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1.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 170-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811978

RESUMO

This article presents the results of comprehensive studies to analyze the effect of a mixture of phytoecdysteroids extracted from the juice of Serratula coronata L. on the productivity and vitality of ducklings when grown for meat, and the optimal doses of its inclusion in the diet of the bird are revealed. The methodological basis of this study was the earlier works of domestic and foreign scientists on the topic under study. In the studies, a mixture of ecdysteroids extracted from the juice of the Serratula coronata L. was used according to the method developed by a team of scientists of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Patent RU 2151598). The object of the study was the young ducks of the cross breed "Agidel 34" of the Beijing breed. It was established that the use of phytoecdysteroids in the diets of ducklings at a dose of 1.0 mg/l of drinking water allowed to increase the safety of the livestock by 4.0%, live weight by 4.5% (p <  0.01), average daily live weight gain by 3.0-3.5%, gutted carcass weight - 7.1%. At the same time, feed costs per unit of production decreased by 2.0%, and the profitability of duck meat production increased by 5.2%.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Patos , Ecdisteroides/administração & dosagem , Ecdisteroides/isolamento & purificação , Ecdisteroides/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Produtos Avícolas
3.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640222

RESUMO

Cardiovascular disease is linked to high serum low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels. Cardiovascular risk may be indirectly influenced by genetic load. Serum LDL-cholesterol levels may be reduced by the consumption of food enriched with plant sterols (PS). The aim was to test a plant sterol treatment on cholesterol levels according to different genetic polymorphisms. A pilot interventional trial was performed in 26 children (n = 16 girls, n = 10 boys). Seven hundred milliliters/day of commercial skimmed milk with added plant sterols delivering 2.2 g plant sterols were ingested for three weeks. Blood draws were performed at the baseline and end of the study. Significant modifications of non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (p = 0.010; p = 0.013) and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.004; p = 0.013) levels appeared in the genes LIPC C-514T and PPAR-α L162V carriers. No statistically significant differences were observed for other genes. LIPC C-514T and PPAR-alpha L162V carriers could benefit from a plant sterol supplement to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercolesterolemia/genética , Lipase/genética , PPAR alfa/genética , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Criança , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Masculino , Leite/química , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Espanha
4.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 270, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a pathological condition affecting older men. BPH complications often lead to deterioration in the quality of life. Serenoa repens (Saw Palmetto) is used for treating lower urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. METHODS: This study was performed to compare the efficacy of ß-sitosterol enriched saw palmetto oil (VISPO) and conventional saw palmetto oil (SPO) extracted using supercritical fluid extraction, in alleviating the BPH complications using testosterone-induced BPH model rats. The animals received testosterone (5 mg/kg s.c.) with or without SPO and VISPO (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.) or Finasteride (1 mg/kg b.w.) p.o. for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, overnight fasted animals were euthanized, blood samples collected for serum analysis of testosterone. Prostate tissue histomorphology was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Western blot analysis was performed using prostate tissue homogenates. RESULTS: VISPO exhibited superior efficacy compared to SPO as evident from the significant decrease in prostate weight to body weight ratio, serum testosterone level and increase in growth inhibition of prostate tissue compared to BPH group (p < 0.001). Histological examination of prostate tissue samples showed that VISPO treatment was comparatively better than SPO in improving the hyperplastic patterns. Further, VISPO significantly regulated the expression of inflammatory and apoptotic marker proteins in BPH rats. CONCLUSION: Our data provide experimental evidence that ß-sitosterol enriched saw palmetto oil could be higher efficacious in treating the BPH complications compared to the conventional saw palmetto oil preparations.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/genética , Animais , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Humanos , Masculino , Fitosteróis/isolamento & purificação , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/imunologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/imunologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Serenoa/química , Sitosteroides/administração & dosagem , Sitosteroides/isolamento & purificação , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/sangue , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/imunologia
5.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575059

