Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 608
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1884-1895, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523960

RESUMO

A beverage enriched with plant sterols (1 g/100 mL) and galactooligosaccharides (1.8 g/100 mL) was subjected to a dynamic gastrointestinal and colonic fermentation process to evaluate the effect on sterol metabolism, organic acid production, and microbiota composition. Production of sterol metabolites (coprostanol, methylcoprostanol, ethylcoprostenol, ethylcoprostanol, and sitostenone) was observed in the transverse colon (TC) and descending colon (DC) vessels in general, from 24 and 48 h, respectively. Microbial activity was assessed through the production of organic acids, mainly acetate in all colon vessels, lactate in the AC, and butyrate and propionate in the TC and DC. A higher diversity in the microbial community was found in the TC and DC, in accordance with a higher sterol metabolism and organic acid production. Although the prebiotic effect of galactooligosaccharides was not detected, changes in microbiota composition (an increase in the Parabacteroides genus and the Synergistaceae and Lachnospiraceae families) indicated an enhancement of sterol metabolism.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bebidas/análise , Colo/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos
2.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 65: 251-271, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600456

RESUMO

Insects, like all eukaryotes, require sterols for structural and metabolic purposes. However, insects, like all arthropods, cannot make sterols. Cholesterol is the dominant tissue sterol for most insects; insect herbivores produce cholesterol by metabolizing phytosterols, but not always with high efficiency. Many insects grow on a mixed-sterol diet, but this ability varies depending on the types and ratio of dietary sterols. Dietary sterol uptake, transport, and metabolism are regulated by several proteins and processes that are relatively conserved across eukaryotes. Sterol requirements also impact insect ecology and behavior. There is potential to exploit insect sterol requirements to (a) control insect pests in agricultural systems and (b) better understand sterol biology, including in humans. We suggest that future studies focus on the genetic mechanism of sterol metabolism and reverse transportation, characterizing sterol distribution and function at the cellular level, the role of bacterial symbionts in sterol metabolism, and interrupting sterol trafficking for pest control.


Assuntos
Insetos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Homeostase , Controle de Insetos , Esteróis
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(3): 915-925, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670393

RESUMO

Squalene (SQ) is an intermediate hydrocarbon in the biosynthesis of phytosterols and terpenes in plants. It is widely used for applications such as skin moisturizers, vaccines, or in carriers for active lipophilic molecules. It has commonly been obtained from sharks, but restrictions on their use have created a need to find alternative sources. We present a review of studies concerning SQ in olive groves to characterize its content and to provide new aspects that may increase the circular economy of the olive tree. There is a large variation in SQ content in virgin olive oil due to cultivars and agronomic issues such as region, climate, types of soil, crop practices, and harvest date. Cultivars with the highest SQ content in their virgin olive oil were 'Nocellara de Belice', 'Drobnica', 'Souri', and 'Oblica'. An interaction between cultivar and aspects such as irrigation practices or agricultural season is frequently observed. Likewise, the production of high SQ content needs precise control of fruit maturation. Leaves represent an interesting source, if its extraction and yield compensate for the expenses of their disposal. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction from olive oil deodorizer distillates offers an opportunity to obtain high-purity SQ from this derivative. Exploiting SQ obtained from olive groves for the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries poses new challenges and opportunities to add value and recycle by-products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Olea/química , Esqualeno/economia , Resíduos/economia , Frutas/química , Frutas/economia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olea/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/química , Azeite de Oliva/economia , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/análise , Fitosteróis/economia , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Solo/química , Esqualeno/análise , Esqualeno/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 1862-1870, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290324

RESUMO

Plant sterol (PS) (1 g/100 mL) enriched milk-based fruit beverages with or without galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (1.8 g/100 mL) were used in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Their potential cytopreventive effect against oxidative stress induced by cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) and their anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated. Preincubation (24 h) with bioaccessible fractions from beverages without and with GOS (MfB and MfB-G) completely prevented the COPs (60 µM/4 h) induced oxidative stress independent to GOS presence with exception to calcium influx and GSH content, where a partial protective effect was observed. Besides, MfB produced a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of IL-8 (40%) and IL-6 (50%) after IL-1ß-induction (1 ng/mL/24 h) through the inhibition of NF-κB p65 translocation into the nucleus (16%) compared to control cells, while GOS presence compromised their anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, PS-enriched milk-based fruit beverage could be an interesting strategy to prevent intestinal injury produced by COPs and to attenuate the pro-inflammatory process in intestinal human diseases. GOS addition had no extra beneficial antioxidant effect and even reduced their anti-inflammatory properties.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Bebidas/análise , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Fitosteróis/análise , Substâncias Protetoras/análise , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
5.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 84(1): 126-133, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538545

