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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115583

RESUMO

Introduction. Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical and subtropical disease caused by over 20 protozoan species.Hypothesis. Treatment of this complex disease with traditional synthetic drugs is a major challenge worldwide. Natural constituents are unique candidates for future therapeutic development.Aim. This study aimed to assess the in vivo anti-leishmanial effect of the Gossypium hirsutum extract, and its fractions compared to the standard drug (Glucantime, MA) in a murine model and explore the mechanism of action.Methodology. Footpads of BALB/c mice were infected with stationary phase promastigotes and treated topically and intraperitoneally with G. hirsutum extract, its fractions, or Glucantime, 4 weeks post-infection. The extract and fractions were prepared using the Soxhlet apparatus with chloroform followed by the column procedure.Results. The crude extract significantly decreased the footpad parasite load and lesion size compared to the untreated control group (P<0.05), as revealed by dilution assay, quantitative real-time PCR, and histopathological analyses. The primary mode of action involved an immunomodulatory role towards the Th1 response in the up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 and the suppression of IL-10 gene expression profiling against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major.Conclusion. This finding suggests that the extract possesses multiple combinatory effects of diverse bioactive phytochemical compositions that exert its mechanisms of action through agonistic-synergistic interactions. The topical extract formulation could be a suitable and unique candidate for future investigation and pharmacological development. Further studies are crucial to evaluate the therapeutic potentials of the extract alone and in combination with conventional drugs using clinical settings.


Assuntos
Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Gossypium , Leishmania major/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Feminino , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Leishmania major/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/patologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/fisiopatologia , Linfonodos/patologia , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Carga Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Transcriptoma
2.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243811, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076167

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Idoso , Etnobotânica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Paquistão , Fitoterapia
3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237642, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105672

RESUMO

The aim of this research is to make a survey of the socio-environmental characteristics and the ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in a traditional community in the Brazilian Northeast, Alagoas. The study was made based on visits with the application of a questionnaire with questions related to the socio-economic element and on the diversity of plants used in herbal medicine. The research was made from March/2019 to February/2020, where families and interviewed plant exhibitors were interviewed for botanical identification. The studied community, which were 24 interviewees, was compiled by residents of the Quilombola community from Pau D'arco in Arapiraca city - Alagoas. Residents interviewed, 15 (62.5%) attended between 56 to 80 years, 11 interviewees about 46% were born in the community and 13 (54%) had a fundamentally incomplete nature. At the end, there were mentioned 30 plant species used for phytotherapeutic purposes, from which presents bigger usage as plants against arterial hypertension (Salvia rosmarinus Schleid), diabetes Mellitos (Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth), pain and inflammation (Alternanthera tenella Colla), present the biggest number of species in the community. The species cited are related to numerous medicinal uses, among which there will be predominant associations associated with cardiovascular and inflammatory processes. The tea is the main way of preparing plants. It is perceived that medicinal plants are only widely used by this Quilombola community of and growth of the crops in the backyard are considered a tradition.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Brasil , Etnobotânica , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(5): 51-75, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34027650

RESUMO

In 2020, a novel strain of coronavirus (COVID-19) has led to a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of the date of this writing, a total of 116 M cases has been diagnosed worldwide leading to 2.5 M deaths. The number of mortalities is directly correlated with the rise of innate immune cells (especially macrophages) in the lungs that secrete inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and IL-6) leading to the development of "Cytokine Storm Syndrome" (CSS), multi-organ-failure and death. Given that currently the treatment of this condition is rare and release of effective vaccine might be months away, here, we review the plants and their pharmacologically active-compounds as potential phytopharmaceuticals for the virus induced inflammatory response. Experimental validation of the effectiveness of these natural compounds to prevent or reduce the cytokine storm might be beneficial as an adjunct treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos , Virulência/imunologia
5.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 197-199, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024514