RESUMO

Plant sterols (PS) are oxidized to PS oxidation products (POP). This study quantified the change in serum POP compared to cholesterol oxidation products (COP) after the intake of increasing POP doses. This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose‒response pilot study with healthy individuals in four groups (15 per group). The control group received products with no added PS or POP and treatment groups received daily 20-25 g margarine with added PS (mean 3 g/d) and two cookies (~28 g) for six weeks. Cookies delivered 8.7 (low-dose), 15.2 (medium-dose), or 37.2 (high-dose) mg/d POP. Fasting serum POP and COP were measured at the baseline, days 14, 28, and 42 in all participants and days 7, 21, and 35 in a subset. Sixty individuals completed the study; 52 were included in per protocol analysis. Serum POP increased with increasing POP intake and plateaued at dose >15 mg/d. Stabilized POP concentrations were (mean ± SD) 38.9 ± 6.9, 91.0 ± 27.9, 144.4 ± 37.9 and 203.0 ± 63.7 nmol/L, for control, low-, medium-, and high-dose POP groups, respectively. For all groups, the serum COP ranged from 213 to 262 nmol/L and the average POP/COP ratio was <1. Serum POP concentrations increased non-linearly, reaching stabilized concentrations in <7 days, and remained below COP concentrations after the intake of increasing POP doses.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Alimento Funcional , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Margarina , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Culinária , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
6.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491873

RESUMO

Elevated blood concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) is a primary risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle interventions including an increase in dietary phytosterols as well as medications have proven effective in lowering LDLc. The primary objective of this randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study was to determine the impact of a new phytosterol emulsion for dietary supplements (1.5 g/day phytosterol equivalents) on LDLc concentrations. Thirty-two healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive placebo or treatment followed by a washout period, followed by placebo or treatment, each phase lasting one month. Secondary endpoints related to cardiovascular health were also assessed. Study management, including screening, recruitment, monitoring, compliance, and data collection, were done remotely (a siteless clinical trial) utilizing a novel virtual tool. Phytosterol supplementation significantly lowered LDLc concentrations by 10.2% (16.17 mg/dL or 0.419 mmol/L, p = 0.008 by paired t-test, p = 0.014 by Wilcoxon signed rank testing). No secondary biomarkers were found to change significantly. Supplementation with phytosterols in a new dietary supplement formulation efficiently and safely decreases LDLc within one month in a free-living setting.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/administração & dosagem , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Células CACO-2 , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Regulação para Baixo , Composição de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitosteróis/química , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(37): 6704-6723, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438826

RESUMO

Dietary phytosterols, which comprise plant sterols and stanols, reduce plasma Low-Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C) levels when given 2 g/day. Since this dose has not been reported to cause health-related side effects in long-term human studies, food products containing these plant compounds are used as potential therapeutic dietary options to reduce LDL-C and cardiovascular disease risk. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the cholesterol-lowering action of phytosterols. They may compete with dietary and biliary cholesterol for micellar solubilization in the intestinal lumen, impairing intestinal cholesterol absorption. Recent evidence indicates that phytosterols may also regulate other pathways. Impaired intestinal cholesterol absorption is usually associated with reduced cholesterol transport to the liver, which may reduce the incorporation of cholesterol into Very-Low- Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) particles, thereby lowering the rate of VLDL assembly and secretion. Impaired liver VLDL production may reduce the rate of LDL production. On the other hand, significant evidence supports a role for plant sterols in the Transintestinal Cholesterol Excretion (TICE) pathway, although the exact mechanisms by which they promote the flow of cholesterol from the blood to enterocytes and the intestinal lumen remains unknown. Dietary phytosterols may also alter the conversion of bile acids into secondary bile acids, and may lower the bile acid hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio, thereby reducing intestinal cholesterol absorption. This article reviews the progress to date in research on the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of phytosterols.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/antagonistas & inibidores , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/química , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/química
8.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340583

RESUMO

(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Açúcares da Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
9.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0217155, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295333

RESUMO

Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) is a risk of parenteral nutrition (PN)-dependence. Intravenous soybean oil-based parenteral fat can exacerbate the risk of IFALD while intravenous fish oil can minimize its progression, yet the mechanisms by which soybean oil harms and fish oil protects the liver are uncertain. Properties that differentiate soybean and fish oils include α-tocopherol and phytosterol content. Soybean oil is rich in phytosterols and contains little α-tocopherol. Fish oil contains abundant α-tocopherol and little phytosterols. This study tested whether α-tocopherol confers hepatoprotective properties while phytosterols confer hepatotoxicity to intravenous fat emulsions. Utilizing emulsions formulated in the laboratory, a soybean oil emulsion (SO) failed to protect from hepatosteatosis in mice administered a PN solution enterally. An emulsion of soybean oil containing α-tocopherol (SO+AT) preserved normal hepatic architecture. A fish oil emulsion (FO) and an emulsion of fish oil containing phytosterols (FO+P) protected from steatosis in this model. Expression of hepatic acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), was increased in animals administered SO. ACC and PPARγ levels were comparable to chow-fed controls in animals receiving SO+AT, FO, and FO+P. This study suggests a hepatoprotective role for α-tocopherol in liver injury induced by the enteral administration of a parenteral nutrition solution. Phytosterols do not appear to compromise the hepatoprotective effects of fish oil.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Fígado Gorduroso/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , alfa-Tocoferol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/efeitos adversos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Soja/uso terapêutico , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem , alfa-Tocoferol/efeitos adversos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151244

