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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445584

RESUMO

There are a large number of remedies in traditional medicine focused on relieving pain and inflammation. Flavanones have been a potential source in the search for leading compounds and biologically active components, and they have been the focus of much research and development in recent years. Eysenhardtia platycarpa is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of kidney diseases, bladder infections, and diabetes mellitus. Many compounds have been isolated from this plant, such as flavones, flavanones, phenolic compounds, triterpenoid acids, chalcones, sugars, and fatty acids, among others. In this paper, natural flavanone 1 (extracted from Eysenhardtia platycarpa) as lead compound and flavanones 1a-1d as its structural analogues were screened for anti-inflammatory activity using Molinspiration® and PASS Online in a computational study. The hydro alcoholic solutions (FS) of flavanones 1, 1a-1d (FS1, FS1a-FS1d) were also assayed to investigate their in vivo anti-inflammatory cutaneous effect using two experimental models, a rat ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and a mouse ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA). Histological studies and analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 were also assessed in AA-inflamed rat ear tissue. The results showed that the flavanone hydro alcoholic solutions (FS) caused edema inhibition in both evaluated models. This study suggests that the evaluated flavanones will be effective when used in the future in skin pathologies with inflammation, with the results showing 1b and 1d to be the best.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Otopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Fabaceae/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Otopatias/patologia , Edema/patologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445678

RESUMO

Wogonin is one of the most active flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (baikal skullcap), widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It exhibits a broad spectrum of health-promoting and therapeutic activities. Together with baicalein, it is considered to be the one of main active ingredients of Chinese medicines for the management of COVID-19. However, therapeutic use of wogonin may be limited due to low market availability connected with its low content in baikal skullcap and lack of efficient preparative methods for obtaining this compound. Although the amount of wogonin in skullcap root often does not exceed 0.5%, this material is rich in wogonin glucuronide, which may be used as a substrate for wogonin production. In the present study, a rapid, simple, cheap and effective method of wogonin and baicalein preparation, which provides gram quantities of both flavonoids, is proposed. The obtained wogonin was used as a substrate for biotransformation. Thirty-six microorganisms were tested in screening studies. The most efficient were used in enlarged scale transformations to determine metabolism of this xenobiotic. The major phase I metabolism product was 4'-hydroxywogonin-a rare flavonoid which exhibits anticancer activity-whereas phase II metabolism products were glucosides of wogonin. The present studies complement and extend the knowledge on the effect of substitution of A- and B-ring on the regioselective glycosylation of flavonoids catalyzed by microorganisms.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/química , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Scutellaria baicalensis/química , Animais , Biotransformação , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavanonas/farmacocinética , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112896, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371301

RESUMO

Feline calicivirus is one of the surrogate viruses of human norovirus. This study aimed to identify virucidal compounds, chemical constituents of plants from the genus Dracocephalum, which are rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoid oligomers. Four undescribed compounds, including a flavanone glucoside, two stilbenoid glycosides, and a phenylpropanoid amide glycoside, as well as 17 known compounds, were isolated from the Mongolian plants Dracocephalum fruticulosum Stephan ex Willd., and D. nutans L. belonging to the family Lamiaceae. The structures of the compounds were determined based on NMR, MS, and electronic CD spectroscopic data. In addition to these 21 compounds, 15 previously reported compounds from D. foetidum Bunge in C.F. von Ledebour were included, and a total of 36 compounds were evaluated for their virucidal activities against feline calicivirus. Some of the flavanone glycosides and phenylpropanoid oligomers showed virucidal activities, and their structural features are discussed. The findings suggest that isosakuranetin glycosides and phenylpropanoid oligomers may have the potential for norovirus inactivation.


Assuntos
Calicivirus Felino , Flavanonas , Lamiaceae , Animais , Gatos , Cinamatos , Depsídeos , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia
4.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21870, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436790