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic as the largest global public health crisis is now considered as an emergency at the World Health Organization (WHO). As there is no specific therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection at present and also because of the long time it takes to discover a new drug and the urgent need to respond urgently to a pandemic infection. Perhaps the best way right now is to find an FDA-approved drug to treat this infection. Oxidative stress and inflammation play a vital role in the progression of tissue injury in COVID-19 patients; furthermore, the G6PD activation is related to increased oxidative inflammation in acute pulmonary injury. In this regard, we propose a new insight that may be a good strategy for this urgency. Exploiting G6PD through inhibiting G6PD activity by modifying redox balance, metabolic switching and protein-protein interactions can be proposed as a new approach to improving patients in severe stage of COVID 19 through various mechanisms. Polydatin is isolated from many plants such as Polygonum, peanuts, grapes, red wines and many daily diets that can be used in severe stage of COVID-19 as a G6PD inhibitor. Furthermore, polydatin possesses various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunoregulatory, nephroprotective, hepatoprotective, anti-arrhythmic and anti-tumor. Our hypothesis is that the consumption of antioxidants such as Polydatin (a glucoside of resveratrol) as a complementary therapeutic approach may be effective in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Estilbenos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliopsida/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Resveratrol/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estilbenos/farmacologia
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947121

RESUMO

Dermal wound healing describes the progressive repair and recalcitrant mechanism of 12 damaged skin, and eventually, reformatting and reshaping the skin. Many probiotics, nutritional supplements, metal nanoparticles, composites, skin constructs, polymers, and so forth have been associated with the improved healing process of wounds. The exact mechanism of material-cellular interaction is a point of immense importance, particularly in pathological conditions such as diabetes. Bioengineered alternative agents will likely continue to dominate the outpatient and perioperative management of chronic, recalcitrant wounds as new products continue to cut costs and improve the wound healing process. This review article provides an update on the various remedies with confirmed wound healing activities of metal-based nanoceutical adjuvanted agents and also other nano-based counterparts from previous experiments conducted by various researchers.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Farmacêuticos/uso terapêutico , Nanomedicina/tendências , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bandagens , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Humanos , Hidrogéis , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Fitoterapia , Reepitelização , Regeneração , Pele/imunologia , Pele/lesões , Pele/patologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Transplante de Pele , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Infecção dos Ferimentos/prevenção & controle
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637553, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054806

RESUMO

Plants have been extensively studied since ancient times and numerous important chemical constituents with tremendous therapeutic potential are identified. Attacks of microorganisms including viruses and bacteria can be counteracted with an efficient immune system and therefore, stimulation of body's defense mechanism against infections has been proven to be an effective approach. Polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and lactones are the important phytochemicals, reported to be primarily responsible for immunomodulation activity of the plants. These phytochemicals may act as lead molecules for the development of safe and effective immunomodulators as potential remedies for the prevention and cure of viral diseases. Natural products are known to primarily modulate the immune system in nonspecific ways. A number of plant-based principles have been identified and isolated with potential immunomodulation activity which justify their use in traditional folklore medicine and can form the basis of further specified research. The aim of the current review is to describe and highlight the immunomodulation potential of certain plants along with their bioactive chemical constituents. Relevant literatures of recent years were searched from commonly employed scientific databases on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. Most of the plants displaying considerable immunomodulation activity are summarized along with their possible mechanisms. These discussions shall hopefully elicit the attention of researchers and encourage further studies on these plant-based immunomodulation products as potential therapy for the management of infectious diseases, including viral ones such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Plantas Medicinais , Terpenos/uso terapêutico
8.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 261: 222-235, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Menopause symptoms affect the various dimensions of women's lives and they can lead to reduction of their quality of life. Phytoestrogens can be used as an approach to diminish these symptoms. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of phytoestrogens on the treatment of urogenital menopause symptoms. STUDY DESIGN: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library,Scopus and ProQuest were systematically searched from 2000-2020. All randomized clinical trials were included. The quality of the selected papers was evaluated by the CONSORT checklist. RESULTS: 33 eligible high-quality papers were reviewed. Various forms of phytoestrogens such as Pueraria Mirifica, fennel, Hop plant(Humuluslupulus L.), Glycine Max (L.) Merr, soy, red clover, black cohosh, ginsing, cimicifugaracemosa, genistein, diadzein, glycitein and isoflavone in the form of oral capsules and pill, food supplement, enriched powder, vaginal gel, cream and suppository could improve menopausal urogenital symptoms. The recovery rate in vaginal use of these phytoestrogens was greater than other consumptions. CONCLUSIONS: After using a variety of phytoestrogens in different forms indicators of urogenital atrophy and urinary disorders improved and women's sexual function improved after treatment. The use of phytoestrogens as a safe, low-risk compared to hormone therapy and almost accessible method for women can relieve urogenital symptoms and promote the sexual satisfaction and quality of life.


