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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6075, 2020 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247100

RESUMO

Our memories enable us to form expectations for our future experiences, yet the precise neural mechanisms underlying how we compare any experience to our memory remain unknown. Here, using intracranial EEG recordings, we show that episodic memories formed after a single visual experience establish expectations for future experience within neocortical-medial temporal lobe circuits. When subsequent experiences violate these expectations, we find a 80-120 Hz prediction error signal that emerges in both visual association areas and the medial temporal lobe. Critically, this error signal emerges in visual association areas first and then propagates to the medial temporal lobe. This error signal is accompanied by alpha coherence between the two regions. Our data therefore suggest that internal models formed from episodic memories are generated throughout the visual hierarchy after just a single exposure, and that these internal models are then used for comparison with future experiences.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Ritmo alfa/fisiologia , Eletrodos , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Neurológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
2.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(11): 1045-1053, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151851

RESUMO

The eyes and the gaze participate in a major way in our non-verbal language, even before the verb appeared. From the Bible to contemporary language, through Greek mythology, theater, literature or spoken language, a multitude of expressions and proverbs present the eye, what it sees and what it symbolizes.


Assuntos
Aforismos e Provérbios como Assunto , Expressão Facial , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Cultura , Olho , Humanos , Relações Metafísicas Mente-Corpo/fisiologia , Mitologia , Observação , Preconceito/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Superstições , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242501, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196671

RESUMO

Previous research on cross-cultural differences in visual attention has been inconclusive. Some studies have suggested the existence of systematic differences in global and local attention and context sensitivity, while others have produced negative or mixed results. The objective in this study was to examine the similarities and differences in holistic and analytic cognitive styles in a sample of Czech and Taiwanese university students. Two cognitive tasks were conducted: a Compound Figures Test and a free-viewing scene perception task which manipulated several focal objects and measured eye-movement patterns. An analysis of the reaction times in the Compound Figures Test showed no clear differences between either sample. An analysis of eye-movement metrics showed certain differences between the samples. While Czechs tended to focus relatively more on the focal objects measured by the number of fixations, the Taiwanese subjects spent more time fixating on the background. The results were consistent for scenes with one or two focal objects. The results of a correlation analysis of both tasks showed that they were unrelated. These results showed certain differences between the samples in visual perception but were not as systematic as the theory of holistic and analytic cognitive styles would suggest. An alternative model of cross-cultural differences in cognition and perception is discussed.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Comparação Transcultural , República Tcheca , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Estudantes , Taiwan , Universidades , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151950

RESUMO

Faces that consistently shifted the gaze to subsequent target locations in a gaze cueing task were chosen as being more trustworthy than faces that always looked away from the target, suggesting that the validity of a gaze cue influenced the viewers' judgments regarding the trustworthiness of human faces. We investigated whether the gaze cueing effect and judgments regarding the personality conveyed by a face would be affected by the valence of a target. A face image moved its eyes to the left or the right, and an emotional target image (positive, negative, or neutral) appeared to left or right of the face. Participants had to indicate the location of this target by pressing a key. The target image was preceded by a face that shifted its gaze to the target image (valid cue), a face that directed its gaze to the opposite side (invalid cue), or a face that did not move its eyes (no cue). The perceived trustworthiness of the face was evaluated after the gaze-cueing task. Results showed that faces that looked at positive targets were evaluated as more trustworthy than faces that looked at negative targets. However, the valence of the targets did not affect trustworthiness ratings in invalid and no-cue conditions. We suggest that integrated information about the predictability of the gaze cue and the valence of the gaze target modulates impressions about the personality of the face.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Personalidade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Sinais (Psicologia) , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16097, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999363

RESUMO

Despite recent advances on the mechanisms and purposes of fine oculomotor behavior, a rigorous assessment of the precision and accuracy of the smallest saccades is still lacking. Yet knowledge of how effectively these movements shift gaze is necessary for understanding their functions and is helpful in further elucidating their motor underpinnings. Using a combination of high-resolution eye-tracking and gaze-contingent control, here we examined the accuracy and precision of saccades aimed toward targets ranging from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] eccentricity. We show that even small saccades of just 14-[Formula: see text] are very effective in centering the stimulus on the retina. Furthermore, we show that for a target at any given eccentricity, the probability of eliciting a saccade depends on its efficacy in reducing the foveal offset. The pattern of results reported here is consistent with current knowledge on the motor mechanisms of microsaccade production.