RESUMO

Insects must intake sterol compounds because of their inability to synthesize cholesterol de novo. In phytophagous insects, enzymatic conversion of phytosterols to cholesterol involving 24-dehydrocholesterol reductase (DHCR24) exerts to acquire cholesterol. Here, we reported the presence of two DHCR24 homologs in the silkworm Bombyx mori, BmDHCR24-1 and -2, with several transcript variants. Consistent with the data of spatial expression analyses by RT-PCR, predominant enzymatic activity of DHCR24 was observed in B. mori larval midgut whereas weak activity was observed in the other tissues examined. In addition, BmDHCR24-1 expression in HEK293 cells showed an enzymatic activity, but BmDHCR24-2 did not, although both BmDHCR24s were localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, where the mammalian DHCR24s are located to exert their enzymatic activities. The present data indicated that BmDHCR24-1 but not BmDHCR24-2 contributes to conversion of phytosterols to cholesterol mainly in the midgut of the phytophagous lepidopteran larvae.


Assuntos
Bombyx/enzimologia , Colesterol/biossíntese , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/metabolismo , Animais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Larva/enzimologia , Túbulos de Malpighi/enzimologia , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-CH/genética , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Plantas/química , Plasmídeos/genética , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Distribuição Tecidual , Transcrição Genética , Transfecção
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(1)2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31878116

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of major cardiovascular events. The development of atherosclerotic plaques begins early in life, indicating that dietary interventions in childhood might be more effective at preventing cardiovascular disease (CVD) than treating established CVD in adulthood. Although plant sterols are considered safe and consistently effective in lowering plasma cholesterol, the health effects of early-life supplementation are unclear. Studies suggest there is an age-dependent effect on plant sterol metabolism: at a younger age, plant sterol absorption might be increased, while esterification and elimination might be decreased. Worryingly, the introduction of low-cholesterol diets in childhood may unintentionally favor a higher intake of plant sterols. Although CVD prevention should start as early as possible, more studies are needed to better elucidate the long-term effects of plant sterol accumulation and its implication on child development.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(23)2019 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779240

RESUMO

Euphorbia species are characterized by a net of laticifers producing large amounts of triterpenes. These hydrocarbon-like metabolites can be converted into fuel by the methods of the oil industry. Euphorbia lathyris is easily grown at an industrial scale. In an attempt to increase its triterpene production, the metabolic pathways leading to isoprenoid were investigated by incorporation of 13C labeled glucose and mevalonate and 2H labeled deoxyxylulose as well as by natural abundance isotope ratio GC-MS. Latex triterpenes are exclusively synthesized via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway: this may orient future search for improving the triterpene production in E. lathyris. Phytosterols and their precursors are mainly derived from MVA pathway with a slight contribution of the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, whereas phytol is issued from MEP pathway with a minor contribution of the MVA pathway: this is in accordance with the metabolic cross-talk between cytosolic and plastidial compartments in plants. In addition, hopenol B behaved differently from the other latex triterpenes. Its 13C isotope abundance after incorporation of 13C labeled glucose and its natural abundance δ2H signature clearly differed from those of the other latex triterpenes indicating another metabolic origin and suggesting that it may be synthesized by an endophytic fungus.


