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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 50, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Typical development of socio-communicative skills relies on keen observation of others. It thus follows that decreased social attention negatively impacts the subsequent development of socio-communicative abilities in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In addition, studies indicate that social attention is modulated by context and that greater social difficulties are observed in more socially demanding situations. Our study aims to investigate the effect of social complexity on visual exploration of others' actions in preschoolers. METHODS: To investigate the impact of social complexity, we used an eye-tracking paradigm with 26 typically developing preschoolers (TD, age = 3.60 ± 1.55) and 37 preschoolers with ASD (age = 3.55 ± 1.21). Participants were shown videos of two children engaging in socially simple play (parallel) versus socially complex play (interactive). We subsequently quantified the time spent and fixation duration on faces, objects, bodies, as well as the background and the number of spontaneous gaze shifts between socially relevant areas of interest. RESULTS: In the ASD group, we observed decreased time spent on faces. Social complexity (interactive play) elicited changes in visual exploration patterns in both groups. From the parallel to the interactive condition, we observed a shift towards socially relevant parts of the scene, a decrease in fixation duration, as well as an increase in spontaneous gaze shifts between faces and objects though there were fewer in the ASD group. LIMITATIONS: Our results need to be interpreted cautiously due to relatively small sample sizes and may be relevant to male preschoolers, given our male-only sample and reported phenotypic differences between males and females. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that similar to TD children, though to a lesser extent, visual exploration patterns in ASD are modulated by context. Children with ASD that were less sensitive to context modulation showed decreased socio-communicative skills or higher levels of symptoms. Our findings support using naturalistic designs to capture socio-communicative deficits in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Atenção , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1985, 2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790275

RESUMO

Successful pursuit and evasion require rapid and precise coordination of navigation with adaptive motor control. We hypothesize that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), which communicates bidirectionally with both the hippocampal complex and premotor/motor areas, would serve a mapping role in this process. We recorded responses of dACC ensembles in two macaques performing a joystick-controlled continuous pursuit/evasion task. We find that dACC carries two sets of signals, (1) world-centric variables that together form a representation of the position and velocity of all relevant agents (self, prey, and predator) in the virtual world, and (2) avatar-centric variables, i.e. self-prey distance and angle. Both sets of variables are multiplexed within an overlapping set of neurons. Our results suggest that dACC may contribute to pursuit and evasion by computing and continuously updating a multicentric representation of the unfolding task state, and support the hypothesis that it plays a high-level abstract role in the control of behavior.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Córtex Motor/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Recompensa
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672488

RESUMO

Distractions external to a vehicle contribute to visual attention diversion that may cause traffic accidents. As a low-cost and efficient advertising solution, billboards are widely installed on side of the road, especially the motorway. However, the effect of billboards on driver distraction, eye gaze, and cognition has not been fully investigated. This study utilises a customised driving simulator and synchronised electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking system to investigate the cognitive processes relating to the processing of driver visual information. A distinction is made between eye gaze fixations relating to stimuli that assist driving and others that may be a source of distraction. The study compares the driver's cognitive responses to fixations on billboards with fixations on the vehicle dashboard. The measured eye-fixation related potential (EFRP) shows that the P1 components are similar; however, the subsequent N1 and P2 components differ. In addition, an EEG motor response is observed when the driver makes an adjustment of driving speed when prompted by speed limit signs. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed measurement system is a valid tool in assessing driver cognition and suggests the cognitive level of engagement to the billboard is likely to be a precursor to driver distraction. The experimental results are compared with the human information processing model found in the literature.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Cognição , Direção Distraída , Fixação Ocular , Acidentes de Trânsito , Adulto , Publicidade , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616111

