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1.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(12): 6147-6154, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052804

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-negative non endospore-forming strain, T13(2019)T was isolated from water samples from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry culture in Chile and studied in detail for its taxonomic position. The isolate shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the type strains of Flavobacterium chungangense (98.44 %) followed by Flavobacterium tructae and Flavobacterium spartansii (both 98.22 %). Menaquinone MK-6 was the predominant respiratory quinone in T13(2019)T. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an ornithine lipid and the unidentified polar lipids L1, L3 and L4 lacking a functional group. The major polyamine was sym-homospermidine. The fatty acid profile contained major amounts of iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) and various hydroxylated fatty acids in smaller amounts, among them iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, and C15 : 0 3-OH, which supported the grouping of the isolate into the genus Flavobacterium. Physiological/biochemical characterisation and ANI calculations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation. In addition it became obvious, that the type strains of F. tructae and F. spartansii showed 100 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and ANI values of 97.21%/ 97.59 % and DDH values of 80.40 % [77.5 and 83%]. These data indicate that F. tructae and F. spartansii belong to the same species and it is proposed that F. spartansii is a later heterotypic synonym of F. tructae. For strain T13(2019)T (=CIP 111411T=LMG 30298T=CCM 8798T) a new species with the name Flavobacterium salmonis sp. nov. is proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Salmo salar/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Chile , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espermidina/análogos & derivados , Espermidina/química , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
2.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(11): 5824-5831, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034547

RESUMO

A Gram-staining-negative non endospore-forming strain, PXU-55T, was isolated from the rhizosphere of the switchgrass Panicum virgatum and studied in detail to determine its taxonomic position. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolate represented a member of the genus Flavobacterium. The isolate shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the type strains of Flavobacterium chungangense (98.78 %) and Flavobacterium chilense (98.64 %). The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) values between the PXU-55T genome assembly and the ones of the most closely related type strains of species of the genus Flavobacterium were 87.3 and 31.9% (Flavobacterium defluvii), and 86.1 and 29.9% (Flavobacterium johnsoniae). Menaquinone MK-6 was the major respiratory quinone. As major polar lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine, an ornithine lipid and the unidentified polar lipids L2, L3 and L4 lacking a functional group were found. Moderate to minor amounts of another ornithine lipid, the unidentified lipid L1 and a glycolipid were present, as well. The major polyamine is sym-homospermidine. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:0, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH) and various hydroxylated fatty acids in smaller amounts, among them iso C16:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH and C15:0 3-OH, which supported the classification of the isolate as a member of the genus Flavobacterium. Physiological and biochemical characterisation and ANI calculations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of the strain. For this reason, we propose that strain PXU-55T (=CIP 111646T=CCM 8914T) represents a novel species with the name Flavobacterium panici sp. nov.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Panicum/microbiologia , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Alabama , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
3.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(11): 5640-5647, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936754

RESUMO

Three bacterial strains, namely HYN0069T, HYN0085T and HYN0086T, were isolated from freshwater samples taken from the Namhangan River system in Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and phylogenetic tree topologies indicated that the three strains belonged to the genera Gemmobacter, Runella and Flavobacterium by showing the highest sequence similarities with Gemmobacter straminiformis (98.4 %), Runella aurantiaca (98.3 %) and Flavobacterium chungangense (98.1 %). No bacterial species with validly published names showed 98.7 % or higher sequence similarity with the novel isolates. The average nucleotide identities between the genome sequences of the three new isolates and the three closest neighbours were 80.2-92.0 %, all below the threshold for bacterial species delineation (95-96 %). Many biochemical and physiological features also discriminated the isolates from previously known species of the genera Gemmobacter, Runella and Flavobacterium. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic data presented in this study, we suggest three novel species with the following names: Gemmobacter aquarius sp. nov. (type strain HYN0069T=KACC 19488T=NBRC 113115T), Runella rosea sp. nov. (type strain HYN0085T=KACC 19490T=NBRC 113116T) and Flavobacterium fluviale sp. nov. (type strain HYN0086T=KACC 19489T=NBRC 113117T).