Assuntos
Butadienos/metabolismo , Eritritol/metabolismo , Euphorbia/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Hemiterpenos/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/fisiologia , Ácido Mevalônico/metabolismo , Fosfatos/farmacocinética , Glucose/metabolismo , Látex/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Xilulose/análogos & derivados , Xilulose/metabolismo
8.
Nat Plants ; 5(11): 1154-1166, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712757

RESUMO

Plants strictly regulate the levels of sterol in their cells, as high sterol levels are toxic. However, how plants achieve sterol homeostasis is not fully understood. We isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that abundantly accumulated sterol esters in structures of about 1 µm in diameter in leaf cells. We designated the mutant high sterol ester 1 (hise1) and called the structures sterol ester bodies. Here, we show that HISE1, the gene product that is altered in this mutant, functions as a key factor in plant sterol homeostasis on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and participates in a fail-safe regulatory system comprising two processes. First, HISE1 downregulates the protein levels of the ß-hydroxy ß-methylglutaryl-CoA reductases HMGR1 and HMGR2, which are rate-limiting enzymes in the sterol synthesis pathway, resulting in suppression of sterol overproduction. Second, if the first process is not successful, excess sterols are converted to sterol esters by phospholipid sterol acyltransferase1 (PSAT1) on ER microdomains and then segregated in SE bodies.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/enzimologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Homeostase , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 10(12): 7883-7891, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755498

RESUMO

The incorporation of oil in water gel emulsion with significant levels of omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterols was studied to improve the lipid fraction of beef patties. The nutritional improvement achieved led to products able to include certain nutrition and health claims in the labelling. Sensory characterization by 62 consumers and the effect of nutritional information of the samples were also evaluated by using hedonic tests for liking, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) questions and purchase intention. After having received the nutritional information about the new products, consumers reported a significant increase in the purchase intention and overall acceptability of the reformulated beef patties (P < 0.05) compared to these products under the blind conditions. In particular, 54 out of 62 consumers showed a higher acceptability for reformulated beef patties after receiving the nutritional information. This work highlighted the influence of nutritional information on sensory acceptability of reformulated healthier beef patties.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Fitosteróis/química , Paladar , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Feminino , Aditivos Alimentares/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Nutritivo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biochem Soc Trans ; 47(5): 1259-1268, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654053

RESUMO

The ABCG5/G8 heterodimer is the primary neutral sterol transporter in hepatobiliary and transintestinal cholesterol excretion. Inactivating mutations on either the ABCG5 or ABCG8 subunit cause Sitosterolemia, a rare genetic disorder. In 2016, a crystal structure of human ABCG5/G8 in an apo state showed the first structural information on ATP-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporters and revealed several structural features that were observed for the first time. Over the past decade, several missense variants of ABCG5/G8 have been associated with non-Sitosterolemia lipid phenotypes. In this review, we summarize recent pathophysiological and structural findings of ABCG5/G8, interpret the structure-function relationship in disease-causing variants and describe the available evidence that allows us to build a mechanistic view of ABCG5/G8-mediated sterol transport.


Assuntos
Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/química , Sistema Biliar/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/biossíntese , Membro 8 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Catálise , Homeostase , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Enteropatias/metabolismo , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo Lipídico/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/biossíntese , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/efeitos adversos , Fitosteróis/metabolismo
11.
Eur J Nutr ; 58(Suppl 2): 37-47, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Evidence exists regarding the beneficial effects of diets rich in plant-based foods regarding the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases. These plant-based foods are an exclusive and abundant source of a variety of biologically active phytochemicals, including polyphenols, carotenoids, glucosinolates and phytosterols, with known health-promoting effects through a wide range of biological activities, such as improvements in endothelial function, platelet function, blood pressure, blood lipid profile and insulin sensitivity. We know that an individual's physical/genetic makeup may influence their response to a dietary intervention, and thereby may influence the benefit/risk associated with consumption of a particular dietary constituent. This inter-individual variation in responsiveness has also been described for dietary plant bioactives but has not been explored in depth. To address this issue, the European scientific experts involved in the COST Action POSITIVe systematically analyzed data from published studies to assess the inter-individual variation in selected clinical biomarkers associated with cardiometabolic risk, in response to the consumption of plant-based bioactives (poly)phenols and phytosterols. The present review summarizes the main findings resulting from the meta-analyses already completed. RESULTS: Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials conducted within POSITIVe suggest that age, sex, ethnicity, pathophysiological status and medication may be responsible for the heterogeneity in the biological responsiveness to (poly)phenol and phytosterol consumption and could lead to inconclusive results in some clinical trials aiming to demonstrate the health effects of specific dietary bioactive compounds. However, the contribution of these factors is not yet demonstrated consistently across all polyphenolic groups and cardiometabolic outcomes, partly due to the heterogeneity in trial designs, low granularity of data reporting, variety of food vectors and target populations, suggesting the need to implement more stringent reporting practices in the future studies. Studies investigating the effects of genetic background or gut microbiome on variability were limited and should be considered in future studies. CONCLUSION: Understanding why some bioactive plant compounds work effectively in some individuals but not, or less, in others is crucial for a full consideration of these compounds in future strategies of personalized nutrition for a better prevention of cardiometabolic disease. However, there is also still a need for the development of a substantial evidence-base to develop health strategies, food products or lifestyle solutions that embrace this variability.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/metabolismo , Dieta Vegetariana/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Plantas Comestíveis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Dieta Vegetariana/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
12.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5669-5681, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433440