Assuntos
Fitoestrógenos , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Genisteína , Humanos , Menopausa , Fitoestrógenos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 141, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33980308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies of Echinacea purpurea tinctures are widely used today to reduce common cold respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Transcriptome, epigenome and kinome profiling allowed a systems biology level characterisation of genomewide immunomodulatory effects of a standardized Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench extract in THP1 monocytes. RESULTS: Gene expression and DNA methylation analysis revealed that Echinaforce® treatment triggers antiviral innate immunity pathways, involving tonic IFN signaling, activation of pattern recognition receptors, chemotaxis and immunometabolism. Furthermore, phosphopeptide based kinome activity profiling and pharmacological inhibitor experiments with filgotinib confirm a key role for Janus Kinase (JAK)-1 dependent gene expression changes in innate immune signaling. Finally, Echinaforce® treatment induces DNA hypermethylation at intergenic CpG, long/short interspersed nuclear DNA repeat elements (LINE, SINE) or long termininal DNA repeats (LTR). This changes transcription of flanking endogenous retroviral sequences (HERVs), involved in an evolutionary conserved (epi) genomic protective response against viral infections. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that Echinaforce® phytochemicals strengthen antiviral innate immunity through tonic IFN regulation of pattern recognition and chemokine gene expression and DNA repeat hypermethylated silencing of HERVs in monocytes. These results suggest that immunomodulation by Echinaforce® treatment holds promise to reduce symptoms and duration of infection episodes of common cold corona viruses (CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV, and new occurring strains such as SARS-CoV-2, with strongly impaired interferon (IFN) response and weak innate antiviral defense.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Echinacea , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferons/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
10.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 3954-3964, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977937

RESUMO

The therapeutic effects of water extract of ginseng (WEG) on exercise-induced fatigue (EF) have been reported in several previous studies, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unexplored. In this study, the anti-EF effects of WEG were studied, and the potential mechanisms were discussed. We characterized the chemical components of WEG by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD), and then examined the anti-EF effects of WEG on a rat model of weight-loaded swimming with a focus on endogenous metabolism and gut microbiota. WEG contains abundant (90.15%, w/w) saccharides and ginsenosides with structurally diverse glycosyls. WEG taken orally showed strong anti-EF effects by ameliorating energy metabolism abnormality, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory response, disorders in the metabolism of bile acid, amino acid, fatty acid and lipid, as well as the gut microbiota dysbiosis. Given that gut microbiota is significantly associated with energy expenditure, systemic inflammation and host metabolism, these findings suggest a potential central role of the gut microbiota in mediating the anti-EF effect of WEG. That is, the saccharides and ginsenosides in WEG serve as energy substrates for specific intestinal bacteria, thereby beneficially regulating the gut microbiota, and the reshaped gut microbial ecosystem then triggers several molecular and cellular signaling pathways (e.g. butyrate or TGR5 signals) to achieve the therapeutic effects on EF. The outcomes highlighted here enable deeper insight into how WEG overcomes EF.