Assuntos
Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Fóvea Central/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Nervo Oculomotor/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057363

RESUMO

Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) geometric distortions can be introduced by mismatches among image capture, display, and viewing configurations. In previous work of S3D geometric models, geometric distortions have been analyzed from a third-person perspective based on the binocular depth cue (i.e., binocular disparity). A third-person perspective is different from what the viewer sees since monocular depth cues (e.g., linear perspective, occlusion, and shadows) from different perspectives are different. However, depth perception in a 3D space involves both monocular and binocular depth cues. Geometric distortions that are solely predicted by the binocular depth cue cannot describe what a viewer really perceives. In this paper, we combine geometric models and retinal disparity models to analyze geometric distortions from the viewer's perspective where both monocular and binocular depth cues are considered. Results show that binocular and monocular depth-cue conflicts in a geometrically distorted S3D space. Moreover, user-initiated head translations averting from the optimal viewing position in conventional S3D displays can also introduce geometric distortions, which are inconsistent with our natural 3D viewing condition. The inconsistency of depth cues in a dynamic scene may be a source of visually induced motions sickness.


Assuntos
Percepção de Profundidade/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Retina/fisiologia , Visão Monocular/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240165, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007025

RESUMO

When infants observe a human grasping action, experience-based accounts predict that all infants familiar with grasping actions should be able to predict the goal regardless of additional agency cues such as an action effect. Cue-based accounts, however, suggest that infants use agency cues to identify and predict action goals when the action or the agent is not familiar. From these accounts, we hypothesized that younger infants would need additional agency cues such as a salient action effect to predict the goal of a human grasping action, whereas older infants should be able to predict the goal regardless of agency cues. In three experiments, we presented 6-, 7-, and 11-month-olds with videos of a manual grasping action presented either with or without an additional salient action effect (Exp. 1 and 2), or we presented 7-month-olds with videos of a mechanical claw performing a grasping action presented with a salient action effect (Exp. 3). The 6-month-olds showed tracking gaze behavior, and the 11-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior, regardless of the action effect. However, the 7-month-olds showed predictive gaze behavior in the action-effect condition, but tracking gaze behavior in the no-action-effect condition and in the action-effect condition with a mechanical claw. The results therefore support the idea that salient action effects are especially important for infants' goal predictions from 7 months on, and that this facilitating influence of action effects is selective for the observation of human hands.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Objetivos , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores de Tempo , Gravação em Vídeo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035250

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to investigate and to simulate the gaze deployment of observers on paintings. For that purpose, we built a large eye tracking dataset composed of 150 paintings belonging to 5 art movements. We observed that the gaze deployment over the proposed paintings was very similar to the gaze deployment over natural scenes. Therefore, we evaluate existing saliency models and propose a new one which significantly outperforms the most recent deep-based saliency models. Thanks to this new saliency model, we can predict very accurately what are the salient areas of a painting. This opens new avenues for many image-based applications such as animation of paintings or transformation of a still painting into a video clip.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Pinturas , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(9): e1008163, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898146

RESUMO

Learning to avoid harmful consequences can be a costly trial-and-error process. In such situations, social information can be leveraged to improve individual learning outcomes. Here, we investigated how participants used their own experiences and others' social cues to avoid harm. Participants made repeated choices between harmful and safe options, each with different probabilities of generating shocks, while also seeing the image of a social partner. Some partners made predictive gaze cues towards the harmful choice option while others cued an option at random, and did so using neutral or fearful facial expressions. We tested how learned social information about partner reliability transferred across contexts by letting participants encounter the same partner in multiple trial blocks while facing novel choice options. Participants' decisions were best explained by a reinforcement learning model that independently learned the probabilities of options being safe and of partners being reliable and combined these combined these estimates to generate choices. Advice from partners making a fearful facial expression influenced participants' decisions more than advice from partners with neutral expressions. Our results showed that participants made better decisions when facing predictive partners and that they cached and transferred partner reliability estimates into new blocks. Using simulations we show that participants' transfer of social information into novel contexts is better adapted to variable social environments where social partners may change their cuing strategy or become untrustworthy. Finally, we found no relation between autism questionnaire scores and performance in our task, but do find autism trait related differences in learning rate parameters.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Comunicação , Biologia Computacional , Sinais (Psicologia) , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos
10.
Nature ; 586(7827): 95-100, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968281