RESUMO

Establishing an accurate diagnosis is crucial for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) following a severe brain injury. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) is the recommended behavioral scale for assessing the level of consciousness among these patients, but its long duration of administration is a major hurdle in clinical settings. The Simplified Evaluation of CONsciousness Disorders (SECONDs) is a shorter scale that was developed to tackle this issue. It consists of six mandatory items, observation, command-following, visual pursuit, visual fixation, oriented behaviors, and arousal, and two conditional items, communication and localization to pain. The score ranges between 0 and 8 and corresponds to a specific diagnosis (i.e., coma, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious state minus/plus, or emergence from the minimally conscious state). A first validation study on patients with prolonged DoC showed high concurrent validity and intra- and inter-rater reliability. The SECONDs requires less training than the CRS-R and its administration lasts about 7 minutes (interquartile range: 5-9 minutes). An additional index score allows the more precise tracking of a patient's behavioral fluctuation or evolution over time. The SECONDs is therefore a fast and valid tool for assessing the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. It can easily be used by healthcare staff and implemented in time-constrained clinical settings, such as intensive care units, to help decrease misdiagnosis rates and to optimize treatment decisions. These administration guidelines provide detailed instructions for administering the SECONDs in a standardized and reproducible manner, which is an essential requirement for achieving a reliable diagnosis.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Consciência/diagnóstico , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Guias como Assunto , Adulto , Idoso , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Comunicação , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 215: 103270, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639445

RESUMO

The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to re-test whether a minimal social context has an influence on gaze patterns, and (2) to determine if a social connection (i.e., friendship) has a modulatory effect on gaze patterns in a minimal social context. In Experiment 1, two unacquainted participants were paired and seated at separate testing stations in the same room. At the beginning of each trial, participants were informed whether they were looking at different image sets (solo trials), or the same image set (joint trials). Image sets consisted of a positive, a negative, and two neutral images. No explicit task instructions were provided and there was no interaction between participants during the task. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1, except that participants were paired with a friend. The fixation-based metrics of interest were time to first fixation (TFF) and total fixation duration (TFD). The findings revealed that social context has a modulatory effect on attentional capture (i.e., TFF) irrespective of social connection. Unexpectedly, a negativity bias was found to hold attention (i.e., TFD) regardless of social context. However, having a social connection did increase the time spent looking at positive images on the joint trials. Having a social connection with another person seems to alter looking behaviour such that more time is spent looking at positive images on the joint trials compared to the solo trials. These findings highlight the importance of evaluating both TFD and TFF to develop a better understanding of the factors underlying joint perception.


Assuntos
Atenção , Meio Social , Viés , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Percepção Social
6.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 63, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited research exists to guide clinical decisions about trialling, selecting, implementing and evaluating eye-gaze control technology. This paper reports on the outcomes of a Delphi study that was conducted to build international stakeholder consensus to inform decision making about trialling and implementing eye-gaze control technology with people with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A three-round online Delphi survey was conducted. In Round 1, 126 stakeholders responded to questions identified through an international stakeholder Advisory Panel and systematic reviews. In Round 2, 63 respondents rated the importance of 200 statements generated by in Round 1. In Round 3, 41 respondents rated the importance of the 105 highest ranked statements retained from Round 2. RESULTS: Stakeholders achieved consensus on 94 of the original 200 statements. These statements related to person factors, support networks, the environment, and technical aspects to consider during assessment, trial, implementation and follow-up. Findings reinforced the importance of an individualised approach and that information gathered from the user, their support network and professionals are central when measuring outcomes. Information required to support an application for funding was obtained. CONCLUSION: This Delphi study has identified issues which are unique to eye-gaze control technology and will enhance its implementation with people with cerebral palsy.


Assuntos
Paralisia Cerebral , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Fixação Ocular , Tecnologia/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Técnica Delfos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(3): 105518, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The prognosis of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) essentially depends on both prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Endovascular stroke therapy (EST) proved to be highly efficient in the treatment of emergent large vessel occluding (ELVO) strokes in the anterior circulation. To achieve a timely diagnosis, a robust combination of few and simple signs to identify ELVOs in AIS patients applicable by paramedics in the prehospital triage is worthwhile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included 904 AIS patients (324 ELVO, 580 non-ELVO) admitted between 2010 and 2015 in a tertiary stroke center. We re-evaluated two symptoms based on NIHSS items, gaze deviation and hemiparesis of the limbs ("Gaze deviation and Paresis Score, GPS") for the pre-hospital prediction of ELVO. RESULTS: A positive GPS AIS in patients predicted ELVO with a sensitivity of 0.89, specificity = 0.97, positive predictive value (PPV) = 0.95, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.94 and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) = 34.25 (CI: 20.75-56.53). The positive Likelihood-ratio (LR+) was 29.67, the negative Likelihood ratio (LR-) 0.11. NIHSS of patients with positive GPS (gaze palsy NIHSS ≥ 0, Motor arm NIHSS ≥2 and Motor leg NIHSS ≥2) was markedly higher compared to negative GPS patients (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The GPS proved to be similarly accurate in detecting ELVO in the anterior circulation of AIS patients and even more specific than other published clinical scores. Its simplicity and clarity might enable non-neurological medical staff to identify ELVO AIS patients with high certainty in a preclinical setting.


