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1.
Zootaxa ; 4851(3): zootaxa.4851.3.3, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056718

RESUMO

Species checklists are powerful and important tools of communication between taxonomists and applied environmental biologists, which in turn lead to well-planned and successful conservation strategies and ecological studies. Despite this, only recently the interest on compiling systematic checklists is growing among taxonomists who study tardigrades-micrometazoans that inhabit almost every habitat worldwide. As the Finnish records of tardigrades (a.k.a. water bears) species are incomplete, outdated and no checklist has ever been compiled for this country, an easy-to-consult checklist is here reported. This checklist covers all Finnish tardigrade taxa identified in the past and in the 13 samples collected for this study. A total of 68 tardigrade species are recorded from Finland, with 6 of them being new records presented in this contribution. Of these species, four have their loci tipici in Finland and we provide an English translation of their original German descriptions. A Generalised Linear Model was used to test the effect of sampling effort and area size on the number of species recorded in each biogeographical province of Finland. The results showed that geographical differences in species richness can be explained solely by sampling effort. The number of tardigrade species recorded in Finland corresponds to about 5% of all described species in the phylum, thus indicating a potential high richness for this country. However, the results of the Generalised Linear Model highlight that a reliable knowledge of the tardigrade diversity in Finland will be reached only with a more uniform and intensive sampling effort.


Assuntos
Tardígrados , Animais , Ecossistema , Finlândia
2.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 854-866, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910907

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease that often starts in childhood. Genomic and environmental factors as well as aberrant immune maturation early in life can contribute to the onset of disease, with great disparity over time and geographical regions. Epidemiological studies have scrutinised environmental exposures and attempted to translate these exposures into prevention strategies. Some approaches for patients with asthma have been successful (eg, smoking ban, the Finnish Asthma Programme), and primary prevention of wheeze in pre-school children (age 0-5 years) by the supplementation of vitamin D or fish oil, or both, to pregnant women seems promising. Several recent prevention initiatives are based on strong asthma-protective environmental microbial exposures associated with traditional rural lifestyles. Preclinical studies with various bacterial lysates, bacterial and dietary metabolites, or helminthic compounds have yielded promising results that await translation into clinical practice. Given the immense societal and individual burden of asthma, there is an urgent need to further develop novel strategies to eradicate the disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Asma/dietoterapia , Asma/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/provisão & distribução
3.
J Clin Virol ; 131: 104614, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rapid sample-to-answer tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 are emerging and data on their relative performance is urgently needed. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the analytical performance of two rapid nucleic acid tests, Cepheid Xpert® Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Mobidiag Novodiag® Covid-19, in comparison to a combination reference of three large-scale PCR tests. Moreover, utility of the Novodiag® test in tertiary care emergency departments was assessed. RESULTS: In the preliminary evaluation, analysis of 90 respiratory samples resulted in 100% specificity and sensitivity for Xpert®, whereas analysis of 107 samples resulted in 93.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity for Novodiag®. Rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing with Novodiag® was made available for four tertiary care emergency departments in Helsinki, Finland between 18 and 31 May, coinciding with a rapidly declining epidemic phase. Altogether 361 respiratory specimens, together with relevant clinical data, were analyzed with Novodiag® and reference tests: 355/361 of the specimens were negative with both methods, and 1/361 was positive in Novodiag® and negative by the reference method. Of the 5 remaining specimens, two were negative with Novodiag®, but positive with the reference method with late Ct values. On average, a test result using Novodiag® was available nearly 8 hours earlier than that obtained with the large-scale PCR tests. CONCLUSIONS: While the performance of novel sample-to-answer PCR tests need to be carefully evaluated, they may provide timely and reliable results in detection of SARS-CoV-2 and thus facilitate patient management including effective cohorting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(3): 106-107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978544