RESUMO

The direction of the eye gaze of others is a prominent social cue in primates and is important for communication1-11. Although gaze can signal threat and elicit anxiety6,12,13, it remains unclear whether it shares neural circuitry with stimulus value. Notably, gaze not only has valence, but can also serve as a predictor of the outcome of a social encounter, which can be either negative or positive2,8,12,13. Here we show that the neural codes for gaze and valence overlap in primates and that they involve two different mechanisms: one for the outcome and another for its expectation. Monkeys participated in the human intruder test13,14, in which a human participant had either a direct or averted gaze, interleaved with blocks of aversive and appetitive conditioning. We find that single neurons in the amygdala encode gaze15, whereas neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex encode the social context16, but not gaze. We identify a shared population in the amygdala for which the neural responses to direct and averted gaze parallel the responses to aversive and appetitive stimulus, respectively. Furthermore, we distinguish between two neural mechanisms-an overall-activity scheme that is used for gaze and the unconditioned stimulus, and a correlated-selectivity scheme that is used for gaze and the conditioned stimulus. These findings provide insights into the origins of the neural mechanisms that underlie the computations of both social interactions and valence, and could help to shed light on mechanisms that underlie social anxiety and the comorbidity between anxiety and impaired social interactions.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Apetitivo , Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Condicionamento Clássico , Giro do Cíngulo/citologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Fobia Social/psicologia , Recompensa
11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 15512, 2020 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968117

RESUMO

Establishing direct gaze has been shown to enhance the tendency to automatically imitate the other person's actions, an effect that seems to be reduced in autism. Most previous studies, however, used experimental tasks that may have confounded the measurement of automatic imitation with spatial compatibility effects. This calls into question whether gaze cues regulate automatic imitation, or instead affect domain-general processes of response inhibition. Using a task that disentangled imitative from spatial compatibility effects, the current study re-examined the role of autistic traits on the modulation of automatic imitation by direct and averted gaze cues. While our results do not provide evidence for an overall significant influence of gaze on neither automatic imitation nor spatial compatibility, autistic traits were predictive of a reduced inhibition of imitative behaviour following averted gaze. Nonetheless, exploratory analyses suggested that the observed modulation by autistic traits may actually be better explained by the effects of concomitant social anxiety symptoms. In addition, the ethnicity of the imitated agent was identified as another potential modulator of the gaze effects on automatic imitation. Overall, our findings highlight the contextual nature of automatic imitation, but call for a reconsideration of the role of gaze on imitative behaviour.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Comportamento Imitativo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853262

RESUMO

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (diLQTS), characterized by a prolongation of the QT-interval on the electrocardiogram (ECG), is a serious adverse drug reaction that can cause the life-threatening arrhythmia Torsade de Points (TdP). Self-monitoring for diLQTS could therefore save lives, but detecting it on the ECG is difficult, particularly at high and low heart rates. In this paper, we evaluate whether using a pseudo-colouring visualisation technique and changing the coordinate system (Cartesian vs. Polar) can support lay people in identifying QT-prolongation at varying heart rates. Four visualisation techniques were evaluated using a counterbalanced repeated measures design including Cartesian no-colouring, Cartesian pseudo-colouring, Polar no-colouring and Polar pseudo-colouring. We used a multi-reader, multi-case (MRMC) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study design within a psychophysical paradigm, along with eye-tracking technology. Forty-three lay participants read forty ECGs (TdP risk n = 20, no risk n = 20), classifying each QT-interval as normal/abnormal, and rating their confidence on a 6-point scale. The results show that introducing pseudo-colouring to the ECG significantly increased accurate detection of QT-interval prolongation regardless of heart rate, T-wave morphology and coordinate system. Pseudo-colour also helped to reduce reaction times and increased satisfaction when reading the ECGs. Eye movement analysis indicated that pseudo-colour helped to focus visual attention on the areas of the ECG crucial to detecting QT-prolongation. The study indicates that pseudo-colouring enables lay people to visually identify drug-induced QT-prolongation regardless of heart rate, with implications for the more rapid identification and management of diLQTS.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Síndrome do QT Longo/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Cor , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Estimulação Luminosa , Psicofísica , Curva ROC , Tempo de Reação , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(6): 612-623, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757604