Assuntos
Fadiga/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Panax , Esforço Físico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Disbiose , Fadiga/etiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Metaboloma , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Natação
11.
Food Funct ; 12(9): 4079-4091, 2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977962

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a disorder of both the motor and nonmotor systems due to a loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Herein, we aimed to investigate the potential neuroprotective role of Schisandra chinensis (Sch) and to determine the mechanism by which Sch functions to ameliorate PD in a 6-hydroxydopamin (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. The open field test, sucrose preference test, and Y-maze test were utilized to evaluate the motor and nonmotor symptoms. We found that administration of Sch improved both disorders and DA neurodegeneration in 6-OHDA-induced mice. Additional data confirmed that Sch treatment significantly increased BDNF expression and decreased the activity of GSK-3ß in the striatum and hippocampus. Moreover, Sch was able to alleviate the abnormal levels of ROS and increase SOD by boosting Nrf2 expression. The nuclear translocation of NF-κB was inhibited by Sch, which subsequently led to a downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. Sch effectively suppressed apoptosis by decreasing expressions of caspase 3, caspase 9, and p53 in the PD mouse model. Our findings demonstrate that Sch protects against DA neurodegeneration in 6-OHDA-induced PD mice by suppressing oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis through the involvement of the BDNF/Nrf2/NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/fisiopatologia , Schisandra , Animais , Apoptose , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dopamina/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxidopamina , Transtornos Parkinsonianos/induzido quimicamente , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais
12.
J Chromatogr A ; 1649: 462178, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038783

RESUMO

Due to the tremendous clinical value, more and more Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) and their formulae are attracted by world's attention. QiangHuoShengShi (QHSS) decoction is one of classic TCM formulae, which is clinically used for treating various rheumatic diseases. However, the phytochemical constituents of QHSS have rarely been reported. A simple, intelligent, and comprehensive strategy was developed to characterize the phytochemical-fingerprint and quantify the chemical-markers for precise quality evaluation of QHSS. Firstly, a new deep-learning assisted mass defect filter (MDF) method was built for rapid and accurate classification of mass spectrum (MS) ions acquired by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS). Subsequently, herb species-specific chemical-category and characteristic identification were used for further characterization of multi-components. As the result, seven major types of compounds in QHSS were intelligently differentiated and 183 phytochemical compounds were tentatively identified. Finally, a sensitive scheduled multiple reaction monitoring (sMRM) detection method was applied to precisely quantify 37 target analytes in QHSS decoction. This integrated strategy would provide an alternative method for chemical-material basis study of more herbal medicine or natural products.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
14.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3624-3634, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900304

RESUMO

Nerium oleander L. is a widely used medicinal plant for pharmaceutical purposes. In this work, an extract of the pink flowers of this plant (FE) was characterized in terms of phenolic composition by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and bioactivity, namely, antioxidant and antiproliferative effects. A total of 20 compounds from different classes, including derivatives of phenolic acids and flavonoid glycosylated derivatives, were identified in FE. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant phenolic compound in the extract (62.28 ± 1.74 µg mg-1 of dry extract). The antioxidant activity was assessed by ORAC assay, and FE showed an ability to reduce peroxyl radicals (ORAC value of 791.26 µmol TEAC per g DE). Additionally, the FE inhibited the proliferation of a colorectal cancer cell line (HT29 cells, EC50 = 11.72 ± 0.02 µg mL-1) and showed no cytotoxicity to confluent Caco-2 cells, a model of human intestinal epithelium. These results provide new information about the phenolic composition of Nerium oleander pink flowers and the bioactivity of the extracts.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Nerium , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Células CACO-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Clorogênico/química , Flores , Células HT29/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3352-3365, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy-induced mucositis easily arouses oral ulceration, pain and xerostomia. Intense pain, difficulty swallowing and speaking greatly affect the quality of life and the treatment process. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the effects of honey in preventing and treating radiotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer using a different analytical strategy. METHODS: Articles published until July 2020 were searched across PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials that evaluated honey were assessed by two reviewers. The number of mucositis incidences was the primary outcome. Weight loss, pain scale and incidence of severe pain were pooled to be calculated as secondary outcomes. Statistical analyses were conducted using RevMan5.3 software. The funnel plot was used to detect publication bias. RESULTS: Overall, 11/179 records with 715 patients who received radiotherapy were included. Honey significantly reduced the incidence of grade 2 (OR: 0.43, 95%CI: 0.54-0.98, P = 0.03), grade 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.16-0.35, P < 0.001) and grade 4 mucositis (OR: 0.17, 95%CI: 0.08-0.36, P < 0.001). In grade 1 (OR: 1.54, 95%CI: 1.15-2.06, P = 0.003), and honey was not significant in preventing radiation-induced mucositis. The incidence of unbearable pain was lower in the honey group at all grades (OR: -0.20, 95%CI: -0.33 to -0.07). The effect of honey on weight loss and pain score was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Honey can prevent and alleviate grade 2-4 mucositis, especially in high grade mucositis. Honey also provides some relief from severe pain. But, more evidence is required to prove that honey is an effective substance for relieving pain or minimizing weight loss.