Assuntos
Cytophagaceae/classificação , Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Rhodobacteraceae/classificação , Rios/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Cytophagaceae/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Água Doce/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Rhodobacteraceae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(8): 4583-4590, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639224

RESUMO

Three strains, designated as LB1R34T, LB3P52T and ZT4R6T, were isolated from glaciers located on the Tibetan Plateau, PR China. The strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile and yellow. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene and genomic sequences indicated that they were related to the members of the genus Flavobacterium. The 16S rRNA gene sequences similarities between the three strains were 92.31-96.93 %. The average nucleotide identity values and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between these three strains and their closest relatives were 76.80-91.33 % and 21.3-44.2 %, respectively. LB1R34T, LB3P52T and ZT4R6T contained MK-6 as the major menaquinone, summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) and iso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. Phosphatidylethanolamine was present in their polar lipids profiles. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics, he results of phylogenetic analysis and genotypic data, three novel species, Flavobacterium restrictum sp. nov. (type strain=LB1 R34T=CGMCC 1.11493T=NBRC 113650T), Flavobacterium rhamnosiphilum sp. nov. (type strain=LB3 P52T=CGMCC 1.11446T=NBRC 113776T) and Flavobacterium zepuense sp. nov. (type strain=ZT4 R6T=CGMCC 1.11919T=NBRC 113653T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
5.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3888-3898, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496180

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, gliding motility, none-spore forming, yellow, rods bacterial strain, designated XS-5T, was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Suaeda salsa, in Tumd Right Banner, Inner Mongolia, PR China. A phylogenetic tree based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the phylogenomic tree both showed that strain XS-5T clustered with Flavobacterium beibuense F44-8T (shared 97.2 % of 16S rRNA gene similarity) and Flavobacterium rakeshii FCS-5T (97.6 %), and shared <96.0 % of 16S rRNA gene similarities with all other type strains. Strain XS-5T contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. Its major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified aminolipid and an unidentified lipid; and the major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, Summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1 ω7c), and Summed feature 9 (iso-C17 : 1 ω9c and/or C16 : 0 10-methyl). The genome consisted of a 3 985 855 bp circular chromosome, with a G+C content of 37.9 mol%, predicting 3616 coding sequences genes, 45 tRNA genes and three rRNA operons. The average nucleotide identity, amino acid identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization values of strain XS-5T to F. beibuense F44-8T and F. rakeshii FCS-5T were 79.2 and 79.2 %, 81.7 and 81.6 %, 22.3 and 22.2 %, respectively. The results of phylogenetic, physiological and biochemical tests allowed the discrimination of strain XS-5T from its phylogenetic relatives. Flavobacterium alkalisoli sp. nov. is therefore proposed with strain XS-5T (=CGMCC 1.17077T=KCTC 72459T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(7): 4250-4260, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568031

RESUMO

Two yellow-pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from the water of the hypersaline Chaka Salt Lake (strain SaA2.12T) and sediment of Qinghai Lake (strain LaA7.5T), PR China. According to the 16S rRNA phylogeny, the isolates belong to the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest 16S rRNA sequence similarities to Flavobacterium arcticum SM1502T(97.6-97.7 %) and Flavobacterium suzhouense XIN-1T(96.5-96.6 %). Moreover, strains SaA2.12T and LaA7.5T showed 99.73 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity to each other. Major fatty acids, respiratory quinones and polar lipids detected in these isolates were iso-C15 : 0, menaquinone-6 and phosphatidylethanolamine, respectively. Strains SaA2.12T and LaA7.5T showed significant unique characteristics between them as well as between the closest phylogenetic members. The highest digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between SaA2.12T and its closest neighbours were 25.3 and 82.8 %, respectively; whereas these values (highest) between LaA7.5T and its closest members were 25.2 and 82.8 %, respectively. The dDDH and ANI values between strains SaA2.12T and LaA7.5T were calculated as 75.9 and 97.2 %, respectively. Therefore, based on polyphasic data, we propose that strain SaA2.12T represents a novel species with the name Flavobacterium salilacus sp. nov., with the type strain SaA2.12T (=KCTC 72220T=MCCC 1K03618T) and strain LaA7.5T as a subspecies within novel Flavobacterium salilacus with the name Flavobacterium salilacus subsp. altitudinum subsp. nov., with the type strain LaA7.5T (=KCTC 72806T=MCCC 1K04372T). These propositions automatically create Flavobacterium salilacus subsp. salilacus subsp. nov. with SaA2.12T (=KCTC 72220T=MCCC 1K03618T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Lagos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Águas Salinas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3731-3739, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453684