RESUMO

Design This study comprised an analysis of data from a cohort, born in the Finnish city of Espoo between January 1 1984 and March 31 1990.Objectives The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dental caries on the risk of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in participants aged 20-27, using data collected during the 20-year follow-up conducted in 2010-2011.Data Dental caries experience was determined by asking study participants 'Estimate, how many teeth with a filling you have?' LRTI was defined as at least one occurrence in the 12 months prior to the administration of the 20-year questionnaire. LTRI data were obtained by asking participants if they had suffered from influenza or pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis or unspecified lower respiratory tract infection. In addition, data were obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register. Risk ratios were determined using Poisson regression models.Results Having a high number of filled teeth was associated with an increased number of LRTIs (adjusted relative risk 1.24) and was not modified by the family's socioeconomic status or by smoking.Conclusions The authors suggest that dental caries increases the risk of LRTIs, but concede that common risk factors might explain at least partly the observed relation between filled teeth and LRTIs.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Pneumonia , Infecções Respiratórias , Estudos de Coortes , Finlândia , Humanos , Lactente
6.
Ambio ; 49(11): 1771-1783, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930955

RESUMO

Reference conditions of water bodies are defined as the natural or minimal anthropogenically disturbed state. We compared the methods for determining total phosphorus and total nitrogen concentrations in rivers in Finland, Norway and Sweden as well as the established reference conditions and evaluated the possibility for transfer and harmonisation of methods. We found that both methods and values differed, especially for lowland rivers with a high proportion of agriculture in the catchment. Since Denmark has not yet set reference conditions for rivers, two of the Nordic methods were tested for Danish conditions. We conclude that some of the established methods are promising but that further development is required. We moreover argue that harmonisation of reference conditions is needed to obtain common benchmarks for assessing the impacts of current and future land use changes on water quality.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Agricultura , Finlândia , Nitrogênio/análise , Noruega , Nutrientes , Fósforo/análise , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Suécia
7.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003207, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The complex etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is still unresolved. Preterm birth (<37 weeks of gestation) and its complications are the leading cause of death of babies in the world, and those who survive often have long-term health problems. Length of gestation, including preterm birth, has been linked to ASD risk, but robust estimates for the whole range of gestational ages (GAs) are lacking. The primary objective of this study was to provide a detailed and robust description of ASD risk across the entire range of GAs while adjusting for sex and size for GA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our study had a multinational cohort design, using population-based data from medical registries in three Nordic countries: Sweden, Finland, and Norway. GA was estimated in whole weeks based on ultrasound. Children were prospectively followed from birth for clinical diagnosis of ASD. Relative risk (RR) of ASD was estimated using log-binomial regression. Analyses were also stratified by sex and by size for GA. The study included 3,526,174 singletons born 1995 to 2015, including 50,816 (1.44%) individuals with ASD. In the whole cohort, 165,845 (4.7%) were born preterm. RR of ASD increased by GA, from 40 to 24 weeks and from 40 to 44 weeks of gestation. The RR of ASD in children born in weeks 22-31, 32-36, and 43-44 compared to weeks 37-42 were estimated at 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.15-2.48; 1.67% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), 1.35 (95% CI 1.30-1.40; 1.08% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), and 1.37 (95% CI 1.21-1.54; 1.74% vs 0.83%; p-value < 0.001), respectively. The main limitation of this study is the lack of data on potential causes of pre- or postterm birth. Also, the possibility of residual confounding should be considered. CONCLUSION: In the current study, we observed that the RR of ASD increased weekly as the date of delivery diverged from 40 weeks, both pre- and postterm, independently of sex and size for GA. Given the unknown etiology of ASD and the lifelong consequences of the disorder, identifying groups of increased risk associated with a potentially modifiable risk factor is important.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Idade Gestacional , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
8.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32934151

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the airway microbiota is a highly dynamic ecology, the role of longitudinal changes in airway microbiota during early childhood in asthma development is unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of longitudinal changes in early nasal microbiota with the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: In this prospective, population-based birth cohort study, we followed children from birth to age 7 years. The nasal microbiota was tested by using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing at ages 2, 13, and 24 months. We applied an unsupervised machine learning approach to identify longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months (the primary exposure) and during age 2 to 24 months (the secondary exposure) and examined the association of these profiles with the risk of physician-diagnosed asthma at age 7 years. RESULTS: Of the analytic cohort of 704 children, 57 (8%) later developed asthma. We identified 4 distinct longitudinal nasal microbiota profiles during age 2 to 13 months. In the multivariable analysis, compared with the persistent Moraxella dominance profile during age 2 to 13 months, the persistent Moraxella sparsity profile was associated with a significantly higher risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 2.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-6.27). Similar associations were observed between the longitudinal changes in nasal microbiota during age 2 to 24 months and risk of asthma. CONCLUSIONS: Children with an altered longitudinal pattern in the nasal microbiota during early childhood had a high risk of developing asthma. Our data guide the development of primary prevention strategies (eg, early identification of children at high risk and modification of microbiota) for childhood asthma. These observations present a new avenue for risk modification for asthma (eg, microbiota modification).