Assuntos
Avaliação da Deficiência , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fixação Ocular , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/diagnóstico , Paresia/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Feminino , Humanos , /fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/etiologia , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/fisiopatologia , Paresia/etiologia , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Triagem
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 212: 103223, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321406

RESUMO

In the present study, we examine how person categorization conveyed by the combination of multiple cues modulates joint attention. In three experiments, we tested the combinatory effect of age, sex, and social status on gaze-following behaviour and pro-social attitudes. In Experiments 1 and 2, young adults were required to perform an instructed saccade towards left or right targets while viewing a to-be-ignored distracting face (female or male) gazing left or right, that could belong to a young, middle-aged, or elderly adult of high or low social status. Social status was manipulated by semantic knowledge (Experiment 1) or through visual appearance (Experiment 2). Results showed a clear combinatory effect of person perception cues on joint attention (JA). Specifically, our results showed that age and sex cues interacted with social status information depending on the modality through which it was conveyed. In Experiment 3, we further investigated our results by testing whether the identities used in Experiments 1 and 2 triggered different pro-social behaviour. The results of Experiment 3 showed that the identities resulting as more distracting in Experiments 1 and 2 were also perceived as more in need and prompt helping behaviour. Taken together, our evidence shows a combinatorial effect of age, sex, and social status in modulating the gaze following behaviour, highlighting a complex and dynamic interplay between person categorization and joint attention.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção Social , Idoso , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(12): e1007880, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315888

RESUMO

Understanding the decision process underlying gaze control is an important question in cognitive neuroscience with applications in diverse fields ranging from psychology to computer vision. The decision for choosing an upcoming saccade target can be framed as a selection process between two states: Should the observer further inspect the information near the current gaze position (local attention) or continue with exploration of other patches of the given scene (global attention)? Here we propose and investigate a mathematical model motivated by switching between these two attentional states during scene viewing. The model is derived from a minimal set of assumptions that generates realistic eye movement behavior. We implemented a Bayesian approach for model parameter inference based on the model's likelihood function. In order to simplify the inference, we applied data augmentation methods that allowed the use of conjugate priors and the construction of an efficient Gibbs sampler. This approach turned out to be numerically efficient and permitted fitting interindividual differences in saccade statistics. Thus, the main contribution of our modeling approach is two-fold; first, we propose a new model for saccade generation in scene viewing. Second, we demonstrate the use of novel methods from Bayesian inference in the field of scan path modeling.


Assuntos
Atenção , Movimentos Oculares , Fixação Ocular , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Teóricos
10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007025

RESUMO

When infants observe a human grasping action, experience-based accounts predict that all infants familiar with grasping actions should be able to predict the goal regardless of additional agency cues such as an action effect. Cue-based accounts, however, suggest that infants use agency cues to identify and predict action goals when the action or the agent is not familiar. From these accounts, we hypothesized that younger infants would need additional agency cues such as a salient action effect to predict the goal of a human grasping action, whereas older infants should be able to predict the goal regardless of agency cues. In three experiments, we presented 6-, 7-, and 11-month-olds with videos of a manual grasping action presented either with or without an additional salient action effect (Exp. 1 and 2), or we presented 7-month-olds with videos of a mechanical claw performing a grasping action presented with a salient action effect (Exp. 3). The 6-month-olds showed tracking gaze behavior, and the 11-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior, regardless of the action effect. However, the 7-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior in the action-effect condition, but tracking gaze behavior in the no-action-effect condition and in the action-effect condition with a mechanical claw. The results therefore support the idea that salient action effects are especially important for infants' goal predictions from 7 months on, and that this facilitating influence of action effects is selective for the observation of human hands.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Objetivos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação em Vídeo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002053