RESUMO

COVID-19 is often characterized by dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses. It has been shown that the Traditional Chinese Medicine formulation Qing-Fei-Pai-Du decoction (QFPDD) is effective in the treatment of the disease, especially for patients in the early stage. Our network pharmacology analyses indicated that many inflammation and immune-related molecules were the targets of the active components of QFPDD, which propelled us to examine the effects of the decoction on inflammation. We found in the present study that QFPDD effectively alleviated dextran sulfate sodium-induced intestinal inflammation in mice. It inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNFα, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by macrophagic cells. Further investigations found that QFPDD and one of its active components wogonoside markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of transcription factor ATF2, an important regulator of multiple cytokines expression. Our data revealed that both QFPDD and wogonoside decreased the half-life of ATF2 and promoted its proteasomal degradation. Of note, QFPDD and wogonoside down-regulated deubiquitinating enzyme USP14 along with inducing ATF2 degradation. Inhibition of USP14 with the small molecular inhibitor IU1 also led to the decrease of ATF2 in the cells, indicating that QFPDD and wogonoside may act through regulating USP14 to promote ATF2 degradation. To further assess the importance of ubiquitination in regulating ATF2, we generated mice that were intestinal-specific KLHL5 deficiency, a CUL3-interacting protein participating in substrate recognition of E3s. In these mice, QFPDD mitigated inflammatory reaction in the spleen, but not intestinal inflammation, suggesting CUL3-KLHL5 may function as an E3 for ATF2 degradation.


Assuntos
Fator 2 Ativador da Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/deficiência , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/farmacologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/uso terapêutico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , Pirrolidinas/farmacologia , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/antagonistas & inibidores , Ubiquitinação
5.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17370-17379, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198266

RESUMO

In this study, we used bioinformatics and an in vitro cellular model of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis to investigate mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of baicalein (BN) against osteoporosis. STITCH database analysis revealed 30 BN-targeted genes, including AKT1, CCND1, MTOR, and PTEN. Functional enrichment analysis demonstrated that BN-targeted genes were enriched in 49 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. MIRWALK2.0 database analysis identified 110 enriched KEGG pathways related to osteoporosis. A Venn diagram demonstrated that 26 KEGG pathways were common between osteoporosis and BN-targeted genes. The top 5 common KEGG pathways were prostate cancer, bladder cancer, glioma, pathways in cancer, and melanoma. BN-targeted genes in the top 5 shared KEGG pathways were involved in PI3K-AKT, MAPK, p53, ErbB, and mTOR signaling pathways. In addition, glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in MC3T3-E1 cells was partially reversed by BN through inhibition of AKT, which, by upregulating FOXO1, enhanced expression of bone turnover markers (ALP, OCN, Runx2, and Col 1) and extracellular matrix mineralization. These findings demonstrate that BN suppresses osteoporosis via an AKT/FOXO1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3 , Animais , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Calcificação Fisiológica/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucocorticoides , Humanos , Camundongos , Osteoporose/induzido quimicamente , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética
6.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(4)2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328199

RESUMO

Myocardial fibrosis is a pathological process characterized by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in myocardial interstitial spaces. Myocardial fibrosis is a fundamental process in ventricular remodeling and a primary contributor to the progression of heart failure. Liquiritigenin (LQ) is a flavanone compound with anti­oxidative, anti­carcinogenic, anti­inflammatory and estrogenic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the regulatory potential of LQ treatment in a mouse model of isoprenaline (ISO)­induced cardiac fibrosis and in cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes stimulated with angiotensin II (Ang II). The treatment of ISO­induced mice with LQ significantly decreased the levels of cardiac injury­related proteins in the serum and ECM accumulation in mouse heart tissues. LQ treatment also effectively alleviated cardiac dysfunction in ISO­treated mice. Further analyses revealed that LQ inhibited ISO­induced collagen formation and activation of the transforming growth factor­ß1 (TGF­ß1)/Smad2 and protein kinase B (AKT)/extracellular signal­regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. As a major pathological event in myocardial fibrosis, the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes has been considered a key mechanism contributing to impaired left ventricle performance. The pretreatment of rat cardiomyocytes with LQ significantly reduced the apoptosis of H9C2 cells, and inhibited Ang II­induced activation of the TGF­ß1/Smad2 and AKT/ERK pathways. In conclusion, the present study revealed that LQ ameliorated ISO­induced myocardial fibrosis in mice and inhibited the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in vitro by inhibiting the TGF­ß1/Smad2 and AKT/ERK signaling pathways. These results suggested the anti­fibrotic and cardioprotective potential of LQ in fibrosis, thus supporting the use of LQ for the management of cardiomyocyte injury and myocardial fibrosis in patients with cardiac diseases.


Assuntos
MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibrose/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/toxicidade , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrose/induzido quimicamente , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Cardiopatias/patologia , Testes de Função Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoproterenol/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores
7.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207059

RESUMO

Diclinanona calycina R. E. Fries popularly known as "envira", is a species of the Annonaceae family endemic to Brazil. In our ongoing search for bioactive compounds from Annonaceae Amazon plants, the bark of D. calycina was investigated by classical chromatography techniques that yielded thirteen compounds (alkaloids and flavonoids) described for the first time in D. calycina as well as in the genus Diclinanona. The structure of these isolated compounds were established by extensive analysis using 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy in combination with MS. The isolated alkaloids were identified as belonging to the subclasses: simple isoquinoline, thalifoline (1); aporphine, anonaine (2); oxoaporphine, liriodenine (3); benzyltetrahydroisoquinolines, (S)-(+)-reticuline (4); dehydro-oxonorreticuline (3,4-dihydro-7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-isoquinolinyl)(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-methanone) (5); (+)-1S,2R-reticuline Nß-oxide (6); and (+)-1S,2S-reticuline Nα-oxide (7); tetrahydroprotoberberine, coreximine (8); and pavine, bisnorargemonine (9). While the flavonoids belong to the benzylated dihydroflavones, isochamanetin (10), dichamanetin (11), and a mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13). Compound 5 is described for the first time in the literature as a natural product. The cytotoxic activity of the main isolated compounds was evaluated against cancer and non-cancerous cell lines. Among the tested compounds, the most promising results were found for the benzylated dihydroflavones dichamanetin (10), and the mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13), which presented moderate cytotoxic activity against the tested cancer cell lines (<20.0 µg·mL-1) and low cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous cell line MRC-5 (>25.0 µg·mL-1). Dichamanetin (11) showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 and HCT116 with IC50 values of 15.78 µg·mL-1 (33.70 µmol·L-1) and 18.99 µg·mL-1 (40.56 µmol·L-1), respectively while the mixture of uvarinol (12) and isouvarinol (13) demonstrated cytotoxic activity against HL-60, with an IC50 value of 9.74 µg·mL-1, and HCT116, with an IC50 value of 17.31 µg·mL-1. These cytotoxic activities can be attributed to the presence of one or more hydroxybenzyl groups present in these molecules as well as the position in which these groups are linked. The cytotoxic activities of reticuline, anonaine and liriodenine have been previously established, with liriodenine being the most potent compound.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/química , Annonaceae/química , Flavonas/química , Isoquinolinas/química , Casca de Planta/química , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Aporfinas/química , Aporfinas/farmacologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Dioxóis/química , Dioxóis/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Células HCT116 , Células HL-60 , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111556, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087694

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder in the world. In addition to motor symptoms, a variety of non-motor symptoms seriously affect the life quality of PD patients. Baicalein, a flavonoid extracted from the herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, exhibits anti-PD activity through alleviation of its motor symptoms. However, its effects on non-motor symptoms were barely reported. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of baicalein on PD-related depression. METHODS: After a 2-week injection of rotenone, mice with PD-related depression behavior were selected, divided into three groups, and administrated saline, baicalein, or madopar orally for four weeks. Behavior, neuroinflammation, neurotransmitters, and synaptic plasticity were evaluated. RESULTS: Our results showed that 4-week baicalein treatment significantly alleviated the depression-like behavior in the rotenone-induced mice model. Repeated baicalein treatment reduced α-synuclein aggregation, inhibited neuroinflammation, and maintained neurotransmitters homeostasis. Moreover, we found that baicalein treatment could remarkably protect the synaptic plasticity and activate the BDNF/TrkB/CREB pathway in the PD-related depression mice model. As traditional dopamine replacement therapy unleashed few effects on depression-like symptom amelioration and synaptic function protection, baicalein might be a more appropriate choice for PD-related depression. CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggested that baicalein could act as a treatment for PD-related depression.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Rotenona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Depressão/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(4): 1149-1164, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142329

RESUMO

Diet-induced fatty liver is a considerable threaten to fish aquaculture due to the popularity of the high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Our study aims to investigate the effects of flavanones from Sedum sarmentosum Bunge (FSSB) on the liver function to identify a potential treatment for HFD-induced fatty liver disease. Physiological and pathological indicators were tested in the liver of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and results showed parameters including lipid metabolites, redox parameters, and inflammatory factors could be adequately restored to normal level by addition of 150 mg/kg FSSB to HFD. Proteomics analysis was performed in liver tissues from tilapia with normal diet (ND), HFD, and HFD+FSSB. Totally, 51 upregulated proteins and 77 downregulated proteins were identified in HFD groups and 67 proteins of them were restored after treated with FSSB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in HFD+FSSB150 group compared with HFD group are mainly enriched in acety-CoA metabolic process, adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) biosynthetic process, lipid metabolic process, and phospholipid metabolic process. The dysregulated proteins were involved in peroxidosome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway, fat digestion and absorption, and immune system. The quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay further revealed that the expression of GST, PPARα, PPARγ, and multiple-inflammatory cytokines could be also reversed in HFD group under the treatment of 150 mg/kg FSSB. Our findings demonstrated FSSB is efficient for the treatment of fatty liver disease through regulation of lipid metabolism and antioxidation in Nile tilapia, providing a new treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in fish aquaculture.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ciclídeos , Fígado Gorduroso/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Sedum , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colesterol/sangue , Ciclídeos/sangue , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Fígado Gorduroso/genética , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , PPAR alfa/genética , PPAR gama/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue
10.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072744

RESUMO

The use of insects as a feasible and useful natural product resource is a novel and promising option in alternative medicine. Several components from insects and their larvae have been found to inhibit molecular pathways in different stages of cancer. This study aimed to analyze the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Vespa orientalis larvae on breast cancer MCF7 cells and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that individual treatment with 5% aqueous or alcoholic larval extract inhibited MCF7 proliferation but had no cytotoxic effect on normal Vero cells. The anticancer effect was mediated through (1) induction of apoptosis, as indicated by increased expression of apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase3, and p53) and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2; (2) suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species; (3) elevation of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GPx) and upregulation of the antioxidant regulator Nrf2 and its downstream target HO-1; (4) inhibition of migration as revealed by in vitro wound healing assay and downregulation of the migration-related gene MMP9 and upregulation of the anti-migratory gene TIMP1; and (5) downregulation of inflammation-related genes (NFκB and IL8). The aqueous extract exhibited the best anticancer effect with higher antioxidant activities but lower anti-inflammatory properties than the alcoholic extract. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoids and phenolic compounds with highest concentrations for resveratrol and naringenin in aqueous extract and rosmarinic acid in alcoholic extract. This is the first report to explain the intracellular pathway by which flavonoids and phenolic compounds-rich extracts of Vespa orientalis larvae could induce MCF7 cell viability loss through the initiation of apoptosis, activation of antioxidants, and inhibition of migration and inflammation. Therefore, these extracts could be used as adjuvants for anticancer drugs and as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Larva/metabolismo , Vespas/metabolismo , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Homeostase , Humanos , Inflamação , Células MCF-7 , Oxirredução , Picratos/química , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Cicatrização
11.
Xenobiotica ; 51(8): 926-932, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138683

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of naringenin (4,5,7-trihydroxy flavonone) on the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol, a substrate of Cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4), CYP2C9, and CYP2D6 in rats.Male Wistar rats were treated orally with metoprolol (30 mg/kg) alone and in combination with naringenin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) once daily for 15 consecutive days.The plasma concentrations of metoprolol were determined using Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) on the 1st day in single-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) study (SDS) and on the 15th day in multiple dosing PK studies (MDS).Compared to the metoprolol control group, the Cmax, AUC, and half-life (T1/2) of metoprolol increased in rats pre-treated with naringenin, while there was no significant change in Tmax. There is a significant decrease in clearance and volume of distribution.The present study results revealed that naringenin significantly enhanced the Cmax, AUC, MRT, t1/2, and decreased the clearance of metoprolol possibly through the inhibition of CYP enzymes involved in the metabolism of metoprolol.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Metoprolol , Animais , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6 , Interações Medicamentosas , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067054

RESUMO

The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Endossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endossomos/metabolismo , Endossomos/virologia , Flavanonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Lisossomos/virologia , Neoplasias/irrigação sanguínea , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Vacúolos/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067346

RESUMO

Prenylated flavonoids are an important class of naturally occurring flavonoids with important biological activity, but their low abundance in nature limits their application in medicines. Here, we showed the hemisynthesis and the determination of various biological activities of seven prenylated flavonoids, named 7-13, with an emphasis on antimicrobial ones. Compounds 9, 11, and 12 showed inhibitory activity against human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 11, 12 (flavanones) and 13 (isoflavone) were the most active against clinical isolated Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, showing that structural requirements as prenylation at position C-6 or C-8 and OH at positions C-5, 7, and 4' are key to the antibacterial activity. The combination of 11 or 12 with commercial antibiotics synergistically enhanced the antibacterial activity of vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, and methicillin in a factor of 10 to 100 times against drug-resistant bacteria. Compound 11 combined with ciprofloxacin was able to decrease the levels of ROS generated by ciprofloxacin. According to docking results of S enantiomer of 11 with ATP-binding cassette transporter showed the most favorable binding energy; however, more studies are needed to support this result.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Prenilação/fisiologia , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Simulação por Computador , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Isoflavonas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072443

RESUMO

As an important zoonotic pathogen, Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection has been reported to be a causative agent for variety of diseases in humans and animals, especially Streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS), which is commonly seen in cases of severe S. suis infection. STSLS is often accompanied by excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, which is the main cause of death. This calls for development of new strategies to avert the damage caused by STSLS. In this study, we found for the first time that Baicalein, combined with ampicillin, effectively improved severe S. suis infection. Further experiments demonstrated that baicalein significantly inhibited the hemolytic activity of SLY by directly binding to SLY and destroying its secondary structure. Cell-based assays revealed that Baicalein did not exert toxic effects and conferred protection in S. suis-infected cells. Interestingly, compared with ampicillin alone, Baicalein combined with ampicillin resulted in a higher survival rate in mice severely infected with S. suis. At the same time, we found that baicalein can be combined with meropenem against MRSA. In conclusion, these results indicate that baicalein has a good application prospect.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/microbiologia , Streptococcus suis/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Citocinas/biossíntese , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Flavanonas/química , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Infecções Estreptocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/metabolismo , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 424: 115594, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044073

RESUMO

Oxidative stress and inflammation in kidney are the main causes for hyperuricemic nephropathy (HN). Baicalin and baicalein, two flavonoids, have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects and they are interconvertible in the body. In this study, both baicalin and baicalein were administered by intragastric administration (i.g.) or intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) at the dose of 50 mg kg-1, once a day for 15 consecutive days to HN mice, a model established by i.g. of yeast extract combined with i.p. of potassium oxonate. In HN mice, baicalin and baicalein reduced serum uric acid (SUA) levels and protected kidneys by anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Mechanistically, the effect of baicalin and baicalein on reducing SUA levels might due to their inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the mechanisms of baicalin and baicalein against HN were analyzed with network pharmacology and molecular docking technology. The network pharmacology indicated that the protective effects of baicalin and baicalein against HN were mainly related to their down-regulating effects on TLRs, NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/AKT and NOD-like receptor signaling pathways. Molecular docking indicated high binding affinity of baicalin/baicalein to targets such as AKT1 and MAPK1. In summary, baicalin and baicalein are promising drug candidates for the treatment of HN by inhibiting XO activity, reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis through down-regulating TLRs/NLRP3/NF-κB, MAPK, PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathways.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Fígado/enzimologia , Camundongos , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1184-1190, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965487

RESUMO

Aggregation of tau protein into the form of insoluble amyloid fibrils is linked with Alzheimer's disease. The identification of potential small molecules that can inhibit tau protein from undergoing aggregation has received a great deal of interest, recently. In the present study, the possible inhibitory effects of liquiritigenin as a member of chiral flavanone family on tau amyloid fibrils formation and their resulting neurotoxicity were assessed by different biophysical and cellular assays. The inhibitory effect of the liquiritigenin against tau amyloid formation was investigated using thioflavin T (ThT) and 1-Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) fluorescence spectroscopy, Congo red (CR) binding assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Neurotoxicity assays were also performed against neuron-like cells (SH-SY5Y) using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction, reactive oxygen species (ROS), catalase (CAT) and caspase-3 activity measurements. We found that liquiritigenin served as an efficient inhibitor of tau amyloid fibrils formation through prevention of structural transition in tau structure, exposure of hydrophobic patches and their associated neurotoxicity mediated by decrease in the production of ROS and caspase-3 activity and elevation of CAT activity. These data may finally find applications in the development of promising inhibitors against amyloid fibril formation and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Flavanonas/farmacologia , Neurônios/citologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Proteínas tau/química , Proteínas tau/efeitos dos fármacos , Naftalenossulfonato de Anilina/química , Benzotiazóis/química , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dicroísmo Circular , Humanos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Agregados Proteicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
17.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 561: 65-72, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015760

RESUMO

We explored the effect of baicalein on the ferroptosis of melanocytes in vitiligo. Melanocytes were treated with single RSL3 or combined RSL3 with FAC for 24 h and the effect of baicalein on RSL3 toxicity was further evaluated. Cell viability was examined by CCK8 assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential and the level of iron ion were measured by assay kit. Intracellular and lipid ROS production was detected by flow cytometry. The results indicated that RSL3 induced cell death, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS production, and iron ion accumulation in melanocytes, which was aggravated by the addition of FAC. The damage induced by RSL3 was significantly relieved by baicalein treatment. Besides, baicalein up-regulated GPX4 and reduced TFR1 level in melanocytes treated with RSL3+FAC. Baicalein protected melanocytes against ferroptosis through up-regulating GPX4. Ferroptosis might be pervasive in the occurrence and development of vitiligo, and could be proposed as the potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Carbolinas/toxicidade , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Melanócitos/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Vitiligo/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Ferroptose , Humanos , Melanócitos/patologia , Vitiligo/metabolismo , Vitiligo/patologia
18.
Talanta ; 230: 122328, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934785

RESUMO

Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the widely used Chinese traditional medicines, and wogonin is one of major active components in it. However, the mechanism of action of wogonin has largely remained unclear. In this work, we designed a fluorescent probe, namely ATTO565-WGN, by conjugating wogonin with the fluorophore ATTO565 based on Mannich reaction via a flexible chain linker. In vitro assays verified that the ATTO565-WGN conjugate has a similar anti-proliferative activity to wogonin against human A549 and HeLa cancer cell lines. Combining co-localization and competition studies, confocal fluorescence imaging clearly demonstrated that the fluorescent wogonin probe predominantly located in mitochondrial area of living cells, indicating that wogonin acts at mitochondrion to exert its pharmacological functions. Significantly, the conjugated ATTO565 fluorophore conferred the wogonin probe STED (Stimulated Emission Depletion) feature, enabling STED fluorescence living cell imaging with a 55 nm of ultrahigh spatial resolution. This will greatly beneficial for the in situ investigation of interactions between wogonin and biological targets at the finely organized and dynamic mitochondria of living cells. Moreover, this work also provides novel insights into rational design of mitochondrion targeting fluorescence probes for ultrahigh resolution living cell imaging.


Assuntos
Flavanonas , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Fluorescência , Humanos , Mitocôndrias , Scutellaria baicalensis
20.
Phytomedicine ; 86: 153527, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SiNiSan (SNS) is an ancient Chinese herbal prescription, and the current clinical treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is effective. In the previous study of the research team, the multi-functional co-synergism of SNS against IBS was presented. Some potential drug targets and candidate ligands were predicted. PURPOSE: This study attempts to explore the crucial ingredient combinations from SNS formula and reveal their synergistic mechanism for IBS therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In present study, a comprehensive strategy was performed to reveal IBS related pathways and biological modules, and explore synergistic effects of the ingredients, including ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) screening, Text mining, Venn analysis, Gene ontology (GO) analysis, Pathway cluster analysis, Molecular docking, Network construction and Experimental verification in visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) rats. RESULTS: Three compressed IBS signal pathways were derived from ClueGO KEGG analysis of 63 IBS genes, including Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP (transient receptor potential) channels and Serotonergic synapse. A multi-module network, composed of four IBS therapeutic modules (psychological, inflammation, neuroendocrine and cross-talk modules), was revealed by Target-Pathway network. Nine kernel targets were considered closely associated with the IBS pathways, including ADRA2A, HTR2A, F2RL1, F2RL3, TRPV1, PKC, PKA, IL-1Β and NGF. In silico analysis revealed that three crucial ingredients (synephrine, paeoniflorin and naringin) were assumed to coordinate the network of those IBS therapeutic modules by acting on these kernel targets in the important pathways. In vivo experimental results showed that the crucial ingredient combinations synergistically affected the expressions of the kernel biological molecules, and improved the minimum capacity threshold of AWR in VHS rats. CONCLUSION: The study proposes the important IBS associated pathways and the network regulation mechanisms of the crucial ingredients. It reveals the multi-target synergistic effect of the crucial ingredient combinations for the novel therapy on IBS.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavanonas/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Sinefrina/farmacologia , Animais , Mineração de Dados , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavanonas/química , Glucosídeos/química , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/química , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/metabolismo , Masculino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-raf/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinefrina/química , Canais de Potencial de Receptor Transitório/metabolismo
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