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Microbiota , Nariz/microbiologia , Aerococcaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Finlândia , Seguimentos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Haemophilus/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Microbiota/genética , Moraxella/isolamento & purificação , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Infecções Respiratórias/complicações , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Risco , Streptococcus/isolamento & purificação
9.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The youngest children in a classroom are at increased risk of being medicated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We examined the association between children's birth month and ADHD medication rates in Finland. METHODS: Using a population-based study, we analyzed ADHD medication use among children born in 2005 to 2007. Cases (n = 7054) were identified from the first purchase of medication for ADHD. Cox proportional hazard models and hazard ratios (HRs) were examined by birth month and sex. Finnish children start first grade in the year of their seventh birthday. The cutoff date is December 31. RESULTS: Risk of ADHD medication use increased throughout the year by birth month (ie, January through April to May through August to September through December). Among boys born in September to December, the association remained stable across cohorts (HR: 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.5). Among girls born in September to December, the HR in the 2005 cohort was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8), whereas in the 2007 cohort it was 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.2). In a restricted follow-up, which ended at the end of the year of the children's eighth birthday, the HRs for boys and girls born in September to December 2007 were 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7) and 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5-2.8), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Relative immaturity increases the likelihood of ADHD medication use in Finland. The association was more pronounced during the first school years. Increased awareness of this association is needed among clinicians and teachers.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1373, 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907578

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation is often claimed to be increasingly common, but most studies show small changes in sleep duration over the last decades. Our aim was to analyze long-term patterns in self-reported sleep duration in a population-based cohort. METHODS: Members of the Older Finnish Twin Cohort have responded to questionnaires in 1975 (N = 30,915 individuals, response rate 89%, mean age 36 years), 1981 (24,535, 84%, 41 years), 1990 (12,450, 77%, 44 years), and 2011 (8334, 72%, 60 years). Weibull regression models were used to model the effects of follow-up time and age simultaneously. RESULTS: Sleep duration has decreased in all adult age groups and in both genders. The mean duration was in men 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.39 in 2011, and in women 7.69 and 7.37, respectively. The decrease was about 0.5 min in men and 0.9 in women per year of follow-up. In the age-group 18-34 years, mean sleep length was 7.69 h in 1975 and 7.53 in 1990. Among 35-54-year-old it was 7.57 h in 1975 and 7.34 in 2011, and in the age group of 55+ year olds 7.52 and 7.38, correspondingly. The change was largest in middle-aged group: about 23 min or about 0.6 min per year of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a slight decrease in mean sleep duration during the 36-year follow-up. Although the sleep duration was longer in 1970s and 1980s, the probable main cause for the change in this study population is the effect of aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Sono , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Privação do Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115294, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798905

RESUMO

Trees and other vegetation have been advocated as a mitigation measure for urban air pollution mainly due to the fact that they passively filter particles from the air. However, mounting evidence suggests that vegetation may also worsen air quality by slowing the dispersion of pollutants and by producing volatile organic compounds that contribute to formation of ozone and other secondary pollutants. We monitored nanoparticle (>10 nm) counts along distance gradients away from major roads along paired transects across open and forested landscapes in Baltimore (USA), Helsinki (Finland) and Shenyang (China) - i.e. sites in three biomes with different pollution levels - using condensation particle counters. Mean particle number concentrations averaged across all sampling sites were clearly reduced (15%) by the presence of forest cover only in Helsinki. For Baltimore and Shenyang, levels showed no significant difference between the open and forested transects at any of the sampling distances. This suggests that nanoparticle deposition on trees is often counterbalanced by other factors, including differing flow fields and aerosol processes under varying meteorological conditions. Similarly, consistent differences in high frequency data patterns between the transects were detected only in Helsinki. No correlations between nanoparticle concentrations and solar radiation or local wind speed as affecting nanoparticle abundances were found, but they were to some extent associated with canopy closure. These data add to the accumulating evidence according to which trees do not necessarily improve air quality in near-road environments.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Baltimore , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Finlândia , Florestas , Material Particulado/análise , Árvores
12.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(8): 1003-1009, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731818