RESUMO

Theoretical and empirical considerations suggest that individual differences in infant visual attention correlate with variations in cognitive skills later in childhood. Here we tested this hypothesis in infants from rural Malawi (n = 198-377, depending on analysis), who were assessed with eye tracking tests of visual orienting, anticipatory looks, and attention to faces at 9 months, and more conventional tests of cognitive control (A-not-B), motor, language, and socioemotional development at 18 months. The results showed no associations between measures of infant attention at 9 months and cognitive skills at 18 months, either in analyses linking infant visual orienting with broad cognitive outcomes or analyses linking specific constructs between the two time points (i.e., switching of anticipatory looks and manual reaching responses), as correlations varied between -0.08 and 0.14. Measures of physical growth, and family socioeconomic characteristics were also not correlated with cognitive outcomes at 18 months in the current sample (correlations between -0.10 and 0.19). The results do not support the use of the current tests of infant visual attention as a predictive tool for 18-month-old infants' cognitive skills in the Malawian setting. The results are discussed in light of the potential limitations of the employed infant tests as well as potentially unique characteristics of early cognitive development in low-resource settings.


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento do Lactente , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção Visual , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Individualidade , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Malaui , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035250

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate and to simulate the gaze deployment of observers on paintings. For that purpose, we built a large eye tracking dataset composed of 150 paintings belonging to 5 art movements. We observed that the gaze deployment over the proposed paintings was very similar to the gaze deployment over natural scenes. Therefore, we evaluate existing saliency models and propose a new one which significantly outperforms the most recent deep-based saliency models. Thanks to this new saliency model, we can predict very accurately what are the salient areas of a painting. This opens new avenues for many image-based applications such as animation of paintings or transformation of a still painting into a video clip.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Pinturas , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
13.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 4807-4810, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019066

RESUMO

The human-machine interface (HMI) of a tractor cockpit includes not only the steering wheel and pedals, but also many levers and switches. According to a report from the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization of Japan, the HMI layout often differs from the operator's expectation. This gap between expectations and reality has led to operator errors and market complaints. However, few reports have ergonomically evaluated these arrangements. Our previous work showed that this gap can be evaluated by the amplitude of the P300 component of the event-related potentials (ERPs) for discrimination tasks by using a picture of the vehicle cockpit on the display. However, in real-world driving and operation situations, eye movements occur. In such cases, the eye-fixation related potential (EFRP) may be used. The EFRP appears at the end of a saccade, which is a rapid movement of the eyes between fixation points. Its positive component, called the lambda response, is reported to reflect the human attention level to visual targets. We hypothesize that if the HMI layout differs from the user's expectation, operation becomes difficult and the user's attention to the target during operation will be reduced. In order to confirm this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted during the actual operation of a tractor while changing the tiller switch position. The participants were 13 adult males with experience in tractor operations. The amplitude of the lambda wave was reduced when the switch position was different from the user's expectations, reflecting the decrease in attention caused by the increased difficulty of operating the tiller. We suggest that the amplitude of the lambda response can be used as the evaluation index for optimizing the switch position.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular , Movimentos Sacádicos , Adulto , Agricultura , Movimentos Oculares , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
14.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4553, 2020 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917902

RESUMO

Eye tracking has been widely used for decades in vision research, language and usability. However, most prior research has focused on large desktop displays using specialized eye trackers that are expensive and cannot scale. Little is known about eye movement behavior on phones, despite their pervasiveness and large amount of time spent. We leverage machine learning to demonstrate accurate smartphone-based eye tracking without any additional hardware. We show that the accuracy of our method is comparable to state-of-the-art mobile eye trackers that are 100x more expensive. Using data from over 100 opted-in users, we replicate key findings from previous eye movement research on oculomotor tasks and saliency analyses during natural image viewing. In addition, we demonstrate the utility of smartphone-based gaze for detecting reading comprehension difficulty. Our results show the potential for scaling eye movement research by orders-of-magnitude to thousands of participants (with explicit consent), enabling advances in vision research, accessibility and healthcare.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Movimentos Oculares , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Compreensão , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Leitura , Visão Ocular , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853262