RESUMO

This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the consumption of a milk powder product fortified with potassium (+1050.28 mg/day) and phytosterols (+1200 mg/day) to lower systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively, and, therefore, the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke among the 35-75-year-old population in Malaysia. A Markov model was created against a do-nothing option, from a governmental perspective, and with a time horizon of 40 years. Different data sources, encompassing clinical studies, practice guidelines, grey literature, and statistical yearbooks, were used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of uncertainty on the base case estimates. With an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio equal to international dollars (int$) 22,518.03 per quality-adjusted life-years gained, the intervention can be classified as very cost-effective. If adopted nationwide, it would help prevent at least 13,400 MIs, 30,500 strokes, and more than 10,600 and 17,100 MI- and stroke-related deaths. The discounted cost savings generated for the health care system by those who consume the fortified milk powder would amount to int$8.1 per person, corresponding to 0.7% of the total yearly health expenditure per capita. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the results. Together with other preventive interventions, the consumption of milk powder fortified with potassium and phytosterols represents a cost-effective strategy to attenuate the rapid increase in cardiovascular burden in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Modelos Biológicos , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/análise , Potássio/administração & dosagem , Potássio/análise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Cadeias de Markov , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035616

RESUMO

Chorioamnionitis, clinically most frequently associated with Ureaplasma, is linked to intestinal inflammation and subsequent gut injury. No treatment is available to prevent chorioamnionitis-driven adverse intestinal outcomes. Evidence is increasing that plant sterols possess immune-modulatory properties. Therefore, we investigated the potential therapeutic effects of plant sterols in lambs intra-amniotically (IA) exposed to Ureaplasma. Fetal lambs were IA exposed to Ureaplasma parvum (U. parvum, UP) for six days from 127 d-133 d of gestational age (GA). The plant sterols ß-sitosterol and campesterol, dissolved with ß-cyclodextrin (carrier), were given IA every two days from 122 d-131 d GA. Fetal circulatory cytokine levels, gut inflammation, intestinal injury, enterocyte maturation, and mucosal phospholipid and bile acid profiles were measured at 133 d GA (term 150 d). IA plant sterol administration blocked a fetal inflammatory response syndrome. Plant sterols reduced intestinal accumulation of proinflammatory phospholipids and tended to prevent mucosal myeloperoxidase-positive (MPO) cell influx, indicating an inhibition of gut inflammation. IA administration of plant sterols and carrier diminished intestinal mucosal damage, stimulated maturation of the immature epithelium, and partially prevented U. parvum-driven reduction of mucosal bile acids. In conclusion, we show that ß-sitosterol and campesterol administration protected the fetus against adverse gut outcomes following UP-driven chorioamnionitis by preventing intestinal and systemic inflammation.


Assuntos
Corioamnionite/veterinária , Gastroenteropatias/veterinária , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Ureaplasma/veterinária , Ureaplasma , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Corioamnionite/microbiologia , Corioamnionite/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Feminino , Feto , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/prevenção & controle , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/veterinária , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/química , Gravidez , Distribuição Aleatória , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Ureaplasma/prevenção & controle
12.
Drugs Aging ; 36(Suppl 1): 65-99, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073924