RESUMO

AIMS: There is evidence that prior lumbar fusion increases the risk of dislocation and revision after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The relationship between prior lumbar fusion and the effect of femoral head diameter on THA dislocation has not been investigated. We examined the relationship between prior lumbar fusion or discectomy and the risk of dislocation or revision after THA. We also examined the effect of femoral head component diameter on the risk of dislocation or revision. METHODS: Data used in this study were compiled from several Finnish national health registers, including the Finnish Arthroplasty Register (FAR) which was the primary source for prosthesis-related data. Other registers used in this study included the Finnish Health Care Register (HILMO), the Social Insurance Institutions (SII) registers, and Statistics Finland. The study was conducted as a prospective retrospective cohort study. Cox proportional hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for analysis. RESULTS: Prior lumbar fusion surgery was associated with increased risk of prosthetic dislocation (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.393, p < 0.001) and revision (HR = 1.528, p < 0.001). Head components larger than 28 mm were associated with lower dislocation rates compared to the 28 mm head (32 mm: HR = 0.712, p < 0.001; 36 mm: HR = 0.700, p < 0.001; 38 mm: HR = 0.808, p < 0.140; and 40 mm: HR = 0.421, p < 0.001). Heads of 38 mm (HR = 1.288, p < 0.001) and 40 mm (HR = 1.367, p < 0.001) had increased risk of revision compared to the 28 mm head. CONCLUSION: Lumbar fusion surgery was associated with higher rate of hip prosthesis dislocation and higher risk of revision surgery. Femoral head component of 32 mm (or larger) associates with lower risk of dislocation in patients with previous lumbar fusion. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(8):1003-1009.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Prótese de Quadril/efeitos adversos , Desenho de Prótese , Falha de Prótese , Sistema de Registros , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/cirurgia , Finlândia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(15): 8232-8238, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767355

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global public health crisis with social, psychological and long-lasting economical damages. Weather-related dynamics have an impact on the pattern of human health and disease. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of heat and humidity on daily basis incidence and mortality due to COVID-19 pandemic in ten of the world's hottest countries compared to ten of the coldest ones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Worldwide, we selected 20 countries; 10 hottest countries with the highest temperatures and 10 coldest countries with the lowest temperature. The selection of the countries was based on the daily basis mean temperature from the date of appearance of the initial cases of COVID-19, Dec 29, 2019 to May 12, 2020. In the world's 10 hottest countries, the mean temperature was (26.31±1.51) and humidity (44.67±4.97). However, in the world's 10 coldest countries the mean temperature was (6.19±1.61) and humidity (57.26±2.35). The data on the global outbreak of COVID-19, daily new cases and deaths were recorded from World Health Organization, and daily information on temperature and humidity was obtained from metrological web "Time and Date". RESULTS: In countries with high temperatures and low humidity, the mean daily cases incidence were (407.12±24.33); cumulative cases (9094.34±708.29); and cumulative deaths (452.84±43.30) were significantly low compared to countries with low temperatures and high humidity: daily cases (1876.72±207.37); cumulative cases (44232.38±5875.11); and cumulative deaths (2008.29±310.13). Moreover, COVID-19 cases and deaths per million population were significantly low in countries with high temperatures (cases 711.23, and deaths 16.27) compared to countries with low temperatures (cases 1685.99; and deaths 86.40). Furthermore, in hottest countries, a 1% increase in humidity reduced number of cases and deaths by (ß = -5.40, p<0.001) and (ß = -0.187, p=0.004) respectively. A similar trend was seen with a 1°C increase in temperature, reducing the number of deaths by (ß = -1.35. p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed a significant decrease in incidence of daily cases and deaths in countries with high temperatures and low humidity (warmest countries), compared to those countries with low temperatures and high humidity (coldest countries). The findings could be of interest to the policymakers and the health officials on the epidemiological trends of COVID-19 pandemic and weather changes.