RESUMO

A bacterial strain CC-CTC003T was isolated from a synthetic wooden board. Cells of strain CC-CTC003T were Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, motile by gliding and formed yellow colonies. Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, pH 7 and in the presence of 1 % NaCl. The phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that strain CC-CTC003T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium cerinum (95.3 % sequence identity), Flavobacterium maris (94.9 % sequence identity), Flavobacterium qiangtangense (94.8 %) and Flavobacterium subsaxonicum (94.7 %) and had less than 94.7 % sequence similarity to other members of the genus. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between strain CC-CTC003T and the type strains of other closely related species were 70.1-74.1 %. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) with F. cerinum was 19.4 %. Strain CC-CTC003T contained C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω6c / C16 : 1 ω7c) and summed feature 9 (C16 : 0 10-methyl / iso-C17 : 1 ω9c) as the predominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, four uncharacterized aminophospholipids, two aminolipids and one unidentified glycolipid. The major polyamine was sym-homospermidine and contained MK-6 as major isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of the genomic DNA was 39.2 mol%. On the basis of the phylogenetic inference and phenotypic data, strain CC-CTC003T should be classified as a novel species, for which the name Flavobacterium supellecticarium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is CC-CTC003T (=BCRC 81146T=JCM 32838T).


Assuntos
Materiais de Construção/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Madeira/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espermidina/análogos & derivados , Espermidina/química , Taiwan , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
8.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(6): 3633-3638, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421487

RESUMO

The Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobic, motile bacterial strain, designated TP390T, was isolated from a seamount near the Yap Trench in the tropical western Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain TP390T was related to the genus Flavobacterium and had highest 16S rRNA gene sequence identity with the type strain of Flavobacterium jejuense EC11T (97.8 %). Sequence similarities to all other type strains of current species of the genus Flavobacterium were below 97 %. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 1G. The quinone system for strain TP390T comprised predominantly menaquinone MK-6 and the polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown aminolipids, one glycolipid and six unknown polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain TP390T was 31.2 mol%. In addition, the maximum values of in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) between strain TP390T with F. jejuense KCTC 42149T were 22.60 and 80.01% respectively. Combined data from phenotypic, phylogenetic, isDDH and ANI data demonstrated that the strain TP390T is representative of a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which we propose the name Flavobacterium profundi sp. nov. (type strain TP390T=KACC 18559T=CGMCC 1.15398T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Oceano Pacífico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
9.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(3): 1617-1622, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228747

RESUMO

A taxonomic study was carried out on strain SH27T, which was isolated from seawater collected around Xiaoshi Island, PR China. Cells of strain SH27T were Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, orange-pigmented and grew at 15-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (pH 7.0) and in 1.0-7.0 % (w/v) NaCl (2.0-3.0 %). The isolate was positive for catalase, but negative for nitrate reduction, oxidase, indole production and urease. Carotenoid pigment was produced. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene placed strain SH27T in the genus Dokdonia with the closest relative being Dokdonia donghaensis KCTC 12391T, exhibiting 96.7 % 16S rRNA gene pairwise similarity. The results of genomic comparisons, including average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization, showed 72.9 and 19.2 % identity to D. donghaensis KCTC 12391T, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and two unidentified lipids. Menaquinone-6 was the only respiratory quinone. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 32.9 mol%. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain SH27T represents a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia sinensis sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain SH27T (MCCC 1H00358T=CCTCC AB 2018323T=KCTC 62962T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacteriaceae/classificação , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química , Microbiologia da Água
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 356-362, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310022

RESUMO

Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease in a variety of fish hosts. Using modifications to previously established protocols, a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was validated for the detection of 2 predominant F. columnare genomovars. The oligonucleotide primer and probe combination was designed to amplify a 203-bp region of the chondroitin AC lyase gene (GenBank AY912281) of F. columnare. There were no significant differences in amplification between genomovars. Comparable quantities of genomic DNA from 10 F. columnare strains, 5 representatives of each genomovar, produced similar results. Serial dilutions of purified PCR product demonstrated the limit of sensitivity for the assay was ~ 10 copies per reaction. The presence of gill and spleen tissue did not significantly affect the sensitivity of the assay. Comparably, bacterial DNA detected from the liver and kidney was less sensitive than pure bacterial DNA. However, detection from these tissues was within one order of magnitude of other tissues, indicating this reduction may have minimal analytic significance. This validated assay was used to approximate the minimum infectious dose for F. columnare isolate 94-081 in channel catfish and assess bacterial loads in gill and kidney tissues 48 h post-infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Ictaluridae , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/classificação , Flavobacterium/genética , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos
11.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(4): 2269-2280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32038005

RESUMO

This study presents taxonomic description of strains LB-D12T, AT-3-2T, AT-3-7, and TSA-D2T isolated from Arctic soil. All strains were psychrophilic, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-motile, and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains belonged to the genus Flavobacterium. Strains LB-D12T, AT-3-2T and AT-3-7 were closest to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae LMG 22018T (98.5-98.8% sequence similarity). Strain TSA-D2T was closest to Flavobacterium degerlachei DSM 15718T (98.3 % sequence similarity). These strains shared common chemotaxonomic features comprising MK-6 as a sole quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine as the principal polar lipid, and summed feature 3 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), iso-C16 : 0 3-OH, C15 : 1ω6c, iso-C16 : 0, and anteiso-C15 : 0 as the main fatty acids. The ANI and dDDH values between these novel isolates and their closest relatives were below the cut-off values of 95 and 70 %, respectively used for species demarcation. The DNA G+C content of all strains ranged from 34.2 to 34.6 mol%. The obtained polyphasic taxonomic data suggested that the isolated strains represent novel species within the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium sandaracinum sp. nov. (type strain LB-D12T=KEMB 9005-737T=KACC 21180T=NBRC 113784T), Flavobacterium caseinilyticum sp. nov. (type strain AT-3-2T=KEMB 9005-738T=KACC 21176T=NBRC 113785T), and Flavobacterium hiemivividum sp. nov. (type strain TSA-D2T=KEMB 9005-741T=KACC 21179T=NBRC 113788T) are proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Regiões Árticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , Canadá , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Noruega , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
12.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(13): 1304-1315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Alkaline Carboxymethyl Cellulase (CMCase) is an attractive enzyme for the textile, laundry, pulp, and paper industries; however, commercial preparations with sufficient activity at alkaline conditions are scarce. METHODS: High CMCase-producing bacterial isolate, SX9-4, was screened out from soil bacteria, which was identified as Flavobacterium sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA sequencing. RESULTS: The optimum pH and temperature for CMCase reaction were 8.0 and 55°C, respectively. Alkaline CMCase was stable over wide pH (3.0-10.6) and temperature (25-55°C) ranges. Enzyme activity was significantly inhibited by the bivalent cations Mn2+ and Cu2+, and was activated by Fe2+. To improve the alkaline CMCase production of SX9-4, fermentation parameters were selected through onefactor- at-a-time and further carried out by response surface methodologies based on a central composite design. CONCLUSION: High CMCase production (57.18 U/mL) was achieved under the optimal conditions: 10.53 g/L carboxymethylcellulose sodium, 7.74 g/L glucose, 13.71 g/L peptone, and 5.27 g/L ammonium oxalate.


Assuntos
Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica/isolamento & purificação , Ativação Enzimática , Flavobacterium/enzimologia , Flavobacterium/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Temperatura
13.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 51-57, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584868

RESUMO

A yellow, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-gliding, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped strain, designated YIM 102600T, was isolated from the faeces of Macaca mulatta dwelling in the Yunnan Wild Animal Park, Yunnan Province, South-West PR China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 102600T was a member of the genus Flavobacterium, and closely related to Flavobacterium qiangtangense F3T (96.9 % similarity) and Flavobacterium noncentrifugens R-HLS-17T (96.0 % similarity). Phylogenetic trees showed that strain YIM 102600T formed a clade with F. qiangtangense F3T and F. noncentrifugens R-HLS-17T. Growth occurred at 4-30 °C (optimum, 28 °C), pH 7.0-8.0 (pH 7.5) and NaCl concentration 0-2 % (w/v; 0-1 %, w/v). The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c). The predominant polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine and the sole respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The DNA G+C content was 36.4 mol%. The calculated digital DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YIM 102600T and other species of Flavobacterium ranged from 70.0 to 75.0 % and average nucleotide identity values were in a range between 13.7 to 23.5 %. Based above the consensus of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses as well as whole genome comparisons, strain YIM 102600T (=KCTC 52099T=CCTCC AB 201632T) is proposed to represent type strain of a novel species, Flavobacterium macacae sp. nov.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Macaca mulatta/microbiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
14.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(3): 591-595, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745602

RESUMO

A Gram-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated GS13T, was isolated from sediments in a branch of the Nackdong River in Sangju, Korea. Optimal growth occurred at pH 7.0, 20 °C, and 0% NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA showed that strain GS13T is a member of the genus Flavobacterium, with highest similarity to Flavobacterium soyangense IMCC26223T (97.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain GS13T was 36.2 mol%. The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and iso-C15:0. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids, three unidentified lipids, and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-6. Our data demonstrate that strain GS13T can be distinguished from closely-related Flavobacterium species. Thus, strain GS13T is a novel Flavobacterium species, and we propose the name Flavobacterium nackdongense sp. nov. The type strain is GS13T (=KCTC 62569T = JCM 32765T).


Assuntos
Celulose/metabolismo , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Flavobacterium/metabolismo , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Flavobacterium/classificação , Flavobacterium/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Rios/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(1): 44-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513007

RESUMO

A novel psychrophilic, light-yellow-coloured, aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-motile bacterium, designated strain AR-3-4T was isolated from a sample of Arctic soil. Strain AR-3-4T grew at 0-25 °C, pH 6.0-9.0 and 0-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain AR-3-4T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, with nearest phylogenetic neighbour being Flavobacterium fluvii H7T (97.5 % sequence similarity). The strain comprised phosphatidylethanolamine as the main polar lipid, MK-6 as predominant respiratory quinone, and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0 as the major fatty acids. The average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain AR-3-4T and closest members were below the threshold values of 95 % and 70 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 33.0 mol%. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, the novel species Flavobacterium cellulosilyticum sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain AR-3-4T (=KEMB 9005-740T=KACC 21171T=NBRC 113787T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Regiões Árticas , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
16.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1037-1041, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730028

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain MaA-Y11T, was isolated from a culture of Microcystis aeruginosa in the Republic of Korea. Cells were non-motile rods showing catalase- and oxidase-positive reactions. Growth of strain MaA-Y11T was observed at 25-37 °C (optimum, 30 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum, 7.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Strain MaA-Y11T did not produce flexirubin-type pigments. Strain MaA-Y11T contained iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c) as major cellular fatty acids and menaquinone-6 as the sole isoprenoid quinone. Phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified aminolipids and four unidentified lipids were detected as the major polar lipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.0 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that strain MaA-Y11T formed a phyletic lineage with Flavobacterium lindanitolerans IP-10T within the genus Flavobacterium. Strain MaA-Y11T was most closely related to Flavobacterium lindanitolerans IP-10T, with a 98.85 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, and shared less than 93.87 % sequence similarities with other type strains. Average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain MaA-Y11T and the type strain of F. lindanitolerans were 87.0 and 32.3 %, respectively. Here, we conclude that strain MaA-Y11T represents a new species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium microcysteis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MaA-Y11T (=KACC 21225T=JCM 33501T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Microcystis , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
17.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 70(2): 1031-1036, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702532

RESUMO

One aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain RB1R5T, was isolated from Renlongba glacier in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Growth was observed at 4-25 °C and pH 7.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain RB1R5T belongs to the genus Flavobacterium, and its closest relatives are Flavobacterium luteum IMCC26026T and Flavobacterium psychroterrae CCM 8827T with 97.75 and 97.42% gene sequence similarities, respectively. The average nucleotide identity and DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain RB1R5T and its closest relative Flavobacterium luteum IMCC26026T were 78.02 and 21.8 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c/C16:1ω6c). The sole menaquinone was MK-6. The major phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characterizations, strain RB1R5T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RB1R5T (=CGMCC 1.23024T=NBRC 113060T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Camada de Gelo/microbiologia , Filogenia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tibet , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
18.
J Microbiol ; 57(12): 1079-1085, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31758394

RESUMO

A yellow pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile by means of gliding, catalase and oxidase positive bacterium, designated strain DS2-AT, was isolated from soil. Growth was observed at 4-32°C (optimum, 28°C), pH 6-9 (optimum, 7.0), and with 0-0.25% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0%). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain DS2-AT belonged to the genus Flavobacterium and was most closely related to Flavobacterium aquatile LMG 4008T (96.4%), Flavobacterium terrae DSM 18829T (95.6%), Flavobacterium vireti THG-SM1T (95.5%), Flavobacterium inkyongense IMCC27201T (95.4%), Flavobacterium brevivitae TTM-43T (95.2%), and Flavobacterium cucumis DSM 18830T (95.2%). Strain DS2-AT produces flexirubin-type pigments. The major fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and iso-C15:0 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was identified as menaquinone-6. The major polar lipid was found to be phosphatidylethanolamine. The average nucleotide identity values between strain DS2-AT and selected taxa, F. aquatile LMG 4008T, F. terrae DSM 18829T, and F. cucumis DSM 18830T, were 72, 72.7, and 71.6%, respectively. The draft genome of strain DS2-AT has a number of 14 contigs, scaffold N50 of 476,310 bp and a total size of 3,563,867 bp. Additionally, strain DS2-AT contains 3,127 of gene, 41 of tRNA, 6 of rRNA, and 3 of ncRNA. The DNA G + C content of stain DS2-AT was 40.7 mol%. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, strain DS2-AT is considered as a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacterium humi sp. nov., (type strain DS2-AT = KACC 19715T = JCM 32786T) has been proposed.


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Flavobacterium/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Polienos/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavobacterium/genética , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Solo , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/análise
19.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 69(12): 3955-3960, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665096

RESUMO

A yellow-pigmented bacterial strain, designated T13T, was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Alhagi sparsifolia collected from Xinjiang, PR China. Cells were rod-shaped, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and gliding. Strain T13T grew optimally at 25-30 °C and pH 7.0-8.0 with a NaCl tolerance of 0-2 % on Reasoner's 2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain T13T belonged to the genus Flavobacterium within the family Flavobacteriaceae and was closely related to Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens KCTC 42884T with a similarity value of 97.4 %. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine; the only respiratory quinone was MK-6, and the polyamine profile contained sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine and a trace amount of spermidine. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, C16 :  1ω7c and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c or C16 : 1ω6c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 34.1 mol%. It is concluded from the phenotypic and genotypic data that strain T13T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the name Flavobacteriumustbae sp. nov. with the type strain T13T (=KCTC 62874T=ACCC 60126T) is proposed.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/microbiologia , Flavobacterium/classificação , Filogenia , Rizosfera , Microbiologia do Solo , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/química , Fosfolipídeos/química , Pigmentação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Espermidina/análogos & derivados , Espermidina/química , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/química
20.
J Microbiol ; 57(12): 1065-1072, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562606

RESUMO

A yellow pigmented, Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterium designated A5.7T was studied to evaluate the taxonomic position following the modern polyphasic approach. The strain was isolated from sediments near Zhairuo Island, which is situated in the East China Sea. Cells were non-spore forming rods without flagella but showed motility by gliding. Growth was observed at 15-35°C (optimum 28°C), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 6.5) and 0-2% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0-0.5%) in LB broth. The major respiratory quinone of A5.7T was menaquinone 6. The major polar lipid of A5.7T was phosphatidylethanolamine and the predominant fatty acids (> 5%) were iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, C15:1ω6c, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C15:1 G, summed feature 3 (C16:1ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c) and summed feature 9 (iso-C17:1ω9c and/or C16:010-methyl). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Flavobacterium and shares the highest sequence similarities with Flavobacterium sharifuzzamanii A7.6T (98.5%), Flavobacterium tistrianum GB 56.1T (98.3%), Flavobacterium nitrogenifigens NXU-44T (97.8%), Flavobacterium anhuiense D3T (97.6%), Flavobacterium ginsenosidimutans THG 01T (97.6%), and Flavobacterium foetidum CJ42T (97.6%). Digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between the strain and its closest phylogenetic neighbors showed the ranges from 19.6 to 34.1% and 73.7 to 87.9%, respectively. Therefore, based on polyphasic characteristics, strain A5.7T represents a novel species of the genus Flavobacterium for which the name Flavobacterium zhairuonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A5.7T (= KCTC 62406T = MCCC 1K03494T).


Assuntos
Flavobacterium/classificação , Flavobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Filogenia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , China , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Flavobacterium/genética , Flavobacterium/fisiologia , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Fosfatidiletanolaminas/análise , Quinonas/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Cloreto de Sódio , Temperatura , Vitamina K 2/análogos & derivados , Vitamina K 2/análise
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