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn seed oil (SBSO) has been used as a functional food in the prevention of heart diseases. The present study investigates the effects of SBSO on blood cholesterol and the gut microbiota in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Four groups of hamsters (n = 8 each) were given one of four diets, namely a non-cholesterol control diet (NCD), a high-cholesterol control diet (HCD) containing 0.1% cholesterol, and an HCD diet with sea buckthorn seed oil replacing 50% lard (SL) or replacing 100% lard (SH). Feeding SL and SH diets could reduce blood total cholesterol by 20-22%. This was accompanied by the down-regulation of the gene expression of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporter8 (ABCG8). SBSO supplementation also increased the production of intestinal short-chain fatty acids and fecal outputs of neutral sterols. Metagenomic analysis demonstrated that feeding SL and SH diets could favorably modulate the relative abundance of Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, Ruminococcaceae, and Eubacteriaceae. It was therefore concluded that SBSO was effective in reducing blood cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic hamsters via increasing intestinal cholesterol excretion and promoting the growth of SCFA-producing bacteria.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Hippophae/química , Hipercolesterolemia/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/química , Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Cricetinae , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Hippophae/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/genética , Esterol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
13.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 90: 351-421, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31445599

RESUMO

Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal secondary metabolites with similarities in structure and biological activities with human estrogens divided into various classes of compounds, including lignans, isoflavones, ellagitannins, coumestans and stilbenes. Similarly, phytosteroids are steroidal compounds of plant origin which have estrogenic effects and can act as agonists, antagonists, or have a mixed agonistic/antagonistic activity to animal steroid receptors. On the other hand, saponins are widely distributed plant glucosides divided into triterpenoid and steroidal saponins that contribute to plant defense mechanism against herbivores. They present a great variation from a structural point of view, including compounds from different classes. In this chapter, the main vegetable sources of these compounds will be presented, while details regarding their biosynthesis and plant functions will be also discussed. Moreover, considering the significant bioactive properties that these compounds exhibit, special focus will be given on their health effects, either beneficial or adverse. The practical applications of these compounds in agriculture and phytomedicine will be also demonstrated, as well as the future prospects for related research.


Assuntos
Fitoestrógenos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Saponinas/metabolismo , Verduras/química , Animais , Estrogênios , Frutas/química , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoestrógenos/análise , Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia , Fitosteróis/análise , Fitosteróis/farmacologia , Saponinas/análise , Saponinas/farmacologia
14.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340583

RESUMO

(1) Background: Modern dietary patterns with a high intake of fat and fructose, as well as refined carbohydrates, closely relate to lipid/glucose metabolic disorders. The main objective of this study is to provide new thoughts in designing functional food with some lipid/glucose metabolism regulating effects for obese people. (2) Methods: The alleviating abilities of γ-oryzanol, phytosterol or ferulic acid-enriched wheat flour on lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction were evaluated in male SD rats induced by a high-fat-fructose diet. The underlying mechanisms were clarified using western blot. (3) Results: In an in vitro cell model, γ-oryzanol, phytosterol and ferulic acid regulate lipid/glucose metabolism by increasing the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt, and PI3K expression, as well as decreasing expressions of DGAT1 and SCD. The in vivo study shows that ferulic acid and γ-oryzanol-enriched flours are beneficial for managing body weight, improving glucose metabolism, hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid accumulation. Phytosterol-enriched flour exerted remarkable effects in regulating hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and hyperuricemia. Western blot analysis of proteins from liver samples reveals that these enriched flours alleviated hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance through their elevation in the phosphorylation of AMPK and Akt. (4) Conclusions: Our study indicates that these enriched flours can serve as a health-promoting functional food to regulate obesity-related lipid/glucose metabolic dysfunction in rats.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ácidos Cumáricos/administração & dosagem , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Lipídeos/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Fenilpropionatos/administração & dosagem , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Cumáricos/metabolismo , Açúcares da Dieta , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Fenilpropionatos/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315257