Assuntos
Clima , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Temperatura Alta , Umidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Argélia/epidemiologia , Áustria/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Canadá/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Estônia/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Cazaquistão/epidemiologia , Kuweit/epidemiologia , México/epidemiologia , Mortalidade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Omã/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Suécia/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0233455, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760066

RESUMO

This study focuses on the use and users of Finnish social science research data archive. Study is based on enriched user data of the archive from years 2015-2018. Study investigates the number and type of downloaded datasets, the number of citations for data, the demographics of data downloaders and the purposes data are downloaded for. Datasets were downloaded from the archive 10346 times. Majority of the downloaded datasets are quantitative. Quantitative datasets are also more often cited, but the number of citations vary and does not always correlate with the number of downloads. Use of the archive varies by user's country, organization, and discipline. Datasets from the archive were downloaded most often for study work, bachelor's and master's theses, and research purposes. It is likely that reusing research data will increase in the near future as more data will become available, scholars are more informed about research data management, and data citation practices are established.


Assuntos
Ciências Sociais , Arquivos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Finlândia , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Ciências Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Oecologia ; 193(4): 1021-1026, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766935

RESUMO

Migration has evolved to tackle temporal changes in availability of resources. Climate change has been shown to affect the migration dates of species, which raises the question of whether the variation in the timing of migration is climate or resource dependent? The relative importance of temperature and availability of food as drivers of migration behaviour during both spring and autumn seasons has been poorly studied. Here, we investigated these patterns in frugivorous and granivorous birds (hereafter frugivorous) that are assumed to postpone their autumn migration when there is plenty of food available, which may also advance upcoming spring migration. On the other hand, especially spring migration dates have been negatively connected with increasing temperatures. We tested whether the autumn and spring migration dates of eleven common frugivorous birds depended on the crop size of trees or ambient temperatures using 29 years of data in Finland. The increased crop sizes of trees delayed autumn migration dates; whereas, autumn temperature did not show a significant connection. We also observed a temporal trend towards later departure. Increasing temperature and crop sizes advanced spring arrival dates. Our results support the hypothesis that the timing of autumn migration in the frugivorous birds depends on the availability of food and is weakly connected with the variation in temperature. Importantly, crop size can have carry-over effects and affect the timing of spring arrival possibly because birds have overwintered closer to the breeding grounds after an abundant crop year.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Árvores , Animais , Aves , Finlândia , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
16.
Med Care ; 58(9): 763-769, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increases in prescription drug cost-sharing may decrease adherence to treatment among persons with schizophrenia and lead to discontinuation of use and an increased risk of hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of new deductible and increased drug copayments implemented on antipsychotic and other drug purchases and on rates of hospitalizations and primary care contacts among persons with schizophrenia in Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis. SUBJECTS: All persons with schizophrenia in Finland who were alive at the beginning of 2015 (N=41,017). MEASURES: We measured the rates of antipsychotic, other psychotropic and cardiometabolic drug purchasers, hospitalizations, and primary care contacts during 2015 and 2016 with data collected from several nationwide health care registers. RESULTS: During 2016, the proportion of antipsychotic purchasers decreased by -0.26 percentage points per month [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.47 to -0.05] compared with 2015. The trend of other psychotropic purchasers decreased to -0.13 percentage points per month in 2016 (95% CI: -0.22 to -0.04) compared with 2015 and cardiometabolic drug purchases to -0.17 percentage points per month (95% CI: -0.29 to -0.05) compared with 2015. The decreasing trend of psychiatric hospitalizations in 2015 halted in 2016. There were no other significant differences in health care utilization. CONCLUSIONS: In our nationwide time-series analysis, we observed decreases in the slopes of antipsychotic and other drug purchases of persons with schizophrenia after prescription drug cost-sharing increase implementation on January 1, 2016. Policymakers need to be aware of the unintended consequences of increasing cost-sharing among people with severe mental disorders.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/economia , Custo Compartilhado de Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Finlândia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicotrópicos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/economia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824309

RESUMO

Mental illness remains as one of the most stigmatizing conditions in contemporary western societies. This study sheds light on how mental health professionals and rehabilitants perceive stigmatization. The qualitative study is based on stimulated focus group interviews conducted in five Finnish mental health rehabilitation centers that follow the Clubhouse model. The findings were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Both the mental health rehabilitants and the professionals perceived stigmatization as a phenomenon that concerns the majority of rehabilitants. However, whereas the professionals viewed stigma as something that is inflicted upon the mentally ill from the outside, the rehabilitants perceived stigma as something that the mentally ill themselves can influence by advancing their own confidence, shame management, and recovery. Improvements in treatment, along with media coverage, were seen as the factors that reduce stigmatization, but the same conceptualization did not hold for serious mental illnesses. As the average Clubhouse client was thought to be a person with serious mental illness, the rehabilitation context designed to normalize attitudes toward mental health problems was paradoxically perceived to enforce the concept of inevitable stigma. Therefore, it is important for professionals in rehabilitation communities to be reflexively aware of these tensions when supporting the rehabilitants.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Estigma Social , Adulto , Finlândia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Estereotipagem
18.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(9): 1994-2003, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666952