RESUMO

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS), characterized by a prolongation of the QT-interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), is a serious adverse drug reaction that can cause the life-threatening arrhythmia Torsade de Points (TdP). Self-monitoring for diLQTS could therefore save lives, but detecting it on the ECG is difficult, particularly at high and low heart rates. In this paper, we evaluate whether using a pseudo-colouring visualisation technique and changing the coordinate system (Cartesian vs. Polar) can support lay people in identifying QT-prolongation at varying heart rates. Four visualisation techniques were evaluated using a counterbalanced repeated measures design including Cartesian no-colouring, Cartesian pseudo-colouring, Polar no-colouring and Polar pseudo-colouring. We used a multi-reader, multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study design within a psychophysical paradigm, along with eye-tracking technology. Forty-three lay participants read forty ECGs (TdP risk n = 20, no risk n = 20), classifying each QT-interval as normal/abnormal, and rating their confidence on a 6-point scale. The results show that introducing pseudo-colouring to the ECG significantly increased accurate detection of QT-interval prolongation regardless of heart rate, T-wave morphology and coordinate system. Pseudo-colour also helped to reduce reaction times and increased satisfaction when reading the ECGs. Eye movement analysis indicated that pseudo-colour helped to focus visual attention on the areas of the ECG crucial to detecting QT-prolongation. The study indicates that pseudo-colouring enables lay people to visually identify drug-induced QT-prolongation regardless of heart rate, with implications for the more rapid identification and management of diLQTS.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cor , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Curva ROC , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722496

RESUMO

In this study, an on-road driving experiment was designed to investigate the visual attention fixation and transition characteristics of drivers when they are under different cognitive workloads. First, visual attention was macroscopically analyzed through the entropy method. Second, the Markov glance one- and two-step transition probability matrices were constructed, which can study the visual transition characteristics under different conditions from a microscopic perspective. Results indicate that the fixation entropy value of male drivers is 23.08% higher than that of female drivers. Under the normal driving state, drivers' fixation on in-vehicle systems is not continuous and usually shifts to the front and left areas quickly after such fixation. When under cognitive workload, drivers' vision transition is concentrated only in the front and right areas. In mild cognitive workload, drivers' sight trajectory is mainly focused on the distant front area. As the workload level increases, the transition trajectory shifts to the junction near the front and far sides. The current study finds that the difference between an on-road test and a driving simulation is that during the on-road driving process, drivers are twice as attentive to the front area than to the driving simulator. The research provides practical guidance for the improvement of traffic safety.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Condução de Veículo , Cognição/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular , Carga de Trabalho , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3534, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669545

RESUMO

Dual-process models of altruistic choice assume that automatic responses give way to deliberation over time, and are a popular way to conceptualize how people make generous choices and why those choices might change under time pressure. However, these models have led to conflicting interpretations of behaviour and underlying psychological dynamics. Here, we propose that flexible, goal-directed deployment of attention towards information priorities provides a more parsimonious account of altruistic choice dynamics. We demonstrate that time pressure tends to produce early gaze-biases towards a person's own outcomes, and that individual differences in this bias explain how individuals' generosity changes under time pressure. Our gaze-informed drift-diffusion model incorporating moment-to-moment eye-gaze further reveals that underlying social preferences both drive attention, and interact with it to shape generosity under time pressure. These findings help explain existing inconsistencies in the field by emphasizing the role of dynamic attention-allocation during altruistic choice.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Atenção , Comportamento de Escolha , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Fixação Ocular , Teoria do Jogo , Humanos , Individualidade , Motivação , Distribuição Normal , Comportamento Social , Software , Tempo
20.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 928-936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690919

RESUMO

Toddlers exhibit behaviours that suggest judicious responses to states of uncertainty (for example, turning to adults for help), but little is known about the informational basis of these behaviours. Across two experiments, of which experiment 2 was a preregistered replication, 160 toddlers (aged 25 to 32 months) identified a target from two partially occluded similar (for example, elephant versus bear) or dissimilar (for example, elephant versus broccoli) images. Accuracy was lower for the similar trials than for the dissimilar trials. By fitting drift-diffusion models to response times, we found that toddlers accumulated evidence more slowly but required less evidence for similar trials compared with dissimilar trials. By analysing eye movements, we found that toddlers took longer to settle on the selected image during inaccurate trials and switched their gaze between response options more frequently during inaccurate trials and accurately identified similar items. Exploratory analyses revealed that the evidence-accumulation parameter correlated positively with the use of uncertainty language. Overall, these findings inform theories on the emergence of evidence accumulation under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Incerteza , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
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