Assuntos
Mel , Mucosite/prevenção & controle , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fitoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
16.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3455-3468, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900313

RESUMO

Erinacine S, the new bioactive diterpenoid compound isolated from the ethanol extract of the mycelia of Hericium erinaceus, displays great health-promoting properties. However, the effects of erinacine S on inductive apoptosis in cancer cells such as gastric cancer and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our results demonstrated that erinacine S treatment significantly induces cell apoptosis with increased ROS production in gastric cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Significantly, erinacine S also showed its inhibitory effects on tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft mouse model. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analyses revealed that erinacine S treatment significantly increases the FasL and TRAIL protein, whereas it decreases the levels of PCNA and cyclin D1 in the gastric cancer xenograft mice. Consistently, in AGS cells, erinacine S treatment not only triggers the activation of extrinsic apoptosis pathways (TRAIL, Fas-L and caspase-8, -9, -3), but it also suppresses the expression of the anti-apoptotic molecules Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in a time-dependent manner. In addition, erinacine S also causes cell cycle G1 arrest by the inactivation of CDKs/cyclins. Moreover, our data revealed that activation of the ROS-derived and AKT/FAK/PAK1 pathways is involved in the erinacine S-mediated transcriptional activation of Fas-L and TRAIL through H3K4 trimethylation on their promoters. Together, this study sheds light on the anticancer effects of erinacine S on gastric cancer and its molecular mechanism in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Micélio , Sesterterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Fitoterapia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Food Funct ; 12(8): 3680-3691, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900317

RESUMO

Some polyphenols have been reported to modulate the expression of several genes related to lipid metabolism and insulin signaling, ameliorating metabolic disorders. We investigated the potential for the polyphenols of two varieties of grumixama, the purple fruit rich in anthocyanins and the yellow fruit, both also rich in ellagitannins, to attenuate obesity-associated metabolic disorders. Mice were fed a high fat and high sucrose diet, supplemented daily with yellow and purple extracts (200 mg per kg of body weight) for eight weeks. Purple grumixama supplementation was found to decrease body weight gain, improve insulin sensitivity and glucose-induced hyperinsulinemia, and reduce hepatic triglyceride accumulation. A decrease in intrahepatic lipids in mice treated with the purple grumixama extract was associated with lipid metabolism modulation by the PPAR signaling pathway. LPL, ApoE, and LDLr were found to be down-regulated, while Acox1 and ApoB were found to be upregulated. Some of these genes were also modulated by the yellow extract. In addition, both extracts decreased oGTT and plasma LPS. The results were associated with the presence of phenolic acids and urolithins. In conclusion, most likely the anthocyanins from the purple grumixama phenolic extract is responsible for reducing obesity and insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Eugenia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
18.
Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol ; 14(6): 735-747, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884948