RESUMO

One of the main factors of the increased eutrophication level of surface waters is the high anthropogenic loads of biogenic substances discharged into water bodies. Municipal wastewaters, containing large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus play one of the key roles in the acceleration of eutrophication intensity. The main direction in the prevention of eutrophication caused by wastewater discharge has become the reduction of nutrient loads introduced to wastewater receivers in accordance with strict legal requirements achievable only in advanced technologies. The treated wastewater quality standards are actually developed for total nitrogen and total phosphorus content, disregarding the fact that eutrophication potential of treated wastewater is determined by the content of non-organic nutrient forms directly bioavailable for water vegetation. That is why the currently used energy-consuming and expensive technologies do not always guarantee effective protection against eutrophication and its consequences. The goal of the study was to analyze the most widely used wastewater treatment technologies for enhanced biological nutrients removal in treated wastewater eutrophication potential. For this purpose, an analysis of the operation of 18 wastewater treatment plants based on different technologies in Finland, Canada, Poland, Russia and the United States was realized. The analysis concluded that the eutrophication potential of treated wastewater to a large extent is conditioned by the applied technology. The results of the research concluded that the eutrophication potential can serve an important criterion for decision-making regarding the proper selection of wastewater treatment technologies aimed at eutrophication mitigation.


Assuntos
Eutrofização , Águas Residuárias , Canadá , Finlândia , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Polônia
19.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 79(2): 270-281, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696228

RESUMO

One of the world's largest, but low-grade, sulfide nickel deposits in northeastern Finland has been exploited by a bioheapleaching technology since 2008. Bioheapleaching is a relatively new, cost-effective technology, but humid climate, e.g., in boreal temperate environments, causes challenges to the management of the water balance in the ore heaps with wide catchment area, and the mining effluents have caused substantial metal and salting contamination of the receiving waterbodies. In our study, the impacts of metal-extracting bioheapleaching mine effluents on muscle and liver element concentrations, body condition, liver and testes mass, and sperm count and motility of male perch Perca fluviatilis were analysed. Liver, testes, and carcass mass of perch in relation to their length were lower in the mining-impacted lakes than in the reference lake, which may be due to the metal contamination, food availability, and energy demand under multistressor conditions. The sperm counts of the males in the mining-impacted lakes were lower, but the endurance of their sperm motility was longer than the endurance of sperm of the reference males. These findings suggested that the condition and sperm characteristics of perch were altered in lakes receiving metal mining effluents. Measured variables seem to be useful indicators for metal mining impacts on freshwater fish but only if high natural variation in these characteristics can be controlled by multiyear monitoring scheme.


Assuntos
Metais/toxicidade , Mineração , Percas/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Finlândia , Humanos , Lagos , Fígado/química , Masculino , Metais/análise , Níquel , Motilidade Espermática , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
20.
J Agric Saf Health ; 26(2): 67-76, 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727166

RESUMO

Based on earlier studies, farmers have poorer work ability compared to workers in most other occupations. The aim of this study was to explore if organic production has a positive effect on producers' work ability while controlling for demographic and production characteristics. This study used telephone interview data collected by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 2014-2015. The material consisted of 2,164 farmers: 231 in organic production and 1,933 in conventional production. Work ability was measured with a single question regarding the farmers' current work ability compared with their lifetime best on a scale of 0 to 10, with 0 meaning unable to work. The data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. Organic production had a negative effect on work ability, while larger farm size, experiencing economic uncertainty rarely/never/occasionally (vs. often), age under 55 years, having occupational health coverage, and experiencing low amounts of physical strain or mental strain had positive effects in a multivariable model. While this study could not consider potential biases from the farmers' existing health status at the time of switching to organic production and other sources, it is clear that greater attention needs to be paid to improving worker health, safety, and wellness in organic farming.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros , Avaliação da Capacidade de Trabalho , Agricultura , Fazendas , Finlândia , Humanos
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