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) are an important drug class in the treatment armamentarium for osteoarthritis (OA). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to re-assess the safety of various SYSADOAs in a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials, using, as much as possible, data from full safety reports. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and random-effects meta-analyses of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that assessed adverse events (AEs) with various SYSADOAs in patients with OA. The databases MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Ovid CENTRAL) and Scopus were searched. The primary outcomes were overall severe and serious AEs, as well as AEs involving the following Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) system organ classes (SOCs): gastrointestinal, cardiac, vascular, nervous system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, musculoskeletal and connective tissue, renal and urinary system. RESULTS: Database searches initially identified 3815 records. After exclusions according to the selection criteria, 25 studies on various SYSADOAs were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 13 studies with adequate data were included in the meta-analyses. Next, from the studies previously excluded according to the protocol, 37 with mainly oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) permitted as concomitant medication were included in a parallel qualitative synthesis, from which 18 studies on various SYSADOAs were included in parallel meta-analyses. This post hoc parallel inclusion was conducted because of the high number of studies allowing concomitant anti-OA medications. Indeed, primarily excluding studies with concomitant anti-OA medications was crucial for a meta-analysis on safety. The decision for parallel inclusion was made for the purpose of comparative analyses. Glucosamine sulfate (GS), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and avocado soybean unsaponifiables (ASU; Piascledine®) were not associated with increased odds for any type of AEs compared with placebo. Overall, with/without concomitant OA medication, diacerein was associated with significantly increased odds of total AEs (odds ratio [OR] 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.58-3.13; I2 = 52.8%), gastrointestinal disorders (OR 2.85; 95% CI 2.02-4.04; I2 = 62.8%) and renal and urinary disorders (OR 3.42; 95% CI 2.36-4.96; I2 = 17.0%) compared with placebo. In studies that allowed concomitant OA medications, diacerein was associated with significantly more dermatological disorders (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.42-4.31; I2 = 0%) and more dropouts due to AEs (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.85-5.47; I2 = 13.4%) than was placebo. No significant increase in serious or severe AEs was found with diacerein versus placebo. CONCLUSIONS: GS and CS can be considered safe treatments for patients with OA. All eligible studies on ASU included in our analysis used the proprietary product Piascledine® and allowed other anti-OA medications; thus, the safety of ASU must be confirmed in future studies without concomitant anti-OA medications. Given the safety concerns with diacerein, its usefulness in patients with OA should be assessed, taking into account individual patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Antraquinonas/efeitos adversos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Vitamina E/efeitos adversos , Antraquinonas/administração & dosagem , Antraquinonas/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Combinação de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitamina E/administração & dosagem , Vitamina E/uso terapêutico
13.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 29(6): 576-582, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034251

RESUMO

This study examined if plant sterols and walking reduce postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations in Chinese men with elevated body mass index (≥ 23.5 kg/m2). Fifteen Chinese men (mean [SD]: age = 25 [3] years and body mass index = 26.2 [1.5] kg/m2] completed four 10-day trials in random order with a 7- to 10-day washout between trials: (a) daily consumption of a control margarine while sedentary (C-S), (b) daily consumption of margarine containing 2 g/day of plant sterols while sedentary (PS-S), (c) daily consumption of a control margarine with 30-min daily walking (C-W), and (d) daily consumption of margarine containing 2 g/day of plant sterols with 30-min daily walking (PS-W). On Day 11 of each trial, postprandial TAG was measured after a high-fat milkshake. The 5-hr total area under the TAG curve was 22%, 25%, and 12% lower on PS-W (mean [SD]: 8.9 [4.3] mmol·5 hr/L) than C-S (11.4 [4.5] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .005; d = 0.56), PS-S (11.9 [4.9] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .004; d = 0.67), and C-W (10.1 [4.4] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .044; d = 0.27) trials, respectively. Similarly, 5-hr incremental area for PS-W (4.5 [2.7] mmol·5 hr/L) was 31%, 32%, and 18% lower than C-S (6.6 [3.3] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .005; d = 0.62), PS-S (6.6 [3.4] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .004; d = 0.64), and C-W (5.5 [2.8] mmol·5 hr/L; p = .032; d = 0.29). Ten days of daily plant sterol intake combined with walking presents an intervention strategy to lower postprandial TAG in Chinese men with elevated body mass index.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Período Pós-Prandial , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Caminhada , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Prog Lipid Res ; 74: 87-102, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822462

RESUMO

Dietary plant sterols and stanols as present in our diet and in functional foods are well-known for their inhibitory effects on intestinal cholesterol absorption, which translates into lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. However, emerging evidence suggests that plant sterols and stanols have numerous additional health effects, which are largely unnoticed in the current scientific literature. Therefore, in this review we pose the intriguing question "What would have occurred if plant sterols and stanols had been discovered and embraced by disciplines such as immunology, hepatology, pulmonology or gastroenterology before being positioned as cholesterol-lowering molecules?" What would then have been the main benefits and fields of application of plant sterols and stanols today? We here discuss potential effects ranging from its presence and function intrauterine and in breast milk towards a potential role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cardiovascular disease (CVD), inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and allergic asthma. Interestingly, effects clearly depend on the route of entrance as observed in intestinal-failure associated liver disease (IFALD) during parenteral nutrition regimens. It is only until recently that effects beyond lowering of cholesterol concentrations are being explored systematically. Thus, there is a clear need to understand the full health effects of plant sterols and stanols.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Asma/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , LDL-Colesterol/antagonistas & inibidores , LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Sitosteroides/administração & dosagem
15.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3715-3721, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789230

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary phytosterols (PS) on growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality of Partridge Shank chickens, a total of 256 1-day-old male Partridge Shank chicks were randomly assigned into 4 dietary treatments, and each of them replicated 8 times with 8 chicks per replicate. Birds in the 4 treatments were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control group), 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg PS for 50 D, respectively. Dietary supplementation of PS quadratically increased average daily gain of chickens during the grower and overall periods, whereas linearly decreased the feed-to-gain ratio during the starter period. Compared with control group, a significant increase in average daily gain during the grower and overall periods was observed in chickens fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg/kg PS. Increasing PS addition linearly increased serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity at 21 and 50 D and hepatic GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase activities at 21 D, whereas linearly decreased malondialdehyde concentration of breast muscle at 50 D. Meanwhile, 40 mg/kg PS supplementation significantly increased serum GSH-Px activity, and hepatic superoxide dismutase and GSH-Px activities at 21 D as compared with the control. PS supplementation linearly and quadratically decreased drip loss (24 and 48 h postmortem) and luminance value (24 h postmortem) of breast muscle in broilers at 50 D, and there was statistical difference between the control and PS-supplemented group. In conclusion, PS supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality of Partridge Shank chickens, with its optimum level in Partridge Shank chickens' diet being 40 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30626159

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cholesterol sterols are validated markers for fractional intestinal cholesterol absorption (cholestanol) and endogenous cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol). This study's objective was to evaluate markers for cholesterol synthesis and absorption in children exposed to two different intravenous lipid emulsions that rapidly change serum plant sterol concentrations as part of their parenteral nutrition (PN). METHODS: Serum samples from two different studies were used: (1) nine PN-dependent children with intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) whose soy-based, plant sterol-rich lipid (SO) was replaced with a fish-based, plant sterol-poor (FO) lipid; and (2) five neonates prescribed SO after birth. In the first study, samples were collected at baseline (prior to FO initiation) and after 3 and 6 months of FO. In study 2, samples were collected at 1 and 3 weeks of age. RESULTS: In study 1, a 7-fold reduction in campesterol, a 12-fold reduction in sitosterol, and a 15-fold reduction in stigmasterol was observed 6 months after switching to FO. Serum cholesterol concentrations did not change, but cholesterol-standardized lathosterol increased (3-fold) and cholesterol-standardized cholestanol decreased (2-fold). In study 2, after 3 weeks of SO, sitosterol and campesterol concentrations increased 4-5 fold. At the same time, cholesterol-standardized lathosterol increased 69% and cholesterol-standardized cholestanol decreased by 29%. CONCLUSION: Based on these finding we conclude that changes in serum plant sterol concentrations might have direct effects on endogenous cholesterol synthesis, although this needs to be confirmed in future studies. Moreover, we speculate that this changed synthesis subsequently affects intestinal cholesterol absorption.


Assuntos
Colesterol/biossíntese , Absorção Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Soluções de Nutrição Parenteral/química , Nutrição Parenteral , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Enteropatias/terapia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/terapia , Masculino , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Óleo de Soja/química , Óleo de Soja/farmacologia
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(4): 1615-1624, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725824

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The primary and secondary objectives were to investigate the triglyceride (TG) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effects of a spread with added plant sterols (PS) and fish oil as compared to a placebo spread. METHODS: This study had a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design with two intervention arms. Following a 2-week placebo run-in period, 260 healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood TG (≥ 1.4 mmol/L) and LDL-C (≥ 3.4 mmol/L) concentrations consumed either the placebo or intervention spread for 4 weeks. The intervention spread contained 2.0 g/day PS and 1.0 g/day eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexanoic acid (DHA) from fish oil. Fasting serum lipids and apolipoproteins (Apo) (exploratory) were measured at the end of the run-in and intervention phases. RESULTS: Four-week consumption of the intervention spread resulted in significantly lower TG (- 10.6%, 95% CI - 16.0 to - 4.9%; P < 0.001) and LDL-C concentrations (- 5.2%; 95% CI - 7.8 to - 2.4%) as compared to placebo. Total cholesterol (- 3.9%; 95% CI - 6.1 to - 1.5%), non-HDL-C (- 5.4%; 95% CI - 8.1 to - 2.7%), remnant-cholesterol (- 8.1%; 95% CI - 3.4 to - 12.5%), ApoAII (- 2.9%; 95% CI - 5.5 to - 0.2%), ApoCIII (- 7.7%; 95% CI - 12.1 to - 3.1%) and ApoB (- 3.2%; 95% CI - 5.9 to - 0.4%) concentrations were also significantly lower, as compared to placebo. No significant treatment effects were found for HDL-cholesterol, ApoAI, ApoCII, Apo E or ApoB/ApoAI. CONCLUSIONS: Four-week consumption of the intervention spread led to significant and clinically relevant decreases in serum TG, LDL-C and other blood lipid concentrations. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02728583).


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Hipertrigliceridemia/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Masculino , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Curr Med Chem ; 26(37): 6691-6703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984649

RESUMO

Plant sterols and stanols (PS) are natural, non-nutritive molecules that play a structural role in plant membranes similar to that of cholesterol in animal membranes and abound in seeds and derived oils. PS exert their physical effect of interference with micellar solubilization of cholesterol within the intestinal lumen and are marginally absorbed by enterocytes, with negiglible increases in circulating levels. The physiological role of PS in plants and their natural origin and non-systemic action, together with their cholesterol-lowering effect, make them an attractive option as non-pharmacological agents for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Recent meta-analyses have summarized the results of >100 controlled clinical trials and have firmly established that the consumption of PS-supplemented foods in different formats at doses of 2-3 g per day results in LDL-cholesterol reductions of 9-12%. PS are both effective and safe cholesterol-lowering agents and have many clinical applications: adjuncts to a healthy diet, treatment of common hypercholesterolemia, combination therapy with statins and other lipid-lowering drugs, and treatment of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy is similar in all clinical situations. PS are also useful agents for treatment of hypercholesterolemic children who are not yet candidates to statins or receive low-doses of these agents. In the setting of statin treatment, the average LDL-cholesterol reduction obtained with PS is equivalent to up- titrating twice the statin dose. However, information is still scarce on the efficacy of PS as an add-on therapy to ezetimibe, fibrates, omega- 3 fatty acids, or bile acid binding resins. The consistent scientific evidence on the cholesterollowering efficacy and safety of functional foods supplemented with PS has led several national and international scientific societies to endorse their use for the non-pharmacologic treatment of hypercholesterolemia as adjuncts to a healthy diet. There is, however, a lack of clinical trials of PS with outcomes on cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Hipercolesterolemia/tratamento farmacológico , Fitosteróis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem
19.
BMC Res Notes ; 11(1): 844, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30497507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to determine the effect of phytosterols and inulin on plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 levels among healthy men after consuming phytosterols and inulin-enriched soymilk for 8 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 26 men at least 20 years old were randomly assigned into the 2 g/day of phytosterols and 10 g/day of inulin-enriched soymilk (intervention) group or into the standard soymilk (control) group. In the intervention group, the area under the curve of Glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion increased significantly, compared to its baseline (p = 0.003). The area under the curve of insulin secretion also increased but it did not meet statistical significance (p = 0.118). The area under the curves of plasma glucose were similar between pre- and post-test (p = 0.348). In the control group, none of the primary results significantly changed compared to their baseline levels. Trial registration Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR20160319001 date: March 19, 2016, retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Inulina/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Leite de Soja/farmacologia , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Inulina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Leite de Soja/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 10(9)2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205492

RESUMO

The LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering effect of plant sterols/stanols (PSS) is summarized in several meta-analyses showing a dose-response relationship with intakes of 1.5 to 3 g/day lowering LDL-C by 7.5% to 12%. This review summarizes evidence for the impact of various factors potentially influencing the LDL-C-lowering efficacy of PSS. PSS are efficacious in all food formats and in food supplements. Some factors related to food format, e.g., solid vs. liquid foods, seem to impact efficacy, while there is no difference between free PSS and esters. Compared to multiple daily intakes, once-a-day intake of PSS, especially in the morning with light breakfast, leads to a sub-optimal LDL-C lowering. However, intake frequency seems influenced by intake occasion, i.e., with or without a meal, and time of day. Meal intake is a critical factor for an optimal LDL-C lowering efficacy of PSS. While age has no impact, gender is suggested to influence the LDL-C lowering effect of PSS with greater reductions reported for men than women; but overall evidence is inconclusive and larger studies show no gender by treatment interaction. In conclusion, PSS are efficacious in all foods and food supplements; for optimal efficacy they should be consumed with a (main) meal and twice daily.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Saudável , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dislipidemias/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Regulação para Baixo , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Proteção , Recomendações Nutricionais , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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