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The chronic metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus is a fast-growing global problem with huge social, health, and economic consequences, having one of the highest morbidities and mortality rates. Prolonged use of many available medications can produce undesirable side effects. Thus, plants appear as an important source of bioactive resources for the discovery of new treatments for diabetes. AREAS COVERED: In this sense, this systematic review focused on clinical trials involving plants of National List of Medicinal Plants of Interest to the Unified Health System (RENISUS) (or compounds) with antidiabetic properties. We analyzed indexed studies in PubMed following the reporting guidelines of PRISMA. EXPERT OPINION: Of the 51 clinical trials found, Curcuma longa, Glycine max, Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Aloe vera, Momordica charantia are the species with the greatest amount of clinical trials and the attenuation of insulin resistance, decreased fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels are some of the main mechanisms by which these plants exert hypoglycemic effects. Thus, we speculate that the Clinical Pharmacology should explore the field of plant-based compounds that will keep concentrating the attention of researchers, and therefore, we gathered studies in advanced stages that highlight the role of plants in the diabetes therapy.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais/química , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Fitoterapia/métodos , Preparações de Plantas/química , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia
19.
N Z Med J ; 134(1534): 66-75, 2021 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927439

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate medicinal cannabis users' intentions to transition to the new prescription Medicinal Cannabis Scheme (MCS) in New Zealand. METHOD: An online survey of 3,634 past-year medicinal cannabis users completed prior to implementation of the MCS in New Zealand in April 2020. Logistic regression models were fitted to identify predictors of intended future engagement with the MCS. RESULTS: Seventy-eight percent of respondents were aware of the new MCS and 66% intended to use it. Higher income (OR=1.57), younger age (OR=1.02) and smoking cannabis (v. vaping (OR=2.0) or oral ingestion in edible form (OR=2.22)) predicted intention to engage with the MCS. Conversely, Maori (OR=0.63) and those who grew their own cannabis (OR=0.52) were less likely to intend to engage with the new prescription MCS. CONCLUSION: The lower intended engagement with the MCS by Maori, lower income groups and those who home-grow cannabis may reflect their perceptions of the MCS as restrictive and expensive.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Urologiia ; (1): 131-139, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818949

RESUMO

Based on literature data, feasibility of combined therapy with Serenoa repens extracts (including Permixon) and 1-adrenoblocators in patients with LUTS/BPH based on the pathogenesis of these drugs and clinical results was analyzed. The composition and biological activity of various SRE is influenced by the extraction method, as well as the production technology used by the manufacturer, which can lead to different results of experimental and clinical studies. The mechanism of action of SRE, including hexane extract Permixon, is multicomponent, which combines an antiandrogenic effect, influence on neurogenic regulation of urinary tract function (-adrenoreceptors, M-holinoreceptors, vanilloid receptors), anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous actions. At the same time, the effect of these preparations is not limited to the influence on the prostate gland, but can directly affect the bladder, helping to reduce functional disorders. A wider range of mechanisms of action and a possible direct effect of SRE on the bladder provides the same clinical effect as other traditionally used drugs (-blockers, 5-reductase inhibitors) with a significantly lower frequency of side effects of therapy. A number of publications demonstrate the feasibility of combined therapy with 1-adrenoblockers and SRE in patients with LUTS/BPH, especially with a high degree of urination dysfunction. Futher investigations are needed. The role of Serenoa repens extracts in the combination therapy of LUTS/BPH is still under discussion. Serenoa repens extracts monotherapy demonstrates similar effectiveness in patients with LUTS as 1-adrenoblockers and 5-reductase inhibitors. Recent studies indicate the advantages of combining Serenoa repens extracts with 1-adrenoblockers, especially in patients with moderate or severe symptoms. These advantages are associated with the multicomponent action of Serenoa repens extracts, which complements the blockade of 1-adrenergic receptors with other mechanisms of action (in particular, anti-inflammatory). The combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action, in particular, Serenoa repens extracts (Permixon) and 1-adrenoblockers has certain pathophysiologically based advantages, which allows to increase the efficiency of therapy. In addition, combination therapy is not associated with an increased rate of side effects.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Prostática , Serenoa , Hexanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico
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