RESUMO

Predictive processing accounts of autism posit that individuals with autism rely less on expectations than those without autism when it comes to interpreting incoming sensory information. Since these expectations are claimed to underlie all information processing, we reason that any differences in how they are formed or adjusted should be persistent across multiple cognitive domains and detectable much earlier than clinicians can currently diagnose autism, around 3 years of age. This experiment is part of a longitudinal prospective study of young children with increased familial likelihood of autism. Around 20% of these children will receive an autism diagnosis, compared to 1% of the general population. The current electroencephalography study used an adaptation paradigm to investigate whether a reduced effect of expectations is already present in high-likelihood 2-year-olds, before autism can reliably be diagnosed. While we did not observe the adaptation aftereffect we expected, high-likelihood children habituated more than low-likelihood children, and the two groups did not differ in their overall responses to the manipulation, contrary to our hypotheses and previous findings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
J Vis ; 20(8): 9, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761109

RESUMO

Ocular alignment defects such as strabismus affect around 5% of people and are associated with binocular vision impairments. Current nonsurgical treatments are controversial and have high levels of recidivism. In this study, we developed a rehabilitation method for ocular alignment training and examined the rate of learning, transfer to untrained alignments, and retention over time. Ocular alignment was controlled with a real-time dichoptic feedback paradigm where a static fixation target and white gaze-contingent ring were presented to the dominant eye and a black gaze-contingent ring with no fixation target was presented to the nondominant eye. Observers were required to move their eyes to center the rings on the target, with real-time feedback provided by the size of the rings. Offsetting the ring of the nondominant temporal or nasal visual field required convergent or divergent ocular deviation, respectively, to center the ring on the fixation target. Learning was quantified as the time taken to achieve target deviation of 2° (easy, E) or 4° (hard, H) for convergence (CE, CH) or divergence (DE, DH) over 40 trials. Thirty-two normally sighted observers completed two training sequences separated by one week. Subjects were randomly assigned to a training sequence: CE-CH-DE, CH-CE-DE, DE-DH-CE, or DH-DE-CE. The results showed that training was retained over the course of approximately one week across all conditions. Training on an easy deviation angle transferred to untrained hard angles within convergence or divergence but not between these directions. We conclude that oculomotor alignment can be rapidly trained, retained, and transferred with a feedback-based dichoptic paradigm. Feedback-based oculomotor training may therefore provide a noninvasive method for the rehabilitation of ocular alignment defects.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Músculos Oculomotores/fisiopatologia , Estrabismo/reabilitação , Transtornos da Visão/reabilitação , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Visão/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13035, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747683

RESUMO

When retrieving image from memory, humans usually move their eyes spontaneously as if the image were in front of them. Such eye movements correlate strongly with the spatial layout of the recalled image content and function as memory cues facilitating the retrieval procedure. However, how close the correlation is between imagery eye movements and the eye movements while looking at the original image is unclear so far. In this work we first quantify the similarity of eye movements between recalling an image and encoding the same image, followed by the investigation on whether comparing such pairs of eye movements can be used for computational image retrieval. Our results show that computational image retrieval based on eye movements during spontaneous imagery is feasible. Furthermore, we show that such a retrieval approach can be generalized to unseen images.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Imagens, Psicoterapia , Rememoração Mental , Redes Neurais de Computação , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Curva ROC
17.
Accid Anal Prev ; 145: 105710, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777558