RESUMO

As a result of the findings of scientists working on the biosynthesis and metabolism of steroids in the plant and animal kingdoms over the past five decades, it has become apparent that those compounds that naturally occur in animals can also be found as natural constituents of plants and vice versa, i.e., they have essentially the same fate in the majority of living organisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the occurrence of animal steroid hormones in the plant kingdom, particularly focusing on progesterone, testosterone, androstadienedione (boldione), androstenedione, and estrogens.


Assuntos
Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Esteroides/biossíntese , Androstadienos/metabolismo , Androstenodiona/biossíntese , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas , Estrogênios/biossíntese , Progesterona/biossíntese , Testosterona/biossíntese
16.
J Food Sci ; 84(7): 1812-1819, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218690

RESUMO

Phytosterols are natural health-promoting bioactive compounds; however, phytosterols have very limited bioavailability due to their crystalline lipophilic structure. With the aim of improving bioaccessibility, low-crystallinity phytosterol nanoparticles were generated by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) impregnation of phytosterols into nanoporous starch aerogels (NSAs). The in vitro bioaccessibility of the phytosterol nanoparticles (35%) was significantly higher than that of the crude phytosterols (3%) after sequential oral, gastric, and intestinal digestion. The percentages of starch hydrolysis were not different among the various NSA preparations and reached to 64% after sequential digestion. The zeta potential of the phytosterol nanoparticles was higher compared to that of crude phytosterols in the micellar phase; indicating higher stability. The findings of this study support the use of NSA to produce nanoparticles of reduced crystallinity to improve the bioaccessibility of the lipophilic bioactive compounds. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This novel process can decrease the size and crystallinity of phytosterols and thus improve phytosterols' bioavailability. It is a blueprint to apply to other water insoluble food bioactives. This novel approach may (i) improve the health benefits of water-insoluble bioactives; (ii) enable food manufacturers to add water-insoluble bioactives into low- and high-fat foods to produce health-promoting foods; and (iii) enhance the cost-benefit ratio of water insoluble bioactives.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Fitosteróis/química , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Amido/química , Humanos , Micelas , Modelos Biológicos , Nanoporos , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2515-2527, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990213

RESUMO

We previously demonstrated that the combination of phytosterols (PS) and curcumin administered as dietary supplements significantly lowers LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) more than either treatment alone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of this combination in a novel food (bread) on plasma lipid profiles in hypercholesterolaemic individuals. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, 2 × 2 factorial trial, participants were randomised to receive bread fortified with placebo (PL), 2.3 g PS (PS), 228 mg curcumin (CC) or a combination of 2.3 g PS and 228 mg CC (PS-CC) daily for four weeks. Primary outcomes were fasting plasma lipids [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG)] and secondary outcomes were plasma LDL-particle (LDL-P) profile: LDL-P number and LDL-P size. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (Framingham Risk Algorithm) was also explored. There was no significant difference between PL and CC or PS and PS-CC on blood lipids or CVD risk; therefore, groups were pooled for final analysis: the PL and CC group (PL-C, n = 36) and the PS and PS-CC group (PS-C, n = 39). PS-C significantly lowered TC (-0.52 mmol L-1, p < 0.0001), LDL-C (-0.49 mmol L-1, p < 0.0001) and CVD risk (-1.1 absolute %, p = 0.0005) compared to the PL-C group. Reductions from baseline in the PS-C group compared to that in the PL-C group were 7.6% and 10.6% for TC and LDL-C, respectively, and statistically significant (p < 0.0001). CVD-risk in the PS-C group reduced significantly (-12.7%) compared to that in the PL-C group (p = 0.0005). HDL-C and TG remained unchanged. The LDL-P number significantly decreased in the PS-C group by 124.33 nmol L-1 compared to that in the PL-C group (p = 0.005) and both groups showed a significant decrease in LDL-P size (p < 0.01); however, the absolute nm change in LDL-P size did not differ between groups and the percent change in LDL-P size in the PS-C group was borderline significant (-0.89%, p = 0.05) compared to that in the PL-C group. Regular consumption of PS-enriched bread with or without curcumin lowers blood cholesterol; however, curcumin alone did not influence blood lipids. Bread may be a convenient means of delivering PS with greater compliance for reducing the blood cholesterol concentration.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Curcumina/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Lipoproteínas/metabolismo , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Curcumina/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas/química , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fitosteróis/análise , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto Jovem
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 283: 242-250, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913432

