theoretical basis for health policy adjustment. Methods: Based on health expenditure date of time series from 1978-2017, R3.5.1 software was used to construct the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Results: The model of THE, GHE, SHE and OOP are ARIMA (3.3.0), ARIMA (1.3.1), ARIMA (2.4.0), ARIMA (2.2.2). According to the simulation results, in 2022, China's THE is expected to reach 8473.00 billion Yuan, and the constituent ratios in GHE, SHE and OOP will be 25.49%, 51.25% and 23.26%, respectively. The proportion of THE to GDP will continuously increase from 2018-2022 at a reasonable pace, while THE itself will increase rapidly. Conclusions: China should take effective measures to control the excessive growth of THE, keep decreasing the OOP percentage, and improve the efficiency and fairness of the use of health funds.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde , Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , China , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(5): 1022-1029, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228788

RESUMO

Nomads and labor migrants constitute a vulnerable group beset with high healthcare costs due to lack of health insurance coverage. Their inability to pay for health care constitutes a threat to their well-being and health risk to the host community as they have higher morbidity from diseases and serve as a reservoir of infective agents. This study investigated how nomads and labor migrants pay and cope with necessary healthcare costs. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 323 migrants in four local government areas of Oyo State, which were selected purposively. A pretested semi-structured questionnaire that sought information on respondents' sociodemographics, healthcare payment methods and coping strategies were employed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test to test the association between categorical variables at P ≤ 0.05. The mean age of the respondents was 34.4 ± 1.4 years and 53.2% were farmers. Of the 200 respondents who had used the formal healthcare system, 13 (6.5%) obtained free services via the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) and 187 (93.2%) paid out of pocket for service. Coping with health bills, 115 (62.2%) paid from savings, 34 (18.4%) borrowed money, and 58 (31.4%) sold property. Those with formal education were more likely to pay through NHIS (χ2 = 9.7, P = 0.002). Nomads/migrants in this study have demonstrated the inability to cope with payment of health bills, suggesting the need to look into the policy on healthcare funding/support to migrants and educationally disadvantaged persons. The creation of prepaid pooled payment systems such as social and community health insurance schemes is suggested.


Assuntos
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde , Migrantes , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/economia , Seguro Saúde/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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