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of digital billboards on driving performance and visual attention. The impact of dwell time, location and content of digital billboards on driving behaviour was also examined. A 3 × 2 × 2 × 2 experimental study was undertaken using a laboratory driving simulator and data analysed using factorial four-way analysis of variance. A total of 96 participants completed the study, ranging in age from 18 to 76 years. On sections of roads containing billboards, participants drove at lower mean speeds (p < 0.001), had more speed variability (p < 0.001), more variability in lane position (p < 0.001), more time spent at high risk headway < two seconds (p = 0.013), more time spent at high risk headway <0.25 s (p = 0.002) and had more visual fixations (p = 0.01), compared to control sections of road with no billboards. Billboards with simple (versus complex) content presented at a long dwell time (60 s versus 40 or 20 s) had the least negative impact on driving outcomes. Billboards with complex content had similar negative effects on driving, regardless of dwell time. In addition, post-mounted roadside billboards (versus bridge mounted) with 60 s dwell times had the least negative impact on driving. While the presence of digital billboards negatively affected driving performance, simple billboard content and longer dwell times were safer. The results of the study will assist in the development of evidence-based guidelines for digital billboards.


Assuntos
Publicidade/métodos , Direção Distraída/prevenção & controle , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Vis ; 20(7): 5, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634226

RESUMO

Pupil size changes during a visual search may reflect cognitive processes, such as effort and memory accumulation, but methodological confounds and the general lack of literature in this area leave the reliability of findings open to question. We used a novel synthesis of experimental methods and averaging techniques to explore how cognitive processing unfolds during free-viewing visual search for multiple targets. Twenty-seven participants completed 152 searches across two separate 1-hour sessions. The number of targets present (Targets: 0, 1, 2, and 3) in each trial was the main manipulation and the task was to "find all of the targets" and report the total via mouse-click at the end of the trial. Search time lasted for 10 seconds or until the participant purported to have found all of the targets, in which case they could terminate the search via keypress. Whole-trial pupil analysis revealed a significant effect of button pressing as well as a significant main effect of targets for trials that were not self-terminated via button press. Fixation-aligned pupil responses revealed transient modulations in pupil size following initial fixations on targets but not distractors and refixations on both targets and distractors. Owing to rigorous control over experimental confounds and a detailed analysis and correction of eye-movement-related measurement error, we confidently discuss these findings in terms of task-related processing and underlying brain activity.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Pupila/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 928-936, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690919

RESUMO

Toddlers exhibit behaviours that suggest judicious responses to states of uncertainty (for example, turning to adults for help), but little is known about the informational basis of these behaviours. Across two experiments, of which experiment 2 was a preregistered replication, 160 toddlers (aged 25 to 32 months) identified a target from two partially occluded similar (for example, elephant versus bear) or dissimilar (for example, elephant versus broccoli) images. Accuracy was lower for the similar trials than for the dissimilar trials. By fitting drift-diffusion models to response times, we found that toddlers accumulated evidence more slowly but required less evidence for similar trials compared with dissimilar trials. By analysing eye movements, we found that toddlers took longer to settle on the selected image during inaccurate trials and switched their gaze between response options more frequently during inaccurate trials and accurately identified similar items. Exploratory analyses revealed that the evidence-accumulation parameter correlated positively with the use of uncertainty language. Overall, these findings inform theories on the emergence of evidence accumulation under uncertainty.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Incerteza , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11918, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681110

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that the human gaze, but not the robot gaze, has significant effects on infant social cognition and facilitate social engagement. The present study investigates early understanding of the referential nature of gaze by comparing-through the eye-tracking technique-infants' response to human and robot's gaze. Data were acquired on thirty-two 17-month-old infants, watching four video clips, where either a human or a humanoid robot performed an action on a target. The agent's gaze was either turned to the target (congruent) or opposite to it (incongruent). The results generally showed that, independent of the agent, the infants attended longer at the face area compared to the hand and target. Additionally, the effect of referential gaze on infants' attention to the target was greater when infants watched the human compared to the robot's action. These results suggest the presence, in infants, of two distinct levels of gaze-following mechanisms: one recognizing the other as a potential interactive partner, the second recognizing partner's agency. In this study, infants recognized the robot as a potential interactive partner, whereas ascribed agency more readily to the human, thus suggesting that the process of generalizability of gazing behaviour to non-humans is not immediate.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Robótica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estatística como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
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