RESUMO

Collaborative microbial communities are ubiquitous in nature and exhibit appealing functions for enhanced production of natural products, which provides new possibility for biotechnology development. In this study, we bridged Mycobacterium neoaurum with Pichia pastoris to establish a step-wise biotransformation strategy for efficient biosynthesis of boldenone (BD) from phytosterol (PS). Firstly, the producing strains were rationally designed with overexpression of 3-ketosteroid-Δ1-dehydrogenase (KsdD) and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ßHSD) in M. neoaurum and P. pastoris, respectively. Then, to shorten the total biotransformation process and provide reducing power, semi-batch fermentation strategy and glucose supplementation strategy were introduced at side-chain degradation stage and carbonyl reduction stage, respectively. Under the optimal transformation conditions, the productivity of BD was increased from 10% to 76% and the total biotransformation process was shortened by 41.7%, which is the shortest among the ever reported. Our results demonstrated an excellent biological strategy for production of many other valuable microbial products from bioresources.


Assuntos
Biotransformação , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/metabolismo , Fermentação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
19.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1836-1845, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920571

RESUMO

Health benefits of soybean germ oil have not yet been fully explored. The present study examined the blood cholesterol-lowering activity of soybean germ oil and the underlying mechanisms in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Forty hamsters were randomly assigned into five groups and fed a non-cholesterol diet, a high cholesterol diet and one of three high cholesterol diets containing 0.50% cholestyramine, 4.75% soybean germ oil, and 9.50% soybean germ oil, respectively, for 6 weeks. The result showed that soybean germ oil significantly decreased plasma cholesterol by 18.5-31.5%, which was accompanied by 28.3-62.7% increase in excretion of fecal neutral sterols and bile acids. The effect was mediated by down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 protein (NPC1L1) and up-regulation of liver cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). We concluded that soybean germ oil favorably modulated the blood cholesterol concentration by inhibiting cholesterol absorption through inhibiting gene expression of NPC1L1 and by enhancing bile acid excretion via promoting gene expression of CYP7A1.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Hipercolesterolemia/dietoterapia , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Óleo de Soja/metabolismo , Animais , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol 7-alfa-Hidroxilase/metabolismo , Cricetinae , Humanos , Hipercolesterolemia/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino
20.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3715-3721, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789230

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of dietary phytosterols (PS) on growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality of Partridge Shank chickens, a total of 256 1-day-old male Partridge Shank chicks were randomly assigned into 4 dietary treatments, and each of them replicated 8 times with 8 chicks per replicate. Birds in the 4 treatments were fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control group), 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg PS for 50 D, respectively. Dietary supplementation of PS quadratically increased average daily gain of chickens during the grower and overall periods, whereas linearly decreased the feed-to-gain ratio during the starter period. Compared with control group, a significant increase in average daily gain during the grower and overall periods was observed in chickens fed the basal diet supplemented with 40 mg/kg PS. Increasing PS addition linearly increased serum glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity at 21 and 50 D and hepatic GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase activities at 21 D, whereas linearly decreased malondialdehyde concentration of breast muscle at 50 D. Meanwhile, 40 mg/kg PS supplementation significantly increased serum GSH-Px activity, and hepatic superoxide dismutase and GSH-Px activities at 21 D as compared with the control. PS supplementation linearly and quadratically decreased drip loss (24 and 48 h postmortem) and luminance value (24 h postmortem) of breast muscle in broilers at 50 D, and there was statistical difference between the control and PS-supplemented group. In conclusion, PS supplementation can improve growth performance, antioxidant status, and meat quality of Partridge Shank chickens, with its optimum level in Partridge Shank chickens' diet being 40 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Fitosteróis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA